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A fanzine (blend of fan and magazine or -zine) is a non-professional and non-official publication produced by enthusiasts of a particular cultural phenomenon (such as a literary or musical genre) for the pleasure of others who share their interest. Fanzine_sentence_0

The term was coined in an October 1940 science fiction fanzine by Russ Chauvenet and first popularized within science fiction fandom, and from there it was adopted by other communities. Fanzine_sentence_1

Typically, publishers, editors, writers and other contributors of articles or illustrations to fanzines are not paid. Fanzine_sentence_2

Fanzines are traditionally circulated free of charge, or for a nominal cost to defray postage or production expenses. Fanzine_sentence_3

Copies are often offered in exchange for similar publications, or for contributions of art, articles, or letters of comment (LoCs), which are then published. Fanzine_sentence_4

Some fanzines are typed and photocopied by amateurs using standard home office equipment. Fanzine_sentence_5

A few fanzines have developed into professional publications (sometimes known as "prozines"), and many professional writers were first published in fanzines; some continue to contribute to them after establishing a professional reputation. Fanzine_sentence_6

The term fanzine is sometimes confused with "fan magazine", but the latter term most often refers to commercially produced publications for (rather than by) fans. Fanzine_sentence_7

Origin Fanzine_section_0

The origins of amateur fanac "fan" publications are obscure, but can be traced at least back to 19th century literary groups in the United States which formed amateur press associations to publish collections of amateur fiction, poetry and commentary, such as H. Fanzine_sentence_8 P. Lovecraft's United Amateur. Fanzine_sentence_9

As professional printing technology progressed, so did the technology of fanzines. Fanzine_sentence_10

Early fanzines were hand-drafted or typed on a manual typewriter and printed using primitive reproduction techniques (e.g., the spirit duplicator or even the hectograph). Fanzine_sentence_11

Only a very small number of copies could be made at a time, so circulation was extremely limited. Fanzine_sentence_12

The use of mimeograph machines enabled greater press runs, and the photocopier increased the speed and ease of publishing once more. Fanzine_sentence_13

Today, thanks to the advent of desktop publishing and self-publication, there is often little difference between the appearance of a fanzine and a professional magazine. Fanzine_sentence_14

Genres Fanzine_section_1

Science fiction Fanzine_section_2

Main article: Science fiction fanzines Fanzine_sentence_15

When Hugo Gernsback published the first science fiction magazine, Amazing Stories in 1926, he allowed for a large letter column which printed reader's addresses. Fanzine_sentence_16

By 1927 readers, often young adults, would write to each other, bypassing the magazine. Fanzine_sentence_17

Science fiction fanzines had their beginnings in Serious & Constructive (later shortened to sercon) correspondence. Fanzine_sentence_18

Fans finding themselves writing the same letter to several correspondents sought to save themselves a lot of typing by duplicating their letters. Fanzine_sentence_19

Early efforts included simple carbon copies but that proved insufficient. Fanzine_sentence_20

The first science fiction fanzine, The Comet, was published in 1930 by the Science Correspondence Club in Chicago and edited by Raymond A. Palmer and Walter Dennis. Fanzine_sentence_21

The term "fanzine" was coined by Russ Chauvenet in the October 1940 edition of his fanzine Detours. Fanzine_sentence_22

"Fanzines" were distinguished from "prozines," (a term Chauvenet also invented): that is, all professional magazines. Fanzine_sentence_23

Prior to that, the fan publications were known as "fanmags" or "letterzines". Fanzine_sentence_24

Science fiction fanzines used a variety of printing methods. Fanzine_sentence_25

Typewriters, school dittos, church mimeos and (if they could afford it) multi-color letterpress or other mid-to-high level printing. Fanzine_sentence_26

Some fans wanted their news spread, others reveled in the artistry and beauty of fine printing. Fanzine_sentence_27

The hectograph, introduced around 1876, was so named because it could produce (in theory) up to a hundred copies. Fanzine_sentence_28

Hecto used an aniline dye, transferred to a tray of gelatin, and paper would be placed on the gel, one sheet at a time, for transfer. Fanzine_sentence_29

Messy and smelly, the process could create vibrant colors for the few copies produced, the easiest aniline dye to make being purple (technically indigo). Fanzine_sentence_30

