Far-right politics

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Far-right politics, also referred to as the extreme right or right-wing extremism, are politics further on the right of the left–right political spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of extremist nationalism, nativist ideologies, and authoritarian tendencies. Far-right politics_sentence_0

Historically used to describe the experiences of fascism and Nazism, today far-right politics includes neo-fascism, neo-Nazism, the Third Position, the alt-right, white supremacism, white nationalism and other ideologies or organizations that feature aspects of ultranationalist, chauvinist, xenophobic, theocratic, racist, homophobic, transphobic, anti-communist, or reactionary views. Far-right politics_sentence_1

Far-right politics can lead to oppression, violence, forced assimilation, ethnic cleansing, and even genocide against groups of people based on their supposed inferiority, or their perceived threat to the native ethnic group, nation, state, national religion, dominant culture, or ultraconservative traditional social institutions. Far-right politics_sentence_2

Definition Far-right politics_section_0

The core of the far-right's worldview is organicism, the idea that society functions as a complete, organized and homogeneous living being. Far-right politics_sentence_3

Adapted to the community they wish to constitute or reconstitute (whether based on ethnicity, nationality, religion or race), the concept leads them to reject every form of universalism in favor of autophilia and alterophobia, or in other words the idealization of a "we" excluding a "they". Far-right politics_sentence_4

The far-right tends to absolutize differences between nations, races, individuals or cultures since they disrupt their efforts towards the utopian dream of the "closed" and naturally organized society, perceived as the condition to ensure the rebirth of a community finally reconnected to its quasi-eternal nature and re-established on firm metaphysical foundations. Far-right politics_sentence_5

As they view their community in a state of decay facilitated by the ruling elites, far-right members portray themselves as a natural, sane and alternative elite, with the redemptive mission of saving society from its promised doom. Far-right politics_sentence_6

They reject both their national political system and the global geopolitical order (including their institutions and values, e.g. political liberalism and egalitarian humanism) which are presented as needing to be abandoned or purged of their impurities, so that the "redemptive community" can eventually leave the current phase of liminal crisis to usher in the new era. Far-right politics_sentence_7

The community itself is idealized through great archetypal figures (the Golden Age, the savior, decadence and global conspiracy theories) as they glorify irrationalistic and non-materialistic values such as the youth or the cult of the dead. Far-right politics_sentence_8

Political scientist Cas Mudde argues that the far-right can be viewed as a combination of four broadly defined concepts, namely exclusivism (e.g. racism, xenophobia, ethnocentrism, or ethnopluralism), anti-democratic and non-individualist traits (e.g. cult of personality, hierarchism, monism, populism, anti-particracy, an organicist view of the state), a traditionalist value system lamenting the disappearance of historic frames of reference (e.g. law and order, the family, the ethnic, linguistic and religious community and nation as well as the natural environment) and a socioeconomic program associating corporatism, state control of certain sectors, agrarianism and a varying degree of belief in the free play of socially Darwinistic market forces. Far-right politics_sentence_9

Mudde then proposes a subdivision of the far-right nebula into moderate and radical leanings, according to their degree of exclusionism and essentialism. Far-right politics_sentence_10

Relying on those concepts, far-right politics includes yet is not limited to aspects of authoritarianism, anti-communism and nativism. Far-right politics_sentence_11

Claims that superior people should have greater rights than inferior people are often associated with the far-right, as they have historically favored a social Darwinistic or elitist hierarchy based on the belief in the legitimacy of the rule of a supposed superior minority over the inferior masses. Far-right politics_sentence_12

Regarding the socio-cultural dimension of nationality, culture and migration, one far-right position is the view that certain ethnic, racial or religious groups should stay separate and it is based on the belief that the interests of one's own group should be prioritized. Far-right politics_sentence_13

Modern debates Far-right politics_section_1

Terminology Far-right politics_section_2

According to Jean-Yves Camus and Nicolas Lebourg, the modern ambiguities in the definition of the "far-right" lie in the fact that the concept is generally used by political adversaries to "disqualify and stigmatize all forms of partisan nationalism by reducing them to the historical experiments of Italian Fascism [and] German National Socialism". Far-right politics_sentence_14

While the existence of such a political position is widely accepted among scholars, figures associated with the far-right rarely accept this denomination, preferring terms like "national movement" or "national right". Far-right politics_sentence_15

There is also debate about how appropriate the labels neo-fascist or neo-Nazi are. Far-right politics_sentence_16

In the words of Mudde, "the labels Neo-Nazi and to a lesser extent neo-Fascism are now used exclusively for parties and groups that explicitly state a desire to restore the Third Reich or quote historical National Socialism as their ideological influence". Far-right politics_sentence_17

One issue is whether parties should be labelled radical or extreme, a distinction that is made by the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany when determining whether or not a party should be banned. Far-right politics_sentence_18

An extremist party opposes liberal democracy and the constitutional order while a radical one accepts free elections and the parliament as legitimate structures. Far-right politics_sentence_19

After a survey of the academic literature, Mudde concluded in 2002 that the terms "right-wing extremism", "right-wing populism", "national populism", or "neo-populism" were often used as synonyms by scholars, in any case with "striking similarities", except notably among a few authors studying the extremist-theoretical tradition. Far-right politics_sentence_20

The label "radical right" is also used in the US tradition, although it has a broader meaning in America than in Europe. Far-right politics_sentence_21

Relation to right-wing politics Far-right politics_section_3

Another question is what the label "right" implies when it is applied to the extreme right, given the fact that many parties that were originally labeled right-wing extremist tended to advance neoliberal and free market agendas as late as the 1980s, but now advocate economic policies which are more traditionally associated with the left such as anti-globalization, nationalization and protectionism. Far-right politics_sentence_22

One approach, drawing on the writings of Norberto Bobbio, argues that attitudes towards political equality are what distinguish the left from the right and they therefore allow these parties to be positioned on the right of the political spectrum. Far-right politics_sentence_23

Aspects of far-right ideology can be identified in the agenda of some contemporary right-wing parties, in particular the idea that superior persons should dominate society while undesirable elements should be purged which in extreme cases resulted in genocides. Far-right politics_sentence_24

Charles Grant, director of the Centre for European Reform in London, has distinguished between fascism and right-wing nationalist parties which are often described as far-right such as the National Front in France. Far-right politics_sentence_25

Mudde notes that the most successful European far-right parties in 2019 were "former mainstream right-wing parties that have turned into populist radical right ones". Far-right politics_sentence_26

According to historian Mark Sedgwick, "[t]here is no general agreement as to where the mainstream ends and the extreme starts, and if there ever had been agreement on this, the recent shift in the mainstream would challenge it". Far-right politics_sentence_27

Proponents of the horseshoe theory interpretation of the left–right spectrum identify the far-left and the far-right as having more in common with each other as extremists than each of them has with centrists or moderates. Far-right politics_sentence_28

However, the horseshoe theory does not enjoy support within academic circles and has received criticism, including the view that it has been centrists who have supported far-right and fascist regimes that they prefer in power over socialist ones. Far-right politics_sentence_29

Nature of support Far-right politics_section_4

Jens Rydgren describes a number of theories as to why individuals support far-right political parties and the academic literature on this topic distinguishes between demand-side theories that have changed the "interests, emotions, attitudes and preferences of voters" and supply-side theories which focus on the programmes of parties, their organization and the opportunity structures within individual political systems. Far-right politics_sentence_30

The most common demand-side theories are the social breakdown thesis, the relative deprivation thesis, the modernization losers thesis and the ethnic competition thesis. Far-right politics_sentence_31

The rise of far-right political parties has also been viewed as a rejection of post-materialist values on the part of some voters. Far-right politics_sentence_32

This theory which is known as the reverse post-material thesis blames both left-wing and progressive parties for embracing a post-material agenda (including feminism and environmentalism) that alienates traditional working class voters. Far-right politics_sentence_33

Another study argues that individuals who join far-right parties determine whether those parties develop into major political players or whether they remain marginalized. Far-right politics_sentence_34

