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This article is about the State of Florida. Florida_sentence_0

For other uses, see Florida (disambiguation). Florida_sentence_1


CountryFlorida_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesFlorida_cell_0_1_1
Before statehoodFlorida_header_cell_0_2_0 Florida TerritoryFlorida_cell_0_2_1
Admitted to the UnionFlorida_header_cell_0_3_0 March 3, 1845 (27th)Florida_cell_0_3_1
CapitalFlorida_header_cell_0_4_0 TallahasseeFlorida_cell_0_4_1
Largest cityFlorida_header_cell_0_5_0 JacksonvilleFlorida_cell_0_5_1
Largest metroFlorida_header_cell_0_6_0 MiamiFlorida_cell_0_6_1
GovernorFlorida_header_cell_0_8_0 Ron DeSantis (R)Florida_cell_0_8_1
Lieutenant GovernorFlorida_header_cell_0_9_0 Jeanette Núñez (R)Florida_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureFlorida_header_cell_0_10_0 Florida LegislatureFlorida_cell_0_10_1
Upper houseFlorida_header_cell_0_11_0 SenateFlorida_cell_0_11_1
Lower houseFlorida_header_cell_0_12_0 House of RepresentativesFlorida_cell_0_12_1
JudiciaryFlorida_header_cell_0_13_0 Supreme Court of FloridaFlorida_cell_0_13_1
U.S. senatorsFlorida_header_cell_0_14_0 Marco Rubio (R)

Rick Scott (R)Florida_cell_0_14_1

U.S. House delegationFlorida_header_cell_0_15_0 14 Republicans

13 Democrats (list)Florida_cell_0_15_1

TotalFlorida_header_cell_0_17_0 65,757.70 sq mi (170,312 km)Florida_cell_0_17_1
Area rankFlorida_header_cell_0_18_0 22ndFlorida_cell_0_18_1
LengthFlorida_header_cell_0_20_0 447 mi (721 km)Florida_cell_0_20_1
WidthFlorida_header_cell_0_21_0 361 mi (582 km)Florida_cell_0_21_1
ElevationFlorida_header_cell_0_22_0 100 ft (30 m)Florida_cell_0_22_1
Highest elevation (Britton Hill)Florida_header_cell_0_23_0 345 ft (105 m)Florida_cell_0_23_1
Lowest elevation (Atlantic Ocean)Florida_header_cell_0_24_0 0 ft (0 m)Florida_cell_0_24_1
Population (2019)Florida_header_cell_0_25_0
TotalFlorida_header_cell_0_26_0 21,477,737Florida_cell_0_26_1
RankFlorida_header_cell_0_27_0 3rdFlorida_cell_0_27_1
DensityFlorida_header_cell_0_28_0 384.3/sq mi (121.0/km)Florida_cell_0_28_1
Density rankFlorida_header_cell_0_29_0 8thFlorida_cell_0_29_1
Median household incomeFlorida_header_cell_0_30_0 $53,267Florida_cell_0_30_1
Income rankFlorida_header_cell_0_31_0 40thFlorida_cell_0_31_1
Demonym(s)Florida_header_cell_0_32_0 Floridian, FloridanFlorida_cell_0_32_1
Official languageFlorida_header_cell_0_34_0 EnglishFlorida_cell_0_34_1
Spoken languageFlorida_header_cell_0_35_0 Predominantly English and SpanishFlorida_cell_0_35_1
Time zonesFlorida_header_cell_0_36_0
Peninsula and "Big Bend" regionFlorida_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC−05:00 (Eastern)Florida_cell_0_37_1
Summer (DST)Florida_header_cell_0_38_0 UTC−04:00 (EDT)Florida_cell_0_38_1
Panhandle west of the Apalachicola RiverFlorida_header_cell_0_39_0 UTC−06:00 (Central)Florida_cell_0_39_1
Summer (DST)Florida_header_cell_0_40_0 UTC−05:00 (CDT)Florida_cell_0_40_1
USPS abbreviationFlorida_header_cell_0_41_0 FLFlorida_cell_0_41_1
ISO 3166 codeFlorida_header_cell_0_42_0 US-FLFlorida_cell_0_42_1
Traditional abbreviationFlorida_header_cell_0_43_0 Fla.Florida_cell_0_43_1
LatitudeFlorida_header_cell_0_44_0 24° 27' N to 31° 00' NFlorida_cell_0_44_1
LongitudeFlorida_header_cell_0_45_0 80° 02' W to 87° 38' WFlorida_cell_0_45_1
WebsiteFlorida_header_cell_0_46_0 Florida_cell_0_46_1


Florida state symbolsFlorida_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaFlorida_header_cell_1_1_0
AmphibianFlorida_header_cell_1_2_0 Barking tree frogFlorida_cell_1_2_1
BirdFlorida_header_cell_1_3_0 Northern mockingbirdFlorida_cell_1_3_1
FishFlorida_header_cell_1_4_0 Florida largemouth bass, Atlantic sailfishFlorida_cell_1_4_1
FlowerFlorida_header_cell_1_5_0 Orange blossomFlorida_cell_1_5_1
InsectFlorida_header_cell_1_6_0 Zebra longwingFlorida_cell_1_6_1
MammalFlorida_header_cell_1_7_0 Florida panther, manatee, bottlenose dolphin, Florida Cracker HorseFlorida_cell_1_7_1
ReptileFlorida_header_cell_1_8_0 American alligator, Loggerhead turtle, Gopher tortoiseFlorida_cell_1_8_1
TreeFlorida_header_cell_1_9_0 Sabal palmettoFlorida_cell_1_9_1
Inanimate insigniaFlorida_header_cell_1_10_0
BeverageFlorida_header_cell_1_11_0 Orange juiceFlorida_cell_1_11_1
FoodFlorida_header_cell_1_12_0 Key lime pie, OrangeFlorida_cell_1_12_1
GemstoneFlorida_header_cell_1_13_0 MoonstoneFlorida_cell_1_13_1
RockFlorida_header_cell_1_14_0 Agatized coralFlorida_cell_1_14_1
ShellFlorida_header_cell_1_15_0 Horse conchFlorida_cell_1_15_1
SoilFlorida_header_cell_1_16_0 MyakkaFlorida_cell_1_16_1
State route markerFlorida_header_cell_1_17_0
State quarterFlorida_header_cell_1_18_0

Florida (/ˈflɒrɪdə/ (listen), Spanish pronunciation: [floˈɾiða) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Florida_sentence_2

With a population of over 21 million, Florida is the third-most populous and the 22nd-most extensive of the 50 United States. Florida_sentence_3

The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida_sentence_4

The state's capital is Tallahassee and its most populous municipality is Jacksonville. Florida_sentence_5

The Miami metropolitan area, with a population of almost 6.2 million, is the most populous urban area in Florida and the seventh-most populous in the United States. Florida_sentence_6

Other urban areas in the state with a population of more than one million are Tampa Bay, Orlando, and Jacksonville. Florida_sentence_7

Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth-largest of any U.S. state, and if it were a country, Florida would be the 16th-largest economy in the world. Florida_sentence_8

The first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida ([la floˈɾiða "the land of flowers") upon landing there. Florida_sentence_9

At various points in its colonial history, Florida was administered by Spain and Great Britain. Florida_sentence_10

Florida was admitted as the 27th state on March 3, 1845. Florida_sentence_11

Florida was the principal location of the Seminole Wars (1816 – 1858), the longest and most extensive of Indian Wars in United States history. Florida_sentence_12

Florida declared its secession from the Union on January 10, 1861, and was one of the seven original Confederate States. Florida_sentence_13

After the Civil War, Florida was restored to the Union on June 25, 1868. Florida_sentence_14

Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues. Florida_sentence_15

The state's economy relies mainly on tourism, agriculture, and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century. Florida_sentence_16

Florida is also renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, and as a popular destination for retirees. Florida_sentence_17

It is the flattest state in the United States, and Lake Okeechobee is its largest freshwater lake. Florida_sentence_18

The state's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of Florida culture and daily life. Florida_sentence_19

Florida is a reflection of influences and multiple inheritance; African, European, indigenous, Latino, and Asian heritages can be found in the architecture and cuisine. Florida_sentence_20

Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, and continues to attract celebrities and athletes. Florida_sentence_21

It is internationally known for golf, tennis, auto racing, and water sports. Florida_sentence_22

Several beaches in Florida have turquoise and emerald-colored coastal waters. Florida_sentence_23

About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Florida_sentence_24

Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States, approximately 1,350 miles (2,170 km), not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida_sentence_25

Florida has a total of 4,510 islands that are ten acres (4 ha) or larger in area. Florida_sentence_26

This is the second-highest number of islands of any state; only Alaska has more. Florida_sentence_27

It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Florida_sentence_28

Much of the state is at or near sea level, and is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida_sentence_29

Florida has the lowest high point of any U.S. state. Florida_sentence_30

The American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, and manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Florida_sentence_31

The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south. Florida_sentence_32

Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that have a tropical climate, and is the only continental state that has both a tropical climate and a coral reef. Florida_sentence_33

The Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, and the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world (after the Great Barrier Reef and Belize Barrier Reef). Florida_sentence_34

History Florida_section_0

Main article: History of Florida Florida_sentence_35

By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast. Florida_sentence_36

European arrival Florida_section_1

Main articles: New Spain, Spanish Florida, French and Indian War, Treaty of Paris (1763), West Florida, East Florida, Indian Reserve (1763), American Revolutionary War, Gulf Coast campaign, Treaty of Paris (1783), and Spanish West Florida Florida_sentence_37

Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. Florida_sentence_38

The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Florida_sentence_39

Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513. Florida_sentence_40

He named it La Florida in recognition of the verdant landscape and because it was the Easter season, which the Spaniards called Pascua Florida (Festival of Flowers). Florida_sentence_41

The following day they came ashore to seek information and take possession of this new land. Florida_sentence_42

The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and appeared only long after his death. Florida_sentence_43

In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land. Florida_sentence_44

He described a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet (21 m), with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. Florida_sentence_45

The Spanish introduced Christianity, cattle, horses, sheep, the Castilian language, and more to Florida. Florida_sentence_46

Spain established several settlements in Florida, with varying degrees of success. Florida_sentence_47

In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was mostly abandoned by 1561. Florida_sentence_48

In 1564-65 there was a French settlement at Fort Caroline, in present Duval County, which was destroyed by the Spanish. Florida_sentence_49

In 1565, the settlement of St. Florida_sentence_50

Augustine (San Agustín) was established under the leadership of admiral and governor Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, creating what would become one of the oldest, continuously-occupied European settlements in the continental U.S. and establishing the first generation of Floridanos and the Government of Florida. Florida_sentence_51

Spain maintained strategic control over the region by converting the local tribes to Christianity. Florida_sentence_52

The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville, and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian, occurred in 1565 in St. Augustine. Florida_sentence_53

It is the first recorded Christian marriage in the continental United States. Florida_sentence_54

Some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, and their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos. Florida_sentence_55

The Spanish encouraged slaves from the Thirteen Colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. Florida_sentence_56

King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism. Florida_sentence_57

Most went to the area around St. Florida_sentence_58

Augustine, but escaped slaves also reached Pensacola. Florida_sentence_59

St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spanish Florida as early as 1683. Florida_sentence_60

The geographical area of Spanish claims in La Florida diminished with the establishment of English settlements to the north and French claims to the west. Florida_sentence_61

English colonists and buccaneers launched several attacks on St. Augustine in the 17th and 18th centuries, razing the city and its cathedral to the ground several times. Florida_sentence_62

Spain built the Castillo de San Marcos in 1672 and Fort Matanzas in 1742 to defend Florida's capital city from attacks, and to maintain its strategic position in the defense of the Captaincy General of Cuba and the Spanish West Indies. Florida_sentence_63

In 1738, the Spanish governor of Florida Manuel de Montiano established Fort Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose near St. Augustine, a fortified town for escaped slaves to whom Montiano granted citizenship and freedom in return for their service in the Florida militia, and which became the first free black settlement legally sanctioned in North America. Florida_sentence_64

In 1763, Spain traded Florida to the Kingdom of Great Britain for control of Havana, Cuba, which had been captured by the British during the Seven Years' War. Florida_sentence_65

The trade was done as part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris which ended the Seven Year's War. Florida_sentence_66

Spain was granted Louisiana from France due to their loss of Florida. Florida_sentence_67

A large portion of the Florida population left, taking along large portions of the remaining indigenous population with them to Cuba. Florida_sentence_68

The British soon constructed the King's Road connecting St. Augustine to Georgia. Florida_sentence_69

The road crossed the St. Florida_sentence_70

Johns River at a narrow point called Wacca Pilatka, or the British name "Cow Ford", reflecting the fact that cattle were brought across the river there. Florida_sentence_71

The British divided and consolidated the Florida provinces (Las Floridas) into East Florida and West Florida, a division the Spanish government kept after the brief British period. Florida_sentence_72

The British government gave land grants to officers and soldiers who had fought in the French and Indian War in order to encourage settlement. Florida_sentence_73

In order to induce settlers to move to Florida, reports of its natural wealth were published in England. Florida_sentence_74

A number of British settlers who were described as being "energetic and of good character" moved to Florida, mostly coming from South Carolina, Georgia and England. Florida_sentence_75

There was also a group of settlers who came from the colony of Bermuda. Florida_sentence_76

This would be the first permanent English-speaking population in what is now Duval County, Baker County, St. Florida_sentence_77

Johns County and Nassau County. Florida_sentence_78

The British constructed high-quality public roads and introduced the cultivation of sugar cane, indigo and fruits as well as the export of lumber. Florida_sentence_79

The British governors were directed to call general assemblies as soon as possible in order to make laws for the Floridas, and in the meantime they were, with the advice of councils, to establish courts. Florida_sentence_80

This was the first introduction of the English-derived legal system which Florida still has today, including trial by jury, habeas corpus and county-based government. Florida_sentence_81

Neither East Florida nor West Florida sent any representatives to Philadelphia to draft the Declaration of Independence. Florida_sentence_82

Florida remained a Loyalist stronghold for the duration of the American Revolution. Florida_sentence_83

Spain regained both East and West Florida after Britain's defeat in the Revolutionary War and the subsequent Treaty of Versailles in 1783, and continued the provincial divisions until 1821. Florida_sentence_84

Joining the United States; Indian removal Florida_section_2

See also: Republic of East Florida, Seminole Wars, Adams–Onís Treaty, Florida Territory, Admission to the Union, and List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union Florida_sentence_85

Defense of Florida's northern border with the United States was minor during the second Spanish period. Florida_sentence_86

The region became a haven for escaped slaves and a base for Indian attacks against U.S. territories, and the U.S. pressed Spain for reform. Florida_sentence_87

Americans of English descent and Americans of Scots-Irish descent began moving into northern Florida from the backwoods of Georgia and South Carolina. Florida_sentence_88

Though technically not allowed by the Spanish authorities and the Floridan government, they were never able to effectively police the border region and the backwoods settlers from the United States would continue to immigrate into Florida unchecked. Florida_sentence_89

These migrants, mixing with the already present British settlers who had remained in Florida since the British period, would be the progenitors of the population known as Florida Crackers. Florida_sentence_90

These American settlers established a permanent foothold in the area and ignored Spanish authorities. Florida_sentence_91

The British settlers who had remained also resented Spanish rule, leading to a rebellion in 1810 and the establishment for ninety days of the so-called Free and Independent Republic of West Florida on September 23. Florida_sentence_92

After meetings beginning in June, rebels overcame the garrison at Baton Rouge (now in Louisiana), and unfurled the flag of the new republic: a single white star on a blue field. Florida_sentence_93

This flag would later become known as the "Bonnie Blue Flag". Florida_sentence_94

In 1810, parts of West Florida were annexed by proclamation of President James Madison, who claimed the region as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Florida_sentence_95

These parts were incorporated into the newly formed Territory of Orleans. Florida_sentence_96

The U.S. annexed the Mobile District of West Florida to the Mississippi Territory in 1812. Florida_sentence_97

Spain continued to dispute the area, though the United States gradually increased the area it occupied. Florida_sentence_98

In 1812, a group of settlers from Georgia, with de facto support from the U.S. federal government, attempted to overthrow the Floridan government in the province of East Florida. Florida_sentence_99

The settlers hoped to convince Floridans to join their cause and proclaim independence from Spain, but the settlers lost their tenuous support from the federal government and abandoned their cause by 1813. Florida_sentence_100

Seminoles based in East Florida began raiding Georgia settlements, and offering havens for runaway slaves. Florida_sentence_101

The United States Army led increasingly frequent incursions into Spanish territory, including the 1817–1818 campaign against the Seminole Indians by Andrew Jackson that became known as the First Seminole War. Florida_sentence_102

The United States now effectively controlled East Florida. Florida_sentence_103

Control was necessary according to Secretary of State John Quincy Adams because Florida had become "a derelict open to the occupancy of every enemy, civilized or savage, of the United States, and serving no other earthly purpose than as a post of annoyance to them." Florida_sentence_104

Florida had become a burden to Spain, which could not afford to send settlers or troops due to the devastation caused by the Peninsular War. Florida_sentence_105

Madrid therefore decided to cede the territory to the United States through the Adams–Onís Treaty, which took effect in 1821. Florida_sentence_106

President James Monroe was authorized on March 3, 1821 to take possession of East Florida and West Florida for the United States and provide for initial governance. Florida_sentence_107

Andrew Jackson, on behalf of the U.S. federal government, served as a military commissioner with the powers of governor of the newly acquired territory for a brief period. Florida_sentence_108

On March 30, 1822, the U.S. Congress merged East Florida and part of West Florida into the Florida Territory. Florida_sentence_109

By the early 1800s, Indian removal was a significant issue throughout the southeastern U.S. and also in Florida. Florida_sentence_110

In 1830, the U.S. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act and as settlement increased, pressure grew on the U.S. government to remove the Indians from Florida. Florida_sentence_111

Seminoles offered sanctuary to blacks, and these became known as the Black Seminoles, and clashes between whites and Indians grew with the influx of new settlers. Florida_sentence_112

