Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Not to be confused with Bosnia and Herzegovina or the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_0

Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_table_infobox_0

Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine Федерација Босне и ХерцеговинеFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_0_0

Sovereign stateFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_1_0 Bosnia and HerzegovinaFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_0_1_1
Washington AgreementFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_2_0 18 March 1994Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_0_2_1
Recognized as

part of Bosnia and HerzegovinaFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_3_0

14 December 1995Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_0_3_1

and largest cityFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_4_0

SarajevoFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_0_4_1
Official languagesFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_5_0 Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_0_5_1
Ethnic groups (2013)Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_6_0 Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_7_0 Federated stateFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_0_7_1
PresidentFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_8_0 Marinko ČavaraFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_0_8_1
Prime MinisterFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_9_0 Fadil NovalićFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_10_0 ParliamentFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_0_10_1
Upper houseFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_11_0 House of PeoplesFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_0_11_1
Lower houseFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_12_0 House of RepresentativesFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_0_12_1
AreaFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_13_0
TotalFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_14_0 26,110.5 km (10,081.3 sq mi)Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_0_14_1
PopulationFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_15_0
2013 censusFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_16_0 2,219,220Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_0_16_1
DensityFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_17_0 91/km (235.7/sq mi)Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_0_17_1
CurrencyFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_18_0 Convertible mark (BAM)Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_0_18_1
Time zoneFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_19_0 UTC+01:00 (CET)Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_0_19_1
Summer (DST)Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_20_0 UTC+02:00Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_0_20_1
Calling codeFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_21_0 +387Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_0_21_1

The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the two political entities that compose Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being Republika Srpska. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_1

The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 autonomous cantons with their own governments. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_2

It is sometimes known by the shorter name Federation of B&H. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_3

The Federation was created by the 1994 Washington Agreement, which ended the part of the conflict whereby Bosnian Croats fought with Bosniaks. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_4

It established a constituent assembly that continued its work until October 1996. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_5

The Federation has a capital, government, president, parliament, customs and police departments and two postal systems. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_6

It had its own army, the Army of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was merged with the Army of the Republika Srpska to form the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_7

The capital and largest city is Sarajevo with 438,443 inhabitants and the total population of 688,354 in its metropolitan area. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_8

History Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_0

Bosnian War Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_1

Main articles: Bosnian War and Croat–Bosniak War Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_9

The Serb-dominated Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) attacked Croatia from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_10

Their first target was the village Ravno that was attacked on 2 November 1991 and completely destroyed. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_11

Yugoslavia effected an economic blockade of Bosnia and Herzegovina, thus trying to keep it as part of Yugoslavia. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_12

Later, Yugoslavia claimed territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina with a Serb majority and the capital Sarajevo. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_13

Serb Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was declared on 27 March 1992 with the goal to incorporate parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina into Yugoslavia. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_14

The objective of Serbian politics in Bosnia and Herzegovina was to unite Serbian autonomous provinces into a single unit that would join Yugoslavia, and with total blockade of Sarajevo, break Bosnia and Herzegovina into smaller, unconnected and hardly defensible enclaves. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_15

Because of superiority in armaments, support from Belgrade and an embargo on the importation of arms into Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbs achieved their goals by June 1992. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_16

The Bosniak leadership was still indecisive concerning a major conflict, so the Croats were the first to participate in the war. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_17

They organized military units, Croatian Defence Forces (HOS) in November 1991 and the Croatian Defence Council in April 1992. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_18

Those units were partly composed of Bosniaks. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_19

The Territorial Defence of Bosnia and Herzegovina, later Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina effectively organized in autumn of 1992. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_20

In Serb-controlled areas, Serbs performed mass murders, ethnic cleansing of non-Serbs, primarily Bosniaks and Croats, established concentration camps and destroyed Bosniak and Croat cultural inheritance. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_21

By November 1992 Serbs had conquered 70% of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina and held Sarajevo in limbo by terrorizing its population by shelling and constant sniper fire. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_22

The creation of a Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia was a matter of dispute for Bosniaks. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_23

Croats accused Bosniaks of Islamization of the country and attempts to create Bosniak domination in all areas. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_24

So they withdrew the ethnic Croat representatives from Parliament, Government and the Presidency. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_25

Due to expulsions by Bosnian Serbs, Bosniaks moved to other areas and thus disrupted the Croats' area and altered their pre-war ratio. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_26

