Federal Bureau of Investigation

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"FBI" redirects here. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_0

For other uses, see FBI (disambiguation). Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_1

Federal Bureau of Investigation_table_infobox_0

Federal Bureau of InvestigationFederal Bureau of Investigation_header_cell_0_0_0
AbbreviationFederal Bureau of Investigation_header_cell_0_1_0 FBIFederal Bureau of Investigation_cell_0_1_1
MottoFederal Bureau of Investigation_header_cell_0_2_0 Fidelity, Bravery, IntegrityFederal Bureau of Investigation_cell_0_2_1
Agency overviewFederal Bureau of Investigation_header_cell_0_3_0
FormedFederal Bureau of Investigation_header_cell_0_4_0 July 26, 1908 (as the Bureau of Investigation)Federal Bureau of Investigation_cell_0_4_1
EmployeesFederal Bureau of Investigation_header_cell_0_5_0 35,104 (October 31, 2014)Federal Bureau of Investigation_cell_0_5_1
Annual budgetFederal Bureau of Investigation_header_cell_0_6_0 US$9.6 billion (FY 2019)Federal Bureau of Investigation_cell_0_6_1
Jurisdictional structureFederal Bureau of Investigation_header_cell_0_7_0
Federal agencyFederal Bureau of Investigation_header_cell_0_8_0 United StatesFederal Bureau of Investigation_cell_0_8_1
Operations jurisdictionFederal Bureau of Investigation_header_cell_0_9_0 United StatesFederal Bureau of Investigation_cell_0_9_1
General natureFederal Bureau of Investigation_header_cell_0_10_0 Federal Bureau of Investigation_cell_0_10_1
Operational structureFederal Bureau of Investigation_header_cell_0_11_0
HeadquartersFederal Bureau of Investigation_header_cell_0_12_0 J. Edgar Hoover Building

Washington, D.C., U.S.Federal Bureau of Investigation_cell_0_12_1

Agency executivesFederal Bureau of Investigation_header_cell_0_13_0 Federal Bureau of Investigation_cell_0_13_1
Parent agencyFederal Bureau of Investigation_header_cell_0_14_0 Department of Justice

Office of the Director of National IntelligenceFederal Bureau of Investigation_cell_0_14_1

WebsiteFederal Bureau of Investigation_header_cell_0_15_0

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States and its principal federal law enforcement agency. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_2

Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is also a member of the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_3 Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_4

A leading U.S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_5

Although many of the FBI's functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_6

Unlike the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), which has no law enforcement authority and is focused on intelligence collection abroad, the FBI is primarily a domestic agency, maintaining 56 field offices in major cities throughout the United States, and more than 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and areas across the nation. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_7

At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_8

Despite its domestic focus, the FBI also maintains a significant international footprint, operating 60 Legal Attache (LEGAT) offices and 15 sub-offices in U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_9 embassies and consulates across the globe. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_10

These foreign offices exist primarily for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not usually conduct unilateral operations in the host countries. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_11

The FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas, just as the CIA has a limited domestic function; these activities generally require coordination across government agencies. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_12

The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of Investigation, the BOI or BI for short. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_13

Its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 1935. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_14

The FBI headquarters is the J. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_15 Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, D.C. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_16

Budget, mission, and priorities Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_0

In the fiscal year 2019, the Bureau's total budget was approximately $9.6 billion. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_17

The FBI's main goal is to protect and defend the United States, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, and to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state, municipal, and international agencies and partners. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_18

Currently, the FBI's top priorities are: Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_19

Federal Bureau of Investigation_ordered_list_0

  1. Protect the United States from terrorist attacksFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_0_0
  2. Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionageFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_0_1
  3. Protect the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimesFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_0_2
  4. Combat public corruption at all levelsFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_0_3
  5. Protect civil rightsFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_0_4
  6. Combat transnational/national criminal organizations and enterprisesFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_0_5
  7. Combat major white-collar crimeFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_0_6
  8. Combat significant violent crimeFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_0_7
  9. Support federal, state, local and international partnersFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_0_8
  10. Upgrade technology to enable, and further, the successful performances of its missions as stated aboveFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_0_9

History Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_1

Background Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_2

In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, which provided agencies across the country with information to identify known criminals. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_20

The 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created a perception that the United States was under threat from anarchists. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_21

The Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, but President Theodore Roosevelt wanted more power to monitor them. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_22

The Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_23

It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the Oregon land fraud scandal at the turn of the 20th century. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_24

President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_25

Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_26 Secret Service, for personnel, investigators in particular. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_27

On May 27, 1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_28

Again at Roosevelt's urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, which would then have its own staff of special agents. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_29

Creation of BOI Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_3

The Bureau of Investigation (BOI) was created on July 26, 1908. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_30

Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including some veterans of the Secret Service, to work for a new investigative agency. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_31

Its first "Chief" (the title is now known as "Director") was Stanley Finch. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_32

Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_33

The bureau's first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the "White Slave Traffic Act" or Mann Act, passed on June 25, 1910. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_34

In 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_35

Creation of FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_4

The following year, 1933, the BOI was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition and rechristened the Division of Investigation (DOI); it became an independent service within the Department of Justice in 1935. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_36

In the same year, its name was officially changed from the Division of Investigation to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_37

J. Edgar Hoover as FBI Director Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_5

J. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_38 Edgar Hoover served as FBI Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, and FBI. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_39

He was chiefly responsible for creating the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, or the FBI Laboratory, which officially opened in 1932, as part of his work to professionalize investigations by the government. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_40

Hoover was substantially involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenure. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_41

But as detailed below, his proved to be a highly controversial tenure as Bureau Director, especially in its later years. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_42

After Hoover's death, Congress passed legislation that limited the tenure of future FBI Directors to ten years. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_43

Early homicide investigations of the new agency included the Osage Indian murders. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_44

During the "War on Crime" of the 1930s, FBI agents apprehended or killed a number of notorious criminals who committed kidnappings, bank robberies, and murders throughout the nation, including John Dillinger, "Baby Face" Nelson, Kate "Ma" Barker, Alvin "Creepy" Karpis, and George "Machine Gun" Kelly. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_45

Other activities of its early decades focused on the scope and influence of the white supremacist group Ku Klux Klan, a group with which the FBI was evidenced to be working in the Viola Liuzzo lynching case. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_46

Earlier, through the work of Edwin Atherton, the BOI claimed to have successfully apprehended an entire army of Mexican neo-revolutionaries under the leadership of General Enrique Estrada in the mid-1920s, east of San Diego, California. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_47

Hoover began using wiretapping in the 1920s during Prohibition to arrest bootleggers. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_48

In the 1927 case Olmstead v. United States, in which a bootlegger was caught through telephone tapping, the United States Supreme Court ruled that FBI wiretaps did not violate the Fourth Amendment as unlawful search and seizure, as long as the FBI did not break into a person's home to complete the tapping. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_49

After Prohibition's repeal, Congress passed the Communications Act of 1934, which outlawed non-consensual phone tapping, but did allow bugging. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_50

In the 1939 case Nardone v. United States, the court ruled that due to the 1934 law, evidence the FBI obtained by phone tapping was inadmissible in court. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_51

After the 1967 case Katz v. United States overturned the 1927 case that had allowed bugging, Congress passed the Omnibus Crime Control Act, allowing public authorities to tap telephones during investigations, as long as they obtained warrants beforehand. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_52

National security Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_6

Beginning in the 1940s and continuing into the 1970s, the bureau investigated cases of espionage against the United States and its allies. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_53

Eight Nazi agents who had planned sabotage operations against American targets were arrested, and six were executed (Ex parte Quirin) under their sentences. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_54

Also during this time, a joint US/UK code-breaking effort called "The Venona Project"—with which the FBI was heavily involved—broke Soviet diplomatic and intelligence communications codes, allowing the US and British governments to read Soviet communications. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_55

This effort confirmed the existence of Americans working in the United States for Soviet intelligence. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_56

Hoover was administering this project, but he failed to notify the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of it until 1952. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_57

Another notable case was the arrest of Soviet spy Rudolf Abel in 1957. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_58

The discovery of Soviet spies operating in the US allowed Hoover to pursue his longstanding obsession with the threat he perceived from the American Left, ranging from Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) union organizers to American liberals. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_59

Japanese American internment Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_7

In 1939, the Bureau began compiling a custodial detention list with the names of those who would be taken into custody in the event of war with Axis nations. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_60

The majority of the names on the list belonged to Issei community leaders, as the FBI investigation built on an existing Naval Intelligence index that had focused on Japanese Americans in Hawaii and the West Coast, but many German and Italian nationals also found their way onto the FBI Index list. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_61

Robert Shivers, head of the Honolulu office, obtained permission from Hoover to start detaining those on the list on December 7, 1941, while bombs were still falling over Pearl Harbor. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_62

Mass arrests and searches of homes (in most cases conducted without warrants) began a few hours after the attack, and over the next several weeks more than 5,500 Issei men were taken into FBI custody. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_63

On February 19, 1942, President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, authorizing the removal of Japanese Americans from the West Coast. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_64

FBI Director Hoover opposed the subsequent mass removal and confinement of Japanese Americans authorized under Executive Order 9066, but Roosevelt prevailed. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_65

The vast majority went along with the subsequent exclusion orders, but in a handful of cases where Japanese Americans refused to obey the new military regulations, FBI agents handled their arrests. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_66

The Bureau continued surveillance on Japanese Americans throughout the war, conducting background checks on applicants for resettlement outside camp, and entering the camps (usually without the permission of War Relocation Authority officials) and grooming informants to monitor dissidents and "troublemakers." Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_67

After the war, the FBI was assigned to protect returning Japanese Americans from attacks by hostile white communities. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_68