In 1832, the Treaty of Payne's Landing promised to the Seminoles lands west of the Mississippi River if they agreed to leave Florida. Florida_sentence_113

Many Seminole left at this time. Florida_sentence_114

Some Seminoles remained, and the U.S. Army arrived in Florida, leading to the Second Seminole War (1835–1842). Florida_sentence_115

Following the war, approximately 3,000 Seminole and 800 Black Seminole were removed to Indian Territory. Florida_sentence_116

A few hundred Seminole remained in Florida in the Everglades. Florida_sentence_117

On March 3, 1845, only one day before the end of President John Tyler's term in office, Florida became the 27th state, admitted as a slave state and no longer a sanctuary for runaway slaves. Florida_sentence_118

Initially its population grew slowly. Florida_sentence_119

As European settlers continued to encroach on Seminole lands, the United States intervened to move the remaining Seminoles to the West. Florida_sentence_120

The Third Seminole War (1855–58) resulted in the forced removal of most of the remaining Seminoles, although hundreds of Seminole Indians remained in the Everglades. Florida_sentence_121

Slavery, war, and disenfranchisement Florida_section_3

Main articles: Ordinance of Secession, Confederate States of America, and Florida in the American Civil War Florida_sentence_122

American settlers began to establish cotton plantations in north Florida, which required numerous laborers, which they supplied by buying slaves in the domestic market. Florida_sentence_123

By 1860, Florida had only 140,424 people, of whom 44% were enslaved. Florida_sentence_124

There were fewer than 1,000 free African Americans before the American Civil War. Florida_sentence_125

On January 10, 1861, nearly all delegates in the Florida Legislature approved an ordinance of secession, declaring Florida to be "a sovereign and independent nation"—an apparent reassertion to the preamble in Florida's Constitution of 1838, in which Florida agreed with Congress to be a "Free and Independent State." Florida_sentence_126

The ordinance declared Florida's secession from the Union, allowing it to become one of the founding members of the Confederate States. Florida_sentence_127

The Confederacy received little help from Florida; the 15,000 men it offered were generally sent elsewhere. Florida_sentence_128

Instead of men and manufactured goods, Florida did provide salt and, more importantly, beef to feed the Confederate armies. Florida_sentence_129

This was particularly important after 1864, when the Confederacy lost control of the Mississippi River, thereby losing access to Texas beef. Florida_sentence_130

The largest engagements in the state were the Battle of Olustee, on February 20, 1864, and the Battle of Natural Bridge, on March 6, 1865. Florida_sentence_131

Both were Confederate victories. Florida_sentence_132

The war ended in 1865. Florida_sentence_133

Reconstruction era and end of the 19th century Florida_section_4

Following the American Civil War, Florida's congressional representation was restored on June 25, 1868, albeit forcefully after Radical Reconstruction and the installation of unelected government officials under the final authority of federal military commanders. Florida_sentence_134

After the Reconstruction period ended in 1876, white Democrats regained power in the state legislature. Florida_sentence_135

In 1885, they created a new constitution, followed by statutes through 1889 that disfranchised most blacks and many poor whites. Florida_sentence_136

In the pre-automobile era, railroads played a key role in the state's development, particularly in coastal areas. Florida_sentence_137

In 1883, the Pensacola and Atlantic Railroad connected Pensacola and the rest of the Panhandle to the rest of the state. Florida_sentence_138

In 1884 the South Florida Railroad (later absorbed by Atlantic Coast Line Railroad) opened full service to Tampa. Florida_sentence_139

In 1894 the Florida East Coast Railway reached West Palm Beach; in 1896 it reached Biscayne Bay near Miami. Florida_sentence_140

Numerous other railroads were built all over the interior of the state. Florida_sentence_141

Until the mid-20th century, Florida was the least populous state in the southern United States. Florida_sentence_142

In 1900, its population was only 528,542, of whom nearly 44% were African American, the same proportion as before the Civil War. Florida_sentence_143

The boll weevil devastated cotton crops. Florida_sentence_144

Forty thousand blacks, roughly one-fifth of their 1900 population levels in Florida, left the state in the Great Migration. Florida_sentence_145

They left due to lynchings and racial violence, and for better opportunities in the North and the West. Florida_sentence_146

Disfranchisement for most African Americans in the state persisted until the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s gained federal legislation in 1965 to enforce protection of their constitutional suffrage. Florida_sentence_147

20th- and 21st-century growth Florida_section_5

Historically, Florida's economy has been based primarily upon agricultural products such as cattle, sugar cane, citrus fruits, tomatoes, and strawberries. Florida_sentence_148

In 1925, the Seaboard Air Line broke the FEC's southeast Florida monopoly and extended its freight and passenger service to West Palm Beach; two years later it extended passenger service to Miami. Florida_sentence_149

Economic prosperity in the 1920s stimulated tourism to Florida and related development of hotels and resort communities. Florida_sentence_150

Combined with its sudden elevation in profile was the Florida land boom of the 1920s, which brought a brief period of intense land development. Florida_sentence_151

Devastating hurricanes in 1926 and 1928, followed by the Great Depression, brought that period to a halt. Florida_sentence_152

Florida's economy did not fully recover until the military buildup for World War II. Florida_sentence_153

In 1939, Florida was described as "still very largely an empty State." Florida_sentence_154

Subsequently, the growing availability of air conditioning, the climate, and a low cost of living made the state a haven. Florida_sentence_155

Migration from the Rust Belt and the Northeast sharply increased Florida's population after 1945. Florida_sentence_156

In the 1960s, many refugees from Cuba fleeing Fidel Castro's communist regime arrived in Miami at the Freedom Tower, where the federal government used the facility to process, document and provide medical and dental services for the newcomers. Florida_sentence_157

As a result, the Freedom Tower was also called the "Ellis Island of the South." Florida_sentence_158

In recent decades, more migrants have come for the jobs in a developing economy. Florida_sentence_159

With a population of more than 18 million, according to the 2010 census, Florida is the most populous state in the southeastern United States and the third-most populous in the United States. Florida_sentence_160

The population of Florida has boomed in recent years with the state being the recipient of the largest number of out-of-state movers in the country as of 2019. Florida_sentence_161

Florida's growth has been widespread, as cities throughout the state have grown since 2010. Florida_sentence_162

After Hurricane Maria devastated Puerto Rico in September 2017, a large population of Puerto Ricans began moving to Florida to escape the widespread destruction. Florida_sentence_163

Hundreds of thousands of Puerto Ricans arrived in Florida after Maria dissipated, with nearly half of them arriving in Orlando and large populations also moving to Tampa, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach. Florida_sentence_164

Geography Florida_section_6

Main article: Geography of Florida Florida_sentence_165

See also: List of counties in Florida, List of places in Florida, List of municipalities in Florida, List of islands of Florida, and List of Florida state parks Florida_sentence_166

Much of Florida is on a peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic Ocean and the Straits of Florida. Florida_sentence_167

Spanning two time zones, it extends to the northwest into a panhandle, extending along the northern Gulf of Mexico. Florida_sentence_168

It is bordered on the north by Georgia and Alabama, and on the west, at the end of the panhandle, by Alabama. Florida_sentence_169

It is the only state that borders both the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Florida_sentence_170

Florida also is the southernmost of the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii being the only one of the fifty states reaching farther south. Florida_sentence_171

Florida is west of The Bahamas and 90 miles (140 km) north of Cuba. Florida_sentence_172

Florida is one of the largest states east of the Mississippi River, and only Alaska and Michigan are larger in water area. Florida_sentence_173

The water boundary is 3 nautical miles (3.5 mi; 5.6 km) offshore in the Atlantic Ocean and 9 nautical miles (10 mi; 17 km) offshore in the Gulf of Mexico. Florida_sentence_174

At 345 feet (105 m) above mean sea level, Britton Hill is the highest point in Florida and the lowest highpoint of any U.S. state. Florida_sentence_175

Much of the state south of Orlando lies at a lower elevation than northern Florida, and is fairly level. Florida_sentence_176

Much of the state is at or near sea level. Florida_sentence_177

However, some places such as Clearwater have promontories that rise 50 to 100 ft (15 to 30 m) above the water. Florida_sentence_178

Much of Central and North Florida, typically 25 mi (40 km) or more away from the coastline, have rolling hills with elevations ranging from 100 to 250 ft (30 to 76 m). Florida_sentence_179

The highest point in peninsular Florida (east and south of the Suwannee River), Sugarloaf Mountain, is a 312-foot (95 m) peak in Lake County. Florida_sentence_180

On average, Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Florida_sentence_181

Climate Florida_section_7

Main article: Climate of Florida Florida_sentence_182

See also: List of Florida hurricanes and U.S. Florida_sentence_183

state temperature extremes Florida_sentence_184

The climate of Florida is tempered somewhat by the fact that no part of the state is distant from the ocean. Florida_sentence_185

North of Lake Okeechobee, the prevalent climate is humid subtropical (Köppen: Cfa), while areas south of the lake (including the Florida Keys) have a true tropical climate (Köppen: Aw, Am, and Af). Florida_sentence_186