Early academic studies adopted psychoanalytical explanations for the far-right's support. Far-right politics_sentence_35

The 1933 publication The Mass Psychology of Fascism by Wilhelm Reich argued the theory that fascists came to power in Germany as a result of sexual repression. Far-right politics_sentence_36

For some far-right political parties in Western Europe, the issue of immigration has become the dominant issue among them, so much so that some scholars refer to these parties as "anti-immigrant" parties. Far-right politics_sentence_37

Intellectual history Far-right politics_section_5

Background Far-right politics_section_6

The French Revolution in 1789 created a major shift in political thought by challenging the established ideas supporting hierarchy with new ones about universal equality and freedom. Far-right politics_sentence_38

The modern left–right political spectrum also emerged during this period: democrats and proponents of universal suffrage were located on the left side of the elected French Assembly, while monarchists seated farthest to the right. Far-right politics_sentence_39

The strongest opponents of liberalism and democracy during the 19th century, such as Joseph de Maistre and Friedrich Nietzsche, were highly critical of the Revolution. Far-right politics_sentence_40

Those who advocated a return to the absolute monarchy during the 19th century called themselves "ultra-monarchists" and embraced a "mystic" and "providentialist" vision of the world where royal dynasties were seen as the "repositories of divine will". Far-right politics_sentence_41

The opposition to liberal modernity was based on the belief that hierarchy and rootedness are more important than equality and liberty, with the latter two being dehumanizing. Far-right politics_sentence_42

Emergence Far-right politics_section_7

In the French public debate following the Bolshevik Revolution, far right was used to describe the strongest opponents of the far left, i.e. those who supported the events occurring in Russia. Far-right politics_sentence_43

A number of thinkers on the far-right nonetheless claimed an influence from an anti-Marxist and anti-egalitarian definition of socialism, based on a military comradeship that rejected Marxist class analysis, and sometimes described by scholars as a form of "socialist revisionism". Far-right politics_sentence_44

They included Charles Maurras, Benito Mussolini, Arthur Moeller van den Bruck and Ernst Niekisch. Far-right politics_sentence_45

Those thinkers eventually split along nationalist lines from the original communist movement, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels contradicting nationalist theories with the idea that "the working men [had] no country". Far-right politics_sentence_46

The main reason for that ideological confusion can be found in the consequences of the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, which according to Swiss historian Philippe Burrin [] had completely redesigned the political landscape in Europe by diffusing the idea of an anti-individualistic concept of "national unity" rising above the right and left division. Far-right politics_sentence_47

As the concept of "the masses" was introduced into the political debate through industrialization and the universal suffrage, a new right-wing founded on national and social ideas began to emerge, what Zeev Sternhell has called the "revolutionary right" and a foreshadowing of fascism. Far-right politics_sentence_48

The rift between the left and nationalists was furthermore accentuated by the emergence of anti-militarist and anti-patriotic movements like anarchism or syndicalism, which shared even less similarities with the far-right. Far-right politics_sentence_49

The latter began to develop a "nationalist mysticism" entirely different from that on the left, and antisemitism turned into a credo of the far-right, marking a break from the traditional economic "anti-Judaism" defended by parts of the far-left, in favour of a racial and pseudo-scientific notion of alterity. Far-right politics_sentence_50

Various nationalist leagues began to form across Europe like the Pan-German League or the Ligue des Patriotes, with the common goal of a uniting the masses beyond social divisions. Far-right politics_sentence_51

Völkisch and revolutionary right Far-right politics_section_8

The Völkisch movement emerged in the late 19th century, drawing inspiration from German Romanticism and its fascination for a medieval Reich supposedly organized into a harmonious hierarchical order. Far-right politics_sentence_52

Erected on the idea of "blood and soil", it was a racialist, populist, agrarian, romantic nationalist and an antisemitic movement from the 1900s onward as a consequence of a growing exclusive and racial connotation. Far-right politics_sentence_53

They idealized the myth of an "original nation", that still could be found at their times in the rural regions of Germany, a form of "primitive democracy freely subjected to their natural elites". Far-right politics_sentence_54

Thinkers led by Arthur de Gobineau, Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Alexis Carrel and Georges Vacher de Lapouge distorted Darwin's theory of evolution to advocate a "race struggle" and an hygienist vision of the world. Far-right politics_sentence_55

The purity of the bio-mystical and primordial nation theorized by the Völkischen then began to be seen as corrupted by foreign elements, Jewish in particular. Far-right politics_sentence_56

Translated in Maurice Barrès' concept of "the earth and the dead", these ideas influenced the pre-fascist "revolutionary right" across Europe. Far-right politics_sentence_57

The latter had its origin in the fin de siècle intellectual crisis and, in the words of Fritz Stern, the deep "cultural despair" of thinkers feeling uprooted within the rationalism and scientism of the modern world. Far-right politics_sentence_58

It was characterized by a rejection of the established social order, with revolutionary tendencies and anti-capitalist stances, a populist and plebiscitary dimension, the advocacy of violence as a means of action and a call for individual and collective palingenesis. Far-right politics_sentence_59

Contemporary thought Far-right politics_section_9

The key thinkers of contemporary far-right politics are claimed by Mark Sedgwick to share four key elements, namely apocalyptism, fear of global elites, belief in Carl Schmitt's friend-enemy distinction and the idea of metapolitics. Far-right politics_sentence_60

The apocalyptic strain of thought begins in Oswald Spengler's The Decline of the West and is shared by Julius Evola and Alain de Benoist. Far-right politics_sentence_61

It continues in The Death of the West by Pat Buchanan as well as in the fears of Islamization of Europe. Far-right politics_sentence_62

Related to it is the fear of global elites, who are seen as responsible for the decline. Far-right politics_sentence_63

Ernst Jünger was concerned about rootless cosmopolitan elites, while de Benoist and Buchanan oppose the managerial state and Curtis Yarvin is against "the Cathedral". Far-right politics_sentence_64

Schmitt's friend-enemy distinction has inspired the French Nouvelle Droite idea of ethnopluralism which has become highly influential on the alt-right when combined with American racism. Far-right politics_sentence_65

In a 1961 book deemed influential in the European far-right at large, French neo-fascist writer Maurice Bardèche introduced the idea that fascism could survive the 20th century under a new metapolitical guise adapted to the changes of the times. Far-right politics_sentence_66

Rather than trying to revive doomed regimes with their single party, secret police or public display of Caesarism, Bardèche argued that its theorists should promote the core philosophical idea of fascism regardless of its framework, i.e. the concept that only a minority, "the physically saner, the morally purer, the most conscious of national interest", can represent best the community and serve the less gifted in what Bardèche calls a new "feudal contract". Far-right politics_sentence_67

Another influence on contemporary far-right thought has been the Traditionalist School which included Julius Evola and has influenced Steve Bannon and Aleksandr Dugin, advisors to Donald Trump and Vladimir Putin as well as the Jobbik party in Hungary. Far-right politics_sentence_68

History by country Far-right politics_section_10

Africa Far-right politics_section_11

Rwanda Far-right politics_section_12

A number of far-right extremist and paramilitary groups carried out the Rwandan genocide under the racist supremacist ideology of Hutu Power, developed by journalist and Hutu supremacist Hassan Ngeze. Far-right politics_sentence_69

On 5 July 1975, exactly two years after the 1973 Rwandan coup d'état the far-right National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (Mouvement républicain national pour la démocratie et le développement, or MRND) was founded under President Juvénal Habyarimana. Far-right politics_sentence_70

Between 1975 and 1991, the MRND was the only legal political party in the country. Far-right politics_sentence_71

It was dominated by Hutus, particularly from Habyarimana's home region of Northern Rwanda. Far-right politics_sentence_72

An elite group of MRND party members who were known to have influence on the President and his wife Agathe Habyarimana are known as the akazu, an informal organization of Hutu extremists whose members planned and lead the 1994 Rwandan genocide. Far-right politics_sentence_73

