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This article is about the social media website. Facebook_sentence_0

For the company, see Facebook, Inc. For the type of directory, see Face book. Facebook_sentence_1


Type of siteFacebook_header_cell_0_0_0 Social networking service


Available inFacebook_header_cell_0_1_0 111 languagesFacebook_cell_0_1_1
Area servedFacebook_header_cell_0_2_0 Worldwide, except blocking countriesFacebook_cell_0_2_1
ParentFacebook_header_cell_0_3_0 Facebook, Inc.Facebook_cell_0_3_1
URLFacebook_header_cell_0_4_0 Facebook_cell_0_4_1
RegistrationFacebook_header_cell_0_5_0 Required to do any activityFacebook_cell_0_5_1
UsersFacebook_header_cell_0_6_0 2.70 billion monthly active users (As of 31 June 2020)Facebook_cell_0_6_1
LaunchedFacebook_header_cell_0_7_0 February 4, 2004; 16 years ago (2004-02-04)Facebook_cell_0_7_1
Current statusFacebook_header_cell_0_8_0 ActiveFacebook_cell_0_8_1
Written inFacebook_header_cell_0_9_0 C++, Hack (as HHVM), DFacebook_cell_0_9_1

Facebook (stylized as facebook) is an American online social media and social networking service based in Menlo Park, California, and a flagship service of the namesake company Facebook, Inc. It was founded by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes. Facebook_sentence_2

The founders of Facebook initially limited membership to Harvard students. Facebook_sentence_3

Membership was expanded to Columbia, Stanford, and Yale before being expanded to the rest of the Ivy League, MIT, and higher education institutions in the Boston area, then various other universities, and lastly high school students. Facebook_sentence_4

Since 2006, anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old has been allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though this may vary depending on local laws. Facebook_sentence_5

The name comes from the face book directories often given to American university students. Facebook_sentence_6

Facebook can be accessed from devices with Internet connectivity, such as personal computers, tablets and smartphones. Facebook_sentence_7

After registering, users can create a profile revealing information about themselves. Facebook_sentence_8

They can post text, photos and multimedia which is shared with any other users that have agreed to be their "friend", or, with a different privacy setting, with any reader. Facebook_sentence_9

Users can also use various embedded apps, join common-interest groups, buy and sell items or services on Marketplace, and receive notifications of their Facebook friends' activities and activities of Facebook pages they follow. Facebook_sentence_10

Facebook claimed that it had more than 2.3 billion monthly active users as of December 2018, and it was the most downloaded mobile app of the 2010s globally. Facebook_sentence_11

Facebook has been the subject of numerous controversies, often involving user privacy (as with the Cambridge Analytica data scandal), political manipulation (as with the 2016 U.S. elections), mass surveillance, psychological effects such as addiction and low self-esteem, and content such as fake news, conspiracy theories, copyright infringement, and hate speech. Facebook_sentence_12

Commentators have accused Facebook of willingly facilitating the spread of such content and also exaggerating its number of users in order to appeal to advertisers. Facebook_sentence_13

As of November 18, 2020, Alexa Internet ranks Facebook #6 in global internet usage. Facebook_sentence_14

History Facebook_section_0

Further information: History of Facebook Facebook_sentence_15

2003–2006: Thefacebook, Thiel investment, and name change Facebook_section_1

Zuckerberg built a website called "Facemash" in 2003 while attending Harvard University. Facebook_sentence_16

The site was comparable to Hot or Not and used "photos compiled from the online face books of nine Houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the "hotter" person". Facebook_sentence_17

Facemash attracted 450 visitors and 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours. Facebook_sentence_18

The site was sent to several campus group listservs, but was shut down a few days later by Harvard administration. Facebook_sentence_19

Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged with breaching security, violating copyrights and violating individual privacy. Facebook_sentence_20

Ultimately, the charges were dropped. Facebook_sentence_21

Zuckerberg expanded on this project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final exam. Facebook_sentence_22

He uploaded all art images to a website, each of which was accompanied by a comments section, then shared the site with his classmates. Facebook_sentence_23

A "face book" is a student directory featuring photos and personal information. Facebook_sentence_24

In 2003, Harvard had only a paper version along with private online directories. Facebook_sentence_25

Zuckerberg told The Harvard Crimson, "Everyone's been talking a lot about a universal face book within Harvard. Facebook_sentence_26

... Facebook_sentence_27

I think it's kind of silly that it would take the University a couple of years to get around to it. Facebook_sentence_28

I can do it better than they can, and I can do it in a week." Facebook_sentence_29

In January 2004, Zuckerberg coded a new website, known as "TheFacebook", inspired by a Crimson editorial about Facemash, stating, "It is clear that the technology needed to create a centralized Website is readily available ... the benefits are many." Facebook_sentence_30

Zuckerberg met with Harvard student Eduardo Saverin, and each of them agreed to invest $1,000 in the site. Facebook_sentence_31

On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "TheFacebook", originally located at thefacebook.com. Facebook_sentence_32

Six days after the site launched, Harvard seniors Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing that he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com. Facebook_sentence_33

They claimed that he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product. Facebook_sentence_34

The three complained to the Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation. Facebook_sentence_35

They later sued Zuckerberg, settling in 2008 for 1.2 million shares (worth $300 million at Facebook's IPO). Facebook_sentence_36

Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College. Facebook_sentence_37

Within a month, more than half the undergraduates had registered. Facebook_sentence_38

Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, and Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help manage the growth of the website. Facebook_sentence_39

In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Columbia, Stanford and Yale. Facebook_sentence_40

It then became available to all Ivy League colleges, Boston University, New York University, MIT, and successively most universities in the United States and Canada. Facebook_sentence_41

In mid-2004, Napster co-founder and entrepreneur Sean Parker—an informal advisor to Zuckerberg—became company president. Facebook_sentence_42

In June 2004, the company moved to Palo Alto, California. Facebook_sentence_43

It received its first investment later that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel. Facebook_sentence_44

In 2005, the company dropped "the" from its name after purchasing the domain name Facebook.com for US$200,000. Facebook_sentence_45

The domain had belonged to AboutFace Corporation. Facebook_sentence_46

In May 2005, Accel Partners invested $12.7 million in Facebook, and Jim Breyer added $1 million of his own money. Facebook_sentence_47

A high-school version of the site launched in September 2005. Facebook_sentence_48

Eligibility expanded to include employees of several companies, including Apple Inc. and Microsoft. Facebook_sentence_49

2006–2012: Public access, Microsoft alliance, and rapid growth Facebook_section_2

In May 2006, Facebook hired its first intern, Julie Zhuo. Facebook_sentence_50

After a month, Zhuo was hired as a full-time engineer. Facebook_sentence_51

On September 26, 2006, Facebook opened to everyone at least 13 years old with a valid email address. Facebook_sentence_52

By late 2007, Facebook had 100,000 pages on which companies promoted themselves. Facebook_sentence_53

Organization pages began rolling out in May 2009. Facebook_sentence_54

On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced that it had purchased a 1.6% share of Facebook for $240 million, giving Facebook a total implied value of around $15 billion. Facebook_sentence_55

Microsoft's purchase included rights to place international advertisements. Facebook_sentence_56

In May 2007, at the first f8 developers conference, Facebook announced the launch of the Facebook Developer Platform, providing a framework for software developers to create applications that interact with core Facebook features. Facebook_sentence_57

By the second annual f8 developers conference on July 23, 2008, the number of applications on the platform had grown to 33,000, and the number of registered developers had exceeded 400,000. Facebook_sentence_58

In October 2008, Facebook announced that its international headquarters would locate in Dublin, Ireland. Facebook_sentence_59

In September 2009, Facebook said that it had achieved positive cash flow for the first time. Facebook_sentence_60

A January 2009 Compete.com study ranked Facebook the most used social networking service by worldwide monthly active users. Facebook_sentence_61

The company announced 500 million users in July 2010. Facebook_sentence_62

Half of the site's membership used Facebook daily, for an average of 34 minutes, while 150 million users accessed the site from mobile devices. Facebook_sentence_63

A company representative called the milestone a "quiet revolution." Facebook_sentence_64

In November 2010, based on SecondMarket Inc. (an exchange for privately held companies' shares), Facebook's value was $41 billion. Facebook_sentence_65

The company had slightly surpassed eBay to become the third largest American web company after Google and Amazon.com. Facebook_sentence_66

On November 15, 2010, Facebook announced it had acquired the domain name fb.com from the American Farm Bureau Federation for an undisclosed amount. Facebook_sentence_67

On January 11, 2011, the Farm Bureau disclosed $8.5 million in "domain sales income", making the acquisition of FB.com one of the ten highest domain sales in history. Facebook_sentence_68

In February 2011, Facebook announced plans to move its headquarters to the former Sun Microsystems campus in Menlo Park, California. Facebook_sentence_69

In March 2011, it was reported that Facebook was removing about 20,000 profiles daily for violations such as spam, graphic content and underage use, as part of its efforts to boost cyber security. Facebook_sentence_70

Statistics showed that Facebook reached one trillion page views in the month of June 2011, making it the most visited website tracked by DoubleClick. Facebook_sentence_71

According to a Nielsen study, Facebook had in 2011 become the second-most accessed website in the U.S. behind Google. Facebook_sentence_72

China blocked Facebook in 2009. Facebook_sentence_73

2012–2013: IPO, lawsuits, and one-billionth user Facebook_section_3

Further information: Initial public offering of Facebook Facebook_sentence_74

In March 2012, Facebook announced App Center, a store selling applications that operate via the website. Facebook_sentence_75

The store was to be available on iPhones, Android devices, and for mobile web users. Facebook_sentence_76

Facebook's initial public offering came on May 17, 2012, at a share price of US$38. Facebook_sentence_77