The next small but significant technological step after hecto is the spirit duplicator, essentially the hectography process using a drum instead of the gelatin. Fanzine_sentence_31

Introduced by Ditto Corporation in 1923, these machines were known for the next six decades as Ditto Machines and used by fans because they were cheap to use and could (with a little effort) print in color. Fanzine_sentence_32

The mimeograph machine, which forced ink through a wax paper stencil cut by the keys of a typewriter, was the standard for many decades. Fanzine_sentence_33

A second-hand mimeo could print hundreds of copies and (with more than a little effort) print in color. Fanzine_sentence_34

The electronic stencil cutter (shortened to "electrostencil" by most) could add photographs and illustrations to a mimeo stencil. Fanzine_sentence_35

A mimeo'd zine could look terrible or look beautiful, depending more on the skill of the mimeo operator than the quality of the equipment. Fanzine_sentence_36

Only a few fans could afford more professional printers, or the time it took them to print, until photocopying became cheap and ubiquitous in the 1970s. Fanzine_sentence_37

With the advent of computer printers and desktop publishing in the 1980s, fanzines began to look far more professional. Fanzine_sentence_38

The rise of the internet made correspondence cheaper and much faster, and the World Wide Web has made publishing a fanzine as simple as coding a web page. Fanzine_sentence_39

The printing technology affected the style of writing. Fanzine_sentence_40

For example, there were alphanumeric contractions which are actually precursors to "leet-speak". Fanzine_sentence_41

(A well-known example is the "initials" used by Forrest J. Ackerman in his fanzines from the 30s, and 40s, namely "4sj". Fanzine_sentence_42

Fans around the world knew Ackerman by three letters "4sj" or even two: "4e" for "Forry.") Fanzine_sentence_43

Fanspeak is rich with abbreviations and concatenations. Fanzine_sentence_44

Where teenagers labored to save typing on ditto masters, they now save keystrokes when text messaging. Fanzine_sentence_45

Ackerman invented nonstoparagraphing as a space-saving measure. Fanzine_sentence_46

When the typist comes to the end of a paragraph, they simply moved the platen down one line. Fanzine_sentence_47

Never commercial enterprises, most science fiction fanzines were (and many still are) available for "the usual," meaning that a sample issue will be mailed on request; to receive further issues, a reader sends a "letter of comment" (LoC) about the fanzine to the editor. Fanzine_sentence_48

The LoC might be published in the next issue; some fanzines consisted almost exclusively of letter columns, where discussions were conducted in much the same way as they are in internet newsgroups and mailing lists today, though at a relatively glacial pace. Fanzine_sentence_49

Often fanzine editors ("faneds") would simply swap issues with each other, not worrying too much about matching trade for trade, somewhat like being on one another's friends list. Fanzine_sentence_50

Without being closely connected with the rest of fandom, a budding faned could read fanzine reviews in prozines, and fanzines reviewed other fanzines. Fanzine_sentence_51

Recent technology has changed the speed of communication between fans and the technology available, but the basic concepts developed by science fiction fanzines in the 1930s can be seen online today. Fanzine_sentence_52

Blogs – with their threaded comments, personalized illustrations, shorthand in-jokes, wide variety in quality and wider variety of content—follow the structure developed in science fiction fanzines, without (usually) realizing the antecedent. Fanzine_sentence_53

Since 1937, science fiction fans have formed amateur press associations (APAs); the members contribute to a collective assemblage or bundle that contains contributions from all of them, called apazines and often containing mailing comments. Fanzine_sentence_54

Some APAs are still active, and some are published as virtual "e-zines," distributed on the Internet. Fanzine_sentence_55

Specific Hugo Awards are given for fanzines, fan writing and fanart. Fanzine_sentence_56

Media Fanzine_section_3

Media fanzines were originally merely a subgenre of SF fanzines, written by science fiction fans already familiar with apazines. Fanzine_sentence_57

The first media fanzine was a Star Trek fan publication called Spockanalia, published in September 1967 by members of the Lunarians. Fanzine_sentence_58

They hoped that fanzines such as Spockanalia would be recognized by the broader science-fiction fan community in traditional ways, such as a Hugo Award for Best Fanzine. Fanzine_sentence_59