Interahamwe Far-right politics_section_13

Main article: Interahamwe Far-right politics_sentence_74

The Interahamwe was formed around 1990 as the youth wing of the MRND and enjoyed the backing of the Hutu Power government. Far-right politics_sentence_75

The Interahamwe were the main perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide, during which an estimated 500,000 to 1,000,000 Tutsi, Twa and moderate Hutus were killed from April to July 1994, and the term Interahamwe was widened to mean any civilian bands killing Tutsi. Far-right politics_sentence_76

The Interahamwe were driven out of Rwanda after Tutsi-led Rwandan Patriotic Front victory in the Rwandan Civil War in July 1994, and are considered a terrorist organisation by many African and Western governments. Far-right politics_sentence_77

The Interahamwe and splinter groups such as the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda continue to wage an insurgency against Rwanda from neighboring countries, where they are also involved in local conflicts and terrorism. Far-right politics_sentence_78

Coalition for the Defence of the Republic Far-right politics_section_14

Main article: Coalition for the Defence of the Republic Far-right politics_sentence_79

Other far-right groups and paramilitaries involved included the anti-democratic segregationist Coalition for the Defence of the Republic (CDR) which called for complete segregation of Hutus from Tutsis. Far-right politics_sentence_80

The CDR had a paramilitary wing known as the Impuzamugambi. Far-right politics_sentence_81

Together with the Interahamwe militia, the Impuzamugambi played a central role in the Rwandan genocide. Far-right politics_sentence_82

South Africa Far-right politics_section_15

Herstigte Nasionale Party Far-right politics_section_16

Main article: Herstigte Nasionale Party Far-right politics_sentence_83

The far-right in South Africa emerged as the Herstigte Nasionale Party (HNP) in 1969, formed by Albert Hertzog as breakaway from the predominant right-wing South African National Party, an Afrikaner ethno-nationalist party that implemented the racist, segregationist program of apartheid, the legal system of political, economic and social separation of the races intended to maintain and extend political and economic control of South Africa by the White minority. Far-right politics_sentence_84

The HNP was formed after the South African National Party re-established diplomatic relations with Malawi and legislated to allow Māori players and spectators to enter the country during the 1970 New Zealand rugby union team tour in South Africa. Far-right politics_sentence_85

The HNP advocated for a Calvinist, racially segregated and Afrikaans-speaking nation. Far-right politics_sentence_86

Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging Far-right politics_section_17

Main article: Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging Far-right politics_sentence_87

In 1973, Eugène Terre'Blanche, a former police officer founded the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (Afrikaner Resistance Movement), a South African neo-Nazi paramilitary organisation, often described as a white supremacist group. Far-right politics_sentence_88

Since its founding in 1973 by Eugène Terre'Blanche and six other far-right Afrikaners, it has been dedicated to secessionist Afrikaner nationalism and the creation of an independent Boer-Afrikaner republic in part of South Africa. Far-right politics_sentence_89

During negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa in the early 1990s, the organization terrorized and killed black South Africans. Far-right politics_sentence_90

Togo Far-right politics_section_18

Togo has been ruled by members of the Gnassingbé family and the far-right military dictatorship formerly known as the Rally of the Togolese People since 1969. Far-right politics_sentence_91

Despite the legalisation of political parties in 1991 and the ratification of a democratic constitution in 1992, the regime continues to be regarded as oppressive. Far-right politics_sentence_92

In 1993, the European Union cut off aid in reaction to the regime's human-rights offenses. Far-right politics_sentence_93

After's Eyadema's death in 2005, his son Faure Gnassingbe took over, then stood down and was re-elected in elections that were widely described as fraudulent and occasioned violence that resulted in as many as 600 deaths and the flight from Togo of 40,000 refugees. Far-right politics_sentence_94

In 2012, Faure Gnassingbe dissolved the RTP and created the Union for the Republic. Far-right politics_sentence_95

Human rights Far-right politics_section_19

Main article: Human rights in Togo Far-right politics_sentence_96

Throughout the reign of the Gnassingbé family, Togo has been extremely oppressive. Far-right politics_sentence_97

According to a United States Department of State report based on conditions in 2010, human rights abuses are common and include "security force use of excessive force, including torture, which resulted in deaths and injuries; official impunity; harsh and life-threatening prison conditions; arbitrary arrests and detention; lengthy pretrial detention; executive influence over the judiciary; infringement of citizens' privacy rights; restrictions on freedoms of press, assembly, and movement; official corruption; discrimination and violence against women; child abuse, including female genital mutilation (FGM), and sexual exploitation of children; regional and ethnic discrimination; trafficking in persons, especially women and children; societal discrimination against persons with disabilities; official and societal discrimination against homosexual persons; societal discrimination against persons with HIV; and forced labor, including by children." Far-right politics_sentence_98

Americas Far-right politics_section_20

Brazil Far-right politics_section_21

Prior to World War II, Nazis had been making and distributing propaganda among ethnic Germans in Brazil. Far-right politics_sentence_99

The Nazi regime built close ties with Brazil through the estimated 100 thousand native Germans and 1 million German descendants living in Brazil at the time. Far-right politics_sentence_100

In 1928, the Brazilian section of the Nazi Party was founded in Timbó, Santa Catarina. Far-right politics_sentence_101

This section reached 2,822 members and was the largest section of the Nazi Party outside Germany. Far-right politics_sentence_102

About 100 thousand born Germans and about one million descendants lived in Brazil at that time. Far-right politics_sentence_103

During the 1920s and 1930s, a local brand of religious fascism appeared known as integralism a green-shirted paramilitary organization with uniformed ranks, highly regimented street demonstrations and rhetoric against Marxism and liberalism. Far-right politics_sentence_104

After Germany's defeat in World War II, many Nazi war criminals fled to Brazil and hid among the German-Brazilian communities. Far-right politics_sentence_105

The most famous case was Josef Mengele, a doctor who became known as the "Angel of Death" at the Auschwitz concentration camp. Far-right politics_sentence_106

Mengele performed horrific medical experiments. Far-right politics_sentence_107

Mengele drowned in Bertioga, on the coast of São Paulo state, without ever having been recognized. Far-right politics_sentence_108

The far-right has continued to operate throughout Brazil and a number of far right parties existed in the modern era including Patriota, the Brazilian Labour Renewal Party, the Party of the Reconstruction of the National Order, the National Renewal Alliance and the Social Liberal Party as well as death squads such as the Command for Hunting Communists. Far-right politics_sentence_109

The current president of Brazil Jair Bolsonaro is a member of the Alliance for Brazil, a far-right nationalist political group that aims to become a political party. Far-right politics_sentence_110

Bolsonaro has been widely described by numerous media organizations as far-right. Far-right politics_sentence_111

Central American death squads Far-right politics_section_22

Main article: National Liberation Movement (Guatemala) Far-right politics_sentence_112

In Guatemala, the far-right government of Carlos Castillo Armas utilized death squads after coming to power in the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état. Far-right politics_sentence_113

Along with other far-right extremists, Castillo Armas started the National Liberation Movement (Movimiento de Liberación Nacional, or MLN). Far-right politics_sentence_114

The founders of the party described it as the "party of organized violence". Far-right politics_sentence_115

The new government promptly reversed the democratic reforms initiated during the Guatemalan Revolution and the agrarian reform program (Decree 900) that was the main project of president Jacobo Arbenz Guzman and which directly impacted the interests of both the United Fruit Company and the Guatemalan landowners. Far-right politics_sentence_116

Mano Blanca, otherwise known as the Movement of Organized Nationalist Action, was set up in 1966 as a front for the MLN to carry out its more violent activities, along with many other similar groups, including the New Anticommunist Organization and the Anticommunist Council of Guatemala. Far-right politics_sentence_117

Mano Blanca was active during the governments of colonel Carlos Arana Osorio and general Kjell Laugerud García and was dissolved by general Fernando Romeo Lucas Garcia in 1978. Far-right politics_sentence_118