Sex deviates program Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_8

According to Douglas M. Charles, the FBI's "sex deviates" program began on April 10, 1950, when J. Edgar Hoover forwarded to the White House, to the U.S. Civil Service Commission, and to branches of the armed services a list of 393 alleged federal employees who had allegedly been arrested in Washington, D.C., since 1947, on charges of "sexual irregularities". Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_69

On June 20, 1951, Hoover expanded the program by issuing a memo establishing a "uniform policy for the handling of the increasing number of reports and allegations concerning present and past employees of the United States Government who assertedly [sic] are sex deviates." Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_70

The program was expanded to include non-government jobs. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_71

According to Athan Theoharis, "In 1951 he [Hoover] had unilaterally instituted a Sex Deviates program to purge alleged homosexuals from any position in the federal government, from the lowliest clerk to the more powerful position of White house aide." Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_72

On May 27, 1953, Executive Order 10450 went into effect. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_73

The program was expanded further by this executive order by making all federal employment of homosexuals illegal. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_74

On July 8, 1953, the FBI forwarded to the U.S. Civil Service Commission information from the sex deviates program. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_75

In 1977–1978, 300,000 pages, collected between 1930 and the mid-1970s, in the sex deviates program were destroyed by FBI officials. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_76

Civil rights movement Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_9

During the 1950s and 1960s, FBI officials became increasingly concerned about the influence of civil rights leaders, whom they believed either had communist ties or were unduly influenced by communists or "fellow travellers." Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_77

In 1956, for example, Hoover sent an open letter denouncing Dr. T. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_78 R. M. Howard, a civil rights leader, surgeon, and wealthy entrepreneur in Mississippi who had criticized FBI inaction in solving recent murders of George W. Lee, Emmett Till, and other blacks in the South. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_79

The FBI carried out controversial domestic surveillance in an operation it called the COINTELPRO, from "COunter-INTELligence PROgram." Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_80

It was to investigate and disrupt the activities of dissident political organizations within the United States, including both militant and non-violent organizations. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_81

Among its targets was the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, a leading civil rights organization whose clergy leadership included the Rev. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_82

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., who is addressed in more detail below. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_83

The FBI frequently investigated King. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_84

In the mid-1960s, King began to criticize the Bureau for giving insufficient attention to the use of terrorism by white supremacists. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_85

Hoover responded by publicly calling King the most "notorious liar" in the United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_86

In his 1991 memoir, Washington Post journalist Carl Rowan asserted that the FBI had sent at least one anonymous letter to King encouraging him to commit suicide. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_87

Historian Taylor Branch documents an anonymous November 1964 "suicide package" sent by the Bureau that combined a letter to the civil rights leader telling him "You are done. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_88

There is only one way out for you." Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_89

with audio recordings of King's sexual indiscretions. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_90

In March 1971, the residential office of an FBI agent in Media, Pennsylvania was burgled by a group calling itself the Citizens' Commission to Investigate the FBI. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_91

Numerous files were taken and distributed to a range of newspapers, including The Harvard Crimson. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_92

The files detailed the FBI's extensive COINTELPRO program, which included investigations into lives of ordinary citizens—including a black student group at a Pennsylvania military college and the daughter of Congressman Henry S. Reuss of Wisconsin. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_93

The country was "jolted" by the revelations, which included assassinations of political activists, and the actions were denounced by members of the Congress, including House Majority Leader Hale Boggs. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_94

The phones of some members of the Congress, including Boggs, had allegedly been tapped. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_95

Kennedy's assassination Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_10

When President John F. Kennedy was shot and killed, the jurisdiction fell to the local police departments until President Lyndon B. Johnson directed the FBI to take over the investigation. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_96

To ensure clarity about the responsibility for investigation of homicides of federal officials, the Congress passed a law that included investigations of such deaths of federal officials, especially by homicide, within FBI jurisdiction. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_97

This new law was passed in 1965. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_98

Organized crime Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_11

In response to organized crime, on August 25, 1953, the FBI created the Top Hoodlum Program. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_99

The national office directed field offices to gather information on mobsters in their territories and to report it regularly to Washington for a centralized collection of intelligence on racketeers. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_100

After the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, or RICO Act, took effect, the FBI began investigating the former Prohibition-organized groups, which had become fronts for crime in major cities and small towns. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_101

All of the FBI work was done undercover and from within these organizations, using the provisions provided in the RICO Act. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_102

Gradually the agency dismantled many of the groups. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_103

Although Hoover initially denied the existence of a National Crime Syndicate in the United States, the Bureau later conducted operations against known organized crime syndicates and families, including those headed by Sam Giancana and John Gotti. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_104

The RICO Act is still used today for all organized crime and any individuals who may fall under the Act's provisions. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_105

In 2003, a congressional committee called the FBI's organized crime informant program "one of the greatest failures in the history of federal law enforcement." Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_106