All five of its issues were published while the show was still on the air, and included letters from D. Fanzine_sentence_60 C. Fontana, Gene Roddenberry, and most of the cast members, and an article by future Hugo and Nebula winner Lois McMaster Bujold. Fanzine_sentence_61

Many other Star Trek 'zines followed, then slowly zines appeared for other media sources, such as Starsky and Hutch, Man from U.N.C.L.E. Fanzine_sentence_62

and Blake's 7. Fanzine_sentence_63

By the mid-1970s, there were enough media zines being published that adzines existed just to advertise all of the other zines available. Fanzine_sentence_64

Although Spockanalia had a mix of stories and essays, most zines were all fiction. Fanzine_sentence_65

Like SF fanzines, these media zines spanned the gamut of publishing quality from digest-sized mimeos to offset printed masterpieces with four-color covers. Fanzine_sentence_66

Men wrote and edited most previous science fiction fanzines, which typically published articles reporting on trips to conventions, and reviews of books and other fanzines. Fanzine_sentence_67

Camille Bacon-Smith later stated that "One thing you almost never find in a science fiction fanzine is science fiction. Fanzine_sentence_68

Rather ... fanzines were the social glue that created a community out of a worldwide scattering of readers." Fanzine_sentence_69

Women published most media fanzines, which by contrast also included fan fiction. Fanzine_sentence_70

By doing so, they "fill the need of a mostly female audience for fictional narratives that expand the boundary of the official source products offered on the television and movie screen." Fanzine_sentence_71

In addition to long and short stories, as well as poetry, many media fanzines included illustrated stories, as well as stand alone art, often featuring portraits of the show or film's principal characters. Fanzine_sentence_72

The art could range from simple sketches, to reproductions of large elaborate works painted in oil or acrylic, though most are created in ink. Fanzine_sentence_73

In the late 1970s, fiction that included a sexual relationship between two of the male characters of the media source (first Kirk/Spock, then later Starsky/Hutch, Napoleon/Illya, and many others) started to appear in zines. Fanzine_sentence_74

This became known as slash from the '/' mark used in adzines to differentiate a K&S story (which would have been a Kirk and Spock friendship story) from a K/S story, which would have been one with a romantic or sexual bent between the characters. Fanzine_sentence_75

Slash zines eventually became their own sub-subgenre; in many fandoms you rarely saw slash and non-slash stories appear in the same zines. Fanzine_sentence_76

By 2000, when web publishing of stories became more popular than zine publishing, thousands of media fanzines had been published; over 500 of them were k/s zines. Fanzine_sentence_77

Another popular franchise for fanzines was the "Star Wars" saga. Fanzine_sentence_78

By the time the film "The Empire Strikes Back" was released in 1980 Star Wars fanzines had surpassed Star Trek zines in sales. Fanzine_sentence_79

An unfortunate episode in fanzine history occurred in 1981 when Star Wars director George Lucas threatened to sue fanzine publishers who distributed zines featuring the Star Wars characters in sexually explicit stories or art. Fanzine_sentence_80

Comics Fanzine_section_4

Comics were mentioned and discussed as early as the late 1930s in the fanzines of science fiction fandom. Fanzine_sentence_81

Famously, the first version of Superman (a bald-headed villain) appeared in the third issue of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's 1933 fanzine Science Fiction. Fanzine_sentence_82

In 1936, David Kyle published The Fantasy World , possibly the first comics fanzine. Fanzine_sentence_83

Malcolm Willits and Jim Bradley started The Comic Collector's News in October 1947. Fanzine_sentence_84

By 1952, Ted White had mimeographed a four-page pamphlet about Superman, and James Vincent Taurasi, Sr. issued the short-lived Fantasy Comics. Fanzine_sentence_85

In 1953, Bhob Stewart published The EC Fan Bulletin, which launched EC fandom of imitative EC fanzines. Fanzine_sentence_86

A few months later, Stewart, White and Larry Stark produced Potrzebie, planned as a literary journal of critical commentary about EC by Stark. Fanzine_sentence_87

Among the wave of EC fanzines that followed, the best-known was Ron Parker's Hoo-Hah!. Fanzine_sentence_88

After that came fanzines by the followers of Harvey Kurtzman's Mad, Trump and Humbug. Fanzine_sentence_89

Publishers of these included future underground comics stars like Jay Lynch and Robert Crumb. Fanzine_sentence_90