The company was valued at $104 billion, the largest valuation to that date. Facebook_sentence_78

The IPO raised $16 billion, the third-largest in U.S. history, after Visa Inc. in 2008 and AT&T Wireless in 2000. Facebook_sentence_79

Based on its 2012 income of $5 billion, Facebook joined the Fortune 500 list for the first time in May 2013, ranked 462. Facebook_sentence_80

The shares set a first day record for trading volume of an IPO (460 million shares). Facebook_sentence_81

The IPO was controversial given the immediate price declines that followed, and was the subject of lawsuits, while SEC and FINRA both launched investigations. Facebook_sentence_82

Zuckerberg announced at the start of October 2012 that Facebook had one billion monthly active users, including 600 million mobile users, 219 billion photo uploads and 140 billion friend connections. Facebook_sentence_83

2013–2014: Site developments, A4AI, and 10th anniversary Facebook_section_4

On January 15, 2013, Facebook announced Facebook Graph Search, which provides users with a "precise answer", rather than a link to an answer by leveraging data present on its site. Facebook_sentence_84

Facebook emphasized that the feature would be "privacy-aware", returning results only from content already shared with the user. Facebook_sentence_85

On April 3, 2013, Facebook unveiled Facebook Home, a user-interface layer for Android devices offering greater integration with the site. Facebook_sentence_86

HTC announced HTC First, a phone with Home pre-loaded. Facebook_sentence_87

On April 15, 2013, Facebook announced an alliance across 19 states with the National Association of Attorneys General, to provide teenagers and parents with information on tools to manage social networking profiles. Facebook_sentence_88

On April 19 Facebook modified its logo to remove the faint blue line at the bottom of the "F" icon. Facebook_sentence_89

The letter F moved closer to the edge of the box. Facebook_sentence_90

Following a campaign by 100 advocacy groups, Facebook agreed to update its policy on hate speech. Facebook_sentence_91

The campaign highlighted content promoting domestic violence and sexual violence against women and led 15 advertisers to withdraw, including Nissan UK, House of Burlesque, and Nationwide UK. Facebook_sentence_92

The company initially stated, "while it may be vulgar and offensive, distasteful content on its own does not violate our policies". Facebook_sentence_93

It took action on May 29. Facebook_sentence_94

On June 12, Facebook announced that it was introducing clickable hashtags to help users follow trending discussions, or search what others are talking about on a topic. Facebook_sentence_95

San Mateo County, California, became the top wage-earning county in the country after the fourth quarter of 2012 because of Facebook. Facebook_sentence_96

The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that the average salary was 107% higher than the previous year, at $168,000 a year, more than 50% higher than the next-highest county, New York County (better known as Manhattan), at roughly $110,000 a year. Facebook_sentence_97

Facebook joined Alliance for Affordable Internet (A4AI) in October, as it launched. Facebook_sentence_98

The A4AI is a coalition of public and private organizations that includes Google, Intel and Microsoft. Facebook_sentence_99

Led by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the A4AI seeks to make Internet access more affordable to ease access in the developing world. Facebook_sentence_100

The company celebrated its 10th anniversary during the week of February 3, 2014. Facebook_sentence_101

In January 2014, over one billion users connected via a mobile device. Facebook_sentence_102

As of June, mobile accounted for 62% of advertising revenue, an increase of 21% from the previous year. Facebook_sentence_103

By September Facebook's market capitalization had exceeded $200 billion. Facebook_sentence_104

Zuckerberg participated in a Q&A session at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, on October 23, where he attempted to converse in Mandarin. Facebook_sentence_105

Zuckerberg hosted visiting Chinese politician Lu Wei, known as the "Internet czar" for his influence in China's online policy, on December 8. Facebook_sentence_106

2015–present: Improvement; fake news Facebook_section_5

As of 2015, Facebook's algorithm was revised in an attempt to filter out false or misleading content, such as fake news stories and hoaxes. Facebook_sentence_107

It relied on users who flag a story accordingly. Facebook_sentence_108

Facebook maintained that satirical content should not be intercepted. Facebook_sentence_109

The algorithm was accused of maintaining a "filter bubble", where material the user disagrees with and posts with few likes would be deprioritized. Facebook_sentence_110

In November, Facebook extended paternity leave from 4 weeks to 4 months. Facebook_sentence_111

On April 12, 2016, Zuckerberg outlined his 10-year vision, which rested on three main pillars: artificial intelligence, increased global connectivity, and virtual and augmented reality. Facebook_sentence_112

In July, a US$1 billion suit was filed against the company alleging that it permitted Hamas to use it to perform assaults that cost the lives of four people. Facebook_sentence_113

Facebook released its blueprints of Surround 360 camera on GitHub under an open-source license. Facebook_sentence_114

In September, it won an Emmy for its animated short "Henry". Facebook_sentence_115

In October, Facebook announced a fee-based communications tool called Workplace that aims to "connect everyone" at work. Facebook_sentence_116

Users can create profiles, see updates from co-workers on their news feed, stream live videos and participate in secure group chats. Facebook_sentence_117

Following the 2016 presidential election, Facebook announced that it would combat fake news by using fact checkers from sites like FactCheck.org and Associated Press (AP), making reporting hoaxes easier through crowdsourcing, and disrupting financial incentives for abusers. Facebook_sentence_118

On January 17, 2017, Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg planned to open Station F, a startup incubator campus in Paris, France. Facebook_sentence_119

On a six-month cycle, Facebook committed to work with ten to 15 data-driven startups there. Facebook_sentence_120

On April 18, Facebook announced the beta launch of Facebook Spaces at its annual F8 developer conference. Facebook_sentence_121

Facebook Spaces is a virtual reality version of Facebook for Oculus VR goggles. Facebook_sentence_122

In a virtual and shared space, users can access a curated selection of 360-degree photos and videos using their avatar, with the support of the controller. Facebook_sentence_123

Users can access their own photos and videos, along with media shared on their newsfeed. Facebook_sentence_124

In September, Facebook announced it would spend up to US$1 billion on original shows for its Facebook Watch platform. Facebook_sentence_125

On October 16, it acquired the anonymous compliment app tbh, announcing its intention to leave the app independent. Facebook_sentence_126

In May 2018 at F8, the company announced it would offer its own dating service. Facebook_sentence_127

Shares in competitor Match Group fell by 22%. Facebook_sentence_128

Facebook Dating includes privacy features and friends are unable to view their friends' dating profile. Facebook_sentence_129

In July, Facebook was charged £500,000 by UK watchdogs for failing to respond to data erasure requests. Facebook_sentence_130

On July 18, Facebook established a subsidiary named Lianshu Science & Technology in Hangzhou City, China, with $30 million of capital. Facebook_sentence_131

All its shares are held by Facebook Hong. Facebook_sentence_132

Approval of the registration of the subsidiary was then withdrawn, due to a disagreement between officials in Zhejiang province and the Cyberspace Administration of China. Facebook_sentence_133

On July 26, Facebook became the first company to lose over $100 billion worth of market capitalization in one day, dropping from nearly $630 billion to $510 billion after disappointing sales reports. Facebook_sentence_134

On July 31, Facebook said that the company had deleted 17 accounts related to the 2018 U.S. midterm elections. Facebook_sentence_135

On September 19, Facebook announced that, for news distribution outside the United States, it would work with U.S. funded democracy promotion organizations, International Republican Institute and the National Democratic Institute, which are loosely affiliated with the Republican and Democratic parties. Facebook_sentence_136

Through the Digital Forensic Research Lab Facebook partners with the Atlantic Council, a NATO-affiliated think tank. Facebook_sentence_137

In November, Facebook launched smart displays branded Portal and Portal Plus (Portal+). Facebook_sentence_138

They support Amazon's Alexa (intelligent personal assistant service). Facebook_sentence_139

The devices include video chat function with Facebook Messenger. Facebook_sentence_140

In August 2018, a lawsuit was filed in Oakland, California claiming that Facebook created fake accounts in order to inflate its user data and appeal to advertisers in the process. Facebook_sentence_141

In January 2019, the 10 year challenge was started asking users to post a photograph of themselves from 10 years ago (2009) and a more recent photo. Facebook_sentence_142

Criticized for its role in vaccine hesitancy, Facebook announced in March 2019 that it would provide users with "authoritative information" on the topic of vaccines. Facebook_sentence_143

A study in the journal Vaccine of advertisements posted in the three months prior to that found that 54% of the anti-vaccine advertisements on Facebook were placed by just two organisations funded by well-known anti-vaccination activists. Facebook_sentence_144

The Children's Health Defense / World Mercury Project chaired by Robert F. Kennedy Jr. and Stop Mandatory Vaccination, run by campaigner Larry Cook, posted 54% of the advertisements. Facebook_sentence_145

The ads often linked to commercial products, such as natural remedies and books. Facebook_sentence_146

On March 14, the Huffington Post reported that Facebook's PR agency had paid someone to tweak Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg's Wikipedia page, as well as adding a page for the global head of PR, Caryn Marooney. Facebook_sentence_147

In March 2019, the perpetrator of the Christchurch mosque shootings in New Zealand used Facebook to stream live footage of the attack as it unfolded. Facebook_sentence_148

Facebook took 29 minutes to detect the livestreamed video, which was eight minutes longer than it took police to arrest the gunman. Facebook_sentence_149

About 1.3m copies of the video were blocked from Facebook but 300,000 copies were published and shared. Facebook_sentence_150

Facebook has promised changes to its platform; spokesman Simon Dilner told Radio New Zealand that it could have done a better job. Facebook_sentence_151

Several companies, including the ANZ and ASB banks, have stopped advertising on Facebook after the company was widely condemned by the public. Facebook_sentence_152

Following the attack, Facebook began blocking white nationalist, white supremacist, and white separatist content, saying that they could not be meaningfully separated. Facebook_sentence_153