The FBI allowed four innocent men to be convicted of the March 1965 gangland murder of Edward "Teddy" Deegan in order to protect Vincent Flemmi, an FBI informant. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_107

Three of the men were sentenced to death (which was later reduced to life in prison), and the fourth defendant was sentenced to life in prison. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_108

Two of the four men died in prison after serving almost 30 years, and two others were released after serving 32 and 36 years. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_109

In July 2007, U.S. District Judge Nancy Gertner in Boston found that the Bureau had helped convict the four men using false witness accounts given by mobster Joseph Barboza. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_110

The U.S. Government was ordered to pay $100 million in damages to the four defendants. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_111

Special FBI teams Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_12

In 1982, the FBI formed an elite unit to help with problems that might arise at the 1984 Summer Olympics to be held in Los Angeles, particularly terrorism and major-crime. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_112

This was a result of the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany, when terrorists murdered the Israeli athletes. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_113

Named the Hostage Rescue Team, or HRT, it acts as a dedicated FBI SWAT team dealing primarily with counter-terrorism scenarios. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_114

Unlike the Special Agents serving on local FBI SWAT teams, HRT does not conduct investigations. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_115

Instead, HRT focuses solely on additional tactical proficiency and capabilities. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_116

Also formed in 1984 was the Computer Analysis and Response Team, or CART. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_117

From the end of the 1980s to the early 1990s, the FBI reassigned more than 300 agents from foreign counter-intelligence duties to violent crime, and made violent crime the sixth national priority. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_118

With cuts to other well-established departments, and because terrorism was no longer considered a threat after the end of the Cold War, the FBI assisted local and state police forces in tracking fugitives who had crossed state lines, which is a federal offense. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_119

The FBI Laboratory helped develop DNA testing, continuing its pioneering role in identification that began with its fingerprinting system in 1924. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_120

Notable efforts in the 1990s Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_13

On May 1, 1992, FBI SWAT and HRT personnel in Los Angeles County, California aided local officials in securing peace within the area during the 1992 Los Angeles riots. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_121

HRT operators, for instance, spent 10 days conducting vehicle-mounted patrols throughout Los Angeles, before returning to Virginia. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_122

Between 1993 and 1996, the FBI increased its counter-terrorism role following the first 1993 World Trade Center bombing in New York City, the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, and the arrest of the Unabomber in 1996. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_123

Technological innovation and the skills of FBI Laboratory analysts helped ensure that the three cases were successfully prosecuted. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_124

However, Justice Department investigations into the FBI's roles in the Ruby Ridge and Waco incidents were found to have been obstructed by agents within the Bureau. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_125

During the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, the FBI was criticized for its investigation of the Centennial Olympic Park bombing. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_126

It has settled a dispute with Richard Jewell, who was a private security guard at the venue, along with some media organizations, in regard to the leaking of his name during the investigation; this had briefly led to his being wrongly suspected of the bombing. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_127

After Congress passed the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA, 1994), the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA, 1996), and the Economic Espionage Act (EEA, 1996), the FBI followed suit and underwent a technological upgrade in 1998, just as it did with its CART team in 1991. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_128

Computer Investigations and Infrastructure Threat Assessment Center (CITAC) and the National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC) were created to deal with the increase in Internet-related problems, such as computer viruses, worms, and other malicious programs that threatened U.S. operations. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_129

With these developments, the FBI increased its electronic surveillance in public safety and national security investigations, adapting to the telecommunications advancements that changed the nature of such problems. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_130

September 11 attacks Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_14

During the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center, FBI agent Leonard W. Hatton Jr. was killed during the rescue effort while helping the rescue personnel evacuate the occupants of the South Tower, and he stayed when it collapsed. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_131

Within months after the attacks, FBI Director Robert Mueller, who had been sworn in a week before the attacks, called for a re-engineering of FBI structure and operations. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_132

He made countering every federal crime a top priority, including the prevention of terrorism, countering foreign intelligence operations, addressing cybersecurity threats, other high-tech crimes, protecting civil rights, combating public corruption, organized crime, white-collar crime, and major acts of violent crime. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_133

In February 2001, Robert Hanssen was caught selling information to the Russian government. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_134

It was later learned that Hanssen, who had reached a high position within the FBI, had been selling intelligence since as early as 1979. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_135

He pleaded guilty to espionage and received a life sentence in 2002, but the incident led many to question the security practices employed by the FBI. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_136

There was also a claim that Hanssen might have contributed information that led to the September 11, 2001 attacks. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_137

The 9/11 Commission's final report on July 22, 2004, stated that the FBI and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) were both partially to blame for not pursuing intelligence reports that could have prevented the September 11 attacks. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_138

In its most damning assessment, the report concluded that the country had "not been well served" by either agency and listed numerous recommendations for changes within the FBI. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_139

While the FBI did accede to most of the recommendations, including oversight by the new Director of National Intelligence, some former members of the 9/11 Commission publicly criticized the FBI in October 2005, claiming it was resisting any meaningful changes. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_140

