Femur

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Not to be confused with Fima (disambiguation) or FEMA (disambiguation). Femur_sentence_0

Femur_table_infobox_0

FemurFemur_header_cell_0_0_0
DetailsFemur_header_cell_0_1_0
OriginsFemur_header_cell_0_2_0 Gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and vastus intermediusFemur_cell_0_2_1
InsertionsFemur_header_cell_0_3_0 Gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, iliopsoas, lateral rotator group, adductors of the hipFemur_cell_0_3_1
ArticulationsFemur_header_cell_0_4_0 hip: acetabulum of pelvis superiorly

knee: with the tibia and patella inferiorlyFemur_cell_0_4_1

IdentifiersFemur_header_cell_0_5_0
LatinFemur_header_cell_0_6_0 Os femoris, os longissimumFemur_cell_0_6_1
MeSHFemur_header_cell_0_7_0 Femur_cell_0_7_1
TA98Femur_header_cell_0_8_0 Femur_cell_0_8_1
TA2Femur_header_cell_0_9_0 Femur_cell_0_9_1
FMAFemur_header_cell_0_10_0 Femur_cell_0_10_1

The femur (/ˈfiːmər/, pl. femurs or femora /ˈfɛmərə/), or thigh bone, is the proximal bone of the hindlimb in tetrapod vertebrate, the largest bone of the human body. Femur_sentence_1

The head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum in the pelvic bone forming the hip joint, while the distal part of the femur articulates with the tibia and kneecap, forming the knee joint. Femur_sentence_2

By most measures the two (left and right) femurs are the strongest bones of the body, and in humans, the longest. Femur_sentence_3

Structure Femur_section_0

The femur is the only bone in the upper leg. Femur_sentence_4

The two femurs converge medially toward the knees, where they articulate with the proximal ends of the tibiae. Femur_sentence_5

The angle of convergence of the femora is a major factor in determining the femoral-tibial angle. Femur_sentence_6

Human females have wider pelvic bones, causing their femora to converge more than in males. Femur_sentence_7

In the condition genu valgum (knock knee) the femurs converge so much that the knees touch one another. Femur_sentence_8

The opposite extreme is genu varum (bow-leggedness). Femur_sentence_9

In the general population of people without either genu valgum or genu varum, the femoral-tibial angle is about 175 degrees. Femur_sentence_10

The femur is the longest and, by some measures, the strongest bone in the human body. Femur_sentence_11

This depends on the type of measurement taken to calculate strength. Femur_sentence_12

Some strength tests show the temporal bone in the skull to be the strongest bone. Femur_sentence_13

The femur length on average is 26.74% of a person's height, a ratio found in both men and women and most ethnic groups with only restricted variation, and is useful in anthropology because it offers a basis for a reasonable estimate of a subject's height from an incomplete skeleton. Femur_sentence_14

The femur is categorised as a long bone and comprises a diaphysis (shaft or body) and two epiphyses (extremities) that articulate with adjacent bones in the hip and knee. Femur_sentence_15

Upper part Femur_section_1

Main article: Upper extremity of femur Femur_sentence_16

The upper or proximal extremity (close to the torso) contains the head, neck, the two trochanters and adjacent structures. Femur_sentence_17

The head of the femur, which articulates with the acetabulum of the pelvic bone, comprises two-thirds of a sphere. Femur_sentence_18

It has a small groove, or fovea, connected through the round ligament to the sides of the acetabular notch. Femur_sentence_19

The head of the femur is connected to the shaft through the neck or collum. Femur_sentence_20

The neck is 4–5 cm. Femur_sentence_21

long and the diameter is smallest front to back and compressed at its middle. Femur_sentence_22

The collum forms an angle with the shaft in about 130 degrees. Femur_sentence_23

This angle is highly variant. Femur_sentence_24

In the infant it is about 150 degrees and in old age reduced to 120 degrees on average. Femur_sentence_25

An abnormal increase in the angle is known as coxa valga and an abnormal reduction is called coxa vara. Femur_sentence_26

Both the head and neck of the femur is vastly embedded in the hip musculature and can not be directly palpated. Femur_sentence_27

In skinny people with the thigh laterally rotated, the head of the femur can be felt deep as a resistance profound (deep) for the femoral artery. Femur_sentence_28

The transition area between the head and neck is quite rough due to attachment of muscles and the hip joint capsule. Femur_sentence_29