Armed with the support and coordination of the Guatemalan Armed Forces, Mano Blanca began a campaign described by the United States Department of State as one of "kidnappings, torture, and summary execution". Far-right politics_sentence_119

One of the main targets of Mano Blanca was the Revolutionary Party, an anti-communist group that was the only major reform oriented party allowed to operate under the military-dominated regime. Far-right politics_sentence_120

Other targets included the banned leftist parties. Far-right politics_sentence_121

Human rights activist Blase Bonpane described the activities of Mano Blanca as being an integral part of the policy of the Guatemalan government and by extension the policy of the United States government and the Central Intelligence Agency. Far-right politics_sentence_122

Overall, Mano Blanca was responsible for thousands of murders and kidnappings, leading travel writer Paul Theroux to refer to them as "Guatemala's version of a volunteer Gestapo unit". Far-right politics_sentence_123

Death squads in El Salvador Far-right politics_section_23

Main article: Death squads in El Salvador Far-right politics_sentence_124

During the El Salvador Civil War, far-right death squads known in Spanish by the name of Escuadrón de la Muerte, literally "Squadron of Death, achieved notoriety when a sniper assassinated Archbishop Óscar Romero while he was saying Mass in March 1980. Far-right politics_sentence_125

In December 1980, three American nuns and a lay worker were gangraped and murdered by a military unit later found to have been acting on specific orders. Far-right politics_sentence_126

Death squads were instrumental in killing thousands of peasants and activists. Far-right politics_sentence_127

Funding for the squads came primarily from right-wing Salvadoran businessmen and landowners. Far-right politics_sentence_128

El Salvadorian death squads indirectly received arms, funding, training and advice during the Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush administrations. Far-right politics_sentence_129

Some death squads such as Sombra Negra are still operating in El Salvador. Far-right politics_sentence_130

Death squads in Honduras Far-right politics_section_24

Main article: Death squads in Honduras Far-right politics_sentence_131

Honduras also had far-right death squads active through the 1980s, the most notorious of which was Battalion 3–16. Far-right politics_sentence_132

Hundreds of people, teachers, politicians and union bosses were assassinated by government-backed forces. Far-right politics_sentence_133

Battalion 316 received substantial support and training from the United States through the Central Intelligence Agency. Far-right politics_sentence_134

At least nineteen members were School of the Americas graduates. Far-right politics_sentence_135

As of mid-2006, seven members, including Billy Joya, later played important roles in the administration of President Manuel Zelaya. Far-right politics_sentence_136

Following the 2009 coup d'état, former Battalion 3–16 member Nelson Willy Mejía Mejía became Director-General of Immigration and Billy Joya was de facto President Roberto Micheletti's security advisor. Far-right politics_sentence_137

Napoleón Nassar Herrera, another former Battalion 3–16 member, was high Commissioner of Police for the north-west region under Zelaya and under Micheletti, even becoming a Secretary of Security spokesperson "for dialogue" under Micheletti. Far-right politics_sentence_138

Zelaya claimed that Joya had reactivated the death squad, with dozens of government opponents having been murdered since the ascent of the Michiletti and Lobo governments. Far-right politics_sentence_139

Mexico Far-right politics_section_25

National Synarchist Union Far-right politics_section_26

Main article: National Synarchist Union Far-right politics_sentence_140

The largest far-right party in Mexico is the National Synarchist Union. Far-right politics_sentence_141

It was historically a movement of the Roman Catholic extreme right, in some ways akin to clerical fascism and falangism, implacably opposed to the left-wing and secularist policies of the Institutional Revolutionary Party and its predecessors that governed Mexico from 1929 to 2000 and 2012 to 2018. Far-right politics_sentence_142

United States Far-right politics_section_27

The term far-right, along with extreme right and ultra-right, has been used in the United States to describe "militant forms of insurgent revolutionary right ideology and separatist ethnocentric nationalism" such as Christian Identity, the Creativity Movement, the Ku Klux Klan, the National Socialist Movement and the National Alliance. Far-right politics_sentence_143

They share conspiracist views of power which are overwhelmingly antisemitic and reject pluralist democracy in favour of an organic oligarchy that would unite the perceived homogeneously-racial Völkish nation. Far-right politics_sentence_144

Radical right Far-right politics_section_28

Main article: Radical right (United States) Far-right politics_sentence_145

Starting in the 1870s and continuing through the late 19th century, numerous white supremacist paramilitary groups operated in the South, with the goal of organizing against and intimidating supporters of the Republican Party. Far-right politics_sentence_146

Examples of such groups included the Red Shirts and the White League. Far-right politics_sentence_147

The Second Ku Klux Klan, which was formed in 1915, combined Protestant fundamentalism and moralism with right-wing extremism. Far-right politics_sentence_148

Its major support came from the urban south, the midwest and the Pacific Coast. Far-right politics_sentence_149

While the Klan initially drew upper middle class support, its bigotry and violence alienated these members and it came to be dominated by less educated and poorer members. Far-right politics_sentence_150

The Klan claimed that there was a secret Catholic army within the United States loyal to the Pope, that one million Knights of Columbus were arming themselves and that Irish-American policemen would shoot Protestants as heretics. Far-right politics_sentence_151

They claimed that the Catholics were planning to take Washington and put the Vatican in power and that all presidential assassinations had been carried out by Catholics. Far-right politics_sentence_152

The prominent Klan leader D. Far-right politics_sentence_153 C. Stephenson believed in the antisemitic canard of Jewish control of finance, claiming that international Jewish bankers were behind the World War I and planned to destroy economic opportunities for Christians. Far-right politics_sentence_154

Other Klansmen in the Jewish Bolshevism conspiracy theory and claimed that the Russian Revolution and communism were controlled by Jews. Far-right politics_sentence_155

They frequently reprinted parts of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and New York City was condemned as an evil city controlled by Jews and Catholics. Far-right politics_sentence_156

The objects of the Klan fear tended to vary by locale and included African Americans as well as American Catholics, Jews, labour unions, liquor, Orientals and Wobblies. Far-right politics_sentence_157

They were also anti-elitist and attacked "the intellectuals", seeing themselves as egalitarian defenders of the common man. Far-right politics_sentence_158

During the Great Depression, there were a large number of small nativist groups, whose ideologies and bases of support were similar to those of earlier nativist groups. Far-right politics_sentence_159

However, proto-fascist movements such as Huey Long's Share Our Wealth and Charles Coughlin's National Union for Social Justice emerged which differed from other right-wing groups by attacking big business, calling for economic reform and rejecting nativism. Far-right politics_sentence_160

Coughlin's group later developed a racist ideology. Far-right politics_sentence_161

Although small militias had existed throughout the latter half of the 20th century, the groups became more popular during the early 1990s, after a series of standoffs between armed citizens and federal government agents such as the 1992 Ruby Ridge siege and 1993 Waco Siege. Far-right politics_sentence_162

These groups expressed concern for what they perceived as government tyranny within the United States and generally held constitutionalist and libertarian political views, with a strong focus on the Second Amendment gun rights and tax protest. Far-right politics_sentence_163

They also embraced many of the same conspiracy theories as predecessor groups on the radical right, particularly the New World Order conspiracy theory. Far-right politics_sentence_164

Currently active examples of such groups are the Oath Keepers and the Three Percenters. Far-right politics_sentence_165

A minority of militia groups such as the Aryan Nations and the Posse Comitatus were white nationalists and saw militia and patriot movements as a form of white resistance against what they perceived to be a liberal and multiculturalist government. Far-right politics_sentence_166

More recently, militia and patriot organizations were involved in the 2014 Bundy standoff and the 2016 occupation of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge. Far-right politics_sentence_167

After the September 11 attacks in 2001, the Counterjihad movement, supported by groups such as Stop Islamization of America and individuals such as Frank Gaffney and Pamela Geller, began to gain traction among the American right. Far-right politics_sentence_168

The Counterjihad members were widely dubbed Islamophobic for their vocal condemnation of the Islamic faith and their belief that there was a significant threat posed by Muslims living in America. Far-right politics_sentence_169