Previously, Facebook had only blocked overtly supremacist content. Facebook_sentence_154

The older policy had been condemned by civil rights groups, who described these movements as functionally indistinct. Facebook_sentence_155

Further bans were made in mid-April 2019, banning several British far-right organizations and associated individuals from Facebook, and also banning praise or support for them. Facebook_sentence_156

NTJ's member Moulavi Zahran Hashim, a radical Islamist imam believed to be the mastermind behind the 2019 Sri Lanka Easter bombings, preached on a pro-ISIL Facebook account, known as "Al-Ghuraba" media. Facebook_sentence_157

On May 2, 2019 at F8, the company announced its new vision with the tagline "the future is private". Facebook_sentence_158

A redesign of the website and mobile app was introduced, dubbed as "FB5". Facebook_sentence_159

The event also featured plans for improving groups, a dating platform, end-to-end encryption on its platforms, and allowing users on Messenger to communicate directly with WhatsApp and Instagram users. Facebook_sentence_160

On July 31, 2019, Facebook announced a partnership with University of California, San Francisco to build a non-invasive, wearable device that lets people type by simply imagining themselves talking. Facebook_sentence_161

On September 5, 2019, Facebook launched Facebook Dating in the United States. Facebook_sentence_162

This new application allows users to integrate their Instagram posts in their dating profile. Facebook_sentence_163

Facebook News, which features selected stories from news organizations, was launched on October 25. Facebook_sentence_164

Facebook's decision to include far-right website Breitbart News as a "trusted source" was negatively received. Facebook_sentence_165

On November 17, 2019, the banking data for 29,000 Facebook employees was stolen from a payroll worker's car. Facebook_sentence_166

The data was stored on unencrypted hard drives and included bank account numbers, employee names, the last four digits of their social security numbers, salaries, bonuses, and equity details. Facebook_sentence_167

The company didn't realize the hard drives were missing until November 20. Facebook_sentence_168

Facebook confirmed that the drives contained employee information on November 29. Facebook_sentence_169

Employees weren't notified of the break-in until December 13, 2019. Facebook_sentence_170

On March 10, 2020, Facebook appointed two new directors Tracey Travis and Nancy Killefer to their board of members. Facebook_sentence_171

In June 2020, several major companies including Adidas, Aviva, Coca-Cola, Ford, HP, Intercontinental Hotels Group, Mars, Starbucks, Target, and Unilever, announced they would pause adverts on Facebook for July in support of the Stop Hate for Profit campaign which claimed the company was not doing enough to remove hateful content. Facebook_sentence_172

The BBC noted that this was unlikely to affect the company as most of Facebook's advertising revenue comes from small- to medium-sized businesses. Facebook_sentence_173

On August 14, 2020, Facebook started integrating the direct messaging service of Instagram with its own Messenger for both iOS and Android devices. Facebook_sentence_174

After the update, an update screen is said to pop up on Instagram’s mobile app with the following message, “There’s a New Way to Message on Instagram” with a list of additional features. Facebook_sentence_175

As part of the update, the regular DM icon on the top right corner of Instagram will be replaced by the Facebook Messenger logo. Facebook_sentence_176

On September 15, 2020, Facebook launched a climate science information centre to promote authoritative voices on climate change and provide access of “factual and up-to-date” information on climate science. Facebook_sentence_177

It featured facts, figures and data from organizations, including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Met Office, UN Environment Programme (UNEP), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and World Meteorological Organization (WMO), with relevant news posts. Facebook_sentence_178

After the US election, Facebook tweaked the news feed to quantify the trustworthiness and quality of a news source. Facebook_sentence_179

With this Facebook reduce Election-related misinformation and hate speech without hurting the company’s bottom line. Facebook_sentence_180

Website Facebook_section_6

Further information: List of Facebook features and Facebook Platform Facebook_sentence_181

Technical aspects Facebook_section_7

The website's primary color is blue as Zuckerberg is red–green colorblind, a realization that occurred after a test undertaken around 2007. Facebook_sentence_182

Facebook is built in PHP, compiled with HipHop for PHP, a "source code transformer" built by Facebook engineers that turns PHP into C++. Facebook_sentence_183

The deployment of HipHop reportedly reduced average CPU consumption on Facebook servers by 50%. Facebook_sentence_184

2012 architecture Facebook_section_8

Facebook is developed as one monolithic application. Facebook_sentence_185

According to an interview in 2012 with Facebook build engineer Chuck Rossi, Facebook compiles into a 1.5 GB binary blob which is then distributed to the servers using a custom BitTorrent-based release system. Facebook_sentence_186

Rossi stated that it takes about 15 minutes to build and 15 minutes to release to the servers. Facebook_sentence_187

The build and release process has zero downtime. Facebook_sentence_188

Changes to Facebook are rolled out daily. Facebook_sentence_189

Facebook used a combination platform based on HBase to store data across distributed machines. Facebook_sentence_190

Using a tailing architecture, events are stored in log files, and the logs are tailed. Facebook_sentence_191

The system rolls these events up and writes them to storage. Facebook_sentence_192

The user interface then pulls the data out and displays it to users. Facebook_sentence_193

Facebook handles requests as AJAX behavior. Facebook_sentence_194

These requests are written to a log file using Scribe (developed by Facebook). Facebook_sentence_195

Data is read from these log files using Ptail, an internally built tool to aggregate data from multiple Scribe stores. Facebook_sentence_196

It tails the log files and pulls data out. Facebook_sentence_197

Ptail data are separated into three streams and sent to clusters in different data centers (Plugin impression, News feed impressions, Actions (plugin + news feed)). Facebook_sentence_198

Puma is used to manage periods of high data flow (Input/Output or IO). Facebook_sentence_199

Data is processed in batches to lessen the number of times needed to read and write under high demand periods (A hot article generates many impressions and news feed impressions that cause huge data skews). Facebook_sentence_200

Batches are taken every 1.5 seconds, limited by memory used when creating a hash table. Facebook_sentence_201

Data is then output in PHP format. Facebook_sentence_202

The backend is written in Java. Facebook_sentence_203

Thrift is used as the messaging format so PHP programs can query Java services. Facebook_sentence_204

Caching solutions display pages more quickly. Facebook_sentence_205

The data is then sent to MapReduce servers where it is queried via Hive. Facebook_sentence_206

This serves as a backup as the data can be recovered from Hive. Facebook_sentence_207

Content delivery network (CDN) Facebook_section_9

Further information: Content Delivery Network Facebook_sentence_208

Facebook uses a CDN or 'edge network' under the domain fbcdn.net for serving static data. Facebook_sentence_209

Until the mid 2010s, Facebook also relied on akamai as the CDN service provider. Facebook_sentence_210

Hack Facebook_section_10

On March 20, 2014, Facebook announced a new open-source programming language called Hack. Facebook_sentence_211

Before public release, a large portion of Facebook was already running and "battle tested" using the new language. Facebook_sentence_212

History Facebook_section_11

On July 20, 2008, Facebook introduced "Facebook Beta", a significant redesign of its user interface on selected networks. Facebook_sentence_213

The Mini-Feed and Wall were consolidated, profiles were separated into tabbed sections, and an effort was made to create a cleaner look. Facebook_sentence_214

Facebook began migrating users to the new version in September 2008. Facebook_sentence_215

User profile/personal timeline Facebook_section_12

Each registered user on Facebook has a personal profile that shows their posts and content. Facebook_sentence_216

The format of individual user pages was revamped in September 2011 and became known as "Timeline", a chronological feed of a user's stories, including status updates, photos, interactions with apps and events. Facebook_sentence_217

The layout let users add a "cover photo". Facebook_sentence_218

Users were given more privacy settings. Facebook_sentence_219

In 2007, Facebook launched Facebook Pages for brands and celebrities to interact with their fanbase. Facebook_sentence_220

100,000 Pages launched in November. Facebook_sentence_221

In June 2009, Facebook introduced a "Usernames" feature, allowing users to choose a unique nickname used in the URL for their personal profile, for easier sharing. Facebook_sentence_222

In February 2014, Facebook expanded the gender setting, adding a custom input field that allows users to choose from a wide range of gender identities. Facebook_sentence_223

Users can also set which set of gender-specific pronoun should be used in reference to them throughout the site. Facebook_sentence_224

In May 2014, Facebook introduced a feature to allow users to ask for information not disclosed by other users on their profiles. Facebook_sentence_225

If a user does not provide key information, such as location, hometown, or relationship status, other users can use a new "ask" button to send a message asking about that item to the user in a single click. Facebook_sentence_226

News Feed Facebook_section_13

Further information: News Feed Facebook_sentence_227

News Feed appears on every user's homepage and highlights information including profile changes, upcoming events and friends' birthdays. Facebook_sentence_228

This enabled spammers and other users to manipulate these features by creating illegitimate events or posting fake birthdays to attract attention to their profile or cause. Facebook_sentence_229

Initially, the News Feed caused dissatisfaction among Facebook users; some complained it was too cluttered and full of undesired information, others were concerned that it made it too easy for others to track individual activities (such as relationship status changes, events, and conversations with other users). Facebook_sentence_230

Zuckerberg apologized for the site's failure to include appropriate privacy features. Facebook_sentence_231

Users then gained control over what types of information are shared automatically with friends. Facebook_sentence_232

Users are now able to prevent user-set categories of friends from seeing updates about certain types of activities, including profile changes, Wall posts and newly added friends. Facebook_sentence_233

On February 23, 2010, Facebook was granted a patent on certain aspects of its News Feed. Facebook_sentence_234

The patent covers News Feeds in which links are provided so that one user can participate in the activity of another user. Facebook_sentence_235

The sorting and display of stories in a user's News Feed is governed by the EdgeRank algorithm. Facebook_sentence_236

The Photos application allows users to upload albums and photos. Facebook_sentence_237