Mean high temperatures for late July are primarily in the low 90s Fahrenheit (32–34 °C). Florida_sentence_187

Mean low temperatures for early to mid January range from the low 40s Fahrenheit (4–7 °C) in north Florida to above 60 °F (16 °C) from Miami on southward. Florida_sentence_188

With an average daily temperature of 70.7 °F (21.5 °C), it is the warmest state in the U.S. Florida_sentence_189

In the summer, high temperatures in the state rarely exceed 100 °F (37.8 °C). Florida_sentence_190

Several record cold maxima have been in the 30s °F (−1 to 4 °C) and record lows have been in the 10s (−12 to −7 °C). Florida_sentence_191

These temperatures normally extend at most a few days at a time in the northern and central parts of Florida. Florida_sentence_192

South Florida, however, rarely encounters below freezing temperatures. Florida_sentence_193

The hottest temperature ever recorded in Florida was 109 °F (43 °C), which was set on June 29, 1931 in Monticello. Florida_sentence_194

The coldest temperature was −2 °F (−19 °C), on February 13, 1899, just 25 miles (40 km) away, in Tallahassee. Florida_sentence_195

Due to its subtropical and tropical climate, Florida rarely receives measurable snowfall. Florida_sentence_196

However, on rare occasions, a combination of cold moisture and freezing temperatures can result in snowfall in the farthest northern regions like Jacksonville, Gainesville or Pensacola. Florida_sentence_197

Frost, which is more common than snow, sometimes occurs in the panhandle. Florida_sentence_198

The USDA Plant hardiness zones for the state range from zone 8a (no colder than 10 °F or −12 °C) in the inland western panhandle to zone 11b (no colder than 45 °F or 7 °C) in the lower Florida Keys. Florida_sentence_199

Fog also occurs all over the state or climate of Florida. Florida_sentence_200


Average high and low temperatures for various Florida citiesFlorida_cell_2_0_0
°FFlorida_cell_2_1_0 JanFlorida_cell_2_1_1 FebFlorida_cell_2_1_2 MarFlorida_cell_2_1_3 AprFlorida_cell_2_1_4 MayFlorida_cell_2_1_5 JunFlorida_cell_2_1_6 JulFlorida_cell_2_1_7 AugFlorida_cell_2_1_8 SepFlorida_cell_2_1_9 OctFlorida_cell_2_1_10 NovFlorida_cell_2_1_11 DecFlorida_cell_2_1_12
JacksonvilleFlorida_cell_2_2_0 65/42Florida_cell_2_2_1 68/45Florida_cell_2_2_2 74/50Florida_cell_2_2_3 79/55Florida_cell_2_2_4 86/63Florida_cell_2_2_5 90/70Florida_cell_2_2_6 92/73Florida_cell_2_2_7 91/73Florida_cell_2_2_8 87/69Florida_cell_2_2_9 80/61Florida_cell_2_2_10 74/51Florida_cell_2_2_11 67/44Florida_cell_2_2_12
MiamiFlorida_cell_2_3_0 76/60Florida_cell_2_3_1 78/62Florida_cell_2_3_2 80/65Florida_cell_2_3_3 83/68Florida_cell_2_3_4 87/73Florida_cell_2_3_5 89/76Florida_cell_2_3_6 91/77Florida_cell_2_3_7 91/77Florida_cell_2_3_8 89/76Florida_cell_2_3_9 86/73Florida_cell_2_3_10 82/68Florida_cell_2_3_11 78/63Florida_cell_2_3_12
OrlandoFlorida_cell_2_4_0 71/49Florida_cell_2_4_1 74/52Florida_cell_2_4_2 78/56Florida_cell_2_4_3 83/60Florida_cell_2_4_4 88/66Florida_cell_2_4_5 91/72Florida_cell_2_4_6 92/74Florida_cell_2_4_7 92/74Florida_cell_2_4_8 90/73Florida_cell_2_4_9 85/66Florida_cell_2_4_10 78/59Florida_cell_2_4_11 73/52Florida_cell_2_4_12
PensacolaFlorida_cell_2_5_0 61/43Florida_cell_2_5_1 64/46Florida_cell_2_5_2 70/51Florida_cell_2_5_3 76/58Florida_cell_2_5_4 84/66Florida_cell_2_5_5 89/72Florida_cell_2_5_6 90/74Florida_cell_2_5_7 90/74Florida_cell_2_5_8 87/70Florida_cell_2_5_9 80/60Florida_cell_2_5_10 70/50Florida_cell_2_5_11 63/45Florida_cell_2_5_12
TallahasseeFlorida_cell_2_6_0 64/39Florida_cell_2_6_1 68/42Florida_cell_2_6_2 74/47Florida_cell_2_6_3 80/52Florida_cell_2_6_4 87/62Florida_cell_2_6_5 91/70Florida_cell_2_6_6 92/72Florida_cell_2_6_7 92/72Florida_cell_2_6_8 89/68Florida_cell_2_6_9 82/57Florida_cell_2_6_10 73/48Florida_cell_2_6_11 66/41Florida_cell_2_6_12
TampaFlorida_cell_2_7_0 70/51Florida_cell_2_7_1 73/54Florida_cell_2_7_2 77/58Florida_cell_2_7_3 81/62Florida_cell_2_7_4 88/69Florida_cell_2_7_5 90/74Florida_cell_2_7_6 90/75Florida_cell_2_7_7 91/76Florida_cell_2_7_8 89/74Florida_cell_2_7_9 85/67Florida_cell_2_7_10 78/60Florida_cell_2_7_11 72/54Florida_cell_2_7_12


°CFlorida_cell_3_0_0 JanFlorida_cell_3_0_1 FebFlorida_cell_3_0_2 MarFlorida_cell_3_0_3 AprFlorida_cell_3_0_4 MayFlorida_cell_3_0_5 JunFlorida_cell_3_0_6 JulFlorida_cell_3_0_7 AugFlorida_cell_3_0_8 SepFlorida_cell_3_0_9 OctFlorida_cell_3_0_10 NovFlorida_cell_3_0_11 DecFlorida_cell_3_0_12
JacksonvilleFlorida_cell_3_1_0 18/6Florida_cell_3_1_1 20/7Florida_cell_3_1_2 23/10Florida_cell_3_1_3 26/13Florida_cell_3_1_4 30/17Florida_cell_3_1_5 32/21Florida_cell_3_1_6 33/23Florida_cell_3_1_7 33/23Florida_cell_3_1_8 31/21Florida_cell_3_1_9 27/16Florida_cell_3_1_10 23/11Florida_cell_3_1_11 19/7Florida_cell_3_1_12
MiamiFlorida_cell_3_2_0 24/16Florida_cell_3_2_1 26/17Florida_cell_3_2_2 27/18Florida_cell_3_2_3 28/20Florida_cell_3_2_4 31/23Florida_cell_3_2_5 32/24Florida_cell_3_2_6 33/25Florida_cell_3_2_7 33/25Florida_cell_3_2_8 32/24Florida_cell_3_2_9 30/23Florida_cell_3_2_10 28/20Florida_cell_3_2_11 26/17Florida_cell_3_2_12
OrlandoFlorida_cell_3_3_0 22/9Florida_cell_3_3_1 23/11Florida_cell_3_3_2 26/13Florida_cell_3_3_3 28/16Florida_cell_3_3_4 31/19Florida_cell_3_3_5 33/22Florida_cell_3_3_6 33/23Florida_cell_3_3_7 33/23Florida_cell_3_3_8 32/23Florida_cell_3_3_9 29/19Florida_cell_3_3_10 26/15Florida_cell_3_3_11 23/11Florida_cell_3_3_12
PensacolaFlorida_cell_3_4_0 16/6Florida_cell_3_4_1 18/8Florida_cell_3_4_2 21/11Florida_cell_3_4_3 24/14Florida_cell_3_4_4 29/19Florida_cell_3_4_5 32/22Florida_cell_3_4_6 32/23Florida_cell_3_4_7 32/23Florida_cell_3_4_8 31/21Florida_cell_3_4_9 27/16Florida_cell_3_4_10 21/10Florida_cell_3_4_11 17/7Florida_cell_3_4_12
TallahasseeFlorida_cell_3_5_0 18/4Florida_cell_3_5_1 20/6Florida_cell_3_5_2 23/8Florida_cell_3_5_3 27/11Florida_cell_3_5_4 31/17Florida_cell_3_5_5 33/21Florida_cell_3_5_6 33/22Florida_cell_3_5_7 33/22Florida_cell_3_5_8 32/20Florida_cell_3_5_9 28/14Florida_cell_3_5_10 23/9Florida_cell_3_5_11 19/5Florida_cell_3_5_12
TampaFlorida_cell_3_6_0 21/11Florida_cell_3_6_1 23/12Florida_cell_3_6_2 25/14Florida_cell_3_6_3 27/17Florida_cell_3_6_4 31/21Florida_cell_3_6_5 32/23Florida_cell_3_6_6 32/24Florida_cell_3_6_7 33/24Florida_cell_3_6_8 32/23Florida_cell_3_6_9 29/19Florida_cell_3_6_10 26/16Florida_cell_3_6_11 22/12Florida_cell_3_6_12

