Experimental rock

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Experimental rock_table_infobox_0

Experimental rockExperimental rock_header_cell_0_0_0
Other namesExperimental rock_header_cell_0_1_0 Avant-rockExperimental rock_cell_0_1_1
Stylistic originsExperimental rock_header_cell_0_2_0 Experimental rock_cell_0_2_1
Cultural originsExperimental rock_header_cell_0_3_0 1960s, U.S.Experimental rock_cell_0_3_1
Derivative formsExperimental rock_header_cell_0_4_0 Experimental rock_cell_0_4_1
SubgenresExperimental rock_header_cell_0_5_0
Other topicsExperimental rock_header_cell_0_6_0

Experimental rock, also called avant-rock, is a subgenre of rock music that pushes the boundaries of common composition and performance technique or which experiments with the basic elements of the genre. Experimental rock_sentence_0

Artists aim to liberate and innovate, with some of the genre's distinguishing characteristics being improvisational performances, avant-garde influences, odd instrumentation, opaque lyrics (or instrumentals), unorthodox structures and rhythms, and an underlying rejection of commercial aspirations. Experimental rock_sentence_1

From its inception, rock music was experimental, but it was not until the late 1960s that rock artists began creating extended and complex compositions through advancements in multitrack recording. Experimental rock_sentence_2

In 1967, the genre was as commercially viable as pop music, but by 1970, most of its leading players had incapacitated themselves in some form. Experimental rock_sentence_3

In Germany, the krautrock subgenre merged elements of improvisation and psychedelic rock with electronic music, avant-garde and contemporary classical pieces. Experimental rock_sentence_4

Later in the 1970s, significant musical crossbreeding took place in tandem with the developments of punk and new wave, DIY experimentation, and electronic music. Experimental rock_sentence_5

Funk, jazz-rock, and fusion rhythms also became integrated into experimental rock music. Experimental rock_sentence_6

The first wave of 1980s experimental rock groups had few direct precedents for their sound. Experimental rock_sentence_7

Later in the decade, avant-rock pursued a psychedelic aesthetic that differed from the self-consciousness and vigilance of earlier post-punk. Experimental rock_sentence_8

During the 1990s, a loose movement known as post-rock became the dominant form of experimental rock. Experimental rock_sentence_9

As of the 2010s, the term "experimental rock" has fallen to indiscriminate use, with many modern rock bands being categorized under prefixes such as "post-", "kraut-", "psych-", "art-", "prog-", "avant-" and "noise-". Experimental rock_sentence_10

History Experimental rock_section_0

1960s–1970s Experimental rock_section_1

See also: Progressive rock and Art rock Experimental rock_sentence_11

Although experimentation had always existed in rock music, it was not until the late 1960s that new openings were created from the aesthetic intersecting with the social. Experimental rock_sentence_12

In 1966, the boundaries between pop music and the avant-garde began to blur as rock albums were conceived and executed as distinct, extended statements. Experimental rock_sentence_13

Self-taught rock musicians in the middle and late 1960s drew from the work of composers such as John Cage, Karlheinz Stockhausen, and Luciano Berio. Experimental rock_sentence_14

Academic Bill Martin writes: "in the case of imitative painters, what came out was almost always merely derivative, whereas in the case of rock music, the result could be quite original, because assimilation, synthesis, and imitation are integral parts of the language of rock." Experimental rock_sentence_15

Martin says that the advancing technology of multitrack recording and mixing boards were more influential to experimental rock than electronic instruments such as the synthesizer, allowing the Beatles and the Beach Boys to become the first crop of non-classically trained musicians to create extended and complex compositions. Experimental rock_sentence_16

Drawing from the influence of George Martin, the Beatles' producer, and the Beach Boys' Brian Wilson, music producers after the mid 1960s began to view the recording studio as an instrument used to aid the process of composition. Experimental rock_sentence_17

When the Beach Boys' Pet Sounds (1966) was released to a four-month chart stay in the British top 10, many British groups responded to the album by making more experimental use of recording studio techniques. Experimental rock_sentence_18

In the late 1960s, groups such as the Mothers of Invention, the Velvet Underground, the Fugs, the Beatles, and the Jimi Hendrix Experience began incorporating elements such as avant-garde music, sound collage, and poetry in their work. Experimental rock_sentence_19

Historian David Simonelli writes that, further to the Beatles' "Tomorrow Never Knows" (Revolver, 1966), the band's February 1967 double A-side single, pairing "Strawberry Fields Forever" with "Penny Lane", "establish[ed] the Beatles as the most avant-garde [rock] composers of the postwar era". Experimental rock_sentence_20

Aside from the Beatles, author Doyle Greene identifies Frank Zappa, the Velvet Underground, Plastic Ono Band, Captain Beefheart, Pink Floyd, the Soft Machine and Nico as "pioneers of avant-rock". Experimental rock_sentence_21

In addition, The Quietus' Ben Graham described duos the Silver Apples and Suicide as antecedents of avant-rock. Experimental rock_sentence_22

In the opinion of Stuart Rosenberg, the first "noteworthy" experimental rock group was the Mothers of Invention, led by composer Frank Zappa. Experimental rock_sentence_23

Greene recognises the group's debut album, Freak Out! Experimental rock_sentence_24 , as marking the "emergence of the 'avant-rock' studio album" at a time when Warhol's presentation of the Velvet Underground's shows was redefining the parameters of a rock concert. Experimental rock_sentence_25

According to author Kelly Fisher Lowe, Zappa "set the tone" for experimental rock with the way he incorporated "countertextural aspects ... calling attention to the very recordedness of the album". Experimental rock_sentence_26