Each album can contain 200 photos. Facebook_sentence_238

Privacy settings apply to individual albums. Facebook_sentence_239

Users can "tag", or label, friends in a photo. Facebook_sentence_240

The friend receives a notification about the tag with a link to the photo. Facebook_sentence_241

This photo tagging feature was developed by Aaron Sittig, now a Design Strategy Lead at Facebook, and former Facebook engineer Scott Marlette back in 2006 and was only granted a patent in 2011. Facebook_sentence_242

On June 7, 2012, Facebook launched its App Center to help users find games and other applications. Facebook_sentence_243

On May 13, 2015, Facebook in association with major news portals launched "Instant Articles" to provide news on the Facebook news feed without leaving the site. Facebook_sentence_244

In January 2017, Facebook launched Facebook Stories for iOS and Android in Ireland. Facebook_sentence_245

The feature, following the format of Snapchat and Instagram stories, allows users to upload photos and videos that appear above friends' and followers' News Feeds and disappear after 24 hours. Facebook_sentence_246

On October 11, 2017, Facebook introduced the 3D Posts feature to allow for uploading interactive 3D assets. Facebook_sentence_247

On January 11, 2018, Facebook announced that it would change News Feed to prioritize friends/family content and de-emphasize content from media companies. Facebook_sentence_248

Like button Facebook_section_14

Further information: Facebook like button Facebook_sentence_249

The "like" button, stylized as a "thumbs up" icon, was first enabled on February 9, 2009, and enables users to easily interact with status updates, comments, photos and videos, links shared by friends, and advertisements. Facebook_sentence_250

Once clicked by a user, the designated content is more likely to appear in friends' News Feeds. Facebook_sentence_251

The button displays the number of other users who have liked the content. Facebook_sentence_252

The like button was extended to comments in June 2010. Facebook_sentence_253

In February 2016, Facebook expanded Like into "Reactions", choosing among five pre-defined emotions, including "Love", "Haha", "Wow", "Sad", or "Angry". Facebook_sentence_254

In late April 2020, during the coronavirus pandemic, a new "Care" reaction was added. Facebook_sentence_255

Instant messaging Facebook_section_15

Main article: Facebook Messenger Facebook_sentence_256

Facebook Messenger is an instant messaging service and software application. Facebook_sentence_257

It began as Facebook Chat in 2008, was revamped in 2010 and eventually became a standalone mobile app in August 2011, while remaining part of the user page on browsers. Facebook_sentence_258

Complementing regular conversations, Messenger lets users make one-to-one and group voice and video calls. Facebook_sentence_259

Its Android app has integrated support for SMS and "Chat Heads", which are round profile photo icons appearing on-screen regardless of what app is open, while both apps support multiple accounts, conversations with optional end-to-end encryption and "Instant Games". Facebook_sentence_260

Some features, including sending money and requesting transportation, are limited to the United States. Facebook_sentence_261

In 2017, Facebook added "Messenger Day", a feature that lets users share photos and videos in a story-format with all their friends with the content disappearing after 24 hours; Reactions, which lets users tap and hold a message to add a reaction through an emoji; and Mentions, which lets users in group conversations type @ to give a particular user a notification. Facebook_sentence_262

Businesses and users can interact through Messenger with features such as tracking purchases and receiving notifications, and interacting with customer service representatives. Facebook_sentence_263

Third-party developers can integrate apps into Messenger, letting users enter an app while inside Messenger and optionally share details from the app into a chat. Facebook_sentence_264

Developers can build chatbots into Messenger, for uses such as news publishers building bots to distribute news. Facebook_sentence_265

The M virtual assistant (U.S.) scans chats for keywords and suggests relevant actions, such as its payments system for users mentioning money. Facebook_sentence_266

Group chatbots appear in Messenger as "Chat Extensions". Facebook_sentence_267

A "Discovery" tab allows finding bots, and enabling special, branded QR codes that, when scanned, take the user to a specific bot. Facebook_sentence_268

Following Facebook_section_16

Users can "Follow" content posted by other users without needing to friend them. Facebook_sentence_269

Accounts can be "verified", confirming a user's identity. Facebook_sentence_270

Privacy controls Facebook_section_17

See also: § Privacy Facebook_sentence_271

Facebook enables users to control access to individual posts and their profile through privacy settings. Facebook_sentence_272

The user's name and profile picture (if applicable) are public. Facebook_sentence_273

Facebook's revenue depends on targeted advertising, which involves analyzing user data (from the site and the broader internet) to inform the targeting. Facebook_sentence_274

These facilities have changed repeatedly since the service's debut, amid a series of controversies covering everything from how well it secures user data, to what extent it allows users to control access, to the kinds of access given to third parties, including businesses, political campaigns and governments. Facebook_sentence_275

These facilities vary according to country, as some nations require the company to make data available (and limit access to services), while the European Union's GDPR regulation mandates additional privacy protections. Facebook_sentence_276

Facebook Bug Bounty Program Facebook_section_18

On July 29, 2011, Facebook announced its Bug Bounty Program that paid security researchers a minimum of $500 for reporting security holes. Facebook_sentence_277

The company promised not to pursue "white hat" hackers who identified such problems. Facebook_sentence_278

This led researchers in many countries to participate, particularly in India and Russia. Facebook_sentence_279

Reception Facebook_section_19

User growth and decline Facebook_section_20

Facebook's rapid growth began as soon as it became available and continued through 2018, before beginning to decline. Facebook_sentence_280

Facebook passed 100 million registered users in 2008, and 500 million in July 2010. Facebook_sentence_281

According to the company's data at the July 2010 announcement, half of the site's membership used Facebook daily, for an average of 34 minutes, while 150 million users accessed the site by mobile. Facebook_sentence_282

In October 2012 Facebook's monthly active users passed one billion, with 600 million mobile users, 219 billion photo uploads, and 140 billion friend connections. Facebook_sentence_283

The 2 billion user mark was crossed in June 2017. Facebook_sentence_284

In November 2015, after skepticism about the accuracy of its "monthly active users" measurement, Facebook changed its definition to a logged-in member who visits the Facebook site through the web browser or mobile app, or uses the Facebook Messenger app, in the 30 day period prior to the measurement. Facebook_sentence_285

This excluded the use of third-party services with Facebook integration, which was previously counted. Facebook_sentence_286

From 2017 to 2019, the percentage of the U.S. population over the age of 12 who use Facebook has declined, from 67% to 61% (a decline of some 15 million U.S. users), with a higher drop-off among younger Americans (a decrease in the percentage of U.S. 12- to 34-year-olds who are users from 58% in 2015 to 29% in 2019. Facebook_sentence_287

The decline coincided with an increase in the popularity of Instagram, which is also owned by Facebook Inc. Facebook_sentence_288

Historically, commentators have offered predictions of Facebook's decline or end, based on causes such as a declining user base; the legal difficulties of being a closed platform, inability to generate revenue, inability to offer user privacy, inability to adapt to mobile platforms, or Facebook ending itself to present a next generation replacement; or Facebook's role in Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections. Facebook_sentence_289


  • Facebook_item_0_0

Demographics Facebook_section_21

The highest number of Facebook users as of October 2018 are from India and the United States, followed by Indonesia, Brazil and Mexico. Facebook_sentence_290

Region-wise, the highest number of users are from Asia-Pacific (947 million) followed by Europe (381 million) and US-Canada (242 million). Facebook_sentence_291

The rest of the world has 750 million users. Facebook_sentence_292

Over the 2008-2018 period, the percentage of users under 34 declined to less than half of the total. Facebook_sentence_293

Awards Facebook_section_22

The website has won awards such as placement into the "Top 100 Classic Websites" by PC Magazine in 2007, and winning the "People's Voice Award" from the Webby Awards in 2008. Facebook_sentence_294

In 2010, Facebook won the Crunchie "Best Overall Startup Or Product" award for the third year in a row. Facebook_sentence_295

Censorship Facebook_section_23

Further information: Censorship of Facebook Facebook_sentence_296

In many countries the social networking sites and mobile apps have been blocked temporarily or permanently, including China, Iran, Syria, and North Korea. Facebook_sentence_297

In May 2018, the government of Papua New Guinea announced that it would ban Facebook for a month while it considered the impact of the website on the country, though no ban has since occurred. Facebook_sentence_298

In 2019, Facebook announced that influencers are no longer able to promote any vape, tobacco products, or weapons on its platforms. Facebook_sentence_299

Criticisms and controversies Facebook_section_24

Further information: Criticism of Facebook Facebook_sentence_300

Facebook's importance and scale has led to criticisms in many domains. Facebook_sentence_301

Issues include Internet privacy, excessive retention of user information, its facial recognition software, its addictive quality and its role in the workplace, including employer access to employee accounts. Facebook_sentence_302

Facebook has been criticized for electricity usage, tax avoidance, real-name user requirement policies, censorship and its involvement in the United States PRISM surveillance program. Facebook_sentence_303

According to The Express Tribune, Facebook "avoided billions of dollars in tax using offshore companies". Facebook_sentence_304

Facebook is alleged to have harmful psychological effects on its users, including feelings of jealousy and stress, a lack of attention and social media addiction. Facebook_sentence_305

European antitrust regulator Margrethe Vestager stated that Facebook's terms of service relating to private data were "unbalanced". Facebook_sentence_306

Facebook has been criticized for allowing users to publish illegal and/or offensive material. Facebook_sentence_307

Specifics include copyright and intellectual property infringement, hate speech, incitement of rape and terrorism, fake news, and crimes, murders, and livestreaming violent incidents. Facebook_sentence_308

Sri Lanka blocked both Facebook and WhatsApp in May 2019 after anti-Muslim riots, the worst in the country since the Easter Sunday bombing in the same year as a temporary measure to maintain peace in Sri Lanka. Facebook_sentence_309