On July 8, 2007, The Washington Post published excerpts from UCLA Professor Amy Zegart's book Spying Blind: The CIA, the FBI, and the Origins of 9/11. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_141

The Post reported, from Zegart's book, that government documents showed that both the CIA and the FBI had missed 23 potential chances to disrupt the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_142

The primary reasons for the failures included: agency cultures resistant to change and new ideas; inappropriate incentives for promotion; and a lack of cooperation between the FBI, CIA, and the rest of the United States Intelligence Community. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_143

The book blamed the FBI's decentralized structure, which prevented effective communication and cooperation among different FBI offices. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_144

The book suggested that the FBI had not evolved into an effective counter-terrorism or counter-intelligence agency, due in large part to deeply ingrained agency cultural resistance to change. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_145

For example, FBI personnel practices continued to treat all staff other than special agents as support staff, classifying intelligence analysts alongside the FBI's auto mechanics and janitors. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_146

Faulty bullet analysis Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_15

For over 40 years, the FBI crime lab in Quantico had believed that lead alloys used in bullets had unique chemical signatures. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_147

It was analyzing the bullets with the goal of matching them chemically, not only to a single batch of ammunition coming out of a factory, but also to a single box of bullets. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_148

The National Academy of Sciences conducted an 18-month independent review of comparative bullet-lead analysis. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_149

In 2003, its National Research Council published a report whose conclusions called into question 30 years of FBI testimony. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_150

It found the analytic model used by the FBI for interpreting results was deeply flawed, and the conclusion, that bullet fragments could be matched to a box of ammunition, was so overstated that it was misleading under the rules of evidence. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_151

One year later, the FBI decided to stop conducting bullet lead analyses. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_152

After a 60 Minutes/Washington Post investigation in November 2007, two years later, the Bureau agreed to identify, review, and release all pertinent cases, and notify prosecutors about cases in which faulty testimony was given. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_153

Organization Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_16

Organizational structure Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_17

Rank structure Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_18

The following is a listing of the rank structure found within the FBI (in ascending order): Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_154

Federal Bureau of Investigation_unordered_list_1

  • Field AgentsFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_1_10
    • New Agent TraineeFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_1_11
    • Special AgentFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_1_12
    • Senior Special AgentFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_1_13
    • Supervisory Special AgentFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_1_14
    • Assistant Special Agent-in-Charge (ASAC)Federal Bureau of Investigation_item_1_15
    • Special Agent-in-Charge (SAC)Federal Bureau of Investigation_item_1_16
  • FBI ManagementFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_1_17
    • Deputy Assistant DirectorFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_1_18
    • Assistant DirectorFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_1_19
    • Associate Executive Assistant DirectorFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_1_20
    • Executive Assistant DirectorFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_1_21
    • Associate Deputy DirectorFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_1_22
    • Deputy Chief of StaffFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_1_23
    • Chief of Staff and Special Counsel to the DirectorFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_1_24
    • Deputy DirectorFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_1_25
    • DirectorFederal Bureau of Investigation_item_1_26

Legal authority Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_19

The FBI's mandate is established in Title 28 of the United States Code (U.S. Code), Section 533, which authorizes the Attorney General to "appoint officials to detect and prosecute crimes against the United States." Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_155

Other federal statutes give the FBI the authority and responsibility to investigate specific crimes. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_156

The FBI's chief tool against organized crime is the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_157

The FBI is also charged with the responsibility of enforcing compliance of the United States Civil Rights Act of 1964 and investigating violations of the act in addition to prosecuting such violations with the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_158

The FBI also shares concurrent jurisdiction with the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in the enforcement of the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_159

The USA PATRIOT Act increased the powers allotted to the FBI, especially in wiretapping and monitoring of Internet activity. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_160

One of the most controversial provisions of the act is the so-called sneak and peek provision, granting the FBI powers to search a house while the residents are away, and not requiring them to notify the residents for several weeks afterward. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_161

Under the PATRIOT Act's provisions, the FBI also resumed inquiring into the library records of those who are suspected of terrorism (something it had supposedly not done since the 1970s). Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_162

In the early 1980s, Senate hearings were held to examine FBI undercover operations in the wake of the Abscam controversy, which had allegations of entrapment of elected officials. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_163

As a result, in the following years a number of guidelines were issued to constrain FBI activities. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_164

A March 2007 report by the inspector general of the Justice Department described the FBI's "widespread and serious misuse" of national security letters, a form of administrative subpoena used to demand records and data pertaining to individuals. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_165

The report said that between 2003 and 2005, the FBI had issued more than 140,000 national security letters, many involving people with no obvious connections to terrorism. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_166

Information obtained through an FBI investigation is presented to the appropriate U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_167 Attorney or Department of Justice official, who decides if prosecution or other action is warranted. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_168