Here the two trochanters, greater and lesser trochanter, are found. Femur_sentence_30

The greater trochanter is almost box-shaped and is the most lateral prominent of the femur. Femur_sentence_31

The highest point of the greater trochanter is located higher than the collum and reaches the midpoint of the hip joint. Femur_sentence_32

The greater trochanter can easily be felt. Femur_sentence_33

The trochanteric fossa is a deep depression bounded posteriorly by the intertrochanteric crest on the medial surface of the greater trochanter. Femur_sentence_34

The lesser trochanter is a cone-shaped extension of the lowest part of the femur neck. Femur_sentence_35

The two trochanters are joined by the intertrochanteric crest on the back side and by the intertrochanteric line on the front. Femur_sentence_36

A slight ridge is sometimes seen commencing about the middle of the intertrochanteric crest, and reaching vertically downward for about 5 cm. Femur_sentence_37

along the back part of the body: it is called the linea quadrata (or quadrate line). Femur_sentence_38

About the junction of the upper one-third and lower two-thirds on the intertrochanteric crest is the quadrate tubercle located. Femur_sentence_39

The size of the tubercle varies and it is not always located on the intertrochanteric crest and that also adjacent areas can be part of the quadrate tubercle, such as the posterior surface of the greater trochanter or the neck of the femur. Femur_sentence_40

In a small anatomical study it was shown that the epiphyseal line passes directly through the quadrate tubercle. Femur_sentence_41

Body Femur_section_2

Main article: Body of femur Femur_sentence_42

The body of the femur (or shaft) is long, slender and almost cylindrical in form. Femur_sentence_43

It is a little broader above than in the center, broadest and somewhat flattened from before backward below. Femur_sentence_44

It is slightly arched, so as to be convex in front, and concave behind, where it is strengthened by a prominent longitudinal ridge, the linea aspera which diverges proximally and distal as the medial and lateral ridge. Femur_sentence_45

Proximally the lateral ridge of the linea aspera becomes the gluteal tuberosity while the medial ridge continues as the pectineal line. Femur_sentence_46

Besides the linea aspera the shaft has two other bordes; a lateral and medial border. Femur_sentence_47

These three bordes separates the shaft into three surfaces: One anterior, one medial and one lateral. Femur_sentence_48

Due to the vast musculature of the thigh the shaft can not be palpated. Femur_sentence_49

The third trochanter is a bony projection occasionally present on the proximal femur near the superior border of the gluteal tuberosity. Femur_sentence_50

When present, it is oblong, rounded, or conical in shape and sometimes continuous with the gluteal ridge. Femur_sentence_51

A structure of minor importance in humans, the incidence of the third trochanter varies from 17–72% between ethnic groups and it is frequently reported as more common in females than in males. Femur_sentence_52

Lower part Femur_section_3

Main article: Lower extremity of femur Femur_sentence_53

The lower extremity of the femur (or distal extremity) is larger than the upper extremity. Femur_sentence_54

It is somewhat cuboid in form, but its transverse diameter is greater than its antero-posterior (front to back). Femur_sentence_55

It consists of two oblong eminences known as the condyles. Femur_sentence_56

Anteriorly, the condyles are slightly prominent and are separated by a smooth shallow articular depression called the patellar surface. Femur_sentence_57

Posteriorly, they project considerably and a deep notch, the Intercondylar fossa of femur, is present between them. Femur_sentence_58

The lateral condyle is the more prominent and is the broader both in its antero-posterior and transverse diameters. Femur_sentence_59

The medial condyle is the longer and, when the femur is held with its body perpendicular, projects to a lower level. Femur_sentence_60

When, however, the femur is in its natural oblique position the lower surfaces of the two condyles lie practically in the same horizontal plane. Femur_sentence_61

The condyles are not quite parallel with one another; the long axis of the lateral is almost directly antero-posterior, but that of the medial runs backward and medialward. Femur_sentence_62

Their opposed surfaces are small, rough, and concave, and form the walls of the intercondyloid fossa. Femur_sentence_63

This fossa is limited above by a ridge, the intercondyloid line, and below by the central part of the posterior margin of the patellar surface. Femur_sentence_64

The posterior cruciate ligament of the knee joint is attached to the lower and front part of the medial wall of the fossa and the anterior cruciate ligament to an impression on the upper and back part of its lateral wall. Femur_sentence_65

