Făgăraș

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Făgăraș_table_infobox_0

FăgărașFăgăraș_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryFăgăraș_header_cell_0_1_0 RomaniaFăgăraș_cell_0_1_1
CountyFăgăraș_header_cell_0_2_0 BrașovFăgăraș_cell_0_2_1
GovernmentFăgăraș_header_cell_0_3_0
MayorFăgăraș_header_cell_0_4_0 Gheorghe Sucaciu (Ind.)Făgăraș_cell_0_4_1
AreaFăgăraș_header_cell_0_5_0 36.41 km (14.06 sq mi)Făgăraș_cell_0_5_1
Population (2011)Făgăraș_header_cell_0_6_0 30,714Făgăraș_cell_0_6_1
DensityFăgăraș_header_cell_0_7_0 840/km (2,200/sq mi)Făgăraș_cell_0_7_1
Time zoneFăgăraș_header_cell_0_8_0 EET/EEST (UTC+2/+3)Făgăraș_cell_0_8_1
Postal codeFăgăraș_header_cell_0_9_0 505200Făgăraș_cell_0_9_1
Vehicle reg.Făgăraș_header_cell_0_10_0 BVFăgăraș_cell_0_10_1
WebsiteFăgăraș_header_cell_0_11_0 Făgăraș_cell_0_11_1

Făgăraș (Romanian pronunciation: [fəɡəˈraʃ; German: Fogarasch, Fugreschmarkt, Hungarian: Fogaras) is a city in central Romania, located in Brașov County. Făgăraș_sentence_0

It lies on the Olt River and has a population of 28,330 as of 2011. Făgăraș_sentence_1

It is situated in the historical region of Transylvania, and is the main city of a subregion, Țara Făgărașului. Făgăraș_sentence_2

Geography Făgăraș_section_0

The city is located at the foothills of the Făgăraș Mountains, on their northern side. Făgăraș_sentence_3

It is traversed by the DN1 road, 66 kilometres (41 mi) west of Brașov and 76 kilometres (47 mi) east of Sibiu. Făgăraș_sentence_4

On the east side of the city, between an abandoned field and a gas station, lies the geographical center of Romania, at . Făgăraș_sentence_5

The Olt River flows east to west on the north side of the city; its right tributary, the Racovița River, discharges into the Olt on the west side of the city. Făgăraș_sentence_6

The Berivoi River (or Făgărășel) feeds into the Racovița from the right; it used to bring water to a major chemical plant (now closed) located on the outskirts of the city. Făgăraș_sentence_7

Name Făgăraș_section_1

According to linguist Iorgu Iordan, the name of the town is a Romanian diminutive of a hypothetical collective noun *făgar ("beech forest"), presumably derived from , "beech tree". Făgăraș_sentence_8

Another source of the name is alleged to derive from the Hungarian language word for "partridge" (fogoly). Făgăraș_sentence_9

A more plausible explanation is that the name is given by Fogaras river coming from the Pecheneg "Fagar šu", which means ash water. Făgăraș_sentence_10

Another source of the name is given by folk etymology to be Hungarian, as the rendering of "wood" (fa) and "money" (garas), with legends stating that money made of wood had been used to pay the peasants who built the fortress (Făgăraș Citadel) around 1310. Făgăraș_sentence_11

History Făgăraș_section_2

Făgăraș, together with Amlaș, constituted during the Middle Ages a traditional Romanian local-autonomy region in Transylvania. Făgăraș_sentence_12

The first written document mentioning Romanians in Transylvania referred to Vlach lands ("Terra Blacorum") in the Făgăraș Region in 1222. Făgăraș_sentence_13

(In this document, Andrew II of Hungary gave Burzenland and the Cuman territories South of Burzenland up to the Danube to the Teutonic Knights.) Făgăraș_sentence_14

After the Tatar invasion in 1241–1242, Saxons settled in the area. Făgăraș_sentence_15

In 1369, Louis I of Hungary gave the Royal Estates of Făgăraș to his vassal, Vladislav I of Wallachia. Făgăraș_sentence_16

As in other similar cases in medieval Europe (such as Foix, Pokuttya, or Dauphiné), the local feudal had to swear oath of allegiance to the king for the specific territory, even when the former was himself an independent ruler of another state. Făgăraș_sentence_17