In 1960, Richard and Pat Lupoff launched their science fiction and comics fanzine Xero. Fanzine_sentence_91

In the second issue, "The Spawn of M.C. Fanzine_sentence_92

Gaines'" by Ted White was the first in a series of nostalgic, analytical articles about comics by Lupoff, Don Thompson, Bill Blackbeard, Jim Harmon and others under the heading, All in Color for a Dime. Fanzine_sentence_93

In 1961, Jerry Bails' Alter Ego, devoted to costumed heroes, f became a focal point for superhero comics fandom and is thus sometimes mistakenly cited as the first comics fanzine. Fanzine_sentence_94

Contacts through these magazines were instrumental in creating the culture of modern comics fandom: conventions, collecting, etc. Much of this, like comics fandom itself, began as part of standard science fiction conventions, but comics fans have developed their own traditions. Fanzine_sentence_95

Comics fanzines often include fan artwork based on existing characters as well as discussion of the history of comics. Fanzine_sentence_96

Through the 1960s, and 1970s, comic fanzines followed some general formats, such as the industry news and information magazine (The Comic Reader was one example), interview, history, and review-based fanzines, and the fanzines which basically represented independent comic book-format exercises. Fanzine_sentence_97

While perceived quality varied widely, the energy and enthusiasm involved tended to be communicated clearly to the readership, many of whom were also fanzine contributors. Fanzine_sentence_98

Prominent comics zines of this period included Alter Ego, The Comic Reader, and Rocket's Blast Comicollector, all started by Jerry Bails. Fanzine_sentence_99

During the 1970s, many fanzines (Squa Tront, as an example) also became partly distributed through certain comic book distributors. Fanzine_sentence_100

Prominent British comics fanzines of the 1970s and early 1980s included the long-running Fantasy Advertiser, Martin Lock's BEM, Richard Burton's Comic Media News, Alan Austin's Comics Unlimited, George Barnett's The Panelologist, and Richard Ashford's Speakaeasy. Fanzine_sentence_101

At times, the professional comics publishers have made overtures to fandom via 'prozines', in this case fanzine-like magazines put out by the major publishers. Fanzine_sentence_102

The Amazing World of DC Comics and the Marvel magazine FOOM began and ceased publication in the 1970s. Fanzine_sentence_103

Priced significantly higher than standard comics of the period (AWODCC was $1.50, FOOM was 75 cents), each house-organ magazine lasted a brief period of years. Fanzine_sentence_104

Since 2001 in Britain, there have been created a number of fanzines pastiching children's comics of the 1970s, and 1980s (e.g. Solar Wind, Pony School, etc.). Fanzine_sentence_105

These adopt a style of storytelling rather than specific characters from their sources, usually with a knowing or ironic twist. Fanzine_sentence_106

Horror film Fanzine_section_5

As with comics zines, horror film fanzines grew from related interest within science fiction fan publications. Fanzine_sentence_107

Trumpet, edited by Tom Reamy, was a 1960s SF zine that branched into horror film coverage. Fanzine_sentence_108

Alex Soma's Horrors of the Screen, Calvin T. Beck's Journal of Frankenstein (later Castle of Frankenstein) and Gary Svehla's Gore Creatures were the first horror fanzines created as more serious alternatives to the popular Forrest J Ackerman 1958 magazine Famous Monsters of Filmland. Fanzine_sentence_109

Gore Creatures began in 1961 and continues today as the prozine (and specialty publisher) Midnight Marquee. Fanzine_sentence_110

Garden Ghouls Gazette – a 1960s horror title under the editorship of Dave Keil, then Gary Collins—was eventually headed by the late Frederick S. Clarke (1949–2000) and in 1967 became the respected journal Cinefantastique. Fanzine_sentence_111

It later became a prozine under journalist-screenwriter Mark A. Altman and has continued as a webzine. Fanzine_sentence_112

Mark Frank's Photon—notable for the inclusion of an 8x10 photo in each issue—was another 1960s zine that lasted into the 1970s. Fanzine_sentence_113

Richard Klemensen's Little Shoppe of Horrors, having a particular focus on "Hammer Horrors," began in 1972 and is still publishing as of 2019. Fanzine_sentence_114