Facebook removed 3 billion fake accounts only during the last quarter of 2018 and the first quarter of 2019; in comparison, the social network reports 2.39 billion monthly active users. Facebook_sentence_310

In late July 2019, the company announced it was under antitrust investigation by the Federal Trade Commission. Facebook_sentence_311

Privacy Facebook_section_25

Further information: Criticism of Facebook § Privacy issues Facebook_sentence_312

See also: Privacy concerns with social networking services § Facebook Facebook_sentence_313

Facebook has faced a steady stream of controversies over how it handles user privacy, repeatedly adjusting its privacy settings and policies. Facebook_sentence_314

In 2010, the US National Security Agency began taking publicly posted profile information from Facebook, among other social media services. Facebook_sentence_315

On November 29, 2011, Facebook settled Federal Trade Commission charges that it deceived consumers by failing to keep privacy promises. Facebook_sentence_316

In August 2013 High-Tech Bridge published a study showing that links included in Facebook messaging service messages were being accessed by Facebook. Facebook_sentence_317

In January 2014 two users filed a lawsuit against Facebook alleging that their privacy had been violated by this practice. Facebook_sentence_318

On June 7, 2018, Facebook announced that a bug had resulted in about 14 million Facebook users having their default sharing setting for all new posts set to "public". Facebook_sentence_319

On April 4, 2019, half a billion records of Facebook users were found exposed on Amazon cloud servers, containing information about users’ friends, likes, groups, and checked-in locations, as well as names, passwords and email addresses. Facebook_sentence_320

The phone numbers of at least 200 million Facebook users were found to be exposed on an open online database in September 2019. Facebook_sentence_321

They included 133 million US users, 18 million from the UK, and 50 million from users in Vietnam. Facebook_sentence_322

After removing duplicates, the 419 million records have been reduced to 219 million. Facebook_sentence_323

The database went offline after TechCrunch contacted the web host. Facebook_sentence_324

It is thought the records were amassed using a tool that Facebook disabled in April 2018 after the Cambridge Analytica controversy. Facebook_sentence_325

A Facebook spokeswoman said in a statement: "The dataset is old and appears to have information obtained before we made changes last year...There is no evidence that Facebook accounts were compromised." Facebook_sentence_326

Facebook's privacy problems resulted in companies like Viber Media and Mozilla discontinuing advertising on Facebook's platforms. Facebook_sentence_327

Shadow profiles Facebook_section_26

A "" refers to the data Facebook collects about individuals without their explicit permission. Facebook_sentence_328

For example, the "like" button that appears on third-party websites allows the company to collect information about an individual's internet browsing habits, even if the individual is not a Facebook user. Facebook_sentence_329

Data can also be collected by other users. Facebook_sentence_330

For example, a Facebook user can link their email account to their Facebook to find friends on the site, allowing the company to collect the email addresses of users and non-users alike. Facebook_sentence_331

Over time, countless data points about an individual are collected; any single data point perhaps cannot identify an individual, but together allows the company to form a unique "profile." Facebook_sentence_332

This practice has been criticized by those who believe people should be able to opt-out of involuntary data collection. Facebook_sentence_333

Additionally, while Facebook users have the ability to download and inspect the data they provide to the site, data from the user's "shadow profile" is not included, and non-users of Facebook do not have access to this tool regardless. Facebook_sentence_334

The company has also been unclear whether or not it is possible for a person to revoke Facebook's access to their "shadow profile." Facebook_sentence_335

Cambridge Analytica Facebook_section_27

Further information: Facebook–Cambridge Analytica data scandal Facebook_sentence_336

Facebook customer Global Science Research sold information on over 87 million Facebook users to Cambridge Analytica, a political data analysis firm led by Alexander Nix. Facebook_sentence_337

While approximately 270,000 people used the app, Facebook's API permitted data collection from their friends without their knowledge. Facebook_sentence_338

At first Facebook downplayed the significance of the breach, and suggested that Cambridge Analytica no longer had access. Facebook_sentence_339

Facebook then issued a statement expressing alarm and suspended Cambridge Analytica. Facebook_sentence_340

Review of documents and interviews with former Facebook employees suggested that Cambridge Analytica still possessed the data. Facebook_sentence_341

This was a violation of Facebook's consent decree with the Federal Trade Commission. Facebook_sentence_342

This violation potentially carried a penalty of $40,000 per occurrence, totaling trillions of dollars. Facebook_sentence_343

According to The Guardian both Facebook and Cambridge Analytica threatened to sue the newspaper if it published the story. Facebook_sentence_344

After publication, Facebook claimed that it had been "lied to". Facebook_sentence_345

On March 23, 2018, The English High Court granted an application by the Information Commissioner's Office for a warrant to search Cambridge Analytica's London offices, ending a standoff between Facebook and the Information Commissioner over responsibility. Facebook_sentence_346

On March 25, Facebook published a statement by Zuckerberg in major UK and US newspapers apologizing over a "breach of trust". Facebook_sentence_347

On March 26, the Federal Trade Commission opened an investigation into the matter. Facebook_sentence_348

The controversy led Facebook to end its partnerships with data brokers who aid advertisers in targeting users. Facebook_sentence_349

On April 24, 2019, Facebook said it could face a fine between $3 billion to $5 billion as the result of an investigation by the Federal Trade Commission. Facebook_sentence_350

The agency has been investigating Facebook for possible privacy violations, but has not announced any findings yet. Facebook_sentence_351

Facebook also implemented additional privacy controls and settings in part to comply with the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which took effect in May. Facebook_sentence_352

Facebook also ended its active opposition to the California Consumer Privacy Act. Facebook_sentence_353

Some, such as Meghan McCain have drawn an equivalence between the use of data by Cambridge Analytica and the Barack Obama's 2012 campaign, which, according to Investor's Business Daily, "encouraged supporters to download an Obama 2012 Facebook app that, when activated, let the campaign collect Facebook data both on users and their friends." Facebook_sentence_354

Carol Davidsen, the Obama for America (OFA) former director of integration and media analytics, wrote that "Facebook was surprised we were able to suck out the whole social graph, but they didn't stop us once they realised that was what we were doing." Facebook_sentence_355

PolitiFact has rated McCain's statements "Half-True", on the basis that "in Obama's case, direct users knew they were handing over their data to a political campaign" whereas with Cambridge Analytica, users thought they were only taking a personality quiz for academic purposes, and while the Obama campaign only used the data "to have their supporters contact their most persuadable friends", Cambridge Analytica "targeted users, friends and lookalikes directly with digital ads." Facebook_sentence_356

Breaches Facebook_section_28

On September 28, 2018, Facebook experienced a major breach in its security, exposing the data of 50 million users. Facebook_sentence_357

The data breach started in July 2017 and was discovered on September 16. Facebook_sentence_358

Facebook notified users affected by the exploit and logged them out of their accounts. Facebook_sentence_359

In March 2019, Facebook confirmed a password compromise of millions of Facebook lite application users, however in April the company further stated that it was not just limited to Facebook but had also affected millions of Instagram users. Facebook_sentence_360

The reason cited was the storage of password as plain text instead of encryption which could be read by its employees. Facebook_sentence_361

On December 19, 2019, security researcher Bob Diachenko discovered a database containing more than 267 million Facebook user IDs, phone numbers, and names that were left exposed on the web for anyone to access without a password or any other authentication. Facebook_sentence_362

In February 2020, Facebook encountered a major security breach in which its official Twitter account was hacked by a Saudi Arabia-based group called "OurMine". Facebook_sentence_363

The group has a history of actively exposing high-profile social media profiles’ vulnerabilities. Facebook_sentence_364

Phone data and activity Facebook_section_29

After acquiring Onavo in 2013, Facebook used its Onavo Protect virtual private network (VPN) app to collect information on users' web traffic and app usage. Facebook_sentence_365

This allowed Facebook to monitor its competitors' performance, and motivated Facebook to acquire WhatsApp in 2014. Facebook_sentence_366

Media outlets classified Onavo Protect as spyware. Facebook_sentence_367

In August 2018, Facebook removed the app in response to pressure from Apple, who asserted that it violated their guidelines. Facebook_sentence_368

In 2016, Facebook Research launched Project Atlas, offering some users between the ages of 13 and 35 up to $20 per month in exchange for their personal data, including their app usage, web browsing history, web search history, location history, personal messages, photos, videos, emails and Amazon order history. Facebook_sentence_369

In January 2019, TechCrunch reported on the project. Facebook_sentence_370

This led Apple to temporarily revoke Facebook's Enterprise Developer Program certificates for one day, preventing Facebook Research from operating on iOS devices and disabling Facebook's internal iOS apps. Facebook_sentence_371

Ars Technica reported in April 2018 that the Facebook Android app had been harvesting user data, including phone calls and text messages, since 2015. Facebook_sentence_372

In May 2018, several Android users filed a class action lawsuit against Facebook for invading their privacy. Facebook_sentence_373

In January 2020, Facebook launched the Off-Facebook Activity page, which allows users to see information collected by Facebook about their non-Facebook activities. Facebook_sentence_374

Washington Post columnist Geoffrey A. Fowler found that this included what other apps he used on his phone, even while the Facebook app was closed, what other web sites he visited on his phone, and what in-store purchases he made from affiliated businesses, even while his phone was completely off. Facebook_sentence_375

Public apologies Facebook_section_30

The company first apologized for its privacy abuses in 2009. Facebook_sentence_376

Facebook apologies have appeared in newspapers, television, blog posts and on Facebook. Facebook_sentence_377

On March 25, 2018, leading US and UK newspapers published full-page ads with a personal apology from Zuckerberg. Facebook_sentence_378

Zuckerberg issued a verbal apology on CNN. Facebook_sentence_379

In May 2010, he apologized for discrepancies in privacy settings. Facebook_sentence_380