Florida's nickname is the "Sunshine State", but severe weather is a common occurrence in the state. Florida_sentence_201

Central Florida is known as the lightning capital of the United States, as it experiences more lightning strikes than anywhere else in the country. Florida_sentence_202

Florida has one of the highest average precipitation levels of any state, in large part because afternoon thunderstorms are common in much of the state from late spring until early autumn. Florida_sentence_203

A narrow eastern part of the state including Orlando and Jacksonville receives between 2,400 and 2,800 hours of sunshine annually. Florida_sentence_204

The rest of the state, including Miami, receives between 2,800 and 3,200 hours annually. Florida_sentence_205

Florida leads the United States in tornadoes per area (when including waterspouts), but they do not typically reach the intensity of those in the Midwest and Great Plains. Florida_sentence_206

Hail often accompanies the most severe thunderstorms. Florida_sentence_207

Hurricanes pose a severe threat each year from June 1 to November 30, particularly from August to October. Florida_sentence_208

Florida is the most hurricane-prone state, with subtropical or tropical water on a lengthy coastline. Florida_sentence_209

Of the category 4 or higher storms that have struck the United States, 83% have either hit Florida or Texas. Florida_sentence_210

From 1851 to 2006, Florida was struck by 114 hurricanes, 37 of them major—category 3 and above. Florida_sentence_211

It is rare for a hurricane season to pass without any impact in the state by at least a tropical storm. Florida_sentence_212

In 1992, Florida was the site of what was then the costliest weather disaster in U.S. history, Hurricane Andrew, which caused more than $25 billion in damages when it struck during August; it held that distinction until 2005, when Hurricane Katrina surpassed it, and it has since been surpassed by six other hurricanes. Florida_sentence_213

Andrew is currently the second costliest hurricane in Florida's history. Florida_sentence_214

Fauna Florida_section_8

Further information: Fauna of Florida and List of invasive species in Florida Florida_sentence_215

Florida is host to many types of wildlife including: Florida_sentence_216




Florida also has more than 500 nonnative animal species and 1,000 nonnative insects found throughout the state. Florida_sentence_217

Some exotic species living in Florida include the Burmese python, green iguana, veiled chameleon, Argentine black and white tegu, peacock bass, mayan cichlid, lionfish, White-nosed coati, rhesus macaque, vervet monkey, Cuban tree frog, cane toad, Indian peafowl, monk parakeet, tui parakeet, and many more. Florida_sentence_218

Some of these nonnative species do not pose a threat to any native species, but some do threaten the native species of Florida by living in the state and eating them. Florida_sentence_219

Flora Florida_section_9

Further information: Florida mangroves and List of invasive plant species in Florida Florida_sentence_220

The state has more than 26,000 square miles (67,000 km) of forests, covering about half of the state's land area. Florida_sentence_221

There are about 3,000 different types of wildflowers in Florida. Florida_sentence_222

This is the third-most diverse state in the union, behind California and Texas, both larger states. Florida_sentence_223

In Florida, wild populations of coconut palms extend up the East Coast from Key West to Jupiter Inlet, and up the West Coast from Marco Island to Sarasota. Florida_sentence_224

Many of the smallest coral islands in the Florida Keys are known to have abundant coconut palms sprouting from coconuts deposited by ocean currents. Florida_sentence_225

Coconut palms are cultivated north of south Florida to roughly Cocoa Beach on the East Coast and the Tampa Bay Area on the West Coast. Florida_sentence_226

On the east coast of the state, mangroves have normally dominated the coast from Cocoa Beach southward; salt marshes from St. Florida_sentence_227

Augustine northward. Florida_sentence_228

From St. Augustine south to Cocoa Beach, the coast fluctuates between the two, depending on the annual weather conditions. Florida_sentence_229

All three mangrove species flower in the spring and early summer. Florida_sentence_230

Propagules fall from late summer through early autumn. Florida_sentence_231

Florida mangrove plant communities covered an estimated 430,000 to 540,000 acres (1,700 to 2,200 km) in Florida in 1981. Florida_sentence_232

Ninety percent of the Florida mangroves are in southern Florida, in Collier, Lee, Miami-Dade and Monroe Counties. Florida_sentence_233

Florida Reef Florida_section_10

Main article: Florida Reef Florida_sentence_234

The Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States. Florida_sentence_235

It is also the third largest coral barrier reef system in the world, after the Great Barrier Reef and the Belize Barrier Reef. Florida_sentence_236

The reef lies a little bit off of the coast of the Florida Keys. Florida_sentence_237

A lot of the reef lies within John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park, which was the first underwater park in the United States. Florida_sentence_238

The park contains a lot of tropical vegetation, marine life, and seabirds. Florida_sentence_239

The Florida Reef extends into other parks and sanctuaries as well including Dry Tortugas National Park, Biscayne National Park, and the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Florida_sentence_240

Almost 1,400 species of marine plants and animals, including more than 40 species of stony corals and 500 species of fish, live on the Florida Reef. Florida_sentence_241

The Florida Reef, being a delicate ecosystem like other coral reefs, faces many threats including overfishing, plastics in the ocean, coral bleaching, rising sea levels, and changes in sea surface temperature. Florida_sentence_242

Environmental issues Florida_section_11

Main article: Environment of Florida Florida_sentence_243

See also: Environmental issues in Florida Florida_sentence_244

Florida is a low per capita energy user. Florida_sentence_245

It is estimated that approximately 4% of energy in the state is generated through renewable resources. Florida_sentence_246

Florida's energy production is 6% of the nation's total energy output, while total production of pollutants is lower, with figures of 6% for nitrogen oxide, 5% for carbon dioxide, and 4% for sulfur dioxide. Florida_sentence_247

Wildfires in Florida occur at all times of the year. Florida_sentence_248

All potable water resources have been controlled by the state government through five regional water authorities since 1972. Florida_sentence_249

Red tide has been an issue on the southwest coast of Florida, as well as other areas. Florida_sentence_250

While there has been a great deal of conjecture over the cause of the toxic algae bloom, there is no evidence that it is being caused by pollution or that there has been an increase in the duration or frequency of red tides. Florida_sentence_251

Red tide is now killing off wildlife or Tropical fish and coral reefs putting all in danger. Florida_sentence_252

The Florida panther is close to extinction. Florida_sentence_253

A record 23 were killed in 2009, mainly by automobile collisions, leaving about 100 individuals in the wild. Florida_sentence_254

The Center for Biological Diversity and others have therefore called for a special protected area for the panther to be established. Florida_sentence_255

Manatees are also dying at a rate higher than their reproduction. Florida_sentence_256

American flamingos are rare to see in Florida due to being hunted in the 1900s, where it was to a point considered completely extirpated. Florida_sentence_257

Now the flamingos are reproducing toward making a comeback to South Florida since it is adamantly considered native to the state and also are now being protected. Florida_sentence_258

Much of Florida has an elevation of less than 12 feet (3.7 m), including many populated areas. Florida_sentence_259

Therefore, it is susceptible to rising sea levels associated with global warming. Florida_sentence_260

The Atlantic beaches that are vital to the state's economy are being washed out to sea due to rising sea levels caused by climate change. Florida_sentence_261

The Miami beach area, close to the continental shelf, is running out of accessible offshore sand reserves. Florida_sentence_262

Elevated temperatures can damage coral reefs, causing coral bleaching. Florida_sentence_263

The first recorded bleaching incident on the Florida Reef was in 1973. Florida_sentence_264

Incidents of bleaching have become more frequent in recent decades, in correlation with a rise in sea surface temperatures. Florida_sentence_265

White band disease has also adversely affected corals on the Florida Reef. Florida_sentence_266

Geology Florida_section_12

Main article: Geology of Florida Florida_sentence_267

The Florida peninsula is a porous plateau of karst limestone sitting atop bedrock known as the Florida Platform. Florida_sentence_268

The largest deposits of potash in the United States are found in Florida. Florida_sentence_269

The largest deposits of rock phosphate in the country are found in Florida. Florida_sentence_270

Most of this is in Bone Valley. Florida_sentence_271

Extended systems of underwater caves, sinkholes and springs are found throughout the state and supply most of the water used by residents. Florida_sentence_272

The limestone is topped with sandy soils deposited as ancient beaches over millions of years as global sea levels rose and fell. Florida_sentence_273

During the last glacial period, lower sea levels and a drier climate revealed a much wider peninsula, largely savanna. Florida_sentence_274

While there are sinkholes in much of the state, modern sinkholes have tended to be in West-Central Florida. Florida_sentence_275

Everglades National Park covers 1,509,000 acres (6,110 km), throughout Dade, Monroe, and Collier counties in Florida. Florida_sentence_276

The Everglades, an enormously wide, slow-flowing river encompasses the southern tip of the peninsula. Florida_sentence_277

Sinkhole damage claims on property in the state exceeded a total of $2 billion from 2006 through 2010. Florida_sentence_278

Winter Park Sinkhole, in central Florida, appeared May 8, 1981. Florida_sentence_279