The FBI often works in conjunction with other federal agencies, including the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_169 Coast Guard (USCG) and U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_170 Customs and Border Protection (CBP) in seaport and airport security, and the National Transportation Safety Board in investigating airplane crashes and other critical incidents. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_171

Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) has nearly the same amount of investigative manpower as the FBI and investigates the largest range of crimes. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_172

In the wake of the September 11 attacks, then-Attorney General Ashcroft assigned the FBI as the designated lead organization in terrorism investigations after the creation of the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_173 Department of Homeland Security. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_174

HSI and the FBI are both integral members of the Joint Terrorism Task Force. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_175

Indian reservations Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_20

The federal government has the primary responsibility for investigating and prosecuting serious crime on Indian reservations. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_176

The FBI does not specifically list crimes in Native American land as one of its priorities. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_177

Often serious crimes have been either poorly investigated or prosecution has been declined. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_178

Tribal courts can impose sentences of up to three years, under certain restrictions. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_179

Infrastructure Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_21

The FBI is headquartered at the J. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_180 Edgar Hoover Building in Washington, D.C., with 56 field offices in major cities across the United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_181

The FBI also maintains over 400 resident agencies across the United States, as well as over 50 legal attachés at United States embassies and consulates. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_182

Many specialized FBI functions are located at facilities in Quantico, Virginia, as well as a "data campus" in Clarksburg, West Virginia, where 96 million sets of fingerprints "from across the United States are stored, along with others collected by American authorities from prisoners in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, Iraq and Afghanistan." Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_183

The FBI is in process of moving its Records Management Division, which processes Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests, to Winchester, Virginia. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_184

According to The Washington Post, the FBI "is building a vast repository controlled by people who work in a top-secret vault on the fourth floor of the J. Edgar Hoover Building in Washington. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_185

This one stores the profiles of tens of thousands of Americans and legal residents who are not accused of any crime. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_186

What they have done is appear to be acting suspiciously to a town sheriff, a traffic cop or even a neighbor." Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_187

The FBI Laboratory, established with the formation of the BOI, did not appear in the J. Edgar Hoover Building until its completion in 1974. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_188

The lab serves as the primary lab for most DNA, biological, and physical work. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_189

Public tours of FBI headquarters ran through the FBI laboratory workspace before the move to the J. Edgar Hoover Building. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_190

The services the lab conducts include Chemistry, Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), Computer Analysis and Response, DNA Analysis, Evidence Response, Explosives, Firearms and Tool marks, Forensic Audio, Forensic Video, Image Analysis, Forensic Science Research, Forensic Science Training, Hazardous Materials Response, Investigative and Prospective Graphics, Latent Prints, Materials Analysis, Questioned Documents, Racketeering Records, Special Photographic Analysis, Structural Design, and Trace Evidence. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_191

The services of the FBI Laboratory are used by many state, local, and international agencies free of charge. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_192

The lab also maintains a second lab at the FBI Academy. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_193

The FBI Academy, located in Quantico, Virginia, is home to the communications and computer laboratory the FBI utilizes. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_194

It is also where new agents are sent for training to become FBI Special Agents. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_195

Going through the 21-week course is required for every Special Agent. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_196

First opened for use in 1972, the facility is located on 385 acres (156 hectares) of woodland. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_197

The Academy trains state and local law enforcement agencies, which are invited to the law enforcement training center. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_198

The FBI units that reside at Quantico are the Field and Police Training Unit, Firearms Training Unit, Forensic Science Research and Training Center, Technology Services Unit (TSU), Investigative Training Unit, Law Enforcement Communication Unit, Leadership and Management Science Units (LSMU), Physical Training Unit, New Agents' Training Unit (NATU), Practical Applications Unit (PAU), the Investigative Computer Training Unit and the "College of Analytical Studies." Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_199

In 2000, the FBI began the Trilogy project to upgrade its outdated information technology (IT) infrastructure. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_200

This project, originally scheduled to take three years and cost around $380 million, ended up over budget and behind schedule. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_201

Efforts to deploy modern computers and networking equipment were generally successful, but attempts to develop new investigation software, outsourced to Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), were not. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_202

, or VCF, as the software was known, was plagued by poorly defined goals, and repeated changes in management. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_203

In January 2005, more than two years after the software was originally planned for completion, the FBI officially abandoned the project. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_204

At least $100 million (and much more by some estimates) was spent on the project, which never became operational. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_205

The FBI has been forced to continue using its decade-old Automated Case Support system, which IT experts consider woefully inadequate. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_206

In March 2005, the FBI announced it was beginning a new, more ambitious software project, code-named Sentinel, which they expected to complete by 2009. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_207

Carnivore was an electronic eavesdropping software system implemented by the FBI during the Clinton administration; it was designed to monitor email and electronic communications. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_208

After prolonged negative coverage in the press, the FBI changed the name of its system from "Carnivore" to "DCS1000." Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_209

DCS is reported to stand for "Digital Collection System"; the system has the same functions as before. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_210