Previously, Facebook had its privacy settings spread out over 20 pages, and has now put all of its privacy settings on one page, which makes it more difficult for third-party apps to access the user's personal information. Facebook_sentence_381

In addition to publicly apologizing, Facebook has said that it will be reviewing and auditing thousands of apps that display "suspicious activities" in an effort to ensure that this breach of privacy does not happen again. Facebook_sentence_382

In a 2010 report regarding privacy, a research project stated that not a lot of information is available regarding the consequences of what people disclose online so often what is available are just reports made available through popular media. Facebook_sentence_383

In 2017, a former Facebook executive went on the record to discuss how social media platforms have contributed to the unraveling of the "fabric of society". Facebook_sentence_384

Content Facebook_section_31

Further information: Criticism of Facebook § Content Facebook_sentence_385

See also: Facebook content oversight board Facebook_sentence_386

Facebook relies on its users to generate the content that bonds its users to the service. Facebook_sentence_387

The company has come under criticism both for allowing objectionable content, including conspiracy theories and fringe discourse, and for prohibiting other content that it deems inappropriate. Facebook_sentence_388

Vaidhyanathan (2018) Antisocial Media claims that there's no evidence that Cambridge Analytica and similar companies have delivered anything of value to anyone who has paid them, but Facebook is "growing on every continent. Facebook_sentence_389

And it’s undermining democracy everywhere. Facebook_sentence_390

Facebook is doing the data analysis internally. Facebook_sentence_391

Facebook is working directly with campaigns — many of which support authoritarian and nationalist candidates. Facebook_sentence_392

You don’t need Cambridge Analytica if you have Facebook. Facebook_sentence_393

The impact of Facebook on democracy is corrosive. Facebook_sentence_394

... A campaign like Trump’s can issue small, cheap advertisements via platforms like Facebook and Instagram that disappear after a day or get locked forever in Facebook’s servers. Facebook_sentence_395

That’s bad for transparency. Facebook_sentence_396

That’s exactly what happened. Facebook_sentence_397

That story has not echoed as far as the one about Cambridge Analytica and psychographics. Facebook_sentence_398

But it’s the real story." Facebook_sentence_399

Facebook has tools that allow an advertiser to profitably target ads "at groups as small as twenty, and then disappear, so they are never examined or debated." Facebook_sentence_400

These may have made a substantive contribution to Mr. Trump's victory in the 2016 United States presidential election. Facebook_sentence_401

It has been criticised as a vector for 'fake news', and has been accused of bearing responsibility for the conspiracy theory that the United States created ISIS, false anti-Rohingya posts being used by Myanmar's military to fuel genocide and ethnic cleansing, enabling climate change denial and Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting conspiracy theorists, and anti-refugee attacks in Germany. Facebook_sentence_402

The government of the Philippines has also used Facebook as a tool to attack its critics. Facebook_sentence_403

In 2017, Facebook partnered with fact checkers from the Poynter Institute's International Fact-Checking Network to identify and mark false content, though most ads from political candidates are exempt from this program. Facebook_sentence_404

Critics of the program accuse Facebook of not doing enough to remove false information from its website. Facebook_sentence_405

Professor Ilya Somin reported that he had been the subject of death threats on Facebook in April 2018 from Cesar Sayoc, who threatened to kill Somin and his family and "feed the bodies to Florida alligators". Facebook_sentence_406

Somin's Facebook friends reported the comments to Facebook, which did nothing except dispatch automated messages. Facebook_sentence_407

Sayoc was later arrested for the October 2018 United States mail bombing attempts directed at Democratic politicians. Facebook_sentence_408

Facebook has repeatedly amended its content policies. Facebook_sentence_409

In July 2018, it stated that it would "downrank" articles that its fact-checkers determined to be false, and remove misinformation that incited violence. Facebook_sentence_410

Facebook stated that content that receives "false" ratings from its fact-checkers can be demonetized and suffer dramatically reduced distribution. Facebook_sentence_411

Specific posts and videos that violate community standards can be removed on Facebook. Facebook_sentence_412

In May 2019, Facebook banned a number of "dangerous" commentators from its platform, including Alex Jones, Louis Farrakhan, Milo Yiannopoulos, Paul Joseph Watson, Paul Nehlen, David Duke, and Laura Loomer, for allegedly engaging in "violence and hate". Facebook_sentence_413

In May 2020, Facebook agreed to a preliminary settlement of $52 million to compensate U.S.-based Facebook content moderators for their psychological trauma suffered on the job. Facebook_sentence_414

Other legal actions around the world, including in Ireland, await settlement. Facebook_sentence_415

In September 2020, the Government of Thailand used the Computer Crime Act for the first time, to take action against Facebook and Twitter for ignoring requests to take down content and for not complying to the court orders. Facebook_sentence_416

In October 2020, Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan urged Mark Zuckerberg, through a letter posted on government’s Twitter account, to ban Islamophobic content on Facebook, warning that it encouraged extremism and violence. Facebook_sentence_417

InfoWars Facebook_section_32

Facebook was criticized for allowing InfoWars to publish falsehoods and conspiracy theories. Facebook_sentence_418

Facebook defended its actions in regards to InfoWars, saying "we just don't think banning Pages for sharing conspiracy theories or false news is the right way to go." Facebook_sentence_419

Facebook provided only six cases in which it fact-checked content on the InfoWars page over the period September 2017 to July 2018. Facebook_sentence_420

In 2018 InfoWars falsely claimed that the survivors of the Parkland shooting were "actors". Facebook_sentence_421

Facebook pledged to remove InfoWars content making the claim, although InfoWars videos pushing the false claims were left up, even though Facebook had been contacted about the videos. Facebook_sentence_422

Facebook stated that the videos never explicitly called them actors. Facebook_sentence_423

Facebook also allowed InfoWars videos that shared the Pizzagate conspiracy theory to survive, despite specific assertions that it would purge Pizzagate content. Facebook_sentence_424

In late July 2018 Facebook suspended the personal profile of InfoWars head Alex Jones for 30 days. Facebook_sentence_425

In early August 2018, Facebook banned the four most active InfoWars-related pages for hate speech. Facebook_sentence_426

Holocaust denial Facebook_section_33

In July 2018, Zuckerberg said it was unclear whether Holocaust deniers on Facebook intended to deceive others, for which he apologized later the same day. Facebook_sentence_427

In October 2020, the company announced that it would ban Holocaust denial. Facebook_sentence_428

Political manipulation Facebook_section_34

See also: State-sponsored Internet propaganda Facebook_sentence_429

General Facebook_section_35

In 2018, Facebook stated that during 2018 they had identified "coordinated inauthentic behavior" in "many Pages, Groups and accounts created to stir up political debate, including in the US, the Middle East, Russia and the UK." Facebook_sentence_430

Campaigns operated by the British intelligence agency unit, called Joint Threat Research Intelligence Group, have broadly fallen into two categories; cyber attacks and propaganda efforts. Facebook_sentence_431

The propaganda efforts utilize "mass messaging" and the "pushing [of] stories" via social media sites like Facebook. Facebook_sentence_432

Israel's Jewish Internet Defense Force, China's 50 Cent Party and Turkey's AK Trolls also focus their attention on social media platforms like Facebook. Facebook_sentence_433

In July 2018, Samantha Bradshaw, co-author of the report from the Oxford Internet Institute (OII) at Oxford University, said that "The number of countries where formally organised social media manipulation occurs has greatly increased, from 28 to 48 countries globally. Facebook_sentence_434

The majority of growth comes from political parties who spread disinformation and junk news around election periods." Facebook_sentence_435

In October 2018, The Daily Telegraph reported that Facebook "banned hundreds of pages and accounts that it says were fraudulently flooding its site with partisan political content – although they came from the United States instead of being associated with Russia." Facebook_sentence_436

In December 2018, The Washington Post reported that "Facebook has suspended the account of Jonathon Morgan, the chief executive of a top social media research firm" New Knowledge, "after reports that he and others engaged in an operation to spread disinformation" on Facebook and Twitter during the 2017 United States Senate special election in Alabama. Facebook_sentence_437

In January 2019, Facebook said it has removed 783 Iran-linked accounts, pages and groups for engaging in what it called "coordinated inauthentic behaviour". Facebook_sentence_438

In May 2019, Tel Aviv-based private intelligence agency Archimedes Group was banned from Facebook for “coordinated inauthentic behavior” after Facebook found fake users in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia. Facebook_sentence_439

Facebook investigations revealed that Archimedes had spent some $1.1 million on fake ads, paid for in Brazilian reais, Israeli shekels and US dollars. Facebook_sentence_440

Facebook gave examples of Archimedes Group political interference in Nigeria, Senegal, Togo, Angola, Niger and Tunisia. Facebook_sentence_441

The Atlantic Council's Digital Forensic Research Lab said in a report that "The tactics employed by Archimedes Group, a private company, closely resemble the types of information warfare tactics often used by governments, and the Kremlin in particular." Facebook_sentence_442

On May 23, 2019, Facebook released its Community Standards Enforcement Report highlighting that it has identified several fake accounts through artificial intelligence and human monitoring. Facebook_sentence_443

In a period of six months, October 2018-March 2019, the social media website removed a total of 3.39 billion fake accounts. Facebook_sentence_444

The number of fake accounts was reported to be more than 2.4 billion real people on the platform. Facebook_sentence_445

In July 2019, Facebook advanced its measures to counter deceptive political propaganda and other abuse of its services. Facebook_sentence_446

The company removed more than 1,800 accounts and pages that were being operated from Russia, Thailand, Ukraine and Honduras. Facebook_sentence_447

On October 30, 2019, Facebook deleted several accounts of the employees working at the Israeli NSO Group, stating that the accounts were “deleted for not following our terms”. Facebook_sentence_448