This was reflected in other contemporary experimental rock LPs, such as the Beach Boys' Pet Sounds and Smile, the Who's The Who Sell Out (1967) and Tommy (1969), and the Beatles' Sgt. Experimental rock_sentence_27 Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967). Experimental rock_sentence_28

The Velvet Underground were a "groundbreaking group in experimental rock", according to Rosenberg, "even further out of step with popular culture than the early recordings of the Mothers of Invention". Experimental rock_sentence_29

The band were playing experimental rock in 1965 before other significant countercultural rock scenes had developed, pioneering avant-rock through their integration of minimalist rock and avant-garde ideas. Experimental rock_sentence_30

The Beatles' album Sgt. Pepper's inspired a new consideration for experimental rock as commercially viable music. Experimental rock_sentence_31

Once the group released their December 1967 film Magical Mystery Tour, author Barry Faulk writes, "pop music and experimental rock were [briefly] synonymous, and the Beatles stood at the apex of a progressive movement in musical capitalism". Experimental rock_sentence_32

As progressive rock developed, experimental rock acquired notoriety alongside art rock. Experimental rock_sentence_33

By 1970, most of the musicians which had been at the forefront of experimental rock had incapacitated themselves. Experimental rock_sentence_34

From then on, the ideas and work of British artist and former Roxy Music member Brian Eno—which suggested that ideas from the art world, including those of experimental music and the avant-garde, should be deployed in the context of experimental rock—were a key innovation throughout the decade. Experimental rock_sentence_35

Krautrock Experimental rock_section_2

Main article: Krautrock Experimental rock_sentence_36

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Germany's "krautrock" scene (also referred to as kosmische or elektronische musik) saw bands develop a form of experimental rock that drew on rock sources, such as the Velvet Underground and Frank Zappa, as well as wider avant-garde influences. Experimental rock_sentence_37

Groups such as Can, Faust, Neu! Experimental rock_sentence_38 , Amon Düül II, Ash Ra Tempel, Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream, and Popol Vuh merged elements of psychedelic rock with electronic music, funk rhythms, jazz improvisation, and avant-garde and contemporary classical compositions, as well as new electronic instrumentation. Experimental rock_sentence_39

The ideas of minimalism and composers such as Stockhausen would be particularly influential. Experimental rock_sentence_40

The movement was partly born out of the student movements of 1968, as German youth sought a unique countercultural identity and wanted to develop a form of German music that was distinct from the mainstream music of the period. Experimental rock_sentence_41

Late 1970s–present Experimental rock_section_3

See also: Post-punk, No wave, Shoegaze, Post-progressive, and Post-rock Experimental rock_sentence_42

The late 1970s post-punk movement was devised as a break with rock tradition, exploring new possibilities by embracing electronics, noise, jazz and the classical avant-garde, and the production methods of dub and disco. Experimental rock_sentence_43

During this era, funk, jazz-rock, and fusion rhythms became integrated into experimental rock music. Experimental rock_sentence_44

Some groups who were categorized as "post-punk" considered themselves part of an experimental rock trajectory, with This Heat as one of the prominent players. Experimental rock_sentence_45

The late 1970s no wave scene consisted of New York experimental rock bands that aimed to break with new wave, and who, according to Village Voice writer Steve Anderson, pursued an abrasive reductionism which "undermined the power and mystique of a rock vanguard by depriving it of a tradition to react against." Experimental rock_sentence_46

Anderson claims that the no wave scene represented "New York’s last stylistically cohesive avant-rock movement." Experimental rock_sentence_47

The early 1980s would see avant-rock develop significantly following the punk and new wave, DIY experimentation, electronic music, and musical cross-breeding of the previous decade, according to Pitchfork. Experimental rock_sentence_48

Dominique Leone of Pitchfork claims that the first wave of 1980s experimental rock groups, including acts such as Material, the Work, This Heat, Ornette Coleman's Prime Time, James Blood Ulmer, Last Exit, and Massacre, had few direct precedents for their sound. Experimental rock_sentence_49

Steve Redhead noted the resuscitation of New York's avant-rock scene, including artists such as Sonic Youth and John Zorn, in the 1980s. Experimental rock_sentence_50

According to journalist David Stubbs, "no other major rock group [...] has done as much to try to bridge the gap between rock and the avant garde" as Sonic Youth, who drew on improvisation and noise as well as the Velvet Underground. Experimental rock_sentence_51

In the late 1980s, avant-rock pursued a "frazzled, psychedelia-tinged, 'blissed out'" aesthetic that differed from the self-consciousness and vigilance of earlier post-punk. Experimental rock_sentence_52

The UK shoegaze scene was seen by some as a continuation of an experimental rock tradition. Experimental rock_sentence_53

Pitchfork described contemporary acts My Bloody Valentine, Spacemen 3, and the Jesus and Mary Chain as "avant-rock icons." Experimental rock_sentence_54

According to Paul Hegarty and Martin Halliwell, some 1980s and early 1990s avant-rock acts such as the British musicians David Sylvian and Talk Talk returned to the ideas of progressive rock, which they call "post-progressive". Experimental rock_sentence_55

During the 1990s, a loose movement known as post-rock became the dominant form of experimental rock. Experimental rock_sentence_56

In a reaction against traditional rock music formula, post-rock artists combined standard rock instrumentation with electronics and influences from styles such as ambient music, IDM, krautrock, minimalism, and jazz. Experimental rock_sentence_57

In 2015, The Quietus' Bryan Brussee noted uncertainty with the term "experimental rock", and that "it seems like every rock band today has some kind of post-, kraut-, psych-, or noise- prefixed to their genre." Experimental rock_sentence_58


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Experimental rock.