The Associated Press reported in mid-January 2005 that the FBI essentially abandoned the use of Carnivore in 2001, in favor of commercially available software, such as NarusInsight. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_211

The Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division is located in Clarksburg, West Virginia. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_212

Organized beginning in 1991, the office opened in 1995 as the youngest agency division. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_213

The complex is the length of three football fields. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_214

It provides a main repository for information in various data systems. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_215

Under the roof of the CJIS are the programs for the National Crime Information Center (NCIC), Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR), Fingerprint Identification, Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS), NCIC 2000, and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_216

Many state and local agencies use these data systems as a source for their own investigations and contribute to the database using secure communications. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_217

FBI provides these tools of sophisticated identification and information services to local, state, federal, and international law enforcement agencies. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_218

FBI is in charge of National Virtual Translation Center, which provides "timely and accurate translations of foreign intelligence for all elements of the Intelligence Community." Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_219

Personnel Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_22

As of 31 December 2009, the FBI had a total of 33,852 employees. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_220

That includes 13,412 special agents and 20,420 support professionals, such as intelligence analysts, language specialists, scientists, information technology specialists, and other professionals. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_221

The Officer Down Memorial Page provides the biographies of 69 FBI agents who have died in the line of duty from 1925 to July 2017. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_222

Hiring process Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_23

To apply to become an FBI agent, one must be between the ages of 23 and 37, unless one is a preference-eligible veteran, in which case one may apply after age 37. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_223

The applicant must also hold U.S. citizenship, be of high moral character, have a clean record, and hold at least a four-year bachelor's degree. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_224

At least three years of professional work experience prior to application is also required. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_225

All FBI employees require a Top Secret (TS) security clearance, and in many instances, employees need a TS/SCI (Top Secret/Sensitive Compartmented Information) clearance. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_226

To obtain a security clearance, all potential FBI personnel must pass a series of Single Scope Background Investigations (SSBI), which are conducted by the Office of Personnel Management. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_227

Special agent candidates also have to pass a Physical Fitness Test (PFT), which includes a 300-meter run, one-minute sit-ups, maximum push-ups, and a 1.5-mile (2.4 km) run. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_228

Personnel must pass a polygraph test with questions including possible drug use. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_229

Applicants who fail polygraphs may not gain employment with the FBI. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_230

Up until 1975, the FBI had a minimum height requirement of 5 feet 7 inches (170 cm). Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_231

BOI and FBI directors Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_24

Main article: Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_232

FBI Directors are appointed (nominated) by the President of the United States and must be confirmed by the United States Senate to serve a term of office of ten years, subject to resignation or removal by the President at his/her discretion before their term ends. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_233

Additional terms are allowed following the same procedure Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_234

J. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_235 Edgar Hoover, appointed by President Calvin Coolidge in 1924, was by far the longest-serving director, serving until his death in 1972. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_236

In 1968, Congress passed legislation, as part of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, requiring Senate confirmation of appointments of future Directors. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_237

As the incumbent, this legislation did not apply to Hoover. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_238

The last FBI Director was Andrew McCabe. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_239

The current FBI Director is Christopher A. Wray appointed by President Donald Trump. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_240

The FBI director is responsible for the day-to-day operations at the FBI. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_241

Along with the Deputy Director, the director makes sure cases and operations are handled correctly. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_242

The director also is in charge of making sure the leadership in any one of the FBI field offices is manned with qualified agents. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_243

Before the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act was passed in the wake of the September 11 attacks, the FBI director would directly brief the President of the United States on any issues that arise from within the FBI. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_244

Since then, the director now reports to the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), who in turn reports to the President. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_245

Firearms Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_25

Upon qualification, an FBI special agent is issued a full-size Glock 22 or compact Glock 23 semi-automatic pistol, both of which are chambered in the .40 S&W cartridge. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_246

In May 1997, the FBI officially adopted the Glock, in .40 S&W, for general agent use, and first issued it to New Agent Class 98-1 in October 1997. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_247

At present, the Glock 23 "FG&R" (finger groove and rail; either 3rd generation or "Gen4") is the issue sidearm. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_248

New agents are issued firearms, on which they must qualify, on successful completion of their training at the FBI Academy. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_249

The Glock 26 (subcompact 9mm Parabellum), Glock 23 and Glock 27 (.40 S&W compact and subcompact, respectively) are authorized as secondary weapons. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_250

Special agents are also authorized to purchase and qualify with the Glock 21 in .45 ACP. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_251

Special agents of the FBI Hostage Rescue Team (HRT) and regional SWAT teams are issued the Springfield Armory Professional Model 1911 pistol in .45 ACP. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_252

In June 2016, the FBI awarded Glock a contract for new handguns. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_253

Unlike the currently issued .40 S&W chambered Glock pistols, the new Glocks will be chambered for 9mm Parabellum. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_254

The contract is for the full-size Glock 17M and the compact Glock 19M. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_255

The "M" means the Glocks have been modified to meet government standards specified by a 2015 government request for proposal. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_256