The articular surface of the lower end of the femur occupies the anterior, inferior, and posterior surfaces of the condyles. Femur_sentence_66

Its front part is named the patellar surface and articulates with the patella; it presents a median groove which extends downward to the intercondyloid fossa and two convexities, the lateral of which is broader, more prominent, and extends farther upward than the medial. Femur_sentence_67

Each condyle is surmounted by an elevation, the epicondyle. Femur_sentence_68

The medial epicondyle is a large convex eminence to which the tibial collateral ligament of the knee-joint is attached. Femur_sentence_69

At its upper part is the adductor tubercle and behind it is a rough impression which gives origin to the medial head of the gastrocnemius. Femur_sentence_70

The lateral epicondyle which is smaller and less prominent than the medial, gives attachment to the fibular collateral ligament of the knee-joint. Femur_sentence_71

Development Femur_section_4

Main article: Limb development Femur_sentence_72

The femur develops from the limb buds as a result of interactions between the ectoderm and the underlying mesoderm, formation occurs roughly around the fourth week of development. Femur_sentence_73

By the sixth week of development, the first hyaline cartilage model of the femur is formed by chondrocytes. Femur_sentence_74

Endochondral ossification begins by the end of the embryonic period and primary ossification centers are present in all long bones of the limbs, including the femur, by the 12th week of development. Femur_sentence_75

The hindlimb development lags behind forelimb development by 1–2 days. Femur_sentence_76

Function Femur_section_5

As the femur is the only bone in the thigh, it serves as an attachment point for all the muscles that exert their force over the hip and knee joints. Femur_sentence_77

Some biarticular muscles – which cross two joints, like the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles – also originate from the femur. Femur_sentence_78

In all, 23 individual muscles either originate from or insert onto the femur. Femur_sentence_79

In cross-section, the thigh is divided up into three separate fascial compartments divided by fascia, each containing muscles. Femur_sentence_80

These compartments use the femur as an axis, and are separated by tough connective tissue membranes (or septa). Femur_sentence_81

Each of these compartments has its own blood and nerve supply, and contains a different group of muscles. Femur_sentence_82

These compartments are named the anterior, medial and posterior fascial compartments. Femur_sentence_83

Muscle attachments Femur_section_6

Femur_table_general_1

MuscleFemur_cell_1_0_0 DirectionFemur_cell_1_0_1 AttachmentFemur_cell_1_0_2
Iliacus muscleFemur_cell_1_1_0 InsertionFemur_cell_1_1_1 Lesser trochanterFemur_cell_1_1_2
Psoas major muscleFemur_cell_1_2_0 InsertionFemur_cell_1_2_1 Lesser trochanterFemur_cell_1_2_2
Gluteus maximus muscleFemur_cell_1_3_0 InsertionFemur_cell_1_3_1 Gluteal tuberosityFemur_cell_1_3_2
Gluteus medius muscleFemur_cell_1_4_0 InsertionFemur_cell_1_4_1 Lateral surface of greater trochanterFemur_cell_1_4_2
Gluteus minimus muscleFemur_cell_1_5_0 InsertionFemur_cell_1_5_1 Forefront of greater trochanterFemur_cell_1_5_2
Piriformis muscleFemur_cell_1_6_0 InsertionFemur_cell_1_6_1 Superior boundary of greater trochanterFemur_cell_1_6_2
Gemellus superior muscleFemur_cell_1_7_0 InsertionFemur_cell_1_7_1 Upper edge of Obturator internus's tendon (indirectly greater trochanter)Femur_cell_1_7_2
Obturator internus muscleFemur_cell_1_8_0 InsertionFemur_cell_1_8_1 Medial surface of greater trochanterFemur_cell_1_8_2
Gemellus inferior muscleFemur_cell_1_9_0 InsertionFemur_cell_1_9_1 Lower edge of Obturator internus's tendon (indirectly greater trochanter)Femur_cell_1_9_2
Quadratus femoris muscleFemur_cell_1_10_0 InsertionFemur_cell_1_10_1 Intertrochanteric crestFemur_cell_1_10_2
Obturator externus muscleFemur_cell_1_11_0 InsertionFemur_cell_1_11_1 Trochanteric fossaFemur_cell_1_11_2
Pectineus muscleFemur_cell_1_12_0 InsertionFemur_cell_1_12_1 Pectineal lineFemur_cell_1_12_2
Adductor longus muscleFemur_cell_1_13_0 InsertionFemur_cell_1_13_1 Medial ridge of linea asperaFemur_cell_1_13_2
Adductor brevis muscleFemur_cell_1_14_0 InsertionFemur_cell_1_14_1 Medial ridge of linea asperaFemur_cell_1_14_2
Adductor magnus muscleFemur_cell_1_15_0 InsertionFemur_cell_1_15_1 Medial ridge of linea aspera and the adductor tubercleFemur_cell_1_15_2
Vastus lateralis muscleFemur_cell_1_16_0 OriginFemur_cell_1_16_1 Greater trochanter and lateral ridge of linea asperaFemur_cell_1_16_2
Vastus intermedius muscleFemur_cell_1_17_0 OriginFemur_cell_1_17_1 Front and lateral surface of femurFemur_cell_1_17_2
Vastus medialis muscleFemur_cell_1_18_0 OriginFemur_cell_1_18_1 Distal part of intertrochanteric line and medial ridge of linea asperaFemur_cell_1_18_2
Short head of biceps femorisFemur_cell_1_19_0 OriginFemur_cell_1_19_1 Lateral ridge of linea asperaFemur_cell_1_19_2
Popliteus muscleFemur_cell_1_20_0 OriginFemur_cell_1_20_1 Under the lateral epicondyleFemur_cell_1_20_2
Articularis genu muscleFemur_cell_1_21_0 OriginFemur_cell_1_21_1 Lower 1/4 of anterior femur deep to vastus intermediusFemur_cell_1_21_2
Gastrocnemius muscleFemur_cell_1_22_0 OriginFemur_cell_1_22_1 Behind the adductor tubercle, over the lateral epicondyle and the popliteal faciesFemur_cell_1_22_2
Plantaris muscleFemur_cell_1_23_0 OriginFemur_cell_1_23_1 Over the lateral condyleFemur_cell_1_23_2