Its proponents believed that the United States was under threat from "Islamic supremacism", accusing the Council on American-Islamic Relations and even prominent conservatives such as Suhail A. Khan and Grover Norquist of supporting radical Islamists such as the Muslim Brotherhood. Far-right politics_sentence_170

The alt-right emerged during the 2016 election cycle in support of the Donald Trump presidential campaign. Far-right politics_sentence_171

It draws influence from paleoconservatism, paleolibertarianism, white nationalism, the manosphere and the Identitarian and neoreactionary movements. Far-right politics_sentence_172

The alt-right differs from previous radical right movements due to its heavy internet presence on sites such as 4chan. Far-right politics_sentence_173

Asia Far-right politics_section_29

Japan Far-right politics_section_30

Uyoku dantai Far-right politics_section_31

Main article: Uyoku dantai Far-right politics_sentence_174

In 1996, the National Police Agency estimated that there were over 1,000 extremist right-wing groups in Japan, with about 100,000 members in total. Far-right politics_sentence_175

These groups are known in Japanese as Uyoku dantai. Far-right politics_sentence_176

While there are political differences among the groups, they generally carry a philosophy of anti-leftism, hostility towards China, North Korea and South Korea and justification of Japan's role in World War II. Far-right politics_sentence_177

Uyoku dantai groups are well known for their highly visible propaganda vehicles fitted with loudspeakers and prominently marked with the name of the group and propaganda slogans. Far-right politics_sentence_178

The vehicles play patriotic or wartime-era songs. Far-right politics_sentence_179

Activists affiliated with such groups have used Molotov cocktails and time bombs to intimidate moderate politicians and public figures, including former Deputy Foreign Minister Hitoshi Tanaka and Fuji Xerox Chairman Yotaro Kobayashi. Far-right politics_sentence_180

An ex-member of a right-wing group set fire to Liberal Democratic Party politician Koichi Kato's house. Far-right politics_sentence_181

Koichi Kato and Yotaro Kobayashi had spoken out against Koizumi's visits to Yasukuni Shrine. Far-right politics_sentence_182

Openly revisionist, Nippon Kaigi is considered "the biggest right-wing organization in Japan". Far-right politics_sentence_183

Europe Far-right politics_section_32

Estonia Far-right politics_section_33

Estonia's most significant far-right movement waa the Vaps Movement. Far-right politics_sentence_184

Its ideological predecessor Valve Liit was found by Johan Pitka, and it was later banned for maligning the government. Far-right politics_sentence_185

Vaps begun as the "Union of Participants in the Estonian War of Independence" found in 1921. Far-right politics_sentence_186

Later activity in the organization died down, and the Tallin chapter of the organization and a number of smaller chapters formed "Organization of the Estonian Freedom Fighters"; the Vapsid. Far-right politics_sentence_187

The organization originally aimed to better the position of the veterans, but became politicized quickly and soon turned into a mass fascist movement. Far-right politics_sentence_188

In 1933 Estonians voted on Vaps' proposed changes to the constitution, such as empowering the role of the State Elder, and the changes were accepted with roughly 75% of Estonians voting in favor of the changes. Far-right politics_sentence_189

In Tallinn in 1933 Vaps wo 47 of the 87 seats in municipal council, in Tarto 33 out of 65. Far-right politics_sentence_190

1934 was an election year and Vaps candidate Andres Larka collected 62,000 votes for his election to the office of the State Elder while the incumbent Konstantin Päts collected meager 8,500. Far-right politics_sentence_191

The Vaps were also predicted to win supermajority in the Parliament. Far-right politics_sentence_192

However, the State Elder Konstantin Päts declared state of emergency and imprisoned the leadership of the Vaps. Far-right politics_sentence_193

In 1935, all political parties were banned. Far-right politics_sentence_194

In 1935, Vaps coup attempt was discovered, which lead to the banning of the Blues-and-Blacks, Finnish Patriotic People's Movement's youth wing that had been secretly aiding and arming them. Far-right politics_sentence_195

Mysterious death of the Vaps leader Artur Sirk followed soon, leading many to speculate he had been killed by Päts' agents. Far-right politics_sentence_196

The Blues-and-Blacks was reorganized as Blackshirts and continued operating in Finland unlike its fellow Estonian movement. Far-right politics_sentence_197

During the second world war, Estonian Self-Administration was a collaborationist pro-nazi government set up in Estonia, headed by Vaps member Hjalmar Mäe. Far-right politics_sentence_198

A governing Estonian party Conservative People's Party of Estonia been described as far-right. Far-right politics_sentence_199

The neo-nazi terrorist organisation Feuerkrieg Division was found and operates in the country. Far-right politics_sentence_200

Some members of the Conservative Party allegedly have links to the Feuerkrieg Division. Far-right politics_sentence_201

Croatia Far-right politics_section_34

Main article: Far-right politics in Croatia Far-right politics_sentence_202

Individuals and groups in Croatia that employ far-right politics are most often associated with the historical Ustaše movement, hence they have connections to neo-Nazism and neo-fascism. Far-right politics_sentence_203

That World War II political movement was an extremist organization at the time supported by the German Nazis and the Italian Fascists. Far-right politics_sentence_204

The association with the Ustaše has been called neo-Ustashism by Slavko Goldstein. Far-right politics_sentence_205

Finland Far-right politics_section_35

Far-right was strongest in Finland in 1920-1940 when Academic Karelia Society, Lapua Movement, Patriotic People's Movement and Vientirauha operated in the country and had hundreds of thousands of members. Far-right politics_sentence_206

In addition to these dominant far-right organizations, smaller nazi parties operated as well, such as the Finnish People's Organisation (Suomen Kansan Järjestö) with 20,000 members, led by Jäger-Captain Arvi Kalsta and the Blue Cross (Siniristi) with 12,000 members. Far-right politics_sentence_207

Even the Swedish-speaking Finns had their own nazi organisation, People's Community Society (Samfundet Folkgemenskap) led by admiral Hjalmar von Bonsdorff. Far-right politics_sentence_208

The groups exercised considerable political power, for example pressuring the government to outlaw communist parties and newspapers and expel freemasons from the armed forces. Far-right politics_sentence_209

The groups also attacked left-wing events and politicians systematically, resulting in deaths. Far-right politics_sentence_210

Minister of the Interior Heikki Ritavuori was assassinated for supposedly being too lenient towards communists. Far-right politics_sentence_211

Conservative and White Guard authorities supported the far-right to a large extent, for instance the social democrat politician Onni Happonen was arrested by police who then turned him over to a fascist lynch mob to be killed. Far-right politics_sentence_212

During the Cold War, all partied deemed "fascist" were banned according to the Paris Peace Treaties and all former fascist activists had to find new political homes. Far-right politics_sentence_213

Despite of Finlandization many continued in public life. Far-right politics_sentence_214

Yrjö Ruutu, the leader of a nazi party competing with the SKJ joined the Finnish People's Democratic League. Far-right politics_sentence_215

Juhani Konkka, the party secretary and editor-in-chief of the party newspaper "National Socialist" (Kansallissosialisti) abandoned politics and became an accomplished translator, receiving a cultural award of the Soviet Union. Far-right politics_sentence_216

Three former members of the Waffen SS served as ministers of defense; Sulo Suorttanen and Pekka Malinen, both officers in the Finnish SS Battalion and Mikko Laaksonen [], a soldier in the Maschinengewehr-Ski-Bataillon ”Finnland” consisting of pro-Nazi Finns who rejected the peace treaty. Far-right politics_sentence_217

During the Cold War, far-right activism was limited to small illegal groups like the clandestine nazi occultist group led by Pekka Siitoin who made headlines after arson and bombing of the printing houses of the Communist Party of Finland. Far-right politics_sentence_218

The Nordic Realm Party also had some supporters. Far-right politics_sentence_219

Member of the NRP Seppo Seluska was convicted of the torture and murder of a gay Jew. Far-right politics_sentence_220