The Baltimore-based Black Oracle (1969–1978) from writer-turned-John Waters repertory member George Stover was a diminutive zine that evolved into the larger-format Cinemacabre. Fanzine_sentence_115

Stover's Black Oracle partner Bill George published his own short-lived zine The Late Show (1974–1976; with co-editor Martin Falck), and later became editor of the Cinefantastique prozine spinoff Femme Fatales. Fanzine_sentence_116

In the mid-1970s, North Carolina teenager Sam Irvin published the horror/science-fiction fanzine Bizarre which included his original interviews with UK actors and filmmakers; Irvin would later become a producer-director in his own right. Fanzine_sentence_117

Japanese Fantasy Film Journal (JFFJ) (1968–1983) from the late Greg Shoemaker (1947–2019) covered Toho's Godzilla and his Asian brethren when no other publications much cared. Fanzine_sentence_118

In 1993, G-FAN picked up where JFFJ left off, and reached its 100th regularly published issue in Fall 2012. Fanzine_sentence_119

FXRH (Special effects by Ray Harryhausen) (1971–1976) was a specialized zine co-created by future Hollywood FX artist Ernest D. Farino. Fanzine_sentence_120

Rock and roll Fanzine_section_6

By the mid-1960s, several fans active in science fiction and comics fandom recognized a shared interest in rock music, and the rock fanzine was born. Fanzine_sentence_121

Paul Williams and Greg Shaw were two such SF-fans turned rock zine editors. Fanzine_sentence_122

Williams' Crawdaddy! Fanzine_sentence_123

(1966) and Shaw's two California-based zines, Mojo Navigator (full title, "Mojo-Navigator Rock and Roll News") (1966) and Who Put the Bomp, (1970), are among the most important early rock fanzines. Fanzine_sentence_124

Crawdaddy! Fanzine_sentence_125

(1966) quickly moved from its fanzine roots to become one of the first rock music "prozines," with paid advertisers and newsstand distribution. Fanzine_sentence_126

Bomp remained a fanzine, featuring many writers who would later become prominent music journalists, including Lester Bangs, Greil Marcus, Ken Barnes, Ed Ward, Dave Marsh, Mike Saunders and R. Fanzine_sentence_127 Meltzer. Fanzine_sentence_128

Bomp featured cover art by Jay Kinney and Bill Rotsler, both veterans of SF and Comics fandom. Fanzine_sentence_129

Bomp was not alone; an August 1970 issue of Rolling Stone included an article about the explosion of rock fanzines. Fanzine_sentence_130

Other rock fanzines of this period include denim delinquent 1971, edited by Jymn Parrett, Flash, 1972, edited by Mark Shipper, Eurock Magazine (1973–1993) edited by Archie Patterson and Bam Balam, written and published by Brian Hogg in East Lothian, Scotland, beginning in 1974, and in the mid-1970s, Back Door Man. Fanzine_sentence_131

In the post-punk era several well-written fanzines emerged that cast an almost academic look at earlier, neglected musical forms, including Mike Stax' Ugly Things, Billy Miller and Miriam Linna's Kicks, Jake Austen's Roctober, Kim Cooper's Scram, P. Edwin Letcher's Garage & Beat, and the UK's Shindig! Fanzine_sentence_132

and Italy's Misty Lane. Fanzine_sentence_133

In the 1980s, with the rise of stadium superstars, many home-grown rock fanzines emerged. Fanzine_sentence_134

At the peak of Bruce Springsteen's megastardom following the Born in the U.S.A. album and Born in the U.S.A. Tour in the mid-1980s, there were no less than five Springsteen fanzines circulating at the same time in the UK alone, and many others elsewhere. Fanzine_sentence_135

Gary Desmond's Candy's Room, coming from Liverpool, was the first in 1980, quickly followed by Dan French's Point Blank, Dave Percival's The Fever, Jeff Matthews' Rendezvous, and Paul Limbrick's Jackson Cage. Fanzine_sentence_136

In the US, Backstreets Magazine started in Seattle in 1980 and still continues today as a glossy publication, now in communication with Springsteen's management and official website. Fanzine_sentence_137

In the late 1990s, notorious fanzines and e-zines flourished about electronic and post-rock music. Fanzine_sentence_138

Crème Brûlée fanzine was one of those that documented post-rock genre and experimental music. Fanzine_sentence_139

