Film director

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A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay (or script) while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision. Film director_sentence_0

The director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design and all the creative aspects of filmmaking. Film director_sentence_1

Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film. Film director_sentence_2

The film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film eventually becomes realized or noticed. Film director_sentence_3

Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the budget. Film director_sentence_4

There are many pathways to becoming a film director. Film director_sentence_5

Some film directors started as screenwriters, cinematographers, producers, film editors or actors. Film director_sentence_6

Other film directors have attended a film school. Film director_sentence_7

Directors use different approaches. Film director_sentence_8

Some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect and demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely. Film director_sentence_9

Some directors also write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Film director_sentence_10

Some directors edit or appear in their films or compose the music score for their films. Film director_sentence_11

Responsibility Film director_section_0

A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a fully formed film, and then to realize this vision. Film director_sentence_12

To do this, they oversee the artistic and technical elements of film production. Film director_sentence_13

This entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film and communicating with the actors. Film director_sentence_14

This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus even in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Film director_sentence_15

Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, thus, excellent communication skills are a must. Film director_sentence_16

Because the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with possibly strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she also needs to possess conflict-resolution skills to mediate whenever necessary. Film director_sentence_17

Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. Film director_sentence_18

The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure". Film director_sentence_19

It adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. Film director_sentence_20

Generally, the sole superiors of the director are the producers and the studio that is financing the film, although sometimes the director can also be a producer of the same film. Film director_sentence_21

The role of a director differs from producers in that producers typically manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. Film director_sentence_22

The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio (such as the need to get a particular age rating). Film director_sentence_23

Directors also play an important role in post-production. Film director_sentence_24

While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut. Film director_sentence_25

In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Film director_sentence_26

Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. Film director_sentence_27

For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission. Film director_sentence_28

The director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Film director_sentence_29

Thus, the position of film director is widely considered to be a highly stressful and demanding one. Film director_sentence_30

It has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Film director_sentence_31

Some directors also take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Film director_sentence_32

Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film, largely as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Film director_sentence_33

Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur" (the French word for "author"). Film director_sentence_34

In spite of—and sometimes even because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process. Film director_sentence_35

Career pathways Film director_section_1

Some film directors started as screenwriters, film editors, producers, actors, or film critics, as well as directing for similar media like television and commercials. Film director_sentence_36

Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld, originally the Coen brothers' DP; Wally Pfister, cinematographer on Christopher Nolan's three Batman films made his directorial debut with Transcendence (2014). Film director_sentence_37

Despite the misnomer, assistant director has become a completely separate career path and is not typically a position for aspiring directors, but there are exceptions in some countries such as India where assistant directors are indeed directors-in-training. Film director_sentence_38

Education Film director_section_2

Many film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelor's degree studying film or cinema. Film director_sentence_39

Film students generally study the basic skills used in making a film. Film director_sentence_40

This includes, for example, preparation, shot lists and storyboards, blocking, communicating with professional actors, communicating with the crew, and reading scripts. Film director_sentence_41

Some film schools are equipped with sound stages and post-production facilities. Film director_sentence_42

Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students also receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. Film director_sentence_43

A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Film director_sentence_44

Future directors usually complete short films during their enrollment. Film director_sentence_45

The National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Film director_sentence_46

Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Film director_sentence_47

Many directors successfully prepared for making feature films by working in television. Film director_sentence_48

The German Film and Television Academy Berlin consequently cooperates with the Berlin/Brandenburg TV station RBB (Berlin-Brandenburg Broadcasting) and ARTE. Film director_sentence_49

In recent decades American directors have primarily been coming out of USC, UCLA, AFI, Columbia University, and NYU, each of which are known for cultivating a certain style of filmmaking. Film director_sentence_50

Notable film schools outside of the United States include Beijing Film Academy, Centro de Capacitación Cinematográfica in Mexico City, Dongseo University in South Korea, FAMU in Prague, Film and Television Institute of India, HFF Munich, La Fémis in Paris, Tel Aviv University, and Vancouver Film School. Film director_sentence_51

Compensation Film director_section_3

Film directors usually are self employed and hired per project based on recommendations and industry reputation. Film director_sentence_52

Compensation might be arranged as a flat fee for the project, as a weekly salary, or as a daily rate. Film director_sentence_53

A handful of top Hollywood directors made from $133.3 million to $257.95 million in 2011, such as James Cameron and Steven Spielberg, but the average United States film directors and producers made $89,840 in 2018. Film director_sentence_54

A new Hollywood director typically gets paid around $400,000 for directing their first studio film. Film director_sentence_55

The average annual salary in Canada is $62,408, and in Western Australia it can range from $75,230 to $97,119. Film director_sentence_56

In France, the average salary is €4000 per month, paid per project. Film director_sentence_57

Luc Besson was the highest paid French director in 2017, making €4.44 million for Valerian and the City of a Thousand Planets. Film director_sentence_58

That same year, the top ten French directors' salaries in total represented 42% of the total directors' salaries in France. Film director_sentence_59

Film directors in Japan average a yearly salary from ¥4 million to ¥10 million, and the Directors Guild of Japan requires a minimum payment of ¥3.5 million. Film director_sentence_60

Korean directors make 300 million to 500 million won for a film, and beginning directors start out making around 50 million won. Film director_sentence_61

A Korean director who breaks into the Chinese market might make 1 billion won for a single film. Film director_sentence_62

Gender disparities Film director_section_4

According to a 2018 report from UNESCO, the film industry throughout the world has a disproportionately higher number of male directors compared to female directors, and they provide as an example the fact that only 20% of films in Europe are directed by a woman. Film director_sentence_63

44% of graduates from a sample of European films schools are women, and yet only 24% of working film directors in Europe are women. Film director_sentence_64

In Hollywood, women make up only 12.6 percent of film directors, as reported by a UCLA study of the 200 top theatrical films of 2017, but that number is a significant increase from 6.9% in 2016. Film director_sentence_65

As of 2014, there were only 20 women in the Directors Guild of Japan out of the 550 total members. Film director_sentence_66

Bollywood film directors are also greatly underrepresented by women, even compared to other countries, but there has been a recent trend of more attention to women directors in India, brought on partly by Amazon and Netflix moving into the industry. Film director_sentence_67

Of the movies produced in Nollywood, women direct only 2%. Film director_sentence_68

Awards Film director_section_5

There are many different awards for film directing, run by various academies, critics associations, film festivals, and guilds. Film director_sentence_69

The Academy Award for Best Director and Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Director are considered among the most prestigious awards for directing, and there is even an award for worst directing given out during the Golden Raspberry Awards. Film director_sentence_70


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Film director.