The skinhead culture gained momentum during the late 1980s and peaked during the late 1990s. Far-right politics_sentence_221

In 1991, Finland received a number of Somali immigrants who became the main target of Finnish skinhead violence in the following years, including four attacks using explosives and a racist murder. Far-right politics_sentence_222

Asylum seeker centres were attacked, in Joensuu skinheads would force their way into an asylum seeker centre and start shooting with shotguns. Far-right politics_sentence_223

At worst somalis were assaulted by 50 skinheads at the same time. Far-right politics_sentence_224

The most prominent neo-nazi group Nordic Resistance Movement that is tied to multiple murders, attempted murders and assaults of political enemies was found in 2006 and proscribed in 2019. Far-right politics_sentence_225

The second biggest Finnish party, the Finns Party has been described as far-right. Far-right politics_sentence_226

The NRM along with other nationalist organizations organizes an annual torch march demonstration in Helsinki on the Finnish independence day, which ends at the Hietaniemi cemetery where members visit the tomb of Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim and the monument to the Finnish SS Battalion. Far-right politics_sentence_227

The event has been protested by antifascists, which has led to counterdemonstrators being violently assaulted by the NRM members who act as security. Far-right politics_sentence_228

The demonstration attracts close to 3000 participants according to the estimates of the police and hundreds of officers patrol Helsinki to prevent violent clashes. Far-right politics_sentence_229

The march has been attended and promoted by the Finns Party, and condemned by left-wing parties, for example Green League MP Iiris Suomela characterized it as "obviously neo-nazi" and expressed her disappointment in it being attended by such a large number of people. Far-right politics_sentence_230

France Far-right politics_section_36

Main article: History of far-right movements in France Far-right politics_sentence_231

The largest far-right party in Europe today is the French anti-immigration party National Rally, formally known as the National Front. Far-right politics_sentence_232

The party was founded in 1972, uniting a variety of French far-right groups under the leadership of Jean-Marie Le Pen. Far-right politics_sentence_233

Since 1984, it has been the major force of French nationalism. Far-right politics_sentence_234

Jean-Marie Le Pen's daughter Marine Le Pen was elected to succeed him as party leader in 2012. Far-right politics_sentence_235

Under Jean-Marie's leadership the party sparked outrage for hate speech, including Holocaust denial and Islamophobia. Far-right politics_sentence_236

Germany Far-right politics_section_37

Main article: Far-right politics in Germany (1945–present) Far-right politics_sentence_237

In 1945, the Allied powers took control of Germany and banned the swastika, Nazi Party and the publication of Mein Kampf. Far-right politics_sentence_238

Today, explicitly Nazi and neo-Nazi organizations are banned in Germany. Far-right politics_sentence_239

In 1960, the West German parliament voted unanimously to "make it illegal to incite hatred, to provoke violence, or to insult, ridicule or defame 'parts of the population' in a manner apt to breach the peace". Far-right politics_sentence_240

Today, German law outlaws anything that "approves of, glorifies or justifies the violent and despotic rule of the National Socialists". Far-right politics_sentence_241

Section 86a of the Strafgesetzbuch (Criminal Code) outlaws any "use of symbols of unconstitutional organizations" outside the contexts of "art or science, research or teaching". Far-right politics_sentence_242

The law primarily outlaws the use of Nazi symbols, flags, insignia, uniforms, slogans and forms of greeting. Far-right politics_sentence_243

Today, the German far-right consists of various small parties and two larger groups, namely Alternative for Germany and Pegida. Far-right politics_sentence_244

Greece Far-right politics_section_38

Metaxism Far-right politics_section_39

Main article: Metaxism Far-right politics_sentence_245

The far-right in Greece first came to power under the ideology of Metaxism, a proto-fascist ideology developed by dictator Ioannis Metaxas. Far-right politics_sentence_246

Metaxism called for the regeneration of the Greek nation and the establishment of an ethnically homogeneous state. Far-right politics_sentence_247

Metaxism disparaged liberalism, and held individual interests to be subordinate to those of the nation, seeking to mobilize the Greek people as a disciplined mass in service to the creation of a "new Greece". Far-right politics_sentence_248

The Metaxas government and its official doctrines are often to conventional totalitarian-conservative dictatorships such as Francisco Franco's Spain or António de Oliveira Salazar's Portugal. Far-right politics_sentence_249

The Metaxist government derived its authority from the conservative establishment and its doctrines strongly supported traditional institutions such as the Greek Orthodox Church and the Greek Royal Family; essentially reactionary, it lacked the radical theoretical dimensions of ideologies such as Italian Fascism and German Nazism. Far-right politics_sentence_250

Axis occupation of Greece and aftermath Far-right politics_section_40

Main article: Axis occupation of Greece Far-right politics_sentence_251

The Metaxis regime came to an end after the Axis powers invaded Greece. Far-right politics_sentence_252

The Axis occupation of Greece began in April 1941. Far-right politics_sentence_253

The occupation ruined the Greek economy and brought about terrible hardships for the Greek civilian population. Far-right politics_sentence_254

The Jewish population of Greece was nearly eradicated. Far-right politics_sentence_255

Of its pre-war population of 75–77,000, only around 11–12,000 survived, either by joining the resistance or being hidden. Far-right politics_sentence_256

Following the short-lived interim government of Georgios Papandreou, the far-right again seized power in Greece during the 1967 Greek coup d'état murdering Papandreou and replacing the interim government with the far-right, US backed Greek junta. Far-right politics_sentence_257

The Junta was a series of far-right military juntas that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. Far-right politics_sentence_258

The dictatorship was characterised by right-wing cultural policies, restrictions on civil liberties and the imprisonment, torture and exile of political opponents. Far-right politics_sentence_259

The junta's rule ended on 24 July 1974 under the pressure of the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, leading to the Metapolitefsi ("regime change") to democracy and the establishment of the Third Hellenic Republic. Far-right politics_sentence_260

Today, the dominant far-right party in Greece today is the neo-Nazi and Mataxist inspired Golden Dawn. Far-right politics_sentence_261

At the May 2012 Greek legislative election, Golden Dawn won a number of seats in the Greek parliament, the party received 6.92% of the vote. Far-right politics_sentence_262

Founded by Nikolaos Michaloliakos, Golden Dawn had its origins in the movement that worked towards a return to right-wing military dictatorship in Greece. Far-right politics_sentence_263

Following an investigation into the 2013 murder of Pavlos Fyssas, an anti-fascist rapper, by a supporter of the party, Michaloliakos and several other Golden Dawn parliamentarians and members were arrested and held in pre-trial detention on suspicion of forming a criminal organization. Far-right politics_sentence_264

The trial began on 20 April 2015 and is ongoing as of 2019. Far-right politics_sentence_265

Golden Dawn later lost all of its remaining seats in the Greek Parliament in the 2019 Greek legislative election. Far-right politics_sentence_266

A 2020 survey showed the party's popularity plummeting to just 1.5%, down from 2.9% in previous year's elections. Far-right politics_sentence_267

Hungary Far-right politics_section_41

The Kingdom of Hungary was an Axis power during World War II. Far-right politics_sentence_268

By 1944, Hungary was in secret negotiations with the Allies. Far-right politics_sentence_269

Upon discovering these secret negotiations Germany invaded Hungary in March 1944, effectively sabotaging the attempts to jump out of the war until the Budapest Offensive started later that same year. Far-right politics_sentence_270

Jobbik Far-right politics_section_42

Main article: Jobbik Far-right politics_sentence_271

Hungary's largest far-right organisation is the Movement for a Better Hungary, commonly known as Jobbik, a radical Hungarian nationalist party. Far-right politics_sentence_272

The party describes itself as "a principled, conservative and radically patriotic Christian party", whose "fundamental purpose" is the protection of "Hungarian values and interests". Far-right politics_sentence_273

In 2014, the party has been described as an "anti-Semitic organization" by The Independent and a "neo-Nazi party" by the president of the European Jewish Congress. Far-right politics_sentence_274