Clinical significance Femur_section_7

Fractures Femur_section_8

Main articles: Hip fracture and femoral fracture Femur_sentence_84

A femoral fracture that involves the femoral head, femoral neck or the shaft of the femur immediately below the lesser trochanter may be classified as a hip fracture, especially when associated with osteoporosis. Femur_sentence_85

Femur fractures can be managed in a pre-hospital setting with the use of a traction splint. Femur_sentence_86

Other animals Femur_section_9

In primitive tetrapods, the main points of muscle attachment along the femur are the internal trochanter and third trochanter, and a ridge along the ventral surface of the femoral shaft referred to as the adductor crest. Femur_sentence_87

The neck of the femur is generally minimal or absent in the most primitive forms, reflecting a simple attachment to the acetabulum. Femur_sentence_88

The greater trochanter was present in the extinct archosaurs, as well as in modern birds and mammals, being associated with the loss of the primitive sprawling gait. Femur_sentence_89

The lesser trochanter is a unique development of mammals, which lack both the internal and fourth trochanters. Femur_sentence_90

The adductor crest is also often absent in mammals or alternatively reduced to a series of creases along the surface of the bone. Femur_sentence_91

Some species of whales, snakes, and other non-walking vertebrates have vestigial femurs. Femur_sentence_92

One of the earliest known vertebrates to have a femur is the eusthenopteron, a prehistoric lobe-finned fish from the Late Devonian period. Femur_sentence_93

Structures analogous to the third trochanter are present in mammals, including some primates. Femur_sentence_94

Invertebrates Femur_section_10

Main article: Arthropod leg Femur_sentence_95

In invertebrate zoology the name femur appears in arthropodology. Femur_sentence_96

The usage is not homologous with that of vertebrate anatomy; the term "femur" simply has been adopted by analogy and refers, where applicable, to the most proximal of (usually) the two longest jointed segments of the legs of the arthropoda. Femur_sentence_97

The two basal segments preceding the femur are the coxa and trochanter. Femur_sentence_98

This convention is not followed in carcinology but it applies in arachnology and entomology. Femur_sentence_99

In myriapodology another segment, the prefemur, connects the trochanter and femur. Femur_sentence_100

Additional images Femur_section_11

Femur_unordered_list_0

  • Femur_item_0_0
  • Femur_item_0_1
  • Femur_item_0_2
  • Femur_item_0_3
  • Femur_item_0_4
  • Femur_item_0_5
  • Femur_item_0_6
  • Femur_item_0_7


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Femur.