It was approximately 350 feet (107 m) wide and 75 feet (23 m) deep. Florida_sentence_280

It was notable as one of the largest recent sinkholes to form in the United States. Florida_sentence_281

It is now known as Lake Rose. Florida_sentence_282

The Econlockhatchee River (Econ River for short) is an 87.7-kilometer-long (54.5 mi) north-flowing blackwater tributary of the St. Florida_sentence_283

Johns River, the longest river in the U.S. Florida_sentence_284

state of Florida. Florida_sentence_285

The Econ River flows through Osceola, Orange, and Seminole counties in Central Florida, just east of the Orlando Metropolitan Area (east of State Road 417). Florida_sentence_286

It is a designated Outstanding Florida Waters. Florida_sentence_287

Earthquakes are rare because Florida is not located near any tectonic plate boundaries. Florida_sentence_288

Regions Florida_section_13

Demographics Florida_section_14

Main article: Demographics of Florida Florida_sentence_289

See also: Culture of Florida Florida_sentence_290

Population Florida_section_15

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Florida was 21,477,737 on July 1, 2019, a 14.24% increase since the 2010 United States Census. Florida_sentence_291

The population of Florida in the 2010 census was 18,801,310. Florida_sentence_292

Florida was the seventh fastest-growing state in the U.S. in the 12-month period ending July 1, 2012. Florida_sentence_293

In 2010, the center of population of Florida was located between Fort Meade and Frostproof. Florida_sentence_294

The center of population has moved less than 5 miles (8 km) to the east and approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) to the north between 1980 and 2010 and has been located in Polk County since the 1960 census. Florida_sentence_295

The population exceeded 19.7 million by December 2014, surpassing the population of the state of New York for the first time, making Florida the third most populous state. Florida_sentence_296

The Florida population was 21,477,737 residents or people according to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2019 Population Estimates Program. Florida_sentence_297

Florida contains the highest percentage of people over 65 (17%) in the US. Florida_sentence_298

There were 186,102 military retirees living in the state in 2008. Florida_sentence_299

About two-thirds of the population was born in another state, the second highest in the U.S. Florida_sentence_300

In 2010, undocumented immigrants constituted an estimated 5.7% of the population. Florida_sentence_301

This was the sixth highest percentage of any U.S. state. Florida_sentence_302

There were an estimated 675,000 illegal immigrants in the state in 2010. Florida_sentence_303

Florida has banned sanctuary cities. Florida_sentence_304


Florida racial breakdownFlorida_table_caption_4
Racial compositionFlorida_header_cell_4_0_0 1970Florida_header_cell_4_0_1 1990Florida_header_cell_4_0_2 2000Florida_header_cell_4_0_3 2010Florida_header_cell_4_0_4 2018Florida_header_cell_4_0_5
Black or African American aloneFlorida_cell_4_1_0 15.3%Florida_cell_4_1_1 13.6%Florida_cell_4_1_2 14.6%Florida_cell_4_1_3 16.0%Florida_cell_4_1_4 16.9%Florida_cell_4_1_5
Asian aloneFlorida_cell_4_2_0 0.2%Florida_cell_4_2_1 1.2%Florida_cell_4_2_2 1.7%Florida_cell_4_2_3 2.4%Florida_cell_4_2_4 3.0%Florida_cell_4_2_5
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)Florida_cell_4_3_0 6.6%Florida_cell_4_3_1 12.2%Florida_cell_4_3_2 16.8%Florida_cell_4_3_3 22.5%Florida_cell_4_3_4 26.1%Florida_cell_4_3_5
Native American aloneFlorida_cell_4_4_0 0.1%Florida_cell_4_4_1 0.3%Florida_cell_4_4_2 0.3%Florida_cell_4_4_3 0.4%Florida_cell_4_4_4 0.5%Florida_cell_4_4_5
Two or more racesFlorida_cell_4_5_0 Florida_cell_4_5_1 Florida_cell_4_5_2 2.3%Florida_cell_4_5_3 2.5%Florida_cell_4_5_4 2.2%Florida_cell_4_5_5
White alone, not Hispanic or LatinoFlorida_cell_4_6_0 77.9%Florida_cell_4_6_1 73.2%Florida_cell_4_6_2 65.4%Florida_cell_4_6_3 57.9%Florida_cell_4_6_4 53.5%Florida_cell_4_6_5
White aloneFlorida_cell_4_7_0 84.2%Florida_cell_4_7_1 83.1%Florida_cell_4_7_2 78.0%Florida_cell_4_7_3 75.0%Florida_cell_4_7_4 77.3%Florida_cell_4_7_5

Hispanic and Latinos of any race made up 22.5% of the population in 2010. Florida_sentence_305

As of 2011, 57% of Florida's population younger than age 1 had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white. Florida_sentence_306

Cities and towns Florida_section_16

See also: List of metropolitan areas of Florida, List of municipalities in Florida, and List of urbanized areas in Florida (by population) Florida_sentence_307

The largest metropolitan area in the state as well as the entire southeastern United States is the Miami metropolitan area, with about 6.06 million people. Florida_sentence_308

The Tampa Bay Area, with more than 3.02 million, is the second largest; the Orlando metropolitan area, with more than 2.44 million, is third; and the Jacksonville metropolitan area, with more than 1.47 million, is fourth. Florida_sentence_309

Florida has 22 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Florida_sentence_310

Forty-three of Florida's 67 counties are in a MSA. Florida_sentence_311

The legal name in Florida for a city, town or village is "municipality". Florida_sentence_312

In Florida there is no legal difference between towns, villages and cities. Florida_sentence_313

Florida is a highly urbanized state, with 89 percent of its population living in urban areas in 2000, compared to 79 percent nationally. Florida_sentence_314

In 2012, 75% of the population lived within 10 miles (16 km) of the coastline. Florida_sentence_315

Ancestry Florida_section_17

In 2010, 6.9% of the population (1,269,765) considered themselves to be of only American ancestry (regardless of race or ethnicity). Florida_sentence_316

Many of these were of English or Scotch-Irish descent; however, their families have lived in the state for so long they choose to identify as having "American" ancestry or do not know their ancestry. Florida_sentence_317

In the 1980 United States census, the largest ancestry group reported in Florida was English with 2,232,514 Floridians claiming they were of English or mostly English American ancestry. Florida_sentence_318

Some of their ancestry went back to the original thirteen colonies. Florida_sentence_319

As of 2010, those of (non-Hispanic white) European ancestry accounted for 57.9% of Florida's population. Florida_sentence_320

Out of the 57.9%, the largest groups were 12.0% German (2,212,391), 10.7% Irish (1,979,058), 8.8% English (1,629,832), 6.6% Italian (1,215,242), 2.8% Polish (511,229), and 2.7% French (504,641). Florida_sentence_321

White Americans of all European backgrounds are present in all areas of the state. Florida_sentence_322

In 1970, non-Hispanic whites were nearly 80% of Florida's population. Florida_sentence_323

Those of English and Irish ancestry are present in large numbers in all the urban/suburban areas across the state. Florida_sentence_324

Some native white Floridians, especially those who have descended from long-time Florida families, may refer to themselves as "Florida crackers"; others see the term as a derogatory one. Florida_sentence_325

Like whites in most other states of the southern U.S., they descend mainly from English and Scots-Irish settlers, as well as some other British American settlers. Florida_sentence_326

As of 2010, those of Hispanic or Latino ancestry accounted for 22.5% (4,223,806) of Florida's population. Florida_sentence_327

Out of the 22.5%, the largest groups were 6.5% (1,213,438) Cuban, and 4.5% (847,550) Puerto Rican. Florida_sentence_328

Florida's Hispanic population includes large communities of Cuban Americans in Miami and Tampa, Puerto Ricans in Orlando and Tampa, and Mexican/Central American migrant workers. Florida_sentence_329

The Hispanic community continues to grow more affluent and mobile. Florida_sentence_330

Florida has a large and diverse Hispanic population, with Cubans and Puerto Ricans being the largest groups in the state. Florida_sentence_331

Nearly 80% of Cuban Americans live in Florida, especially South Florida where there is a long-standing and affluent Cuban community. Florida_sentence_332

Florida has the second largest Puerto Rican population after New York, as well as the fastest-growing in the nation. Florida_sentence_333

Puerto Ricans are more widespread throughout the state, though the heaviest concentrations are in the Orlando area of Central Florida. Florida_sentence_334

Florida has one of the largest and most diverse Hispanic/Latino populations in the country, especially in South Florida around Miami, and to a lesser degree Central Florida. Florida_sentence_335

Aside from the dominant Cuban and Puerto Rican populations, there are also large populations of Mexicans, Colombians, and Dominicans, among numerous other groups, as most Latino groups have sizable numbers in the state. Florida_sentence_336

As of 2010, those of African ancestry accounted for 16.0% of Florida's population, which includes African Americans. Florida_sentence_337

Out of the 16.0%, 4.0% (741,879) were West Indian or Afro-Caribbean American. Florida_sentence_338

During the early 1900s, black people made up nearly half of the state's population. Florida_sentence_339