Italy Far-right politics_section_43

The far-right has maintained a continuous political presence in Italy since the fall of Mussolini. Far-right politics_sentence_275

The neo-fascist party Italian Social Movement (1946–1995), influenced by the previous Italian Social Republic (1943–1945), became one of the chief reference points for the European far-right from the end of World War II until the late 1980s. Far-right politics_sentence_276

Silvio Berlusconi and his Forza Italia party dominated politics from 1994. Far-right politics_sentence_277

According to some scholars, it gave neo-fascism a new respectability. Far-right politics_sentence_278

Caio Giulio Cesare Mussolini, great-grandson of Benito Mussolini, stood for the 2019 European Parliament election as a member of the far-right Brothers of Italy party. Far-right politics_sentence_279

In 2011, it was estimated that the neo-fascist CasaPound party had 5,000 members. Far-right politics_sentence_280

The name is derived from the fascist poet Ezra Pound. Far-right politics_sentence_281

It has also been influenced by the Manifesto of Verona, the Labour Charter of 1927 and social legislation of fascism. Far-right politics_sentence_282

There has been collaboration between CasaPound and the identitarian movement. Far-right politics_sentence_283

The European migrant crisis has become an increasingly divisive issue in Italy. Far-right politics_sentence_284

Interior Minister Matteo Salvini has been courting far-right voters. Far-right politics_sentence_285

His Northern League party has become an anti-immigrant, nationalist movement. Far-right politics_sentence_286

Both parties are using Mussolini nostalgia to further their aims. Far-right politics_sentence_287

Netherlands Far-right politics_section_44

Main article: Netherlands in World War II Far-right politics_sentence_288

Despite being neutral, the Netherlands was invaded by Nazi Germany on 10 May 1940 as part of Fall Gelb. Far-right politics_sentence_289

About 70% of the country's Jewish population were killed during the occupation, a much higher percentage than comparable countries such as Belgium and France. Far-right politics_sentence_290

Most of the south of the country was liberated in the second half of 1944. Far-right politics_sentence_291

The rest, especially the west and north of the country still under occupation, suffered from a famine at the end of 1944 known as the Hunger Winter. Far-right politics_sentence_292

On 5 May 1945, the whole country was finally liberated by the total surrender of all German forces. Far-right politics_sentence_293

Since the end of World War II, the Netherlands has had a number of small far-right groups and parties, the largest and most successful being the Party for Freedom lead by Geert Wilders. Far-right politics_sentence_294

Other far-right Dutch groups include the neo-Nazi Dutch Peoples-Union (1973–present), the Centre Party (1982–1986), the Centre Party '86 (1986–1998), the Dutch Block (1992–2000), New National Party (1998–2005) and the ultranationalist National Alliance (2003–2007). Far-right politics_sentence_295

Poland Far-right politics_section_45

Main article: Far-right politics in Poland Far-right politics_sentence_296

Following the collapse of Communist Poland, the far-right ideology became visible. Far-right politics_sentence_297

The pan-Slavic and neopagan Polish National Union political party at its peak was one of the larger groups active in the early 1990s, numbering then some 4,000 members and making international headlines for its antisemitism and anti-Catholicism. Far-right politics_sentence_298

The National Revival of Poland, being a marginal political party under the leadership of Adam Gmurczyk, operates since the late 1980s. Far-right politics_sentence_299

It is a member of European National Front and a co-founder of International Third Position. Far-right politics_sentence_300

The organization Association for Tradition and Culture "Niklot" was founded in 1998 by Tomasz Szczepanski, a former NOP member, promoting Slavic supremacy and neopaganism. Far-right politics_sentence_301

Since the mid-1990s, the ultra-Catholic Radio Maryja station has been on air with an anti-modernist, nationalist and xenophobic program. Far-right politics_sentence_302

All-Polish Youth and National Radical Camp were "recreated" in 1989 and 1993, respectively becoming Poland's most prominent far-right organizations. Far-right politics_sentence_303

In 1995, the Anti-Defamation League estimated the number of far-right and white power skinheads in Poland at 2,000, the fifth highest number after Germany, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the United States. Far-right politics_sentence_304

Since late 2000s, native white power skinhead, white supremacy and neo-Nazi groups largely were absorbed into more casual and better organized Autonomous Nationalists. Far-right politics_sentence_305

On the political level, the biggest victories achieved so far by the far-right were in the 2001, 2005, 2015 and 2019 elections. Far-right politics_sentence_306

The League of Polish Families won 38 seats in 2001, and 34 in 2005. Far-right politics_sentence_307

In 2015, entering parliament from the list of Kukiz'15, the far-right National Movement gained five seats out of Kukiz's forty-two. Far-right politics_sentence_308

In April 2016, the National Movement leadership decided to break-off with Kukiz's movement, but only one parliamentarian followed the party's instructions. Far-right politics_sentence_309

The ones that decided to stay with Kukiz'15, together with few other Kukiz's parliamentarians, formed parliamentary nationalist association called National Democracy (Endecja). Far-right politics_sentence_310

In 2019, the Confederation Liberty and Independence had the best performance of any far-right coalition to date, earning 1,256,953 votes which was 6.81% of the total vote in an election that saw a historically high turnout. Far-right politics_sentence_311

Together, the coalition (although de-jure a party) earned eleven seats, distributed as five for KORWiN, five for National Movement and one for Confederation of the Polish Crown. Far-right politics_sentence_312

Members of far-right groups make up a significant portion of those taking part in the annual Independence March in central Warsaw which started in 2009 to mark Independence Day. Far-right politics_sentence_313

About 60,000 were in the 2017 march marking the 99th anniversary of independence, with placards such as "Clean Blood" seen on the march. Far-right politics_sentence_314

Romania Far-right politics_section_46

Greater Romania Party Far-right politics_section_47

Main article: Greater Romania Party Far-right politics_sentence_315

The preimenant far-right party in Romania is the Greater Romania Party, founded in 1991 by Tudor, who was formerly known as a "court poet" of Communist dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu and his literary mentor, the writer Eugen Barbu, one year after Tudor launched the România Mare weekly magazine, which remains the most important propaganda tool of the PRM. Far-right politics_sentence_316

Tudor subsequently launched a companion daily newspaper called Tricolorul. Far-right politics_sentence_317

The historical expression Greater Romania refers to the idea of recreating the former Kingdom of Romania which existed during the interwar period. Far-right politics_sentence_318

Having been the largest entity to bear the name of Romania, the frontiers were marked with the intent of uniting most territories inhabited by ethnic Romanians into a single country and it is now a rallying cry for Romanian nationalists. Far-right politics_sentence_319

Due to internal conditions under Communist Romania after World War II, the expression's use was forbidden in publications until after the Romanian Revolution in 1989. Far-right politics_sentence_320

The party's initial success was partly attributed to the deep rootedness of Ceaușescu's national communism in Romania. Far-right politics_sentence_321

Both the ideology and the main political focus of the Greater Romania Party are reflected in frequently strongly nationalistic articles written by Tudor. Far-right politics_sentence_322

The party has called for the outlawing of the ethnic Hungarian party, the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, for allegedly plotting the secession of Transylvania. Far-right politics_sentence_323

Serbia Far-right politics_section_48

Main article: Far-right politics in Serbia Far-right politics_sentence_324

The far-right in Serbia mostly focuses on national and religious factors and it refers to any manifestation of far-right politics in the Republic of Serbia. Far-right politics_sentence_325

Today a large number of far-right groups operate in Serbia including the Serbian Radical Party, Serbian Party Oathkeepers, Leviathan Movement, Serbian Right and the explicitly neo-Nazi Nacionalni stroj (National Alignment). Far-right politics_sentence_326

Nacionalni stroj was banned in Serbia in 2012. Far-right politics_sentence_327

United Kingdom Far-right politics_section_49

Main article: Far-right politics in the United Kingdom Far-right politics_sentence_328

The British far-right rose out of the fascist movement. Far-right politics_sentence_329

In 1932, Oswald Mosley founded the British Union of Fascists (BUF) which was banned during World War II. Far-right politics_sentence_330