The deletions came after WhatsApp sued the Israeli surveillance firm for targeting 1,400 devices with spyware. Facebook_sentence_449

In 2020, Facebook helped found American Edge, an anti-regulation lobbying firm to fight anti-trust probes. Facebook_sentence_450

The Thailand government is forcing Facebook to take down a Facebook group called Royalist Marketplace with 1 million members following potentially illegal posts shared. Facebook_sentence_451

The authority also threatened the Facebook representative of facing criminal proceeding. Facebook_sentence_452

In response, Facebook is planning to take legal action against the Thai government for suppression of freedom of expression and violation of human rights. Facebook_sentence_453

Russian interference Facebook_section_36

See also: Internet Research Agency and Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections Facebook_sentence_454

In 2018, Special Counsel Robert Mueller indicted 13 Russian nationals and three Russian organizations for "engaging in operations to interfere with U.S. political and electoral processes, including the 2016 presidential election." Facebook_sentence_455

Mueller contacted Facebook subsequently to the company's disclosure that it had sold more than $100,000 worth of ads to a company (Internet Research Agency, owned by Russian billionaire and businessman Yevgeniy Prigozhin) with links to the Russian intelligence community before the 2016 United States presidential election. Facebook_sentence_456

In September 2017, Facebook's chief security officer Alex Stamos wrote the company "found approximately $100,000 in ad spending from June 2015 to May 2017 — associated with roughly 3,000 ads — that was connected to about 470 inauthentic accounts and Pages in violation of our policies. Facebook_sentence_457

Our analysis suggests these accounts and Pages were affiliated with one another and likely operated out of Russia." Facebook_sentence_458

Clinton and Trump campaigns spent $81 million on Facebook ads. Facebook_sentence_459

The company pledged full cooperation in Mueller's investigation, and provided all information about the Russian advertisements. Facebook_sentence_460

Members of the House and Senate Intelligence Committees have claimed that Facebook had withheld information that could illuminate the Russian propaganda campaign. Facebook_sentence_461

Russian operatives have used Facebook to organize Black Lives Matter rallies and anti-immigrant rallies on U.S. soil, as well as anti-Clinton rallies and rallies both for and against Donald Trump. Facebook_sentence_462

Facebook ads have also been used to exploit divisions over black political activism and Muslims by simultaneously sending contrary messages to different users based on their political and demographic characteristics in order to sow discord. Facebook_sentence_463

Zuckerberg has stated that he regrets having dismissed concerns over Russian interference in the 2016 U.S. presidential election. Facebook_sentence_464

Russian-American billionaire Yuri Milner, who befriended Zuckerberg between 2009 and 2011 had Kremlin backing for his investments in Facebook and Twitter. Facebook_sentence_465

In January 2019, Facebook removed 289 Pages and 75 coordinated accounts linked to the Russian state-owned news agency Sputnik which had misrepresented themselves as independent news or general interest Pages. Facebook_sentence_466

Facebook later identified and removed an additional 1,907 accounts linked to Russia found to be engaging in "coordinated inauthentic behaviour". Facebook_sentence_467

In 2018, a UK Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) select committee report had criticised Facebook for its reluctance to investigate abuse of its platform by the Russian government, and for downplaying the extent of the problem, referring to the company as 'digital gangsters'. Facebook_sentence_468

In February 2019, Glenn Greenwald wrote that a cybersecurity company New Knowledge, which is behind one of the Senate reports on Russian social media election interference, "was caught just six weeks ago engaging in a massive scam to create fictitious Russian troll accounts on Facebook and Twitter in order to claim that the Kremlin was working to defeat Democratic Senate nominee Doug Jones in Alabama. Facebook_sentence_469

The New York Times, when exposing the scam, quoted a New Knowledge report that boasted of its fabrications..." Facebook_sentence_470

Anti-Rohingya propaganda Facebook_section_37

See also: Persecution of Muslims in Myanmar Facebook_sentence_471

In 2018, Facebook took down 536 Facebook pages, 17 Facebook groups, 175 Facebook accounts, and 16 Instagram accounts linked to the Myanmar military. Facebook_sentence_472

Collectively these were followed by over 10 million people. Facebook_sentence_473

The New York Times reported that: Facebook_sentence_474

Anti-Muslim propaganda and Hindu nationalism in India Facebook_section_38

A 2019 book titled The Real Face of Facebook in India, co-authored by the journalists Paranjoy Guha Thakurta and Cyril Sam, alleged that Facebook helped enable and benefited from the rise of Narendra Modi's Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in India. Facebook_sentence_475

Ankhi Das, Facebook's policy director for India and South and Central Asia, apologized publicly in August 2020 for sharing a Facebook post that called Muslims in India a "degenerate community". Facebook_sentence_476

She said she shared the post “to reflect my deep belief in celebrating feminism and civic participation". Facebook_sentence_477

She is reported to have prevented action by Facebook against anti-Muslim content and supported the BJP in internal Facebook messages. Facebook_sentence_478

In 2020, Facebook executives overrode their employees' recommendations that the BJP politician T. Facebook_sentence_479 Raja Singh should be banned from the site for hate speech and rhetoric that could lead to violence. Facebook_sentence_480

Singh had said on Facebook that Rohingya Muslim immigrants should be shot and had threatened to destroy mosques. Facebook_sentence_481

Current and former Facebook employees told The Wall Street Journal that the decision was part of a pattern of favoritism by Facebook toward the BJP as it seeks more business in India. Facebook_sentence_482

Facebook also took no action after BJP politicians made posts accusing Muslims of intentionally spreading COVID-19, an employee said. Facebook_sentence_483

The Delhi Assembly is investigating whether Facebook bears blame for 2020 religious riots in the city. Facebook_sentence_484

Company governance Facebook_section_39

Early Facebook investor and former Zuckerberg mentor Roger McNamee described Facebook as having "the most centralized decision-making structure I have ever encountered in a large company." Facebook_sentence_485

Nathan Schneider, a professor of media studies at the University of Colorado Boulder argued for transforming Facebook into a platform cooperative owned and governed by the users. Facebook_sentence_486

Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes states that CEO Mark Zuckerberg has too much power, that the company is now a monopoly, and that, as a result, it should be split into multiple smaller companies. Facebook_sentence_487

Hughes called for the breakup of Facebook in an op-ed on The New York Times. Facebook_sentence_488

Hughes says he's concerned that Zuckerberg has surrounded himself with a team that doesn't challenge him and that as a result, it's the U.S. government's job to hold him accountable and curb his "unchecked power." Facebook_sentence_489

Hughes also said that "Mark's power is unprecedented and un-American." Facebook_sentence_490

Several U.S. politicians agree with Hughes. Facebook_sentence_491

EU Commissioner for Competition Margrethe Vestager has stated that splitting Facebook should only be done as "a remedy of the very last resort", and that splitting Facebook would not solve Facebook's underlying problems. Facebook_sentence_492

Litigation Facebook_section_40

The company has been subject to repeated litigation. Facebook_sentence_493

Its most prominent case addressed allegations that Zuckerberg broke an oral contract with Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra to build the then-named "HarvardConnection" social network in 2004. Facebook_sentence_494

On March 6, 2018 BlackBerry sued Facebook and its Instagram and WhatsApp subdivision for ripping off key features of its messaging app. Facebook_sentence_495

In 2019 British solicitors representing a bullied Syrian schoolboy, sued Facebook over false claims. Facebook_sentence_496

They claimed that Facebook protected prominent figures from scrutiny instead of removing content that violates its rules and that the special treatment was financially driven. Facebook_sentence_497

In October 2018 a Texan woman sued Facebook, claiming she had been recruited into the sex trade at the age of 15 by a man who "friended" her on the social media network. Facebook_sentence_498

Facebook responded that it works both internally and externally to ban sex traffickers. Facebook_sentence_499

The Federal Trade Commission and a coalition of New York state and 47 other state and regional governments filed separate suits against Facebook on December 9, 2020 seeking antitrust action based on its acquisitions of Instagram and WhatsUp among other companies, calling these practices as anticompetitive. Facebook_sentence_500

The suits also assert that in acquiring these products, they weakened their privacy measures for their users. Facebook_sentence_501

The suits, besides other fines, seek to unwind the acquisitions from Facebook. Facebook_sentence_502

Definers Public Affairs Facebook_section_41

In October 2017, Facebook expanded its work with Definers Public Affairs, a PR firm that had originally been hired to monitor press coverage of the company to address concerns primarily regarding Russian meddling, then mishandling of user data by Cambridge Analytica, hate speech on Facebook, and calls for regulation. Facebook_sentence_503

Company spokesman Tim Miller stated that a goal for tech firms should be to "have positive content pushed out about your company and negative content that's being pushed out about your competitor". Facebook_sentence_504

Definers claimed that George Soros was the force behind what appeared to be a broad anti-Facebook movement, and created other negative media, along with America Rising, that was picked up by larger media organisations like Breitbart. Facebook_sentence_505

Facebook cut ties with the agency in late 2018, following public outcry over their association. Facebook_sentence_506

Transcribing user audio Facebook_section_42

On August 13, 2019, it was revealed that Facebook had enlisted hundreds of contractors to create and obtain transcripts of the audio messages of users. Facebook_sentence_507

This was especially common of Facebook Messenger, where the contractors frequently listened to and transcribed voice messages of users. Facebook_sentence_508

After this was first reported on by Bloomberg News, Facebook released a statement confirming the report to be true, but also stated that the monitoring program was now suspended. Facebook_sentence_509

Impact Facebook_section_43

Scope Facebook_section_44

A commentator in The Washington Post noted that Facebook constitutes a "massive depository of information that documents both our reactions to events and our evolving customs with a scope and immediacy of which earlier historians could only dream". Facebook_sentence_510