In response to segregation, disfranchisement and agricultural depression, many African Americans migrated from Florida to northern cities in the Great Migration, in waves from 1910 to 1940, and again starting in the later 1940s. Florida_sentence_340

They moved for jobs, better education for their children and the chance to vote and participate in society. Florida_sentence_341

By 1960, the proportion of African Americans in the state had declined to 18%. Florida_sentence_342

Conversely, large numbers of northern whites moved to the state. Florida_sentence_343

Today, large concentrations of black residents can be found in northern and central Florida. Florida_sentence_344

Aside from blacks descended from African slaves brought to the southern U.S., there are also large numbers of blacks of West Indian, recent African, and Afro-Latino immigrant origins, especially in the Miami/South Florida area. Florida_sentence_345

Florida has the largest West Indian population of any state, originating from many Caribbean countries, with Haitian Americans being the most numerous. Florida_sentence_346

In 2016, Florida had the highest percentage of West Indians in the United States at 4.5%, with 2.3% (483,874) from Haitian ancestry, 1.5% (303,527) Jamaican, and 0.2% (31,966) Bahamian, with the other West Indian groups making up the rest. Florida_sentence_347

As of 2010, those of Asian ancestry accounted for 2.4% of Florida's population. Florida_sentence_348

Languages Florida_section_18

See also: Demographics of Florida § Languages, and Miami accent Florida_sentence_349

In 1988, English was affirmed as the state's official language in the Florida Constitution. Florida_sentence_350

Spanish is also widely spoken, especially as immigration has continued from Latin America. Florida_sentence_351

Twenty percent of the population speak Spanish as their first language. Florida_sentence_352

Twenty-seven percent of Florida's population reports speaking a mother language other than English, and more than 200 first languages other than English are spoken at home in the state. Florida_sentence_353

The most common languages spoken in Florida as a first language in 2010 are: Florida_sentence_354


  • 73% EnglishFlorida_item_3_6
  • 20% SpanishFlorida_item_3_7
  • 2% Haitian CreoleFlorida_item_3_8
  • Other languages less than 1% eachFlorida_item_3_9

Religion Florida_section_19

Florida is mostly Christian, although there is a large irreligious and relatively significant Jewish community. Florida_sentence_355

Protestants account for almost half of the population, but the Catholic Church is the largest single denomination in the state mainly due to its large Hispanic population and other groups like Haitians. Florida_sentence_356

Protestants are very diverse, although Baptists, Methodists, Pentecostals and nondenominational Protestants are the largest groups. Florida_sentence_357

There is also a sizable Jewish community in South Florida. Florida_sentence_358

This is the largest Jewish population in the southern U.S. and the third-largest in the U.S. behind those of New York and California. Florida_sentence_359

In 2010, the three largest denominations in Florida were the Catholic Church, the Southern Baptist Convention, and the United Methodist Church. Florida_sentence_360

The Pew Research Center survey in 2014 gave the following religious makeup of Florida: Florida_sentence_361

Governance Florida_section_20

Main article: Government of Florida Florida_sentence_362

See also: List of governors of Florida, United States congressional delegations from Florida, List of United States senators from Florida, and Florida Cabinet Florida_sentence_363

The basic structure, duties, function, and operations of the government of the State of Florida are defined and established by the Florida Constitution, which establishes the basic law of the state and guarantees various rights and freedoms of the people. Florida_sentence_364

The state government consists of three separate branches: judicial, executive, and legislative. Florida_sentence_365

The legislature enacts bills, which, if signed by the governor, become law. Florida_sentence_366

The Florida Legislature comprises the Florida Senate, which has 40 members, and the Florida House of Representatives, which has 120 members. Florida_sentence_367

The current governor of Florida is Ron DeSantis. Florida_sentence_368

The Florida Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and six justices. Florida_sentence_369

Florida has 67 counties. Florida_sentence_370

Some reference materials may show only 66 because Duval County is consolidated with the City of Jacksonville. Florida_sentence_371

There are 379 cities in Florida (out of 411) that report regularly to the Florida Department of Revenue, but there are other incorporated municipalities that do not. Florida_sentence_372

The state government's primary revenue source is sales tax. Florida_sentence_373

Florida does not impose a personal income tax. Florida_sentence_374

The primary revenue source for cities and counties is property tax; unpaid taxes are subject to tax sales, which are held (at the county level) in May and (due to the extensive use of online bidding sites) are highly popular. Florida_sentence_375

There were 800 federal corruption convictions from 1988 to 2007, more than any other state. Florida_sentence_376

Elections history Florida_section_21

Further information: Elections in Florida, Politics of Florida, Political party strength in Florida, and United States presidential elections in Florida Florida_sentence_377

From 1952 to 1964, most voters were registered Democrats, but the state voted for the Republican presidential candidate in every election except for 1964. Florida_sentence_378

The following year, Congress passed and President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, providing for oversight of state practices and enforcement of constitutional voting rights for African Americans and other minorities in order to prevent the discrimination and disenfranchisement which had excluded most of them for decades from the political process. Florida_sentence_379

From the 1930s through much of the 1960s, Florida was essentially a one-party state dominated by white conservative Democrats, who together with other Democrats of the "Solid South", exercised considerable control in Congress. Florida_sentence_380

They have gained slightly less federal money from national programs than they have paid in taxes. Florida_sentence_381

Since the 1970s, conservative white voters in the state have largely shifted from the Democratic to the Republican Party. Florida_sentence_382

Though the majority of registered voters in Florida are Democrats, it continued to support Republican presidential candidates through 2004, except in 1976 and 1996, when the Democratic nominee was from "the South". Florida_sentence_383

In the 2008 and 2012 presidential elections, Barack Obama carried the state as a northern Democrat, attracting high voter turnout, especially among the young, Independents, and minority voters, of whom Hispanics comprise an increasingly large proportion. Florida_sentence_384

2008 marked the first time since 1944, when Franklin D. Roosevelt carried the state for the fourth time, that Florida was carried by a Northern Democrat for president. Florida_sentence_385

The first post-Reconstruction era Republican elected to Congress from Florida was William C. Cramer in 1954 from Pinellas County on the Gulf Coast, where demographic changes were underway. Florida_sentence_386

In this period, African Americans were still disenfranchised by the state's constitution and discriminatory practices; in the 19th century, they had made up most of the Republican Party. Florida_sentence_387

Cramer built a different Republican Party in Florida, attracting local white conservatives and transplants from northern and midwestern states. Florida_sentence_388

In 1966, Claude R. Kirk, Jr. was elected as the first post-Reconstruction Republican governor, in an upset election. Florida_sentence_389

In 1968, Edward J. Gurney, also a white conservative, was elected as the state's first post-reconstruction Republican US senator. Florida_sentence_390

In 1970, Democrats took the governorship and the open US Senate seat, and maintained dominance for years. Florida_sentence_391

Since the mid-20th century, Florida has been considered a bellwether, voting for 15 successful presidential candidates since 1952. Florida_sentence_392

During such period, it has voted for a losing candidate only twice. Florida_sentence_393

In 1998, Democratic voters dominated areas of the state with a high percentage of racial minorities and transplanted white liberals from the northeastern United States, known colloquially as "snowbirds". Florida_sentence_394

South Florida and the Miami metropolitan area are dominated by both racial minorities and white liberals. Florida_sentence_395

Because of this, the area has consistently voted as one of the most Democratic areas of the state. Florida_sentence_396

The Daytona Beach area is similar demographically and the city of Orlando has a large Hispanic population, which has often favored Democrats. Florida_sentence_397

Republicans, made up mostly of white conservatives, have dominated throughout much of the rest of Florida, particularly in the more rural and suburban areas. Florida_sentence_398

This is characteristic of its voter base throughout the Deep South. Florida_sentence_399

The fast-growing I-4 corridor area, which runs through Central Florida and connects the cities of Daytona Beach, Orlando, and Tampa/St. Florida_sentence_400

Petersburg, has had a fairly even breakdown of Republican and Democratic voters. Florida_sentence_401

The area is often seen as a merging point of the conservative northern portion of the state and the liberal southern portion, making it the biggest swing area in the state. Florida_sentence_402

Since the late 20th century, the voting results in this area, containing 40% of Florida voters, has often determined who will win the state in federal presidential elections. Florida_sentence_403

The Democratic Party has maintained an edge in voter registration, both statewide and in 40 of the 67 counties, including Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties, the state's three most populous. Florida_sentence_404

2000–present Florida_section_22

Main article: United States presidential election in Florida, 2000 Florida_sentence_405

In 2000, George W. Bush won the U.S. Florida_sentence_406

presidential election by a margin of 271–266 in the Electoral College. Florida_sentence_407

Of the 271 electoral votes for Bush, 25 were cast by electors from Florida. Florida_sentence_408

The Florida results were contested and a recount was ordered by the court, with the results settled in a Supreme Court decision, Bush v. Gore. Florida_sentence_409

Reapportionment following the 2010 United States Census gave the state two more seats in the House of Representatives. Florida_sentence_410

The legislature's redistricting, announced in 2012, was quickly challenged in court, on the grounds that it had unfairly benefited Republican interests. Florida_sentence_411

