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"Flourished" and "fl." redirect here. Floruit_sentence_0

For other uses, see Flourish (disambiguation) and FL (disambiguation). Floruit_sentence_1

Floruit (/ˈflɔːrjuɪt/), abbreviated fl. (or occasionally flor. Floruit_sentence_2

), Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active. Floruit_sentence_3

In English, the unabbreviated word may also be used as a noun indicating the time when someone flourished. Floruit_sentence_4

Etymology and use Floruit_section_0

Latin: flōruit is the third-person singular perfect active indicative of the Latin verb flōreō, flōrēre "to bloom, flower, or flourish", from the noun flōs, flōris, "flower". Floruit_sentence_5

Broadly, the term is employed in reference to the peak of activity for a person, movement, or such. Floruit_sentence_6

More specifically, it often is used in genealogy and historical writing when a person's birth or death dates are unknown, but some other evidence exists that indicates when he or she was alive. Floruit_sentence_7

For example, if there are wills attested by John Jones in 1204, and 1229, and a record of his marriage in 1197, a record concerning him might be written as "John Jones (fl. 1197–1229)". Floruit_sentence_8

The term is often used in art history when dating the career of an artist. Floruit_sentence_9

In this context, it denotes the period of the individual's artistic activity. Floruit_sentence_10

In some cases, it can be replaced by the words "active between [date] and [date]", depending on context and if space or style permits. Floruit_sentence_11

See also Floruit_section_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floruit.