Especially for anthropologists, social researchers, and social historians—and subject to proper preservation and curation—the website "will preserve images of our lives that are vastly crisper and more nuanced than any ancestry record in existence". Facebook_sentence_511

Economy Facebook_section_45

Economists have noted that Facebook offers many non-rivalrous services that benefit as many users as are interested without forcing users to compete with each other. Facebook_sentence_512

By contrast, most goods are available to a limited number of users. Facebook_sentence_513

E.g., if one user buys a phone, no other user can buy that phone. Facebook_sentence_514

Three areas add the most economic impact: platform competition, the market place and user behavior data. Facebook_sentence_515

Facebook began to reduce its carbon impact after Greenpeace attacked it for its long-term reliance on coal and resulting carbon footprint. Facebook_sentence_516

Facebook provides a development platform for many social gaming, communication, feedback, review, and other applications related to online activities. Facebook_sentence_517

This platform spawned many businesses and added thousands of jobs to the global economy. Facebook_sentence_518

Zynga Inc., a leader in social gaming, is an example of such a business. Facebook_sentence_519

An econometric analysis found that Facebook's app development platform added more than 182,000 jobs in the U.S. economy in 2011. Facebook_sentence_520

The total economic value of the added employment was about $12 billion. Facebook_sentence_521

Society Facebook_section_46

See also: Social networking service § Social impact, Social impact of the Internet § Social networking and entertainment, and Social capital Facebook_sentence_522

Facebook was one of the first large-scale social networks. Facebook_sentence_523

In The Facebook Effect, David Kirkpatrick stated that Facebook's structure makes it difficult to replace, because of its "network effects". Facebook_sentence_524

As of 2016, it is estimated that 44 percent of the US population gets news through Facebook. Facebook_sentence_525

Emotional health Facebook_section_47

A 2020 experimental study in the American Economic Review found that deactivating Facebook led to increased subjective well-being. Facebook_sentence_526

Studies have associated social networks with positive and negative impacts on emotional health. Facebook_sentence_527

Studies have associated Facebook with feelings of envy, often triggered by vacation and holiday photos. Facebook_sentence_528

Other triggers include posts by friends about family happiness and images of physical beauty—such feelings leave people dissatisfied with their own lives. Facebook_sentence_529

A joint study by two German universities discovered that one out of three people were more dissatisfied with their lives after visiting Facebook, and another study by Utah Valley University found that college students felt worse about themselves following an increase in time on Facebook. Facebook_sentence_530

Professor Larry D. Rosen stated that teenagers on Facebook exhibit more narcissistic tendencies, while young adults show signs of antisocial behavior, mania and aggressiveness. Facebook_sentence_531

Positive effects included signs of "virtual empathy" towards online friends and helping introverted persons learn social skills. Facebook_sentence_532

In a blog post in December 2017, the company highlighted research that has shown "passively consuming" the News Feed, as in reading but not interacting, left users with negative feelings afterwards, whereas interacting with messages pointed to improvements in well-being. Facebook_sentence_533

Politics Facebook_section_48

For broader coverage of this topic, see Social media in politics. Facebook_sentence_534

Further information: Social media and political communication in the United States and Social media in the 2016 U.S. Presidential campaign Facebook_sentence_535

See also: WhatsApp § Hoaxes and fake news Facebook_sentence_536

In February 2008, a Facebook group called "One Million Voices Against FARC" organized an event in which hundreds of thousands of Colombians marched in protest against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). Facebook_sentence_537

In August 2010, one of North Korea's official government websites and the country's official news agency, Uriminzokkiri, joined Facebook. Facebook_sentence_538

During the Arab Spring many journalists claimed that Facebook played a major role in the 2011 Egyptian revolution. Facebook_sentence_539

On January 14, the Facebook page of "We are all Khaled Said" was started by Wael Ghoniem to invite the Egyptian people to "peaceful demonstrations" on January 25. Facebook_sentence_540

According to Mashable, in Tunisia and Egypt, Facebook became the primary tool for connecting protesters and led the Egyptian government to ban Facebook, Twitter and other websites on January 26 then ban all mobile and Internet connections for all of Egypt on January 28. Facebook_sentence_541

After 18 days, the uprising forced President Hosni Mubarak to resign. Facebook_sentence_542

In a Bahraini uprising that started on February 14, 2011, Facebook was utilized by the Bahraini regime and regime loyalists to identify, capture and prosecute citizens involved in the protests. Facebook_sentence_543

A 20-year-old woman named Ayat Al Qurmezi was identified as a protester using Facebook and imprisoned. Facebook_sentence_544

In 2011, Facebook filed paperwork with the Federal Election Commission to form a political action committee under the name FB PAC. Facebook_sentence_545

In an email to The Hill, a spokesman for Facebook said "Facebook Political Action Committee will give our employees a way to make their voice heard in the political process by supporting candidates who share our goals of promoting the value of innovation to our economy while giving people the power to share and make the world more open and connected." Facebook_sentence_546

During the Syrian civil war, the YPG, a libertarian army for Rojava recruited westerners through Facebook in its fight against ISIL. Facebook_sentence_547

Dozens joined its ranks. Facebook_sentence_548

The Facebook page's name "The Lions of Rojava" comes from a Kurdish saying which translates as "A lion is a lion, whether it's a female or a male", reflecting the organization's feminist ideology. Facebook_sentence_549

In recent years, Facebook's News Feed algorithms have been identified as a cause of political polarization, for which it has been criticized. Facebook_sentence_550

It has likewise been accused of amplifying the reach of 'fake news' and extreme viewpoints, as when it may have enabled conditions which led to the 2015 Rohingya refugee crisis. Facebook_sentence_551

Facebook first played a role in the American political process in January 2008, shortly before the New Hampshire primary. Facebook_sentence_552

Facebook teamed up with ABC and Saint Anselm College to allow users to give live feedback about the "back to back" January 5 Republican and Democratic debates. Facebook_sentence_553

Facebook users took part in debate groups on specific topics, voter registration and message questions. Facebook_sentence_554

Over a million people installed the Facebook application "US Politics on Facebook" in order to take part which measured responses to specific comments made by the debating candidates. Facebook_sentence_555

A poll by CBS News, UWIRE and The Chronicle of Higher Education claimed to illustrate how the "Facebook effect" had affected youthful voters, increasing voting rates, support of political candidates, and general involvement. Facebook_sentence_556

The new social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, connected hundreds of millions of people. Facebook_sentence_557

By 2008, politicians and interest groups were experimenting with systematic use of social media to spread their message. Facebook_sentence_558

By the 2016 election, political advertising to specific groups had become normalized. Facebook_sentence_559

Facebook offered the most sophisticated targeting and analytics platform. Facebook_sentence_560

ProPublica noted that their system enabled advertisers to direct their pitches to almost 2,300 people who expressed interest in the topics of "Jew hater," "How to burn Jews," or, "History of 'why Jews ruin the world". Facebook_sentence_561

Facebook has used several initiatives to encourage its users to register to vote and vote. Facebook_sentence_562

An experiment in 2012 involved showing Facebook users pictures of their friends who reported that they had voted; users who were shown the pictures were about 2% more likely to report that they had also voted compared to the control group, which was not encouraged to vote. Facebook_sentence_563

In 2020, Facebook announced the goal of helping four million voters register in the US, saying that it had registered 2.5 million by September. Facebook_sentence_564

The Cambridge Analytica data scandal offered another example of the perceived attempt to influence elections. Facebook_sentence_565

The Guardian claimed that Facebook knew about the security breach for two years, but did nothing to stop it until it became public. Facebook_sentence_566

Facebook banned political ads to prevent the manipulation of voters in the US's November’s election. Facebook_sentence_567

However, industry experts suggested that there are several other ways for misinformation to reach voters on social media platforms and blocking political ads will not serve as a proven solution to the problem. Facebook_sentence_568

India Facebook_section_49

Ahead of the 2019 general elections in India, Facebook has removed 103 pages, groups and accounts on Facebook and Instagram platforms originating from Pakistan. Facebook_sentence_569

Facebook said its investigation found a Pakistani military link, along with a mix of real accounts of ISPR employees, and a network of fake accounts created by them that have been operating military fan pages, general interest pages but were posting content about Indian politics while trying to conceal their identity. Facebook_sentence_570

Owing to the same reasons, Facebook also removed 687 pages and accounts of Congress because of coordinated inauthentic behavior on the platform. Facebook_sentence_571

Culture Facebook_section_50

Facebook and Zuckerberg have been the subject of music, books, film and television. Facebook_sentence_572

The 2010 film The Social Network, directed by David Fincher and written by Aaron Sorkin, stars Jesse Eisenberg as Zuckerberg and went on to win three Academy Awards and four Golden Globes. Facebook_sentence_573

In 2008, Collins English Dictionary declared "Facebook" as its new Word of the Year. Facebook_sentence_574

In December 2009, the New Oxford American Dictionary declared its word of the year to be the verb "unfriend", defined as "To remove someone as a 'friend' on a social networking site such as Facebook". Facebook_sentence_575

Internet.org Facebook_section_51

Main article: Internet.org Facebook_sentence_576

In August 2013, Facebook founded Internet.org in collaboration with six other technology companies to plan and help build affordable Internet access for underdeveloped and developing countries. Facebook_sentence_577

The service, called Free Basics, includes various low-bandwidth applications such as AccuWeather, BabyCenter, BBC News, ESPN, and Bing. Facebook_sentence_578

There was severe opposition to Internet.org in India, where the service started in partnership with Reliance Communications in 2015 was banned a year later by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI). Facebook_sentence_579

In 2018, Zuckerberg claimed that "Internet.org efforts have helped almost 100 million people get access to the internet who may not have had it otherwise." Facebook_sentence_580

See also Facebook_section_52

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facebook.