Punk Fanzine_section_7

Main article: Punk zine Fanzine_sentence_140

UK Fanzine_section_8

The punk subculture in the United Kingdom spearheaded a surge of interest in fanzines as a countercultural alternative to established print media. Fanzine_sentence_141

The first and still best known UK 'punk zine' was Sniffin' Glue, produced by Deptford punk fan Mark Perry. Fanzine_sentence_142

Sniffin' Glue ran for 12 photocopied issues; the first issue was produced by Perry immediately following (and in response to) the London debut of The Ramones on 4 July 1976. Fanzine_sentence_143

Other UK fanzines included Blam! Fanzine_sentence_144 , Bombsite, Wool City Rocker, Burnt Offering, Sideburns, Chainsaw, New Crimes, Vague, Jamming, Artcore Fanzine, Love and Molotov Cocktails, To Hell With Poverty, New Youth, Peroxide, ENZK, Juniper beri-beri, No Cure, Communication Blur, Rox, Grim Humour, Spuno , Cool Notes and Fumes. Fanzine_sentence_145

Of these, Tony Fletcher's Jamming was the most far reaching, becoming a nationally distributed mainstream magazine for several years before its demise. Fanzine_sentence_146

US Fanzine_section_9

In the US, Flipside and Slash were important punk zines for the Los Angeles scene, both debuting in 1977. Fanzine_sentence_147

In 1977 in Australia, Bruce Milne and Clinton Walker fused their respective punk zines Plastered Press and Suicide Alley to launch Pulp; Milne later went on to invent the cassette zine with Fast Forward, in 1980. Fanzine_sentence_148

Starting earlier, in 1976, Punk was published in New York and played a major part in popularizing punk rock (a term coined a few years earlier in Creem) as the term for the music and the bands being written about. Fanzine_sentence_149

Among later titles, Maximum RocknRoll is a major punk zine, with over 300 issues published. Fanzine_sentence_150

As a result, in part, of the popular and commercial resurgence of punk in the late 1980s, and after, with the growing popularity of such bands as Sonic Youth, Nirvana, Fugazi, Bikini Kill, Green Day and The Offspring, a number of other punk zines have appeared, such as Punk Planet, Razorcake, Tail Spins, Sobriquet, Profane Existence and Slug and Lettuce. Fanzine_sentence_151

The early American punkzine Search and Destroy eventually became the influential fringe-cultural magazine Re/Search. Fanzine_sentence_152

Some punk fanzines from the 80s, like No Class fanzine, and Ugly American are experiencing a second life by placing all past content online for free and adding new content. Fanzine_sentence_153

For the past 6 years, Suburban Rebels in Northern California has been leading the Punk zine way. Fanzine_sentence_154

Many of the punk zines were printed in small quantities and promoted the local scene. Fanzine_sentence_155

They were often cheaply photocopied and many never survived beyond a few issues. Fanzine_sentence_156

Their greatest contribution was in promoting punk music, clothing and lifestyle in their local communities. Fanzine_sentence_157

Punk bands and independent labels often sent records to the zines for review and many of the people who started the zines became critical connections for punk bands on tour. Fanzine_sentence_158

After the year 2000 Fanzine_section_10

In the UK Fracture and Reason To Believe were significant fanzines in the early 2000s, but both ended in late 2003. Fanzine_sentence_159

Rancid News filled the gap left by these two zines for a short while. Fanzine_sentence_160

On its tenth issue Rancid News changed its name to Last Hours with 7 issues published under this title before going on hiatus. Fanzine_sentence_161

Last Hours still operates as a webzine though with more focus on the anti-authoritarian movement than its original title. Fanzine_sentence_162

Artcore Fanzine (established in 1986) continues to this day, recently publishing a number of 30-year anniversary issues. Fanzine_sentence_163

There are many smaller fanzines in existence throughout the UK that focus on punk. Fanzine_sentence_164

Mark Wilkins and Mystic records Fanzine_section_11

Mark Wilkins, the promotion director for 1982 onwards US punk/thrash label Mystic Records, had over 450 US fanzines and 150 foreign fanzines he promoted to regularly. Fanzine_sentence_165

He and Mystic Records owner Doug Moody edited The Mystic News Newsletter which was published quarterly and went into every promo package to fanzines. Fanzine_sentence_166