Publications Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_26

The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin is published monthly by the FBI Law Enforcement Communication Unit, with articles of interest to state and local law enforcement personnel. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_257

First published in 1932 as Fugitives Wanted by Police, the FBI Law Bulletin covers topics including law enforcement technology and issues, such as crime mapping and use of force, as well as recent criminal justice research, and ViCAP alerts, on wanted suspects and key cases. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_258

The FBI also publishes some reports for both law enforcement personnel as well as regular citizens covering topics including law enforcement, terrorism, cybercrime, white-collar crime, violent crime, and statistics. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_259

However, the vast majority of federal government publications covering these topics are published by the Office of Justice Programs agencies of the United States Department of Justice, and disseminated through the National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_260

Crime statistics Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_27

During the 1920s the FBI began issuing crime reports by gathering numbers from local police departments. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_261

Due to limitations of this system that were discovered during the 1960s and 1970s—victims often simply did not report crimes to the police in the first place—the Department of Justice developed an alternative method of tallying crime, the victimization survey. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_262

Uniform Crime Reports Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_28

Main article: Uniform Crime Reports Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_263

The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) compile data from over 17,000 law enforcement agencies across the country. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_264

They provide detailed data regarding the volume of crimes to include arrest, clearance (or closing a case), and law enforcement officer information. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_265

The UCR focuses its data collection on violent crimes, hate crimes, and property crimes. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_266

Created in the 1920s, the UCR system has not proven to be as uniform as its name implies. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_267

The UCR data only reflect the most serious offense in the case of connected crimes and has a very restrictive definition of rape. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_268

Since about 93% of the data submitted to the FBI is in this format, the UCR stands out as the publication of choice as most states require law enforcement agencies to submit this data. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_269

Preliminary Annual Uniform Crime Report for 2006 was released on June 4, 2006. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_270

The report shows violent crime offenses rose 1.3%, but the number of property crime offenses decreased 2.9% compared to 2005. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_271

National Incident-Based Reporting System Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_29

Main article: National Incident-Based Reporting System Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_272

The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) crime statistics system aims to address limitations inherent in UCR data. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_273

The system is used by law enforcement agencies in the United States for collecting and reporting data on crimes. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_274

Local, state, and federal agencies generate NIBRS data from their records management systems. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_275

Data is collected on every incident and arrest in the Group A offense category. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_276

The Group A offenses are 46 specific crimes grouped in 22 offense categories. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_277

Specific facts about these offenses are gathered and reported in the NIBRS system. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_278

In addition to the Group A offenses, eleven Group B offenses are reported with only the arrest information. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_279

The NIBRS system is in greater detail than the summary-based UCR system. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_280

As of 2004, 5,271 law enforcement agencies submitted NIBRS data. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_281

That amount represents 20% of the United States population and 16% of the crime statistics data collected by the FBI. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_282

eGuardian Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_30

eGuardian is the name of an FBI system, launched in January 2009, to share tips about possible terror threats with local police agencies. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_283

The program aims to get law enforcement at all levels sharing data quickly about suspicious activity and people. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_284

eGuardian enables near real-time sharing and tracking of terror information and suspicious activities with local, state, tribal, and federal agencies. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_285

The eGuardian system is a spin-off of a similar but classified tool called Guardian that has been used inside the FBI, and shared with vetted partners since 2005. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_286

Controversies Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_31

Main article: List of FBI controversies Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_287

See also: , Counter Intelligence Program, 1996 United States campaign finance controversy, and Hillary Clinton email controversy Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_288

Throughout its history, the FBI has been the subject of many controversies, both at home and abroad. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_289

Media portrayal Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_32

Main article: FBI portrayal in media Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_290

The FBI has been frequently depicted in popular media since the 1930s. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_291

The bureau has participated to varying degrees, which has ranged from direct involvement in the creative process of film or TV series development, to providing consultation on operations and closed cases. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_292

A few of the notable portrayals of the FBI on television are the series , which started in 1993 and concluded its eleventh season in early 2018, and concerned investigations into paranormal phenomena by five fictional Special Agents, and the fictional Counter Terrorist Unit (CTU) agency in the TV drama 24, which is patterned after the FBI Counterterrorism Division. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_293

The 1991 movie Point Break depicts an undercover FBI agent who infiltrated a gang of bank robbers. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_294

The 1997 movie Donnie Brasco is based on the true story of undercover FBI agent Joseph D. Pistone infiltrating the Mafia. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_295

The 2015 TV series Quantico, titled after the location of the Bureau's training facility, deals with Probationary and Special Agents, not all of whom, within the show's format, may be fully reliable or even trustworthy. Federal Bureau of Investigation_sentence_296

Notable FBI personnel Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_33

See also Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_34

Federal Bureau of Investigation_unordered_list_2

Additional links Federal Bureau of Investigation_section_35

Federal Bureau of Investigation_unordered_list_3


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal Bureau of Investigation.