Therefore, the region became the feudal property of the princes of Wallachia, but remained within the Kingdom of Hungary. Făgăraș_sentence_18

The territory remained in the possession of Wallachian princes until 1464. Făgăraș_sentence_19

Except for this period of Wallachian rule, the town itself was centre of the surrounding royal estates. Făgăraș_sentence_20

During the rule of Transylvanian Prince Gabriel Bethlen (1613–1629), the city became an economic role model city in the southern regions of the realm. Făgăraș_sentence_21

Bethlen rebuilt the fortress entirely. Făgăraș_sentence_22

Ever since that time, Făgăraș was the residence of the wives of Transylvanian Princes, as an equivalent of Veszprém, the Hungarian "city of queens". Făgăraș_sentence_23

Of these, Zsuzsanna Lorántffy, the widow of George I Rákóczy established a Romanian school here in 1658. Făgăraș_sentence_24

Probably the most prominent of the princesses residing in the town was the orphan Princess Kata Bethlen (1700–1759), buried in front of the Reformed church. Făgăraș_sentence_25

The church holds several precious relics of her life. Făgăraș_sentence_26

Her bridal gown, with the family coat of arms embroidered on it, and her bridal veil now covers the altar table. Făgăraș_sentence_27

Both are made of yellow silk. Făgăraș_sentence_28

Făgăraș was the site of several Transylvanian Diets, mostly during the reign of Michael I Apafi. Făgăraș_sentence_29

The church was built around 1715–1740. Făgăraș_sentence_30

Not far from it is the Radu Negru high school, built around 1909. Făgăraș_sentence_31

It was originally a Hungarian language middle school where Babits Mihály taught for a while. Făgăraș_sentence_32

A local legend says that Negru Vodă left the central fortress to travel south past the Transylvanian Alps to become the founder of the Principality of Wallachia, although Basarab I is traditionally known as the 14th century founder of the state. Făgăraș_sentence_33

By the end of the 12th century the fortress itself was made of wood, but it was reinforced in the 14th century and became a stone fortification. Făgăraș_sentence_34

In 1850 the inhabitants of the town were 3,930, of which 1,236 were Germans, 1,129 Romanians, 944 Hungarians, 391 Roma, 183 Jews and 47 of other ethnicities, meanwhile in 1910, the town had 6,579 inhabitants with the following proportion: 3357 Hungarian, 2174 Romanian and 1003 German. Făgăraș_sentence_35

According to the 2011 census, of residents for whom data are available, 91.7% of the population was Romanian, 3.8% Roma, 3.7% Hungarian and 0.7% German. Făgăraș_sentence_36

Făgăraș's castle was used as a stronghold by the Communist regime. Făgăraș_sentence_37

During the 1950s it was a prison for opponents and dissidents. Făgăraș_sentence_38

After the fall of the regime in 1989, the castle was restored and is currently used as a museum and library. Făgăraș_sentence_39

The city's economy was badly shaken by the disappearance of most of its industries following the 1989 Revolution and the ensuing hardships and reforms. Făgăraș_sentence_40

Some of the city's population left as guest workers to Italy, Spain, or Ireland. Făgăraș_sentence_41

Jewish history Făgăraș_section_3

A Jewish community was established in 1827, becoming among southern Transylvania’s largest by mid-century. Făgăraș_sentence_42

Yehuda Silbermann, its first rabbi (1855–1863), kept a diary of communal events. Făgăraș_sentence_43

This is still extant and serves as a source on the history of Transylvanian Jewry. Făgăraș_sentence_44

In 1869, the local community joined the Neolog association, switching to an Orthodox stance in 1926. Făgăraș_sentence_45

A Jewish school opened in the 1860s. Făgăraș_sentence_46

There were 286 Jews in 1856, rising to 388 by 1930, or just under 5% of the population. Făgăraș_sentence_47

During World War II, local Germans as well as the Iron Guard attacked Jews and plundered their property. Făgăraș_sentence_48

Sixty Jews were sent to forced labor. Făgăraș_sentence_49

After the King Michael Coup of August 1944, many left for larger cities or emigrated to Palestine. Făgăraș_sentence_50

The last Jew of Făgăraș died in 2013. Făgăraș_sentence_51

Administration Făgăraș_section_4

Personalities Făgăraș_section_5

Făgăraș_unordered_list_0

See also Făgăraș_section_6

Făgăraș_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Făgăraș.