Wilkins also published the highly successful Los Angeles punk humor zine Wild Times and when he ran out of funding for the zine syndicated some of the humorous material to over 100 US fanzines under the name of Mystic Mark. Fanzine_sentence_167

Italy Fanzine_section_12

In Perugia, Italy, Mazquerade ran from 1979 to 1981. Fanzine_sentence_168

In Basilicata, Italy, Raw Art Fanzine ran from 1995 to 2000. Fanzine_sentence_169

In Milano, Italy, Gorezilla ran from 1988 to 1991. Fanzine_sentence_170

Mod Fanzine_section_13

In the United Kingdom, the 1979 Mod revival, which was inspired by the 1960s Mod subculture, brought with it a burst of fresh creativity from fanzines, and for the next decade, the youth subculture inspired the production of dozens of independent publications. Fanzine_sentence_171

The most successful of the first wave was Maximum Speed, which successfully captured the frenetic world of a mod revival scene that was propelling bands like Secret Affair, Purple Hearts and The Chords into the UK charts. Fanzine_sentence_172

After the genre had started to go out of fashion with mainstream audiences in 1981, the mod revival scene went underground and successfully reinvented itself through a series of clubs, bands and fanzines that breathed fresh life into the genre, culminating in another burst of creative acceptance in 1985. Fanzine_sentence_173

This success was largely driven by the network of underground fanzines, the most important and far reaching of which were Extraordinary Sensations, produced by future radio DJ Eddie Piller, and Shadows & Reflections, published by future national magazine editor Chris Hunt. Fanzine_sentence_174

The latter in particular pushed back the boundaries of fanzine production, producing glossy, professionally written and printed publications at a time (1983–86) when most fanzines were produced via photocopier and letraset. Fanzine_sentence_175

Local music Fanzine_section_14

In the UK, there were also fanzines that covered the local music scene in a particular town or city. Fanzine_sentence_176

Mainly prevalent in the 1970s, and 1980s, all music styles were covered, whether the bands were playing rock, punk, metal, futurist, ska or dance. Fanzine_sentence_177

Featured were local gig reviews and articles that were below the radar of the mainstream music press. Fanzine_sentence_178

They were produced using the technology of the time, i.e. typewriter and Letraset. Fanzine_sentence_179

Examples include Bombsite Fanzine (Liverpool 1977), Wool City Rocker (Bradford 1979 – 1982), City Fun (Manchester), 1984, Spuno (Bath 1980) No Cure (Berkshire) and Town Hall Steps (Bolton) and more recently mono (fanzine), (Bradford) with many more across the country, such as Premonition Tapes Tapezine on cassette (Sheffield 1987) and Crime Pays (Liverpool 1988). Fanzine_sentence_180

Role-playing-game fanzines Fanzine_section_15

Another sizable group of fanzines arose in role-playing game (RPG) fandom, where fanzines allowed people to publish their ideas and views on specific games and their role-playing campaigns. Fanzine_sentence_181

In 1975, was released the apazine Alarums and Excursions. Fanzine_sentence_182

Role-playing fanzines allowed people to communicate in the 1970s, and 1980s with complete editorial control in the hands of the players, as opposed to the game publishers. Fanzine_sentence_183

These early RPG fanzines were generally typed, sold mostly in an A5 format (in the UK) and were usually illustrated with abysmal or indifferent artwork. Fanzine_sentence_184

A fanzine community developed and was based on sale to a reading public and exchanges by editor/publishers. Fanzine_sentence_185

Many of the pioneers of RPG got their start in, or remain part of, science fiction fandom. Fanzine_sentence_186

This is also true of the small but still active board game fandom scene, the most prolific subset of which is centered around play-by-mail Diplomacy. Fanzine_sentence_187

The UK fanzine Aslan (1988–1991) was responsible for popularization of freeform role-playing games in the UK. Fanzine_sentence_188

Video gaming Fanzine_section_16

Wargaming Fanzine_section_17

Several fanzines exist within the hobby of wargaming. Fanzine_sentence_189

Among them is Charge! Fanzine_sentence_190 , a leading international fanzine exclusively for miniature wargaming enthusiasts for the American Civil War period. Fanzine_sentence_191

Other fanzines support Warhammer and other popular rules sets. Fanzine_sentence_192