Founded in 1954 by A. Far-right politics_sentence_331 K. Chesterton, the League of Empire Loyalists became the main British far-right group at the time. Far-right politics_sentence_332

It was a pressure group rather than a political party, and did not contest elections. Far-right politics_sentence_333

Most of its members were part of the Conservative Party and were known for politically embarrassing stunts at party conferences. Far-right politics_sentence_334

Other fascist parties included the National Front (NF), the White Defence League and the National Labour Party who eventually merged to form the British National Party (BNP). Far-right politics_sentence_335

With the decline of the British Empire becoming inevitable, British far-right parties turned their attention to internal matters. Far-right politics_sentence_336

The 1950s had seen an increase in immigration to the UK from its former colonies, particularly India, Pakistan, the Caribbean and Uganda. Far-right politics_sentence_337

Led by John Bean and Andrew Fountaine, the BNP opposed the admittance of these people to the UK. Far-right politics_sentence_338

A number of its rallies such as one in 1962 in Trafalgar Square ended in race riots. Far-right politics_sentence_339

After a few early successes, the party got into difficulties and was destroyed by internal arguments. Far-right politics_sentence_340

In 1967 it joined forces with John Tyndall and the remnants of Chesterton's League of Empire Loyalists to form Britain's largest far-right organisation, the National Front (NF). Far-right politics_sentence_341

The BNP and the NF supported extreme loyalism in Northern Ireland, and attracted Conservative Party members who had become disillusioned after Harold Macmillan had recognised the right to independence of the African colonies and had criticised Apartheid in South Africa. Far-right politics_sentence_342

Some Northern Irish loyalist paramilitaries have links with far-right and neo-Nazi groups in Britain, including Combat 18, the British National Socialist Movement and the NF. Far-right politics_sentence_343

Since the 1990s, loyalist paramilitaries have been responsible for numerous racist attacks in loyalist areas. Far-right politics_sentence_344

During the 1970s, the NF's rallies became a regular feature of British politics. Far-right politics_sentence_345

Election results remained strong in a few working-class urban areas, with a number of local council seats won, but the party never came anywhere near winning representation in parliament. Far-right politics_sentence_346

Since the 1970s, the NF's support has been in decline whilst Nick Griffin and the BNP have grown in popularity. Far-right politics_sentence_347

Around the turn of the 21st century, the BNP won a number of councillor seats. Far-right politics_sentence_348

The party continued its anti-immigration policy and a damaging BBC documentary led to Griffin being charged with , although he was acquitted. Far-right politics_sentence_349

Oceania Far-right politics_section_50

Australia Far-right politics_section_51

Main article: Far-right politics in Australia Far-right politics_sentence_350

Coming to prominence in Sydney with the formation of the New Guard (1931) and the Centre Party (1933), the far-right has played a part in Australian political discourse since the second world war. Far-right politics_sentence_351

These proto-fascist groups were monarchist, anti-communist and authoritarian in nature. Far-right politics_sentence_352

Early far-right groups were followed by the explicitly fascist Australia First Movement (1941). Far-right politics_sentence_353

The far-right in Australia went on to acquire more explicitly racial connotations during the 1960s and 1970s, morphing into self-proclaimed Nazi, fascist and antisemitic movements, organisations that opposed non-white and non-Christian immigration such as the neo-Nazi National Socialist Party of Australia (1967) and the militant white supremacist group National Action (1982). Far-right politics_sentence_354

Since the 1980s, the term has mainly been used to describe those who express the wish to preserve what they perceive to be Judeo-Christian, Anglo-Australian culture and those who campaign against Aboriginal land rights, multiculturalism, immigration and asylum seekers. Far-right politics_sentence_355

Since 2001, Australia has seen the development of modern neo-Nazi, neo-fascist or alt-right groups such as the True Blue Crew, the United Patriots Front, Fraser Anning's Conservative National Party and the Antipodean Resistance. Far-right politics_sentence_356

New Zealand Far-right politics_section_52

A small number of far-right organisations have existed in New Zealand since World War II, including the Conservative Front, the New Zealand National Front and the National Democrats Party. Far-right politics_sentence_357

Far-right parties in New Zealand lack significant support, with their protests often dwarfed by counter protest. Far-right politics_sentence_358

After the Christchurch mosque shootings in 2019, the National Front "publicly shut up shop" and largely went underground like other far-right groups. Far-right politics_sentence_359

Fiji Far-right politics_section_53

Nationalist Vanua Tako Lavo Party Far-right politics_section_54

Main article: Nationalist Vanua Tako Lavo Party Far-right politics_sentence_360

The Nationalist Vanua Tako Lavo Party was a far-right political party which advocated Fijian ethnic nationalism. Far-right politics_sentence_361

In 2009, party leader Iliesa Duvuloco was arrested for breaching the military regime's emergency laws by distributing pamphlets calling for an uprising against the military regime. Far-right politics_sentence_362

In January 2013, the military regime introduced regulations that essentially de-registered the party. Far-right politics_sentence_363

Online Far-right politics_section_55

A number of far-right internet pages and forums are focused on and frequented by the far-right. Far-right politics_sentence_364

These include Stormfront and Iron March. Far-right politics_sentence_365

Stormfront Far-right politics_section_56

Main article: Stormfront (website) Far-right politics_sentence_366

Stormfront is the oldest and most prominent neo-Nazi website, described by the Southern Poverty Law Center and other media organizations as the "murder capital of the internet". Far-right politics_sentence_367

In August 2017, Stormfront was taken offline for just over a month when its registrar seized its domain name due to complaints that it promoted hatred and that some of its members were linked to murder. Far-right politics_sentence_368

The Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law claimed credit for the action after advocating for Stormfront's web host, Network Solutions, to enforce its Terms of Service agreement which prohibits users from using its services to incite violence. Far-right politics_sentence_369

Iron March Far-right politics_section_57

Main article: Iron March Far-right politics_sentence_370

Iron March was a fascist web forum, founded by Russian nationalist Alexander "Slavros" Mukhitdinov founded in 2011. Far-right politics_sentence_371

An unknown individual uploaded a database of Iron March users to the Internet Archive in November 2019 and multiple neo-Nazi users were identified, including an ICE detention center captain and several active members of the United States Armed Forces. Far-right politics_sentence_372

As of mid 2018, the Southern Poverty Law Center linked Iron March to nearly 100 murders. Far-right politics_sentence_373

Mukhitdinov remained a murky figure at the time of the leaks. Far-right politics_sentence_374

Right-wing terrorism Far-right politics_section_58

Main article: Right-wing terrorism Far-right politics_sentence_375

Right-wing terrorism is terrorism motivated by a variety of far right ideologies and beliefs, including anti-communism, neo-fascism, neo-Nazism, racism, xenophobia and opposition to immigration. Far-right politics_sentence_376

This type of terrorism has been sporadic, with little or no international cooperation. Far-right politics_sentence_377

Modern right-wing terrorism first appeared in western Europe in the 1980s and it first appeared in Eastern Europe following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Far-right politics_sentence_378

Right-wing terrorists aim to overthrow governments and replace them with nationalist or fascist-oriented governments. Far-right politics_sentence_379

The core of this movement includes neo-fascist skinheads, far-right hooligans, youth sympathisers and intellectual guides who believe that the state must rid itself of foreign elements in order to protect rightful citizens. Far-right politics_sentence_380

However, they usually lack a rigid ideology. Far-right politics_sentence_381

According to Cas Mudde, far-right terrorism and violence in the West have been generally perpetrated in recent times by individuals or groups of individuals "who have at best a peripheral association" with politically relevant organizations of the far-right. Far-right politics_sentence_382

Nevertheless, Mudde follows, "in recent years far-right violence has become more planned, regular, and lethal, as terrorists attacks in Christchurch (2019), Pittsburgh (2018), and Utøya (2011) show." Far-right politics_sentence_383

See also Far-right politics_section_59

Far-right politics_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Far-right politics.