Political disputes and minor incidents in central and northern Bosnia and in northern and central Herzegovina led to Croat-Bosniak War in November 1992. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_27

The Vance-Owen plan was presented in January 1993. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_28

It was planned to create 10 cantons on the territory of the whole of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_29

This plan increased conflict between Croats and Bosniaks. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_30

The Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH) launched four offensives and conquered a large area which was under control of HVO; almost the whole Central Bosnia (except Novi Travnik, Vitez, Busovača, Kiseljak, Kreševo and Žepče and the wider areas around those towns and Usora, part of Municipality of Travnik, Zavidovići and part of Municipality of Vareš) and part of Herzegovina, Konjic, Jablanica and eastern and northern parts of Mostar. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_31

Crimes against civilians were committed on both sides. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_32

Hostility between Croats and Bosniaks ended with mediation by the United States and the signing of the Washington Agreement on 18 March 1994. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_33

The cooperation between Croats and Bosniaks was renewed, and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a Bosniak and Croat controlled area was established. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_34

There was also a proposal to create a confederation of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republic of Croatia. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_35

The joint command of ARBiH, HVO and Croatian Army (HV) was established in March 1995. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_36

The closer cooperation between Croats and Bosniaks was made through the Split Agreement where Bosnia and Herzegovina's Bosniak leaders allowed the Croatian Army to free western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina with cooperation with ARBiH. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_37

After the Operation Storm, the Serbian hoop around Bihać was broken and Croatian and Bosnian armies continued to liberate western Bosnia. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_38

The UN unsuccessfully tried to establish peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina by trying to create a successful structure for Bosnia and Herzegovina. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_39

Serbs launched an attack on the UN-protected town of Bihać, but they were stopped by the Croatian army during Operation Storm. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_40

Joint Croatian-Bosnian military successes made peace negotiations possible. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_41

Creation Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_2

Main article: Washington Agreement Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_42

The basis for the creation of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina were laid down by the Washington Agreement of March 1994. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_43

Under the agreement, the combined territory held by the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Croatian Defence Council forces was to be divided into ten autonomous cantons. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_44

The cantonal system was selected to prevent dominance of one ethnic group over another. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_45

However, much of the territory Croats and Bosniaks claimed for their Federation was at that point still controlled by the Bosnian Serbs. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_46

The Washington Agreement was implemented during the spring of 1994, by convoking the Constitutional Assembly of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_47

On June 24, the Constitutional Assembly adopted and proclaimed the Constitution of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_48

In 1995, Bosnian government forces and Bosnian Croat forces of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina defeated forces of the Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia, and this territory was added to the federation. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_49

Post-war Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_3

Main article: Dayton Agreement Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_50

By the Dayton Agreement of 1995 that ended the four-year war, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina was defined as one of the two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina and comprised 51% of country's area. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_51

The Republika Srpska comprised the other 49%. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_52

Cantons and federal structure were built rather slowly after the war. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_53

Croatian institutions of Herzeg-Bosnia existed and functioned parallel to Federation ones up until 1996–97, when they were phased out. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_54

On 8 March 2000, the Brčko District was formed as an autonomous district within Bosnia and Herzegovina and it was created from part of the territory of both Bosnian entities. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_55

Brčko District is now a condominium that belongs to both entities. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_56

In 2001–2002, the Office of the High Representative (OHR) in the country imposed amendments to the Federation's constitution and its electoral law, complicating its structure and impairing the parity between Bosniaks and Croats that was up until then in force in the Federation. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_57

Dissatisfied Croat politicians set up a separate Croatian National Assembly, held a referendum parallel to the elections and proclaimed Croatian federal unit in Croat-majority areas in the Federation. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_58

Their attempts ended shortly after a crackdown by SFOR and legal proceedings. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_59

Geographic boundary Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_4

Main article: Inter-Entity Boundary Line Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_60

The Inter-Entity Boundary Line (IEBL) that distinguishes Bosnia and Herzegovina's two entities essentially runs along the military front lines as they existed at the end of the Bosnian War, with adjustments (most importantly in the western part of the country and around Sarajevo), as defined by the Dayton Agreement. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_61

The total length of the IEBL is approximately 1,080 km. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_62

The IEBL is an administrative demarcation and not controlled by the military or police and there is free movement across it. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_63