Sport Fanzine_section_18

The first association football fanzine is regarded as being Foul, a publication that ran between 1972 and 1976. Fanzine_sentence_193

In the UK, most Premier League or Football League football clubs have one or more fanzines which supplement, oppose and complement the club's official magazine or matchday programme. Fanzine_sentence_194

A reasonably priced 'zine has a guaranteed audience, as is the culture of passion in being a football fan. Fanzine_sentence_195

The longest running fanzine is The City Gent, produced by supporters of Bradford City FC, which first went on sale at Valley Parade in November 1984 and is now in its 26th season. Fanzine_sentence_196

Following close on its heels was Nike, Inc. which was first released in 1989. Fanzine_sentence_197

At the time it was not the first of its kind with Terrace Talk (York City), which was first published in November 1981 and Wanderers Worldwide (Bolton Wanderers) having already been established but since disappeared. Fanzine_sentence_198

In 1985 the emergent When Saturday Comes (a fanzine without a specific club focus that was subsequently launched as a mainstream magazine) promoted a 'fanzine movement' that gave birth to many more club titles during the late 1980s which was something of a glory period for fanzines. Fanzine_sentence_199

With the widespread availability of the Internet, much of the energy that was put into football fanzines subsequently went into the development of supporters' websites. Fanzine_sentence_200

Examples of other UK football fanzines include A Love Supreme (Sunderland), TOOFIF (Fulham), The Square Ball (Leeds United), 4,000 Holes (Blackburn Rovers) and War of the Monster Trucks (a Sheffield Wednesday fanzine named after a local TV station elected not to show the final scenes of an unlikely cup victory). Fanzine_sentence_201

The Queen's Park Rangers fanzine 'A Kick up the Rs' was first published in August 1987 and is still issuing an average of 10 issues per season. Fanzine_sentence_202

Fanzines are not exclusive to the top tiers of football however, with Northern Counties East League side Scarborough Athletic FC having a fanzine titled Abandon Chip! Fanzine_sentence_203 , a pun based on both the perilous situation of predecessor club Scarborough FC and that club's sponsors, McCain. Fanzine_sentence_204

And also away from the world of Football there were a number of established fanzines, for example Rugby league has such notable publications as Who The Hell Was St. George Anyway? Fanzine_sentence_205

Rugby League fanzine, by supporters of Doncaster RLFC and Scarlet Turkey of Salford City Reds.However, due to pressure from the Internet etc. these publications no longer exist in printed form. Fanzine_sentence_206

The title of World's longest running Rugby League fanzine now belongs to The Aye of the Tigers, by Castleford Tigers supporters. Fanzine_sentence_207

The fanzine movement has even spread to the United States, where ice hockey fans have produced several popular fanzines. Fanzine_sentence_208

In Chicago two examples include the formerly published Blue Line Magazine and currently The Committed Indian, both produced by Chicago Blackhawks fans. Fanzine_sentence_209

In St. Fanzine_sentence_210 Louis there are Game Night Revue and St Louis Game Time for the St. Fanzine_sentence_211 Louis Blues. Fanzine_sentence_212

There are also a number of fanzines to be found in Ireland of which Shelbourne's Red Inc. is the longest running since 1999. Fanzine_sentence_213

In the United States, sports fanzines are relatively rare. Fanzine_sentence_214

In Boston they are a bit more common. Fanzine_sentence_215

There are two fanzines sold outside Fenway Park including Yawkey Way Report, which is run by a former Marine. Fanzine_sentence_216

Recent developments Fanzine_section_19

With the increasing availability of the Internet in the late 20th and the early 21st century, the traditional paper zine has begun to give way to the webzine (or "e-zine") that is easier to produce and uses the potential of the Internet to reach an ever-larger, possibly global, audience. Fanzine_sentence_217

Nonetheless, printed fanzines are still produced, either out of preference for the format or to reach people who do not have convenient Web access. Fanzine_sentence_218

Online versions of approximately 200 science fiction fanzines will be found at Bill Burns' eFanzines web site, along with links to other SF fanzine sites. Fanzine_sentence_219

In addition zine festivals are held each year in American cities like Los Angeles, Chicago, and Brooklyn, as well as internationally in cities including Melbourne, Australia, and Glasgow, UK. Fanzine_sentence_220

See also Fanzine_section_20

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