Five of the cantons (Una-Sana, Tuzla, Zenica-Doboj, Bosnian Podrinje and Sarajevo) are Bosniak-majority cantons, three (Posavina, West Herzegovina and Canton 10) are Croat-majority cantons, and two (Central Bosnia and Herzegovina-Neretva) are 'ethnically mixed', meaning there are special legislative procedures for protection of the constituent ethnic groups. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_64

A significant portion of Brčko District was also part of the Federation; however, when the district was created, it became shared territory of both entities, but it was not placed under control of either of the two, and is hence under direct jurisdiction of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_65

Currently the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has 79 municipalities. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_66

Politics Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_5

The government and politics of the Federation are dominated by two large parties, the Bosniak Party of Democratic Action (SDA) and the Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina (HDZ BiH). Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_67

Entity-level institutions include: Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_68

Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_unordered_list_0

Since Bosniaks compose roughly 70.4% of Federation's population, Croats 22.4% and Serbs just around 2%, Parliament's House of Peoples (with equal representation for all three nationalities) is supposed to ensure that the interests of Croats, Serbs and national minorities are fairly represented during government creation and in the legislative process. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_69

Since 2001–02 and foreign-imposed amendments to the constitution and electoral laws, Bosnian Croats have claimed the election system for the deputies in the House of Peoples is rigged, depriving them of their rights to representation and in fact enabling Bosniaks to control the majority in the upper house as well. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_70

Namely, after 2002 each nations' deputies to the House of Peoples are elected by 10 Cantonal assemblies, 6 of them with clear Bosniak majority. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_71

This dismantled checks the Federation's Croats and Serbs had on the Federal legislature as well as the executive, particularly government-building. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_72

In 2010–14 Federation's Government was formed by Bosniak SDP without the consent of major Croat political parties. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_73

After Croatian politician Božo Ljubić filed an appeal, in December 2016 Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina found the election system of the deputies in the House of Peoples unconstitutional and abrogated the controversial rules. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_74

Federation is also divided into ten highly autonomous cantons, which are in fact federal units. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_75

They each have their own governments, assemblies and exclusive competencies. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_76

After Croats' appeal, Federation's Constitutional Court ruled in 2010 that the two Federation's ministries – Ministry of Education and Science and Ministry of Culture and Sports – are unconstitutional since education and culture are an exclusive competence of cantons, not the federation. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_77

In September 2010, the International Crisis Group warned that "disputes among and between Bosniak and Croat leaders and a dysfunctional administrative system have paralyzed decision-making, put the entity on the verge of bankruptcy and triggered social unrest". Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_78

Dissatisfied with the representation of Croats in the Federation, Croat political parties insist on creating a Croat-majority federal unit instead of several cantons. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_79

SDA and other Bosniak parties strongly oppose this. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_80

In January 2017, Croatian National Assembly stated that "if Bosnia and Herzegovina wants to become self-sustainable, then it is necessary to have an administrative-territorial reorganization, which would include a federal unit with a Croatian majority. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_81

It remains the permanent aspiration of the Croatian people of Bosnia and Herzegovina." Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_82

Political divisions Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_6

Main article: Cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_83

The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina comprises ten cantons (Bosnian: kantoni, Croatian: županije): Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_84

Proposed Croat entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_7

Main article: Croat entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_85

Demographics Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_8

The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina comprises 51% of the land area of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is home to 62.85% of the country's total population. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_86

Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_table_general_1

Population of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina according to ethnic group 1991–2013Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_table_caption_1

groupFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_1_0_0

census 1991Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_1_0_1 census 2013Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_1_0_3
NumberFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_1_1_0 %Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_1_1_1 NumberFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_1_1_2 %Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_1_1_3
BosniaksFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_2_0 1,423,593Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_2_1 52.34%Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_2_2 1,562,372Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_2_3 70.40%Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_2_4
CroatsFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_3_0 594,362Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_3_1 21.85%Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_3_2 497,883Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_3_3 22.44%Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_3_4
SerbsFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_4_0 478,122Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_4_1 17.58%Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_4_2 56,550Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_4_3 2.55%Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_4_4
YugoslavsFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_5_0 161,938Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_5_1 5.95%Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_5_2 Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_5_3 Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_5_4
OthersFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_6_0 62,059Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_6_1 2.28%Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_6_2 102,415Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_6_3 4.61%Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_6_4
TotalFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_1_7_0 2,720,074Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_1_7_1 2,219,220Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_1_7_3

See also Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_9

Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.