In 2015, the Florida Supreme Court ruled on appeal that the congressional districts had to be redrawn because of the legislature's violation of the Fair District Amendments to the state constitution passed in 2010; it accepted a new map in early December 2015. Florida_sentence_412

The political make-up of congressional and legislative districts has enabled Republicans to control the governorship and most statewide elective offices, and 17 of the state's 27 seats in the 2012 House of Representatives. Florida_sentence_413

Florida has been listed as a swing state in presidential elections since 1952, voting for the losing candidate only twice in that period of time. Florida_sentence_414

In the closely contested 2000 election, the state played a pivotal role. Florida_sentence_415

Out of more than 5.8 million votes for the two main contenders Bush and Al Gore, around 500 votes separated the two candidates for the all-decisive Florida electoral votes that landed Bush the election win. Florida_sentence_416

Florida's felony disenfranchisement law is more severe than most European nations or other American states. Florida_sentence_417

A 2002 study in the American Sociological Review concluded that "if the state's 827,000 disenfranchised felons had voted at the same rate as other Floridians, Democratic candidate Al Gore would have won Florida—and the presidency—by more than 80,000 votes." Florida_sentence_418

In 2008, delegates of both the Republican Florida primary election and Democratic Florida primary election were stripped of half of their votes when the conventions met in August due to violation of both parties' national rules. Florida_sentence_419

In the 2010 elections, Republicans solidified their dominance statewide, by winning the governor's mansion, and maintaining firm majorities in both houses of the state legislature. Florida_sentence_420

They won four previously Democratic-held seats to create a 19–6 Republican majority delegation representing Florida in the federal House of Representatives. Florida_sentence_421

In 2010, more than 63% of state voters approved the initiated Amendments 5 and 6 to the state constitution, to ensure more fairness in districting. Florida_sentence_422

These have become known as the Fair District Amendments. Florida_sentence_423

As a result of the 2010 United States Census, Florida gained two House of Representative seats in 2012. Florida_sentence_424

The legislature issued revised congressional districts in 2012, which were immediately challenged in court by supporters of the above amendments. Florida_sentence_425

The court ruled in 2014, after lengthy testimony, that at least two districts had to be redrawn because of gerrymandering. Florida_sentence_426

After this was appealed, in July 2015 the Florida Supreme Court ruled that lawmakers had followed an illegal and unconstitutional process overly influenced by party operatives, and ruled that at least eight districts had to be redrawn. Florida_sentence_427

On December 2, 2015, a 5–2 majority of the Court accepted a new map of congressional districts, some of which was drawn by challengers. Florida_sentence_428

Their ruling affirmed the map previously approved by Leon County Judge Terry Lewis, who had overseen the original trial. Florida_sentence_429

It particularly makes changes in South Florida. Florida_sentence_430

There are likely to be additional challenges to the map and districts. Florida_sentence_431


Voter registration totals as of December 31, 2019Florida_table_caption_5
PartyFlorida_header_cell_5_0_0 Registered votersFlorida_header_cell_5_0_2 PercentageFlorida_header_cell_5_0_3
Florida_cell_5_1_0 DemocraticFlorida_cell_5_1_1 4,986,520 (+10,625)Florida_cell_5_1_2 36.83%Florida_cell_5_1_3
Florida_cell_5_2_0 RepublicanFlorida_cell_5_2_1 4,761,405 (+42,685)Florida_cell_5_2_2 35.17%Florida_cell_5_2_3
Florida_cell_5_3_0 UnaffiliatedFlorida_cell_5_3_1 3,641,359 (+52,841)Florida_cell_5_3_2 26.90%Florida_cell_5_3_3
Florida_cell_5_4_0 Minor partiesFlorida_cell_5_4_1 147,546 (+34,057)Florida_cell_5_4_2 1.09%Florida_cell_5_4_3
TotalFlorida_header_cell_5_5_0 13,536,830 (+140,208)Florida_header_cell_5_5_2 100%Florida_header_cell_5_5_3
Added between December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2019.Florida_cell_5_6_0

According to The Sentencing Project, the effect of Florida's felony disenfranchisement law is such that in 2014, "[m]ore than one in ten Floridians—and nearly one in four African-American Floridians—are [were] shut out of the polls because of felony convictions", although they had completed sentences and parole/probation requirements. Florida_sentence_432

In the 2016 United States presidential and general elections, the state leaned Republican. Florida_sentence_433

The state's Democratic representation at the national level increased by one seat, but the overall state-wide composition was 16 Republicans to 11 Democrats. Florida_sentence_434

Floridians also voted 49.0% to 47.8% to elect Donald Trump over Hillary Clinton in the presidential election. Florida_sentence_435

With a 1.2% difference, this was the 5th closest presidential race that year, with only Wisconsin, Michigan, New Hampshire and Pennsylvania being closer. Florida_sentence_436

In the 2018 elections, the ratio of Republican to Democratic representation fell from 16:11 to 14:13. Florida_sentence_437

The U.S. Senate election between Democratic incumbent senator Bill Nelson and former governor Rick Scott was close, with a 49.93% voting for the incumbent and 50.06% voting for the former governor. Florida_sentence_438

Republicans also held onto the governorship in a close race between Republican candidate Ron DeSantis and Democractic candidate Andrew Gillum, with 49.6% voting for the DeSantis and 49.3% voting for Gillum. Florida_sentence_439

Statutes Florida_section_23

See also: Law of Florida Florida_sentence_440

In 1972, the state made personal injury protection auto insurance mandatory for drivers, becoming the second in the nation to enact a no-fault insurance law. Florida_sentence_441

The ease of receiving payments under this law is seen as precipitating a major increase in insurance fraud. Florida_sentence_442

Auto insurance fraud was the highest in the nation in 2011, estimated at close to $1 billion. Florida_sentence_443

Fraud is particularly centered in the Miami-Dade and Tampa areas. Florida_sentence_444

Capital punishment is applied in Florida. Florida_sentence_445

If a person committing a predicate felony directly contributed to the death of the victim then the person will be charged with murder in the first degree. Florida_sentence_446

The only two sentences available for that statute are life imprisonment and the death penalty. Florida_sentence_447

If a person commits a predicate felony, but was not the direct contributor to the death of the victim then the person will be charged with murder in the second degree. Florida_sentence_448

The maximum prison term is life. Florida_sentence_449

In 1995, the legislature modified Chapter 921 to provide that felons should serve at least 85% of their sentence. Florida_sentence_450

Florida approved its lottery by amending the constitution in 1984. Florida_sentence_451

It approved slot machines in Broward and Miami-Dade County in 2004. Florida_sentence_452

It has disapproved casinos (outside of sovereign Seminole and Miccosukee tribal areas) three times: 1978, 1986, and 1994. Florida_sentence_453

Taxation Florida_section_24

Tax is collected by the Florida Department of Revenue. Florida_sentence_454

Economy Florida_section_25

See also: List of U.S. states by GDP Florida_sentence_455


  • Total employment 2017Florida_item_4_10


  • Florida_item_5_11
    • 8,385,577Florida_item_5_12


  • Total employer establishments 2017Florida_item_6_13


  • Florida_item_7_14
    • 557,308Florida_item_7_15

Florida's economy ranks among the largest in the world. Florida_sentence_456

As of 2018, the gross state product (GSP) is about $1.0 trillion, the fourth largest economy in the United States. Florida_sentence_457

Florida is responsible for 5 percent of the United States' approximately $21 trillion gross domestic product (GDP). Florida_sentence_458

As of 2018, Florida's nominal GDP is larger than all but 15 countries. Florida_sentence_459

In terms of Purchasing Power Parity, it is larger than all but 24 countries. Florida_sentence_460

In the 20th century, tourism, industry, construction, international banking, biomedical and life sciences, healthcare research, simulation training, aerospace and defense, and commercial space travel have contributed to the state's economic development. Florida_sentence_461

The five largest sectors of employment in Florida are: trade, transportation, and utilities; government; professional and business services; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality. Florida_sentence_462

In output, the five largest sectors are: finance, insurance, real estate, rental, and leasing, followed by professional and business services; government and government enterprises; educational services, health care, and social assistance; and retail trade. Florida_sentence_463

In 2017, Florida became the United States' eighth largest exporter of trade goods. Florida_sentence_464

Florida's top countries for export are Brazil, Canada, Mexico, Germany, and Colombia. Florida_sentence_465

In 2017, Florida became the United States' tenth largest importer of trade goods. Florida_sentence_466

Florida imported US$75.4 billion worth of goods globally in 2017. Florida_sentence_467

The value of Florida's imports equals 3.2% of United States' overall imported products for 2017. Florida_sentence_468

Florida's top countries for imports are China, Mexico, Canada, Germany, and France. Florida_sentence_469

The Miami Metropolitan Area has the highest GDP of all the metro areas in Florida with $344.9 billion in 2017. Florida_sentence_470

This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida_sentence_471

The economy of Florida is driven almost entirely by its nineteen metropolitan areas. Florida_sentence_472

In 2004, they had a combined total of 95.7% of the state's domestic product. Florida_sentence_473

Per capita GDP in 2017 was $39,842, ranking fortieth in the nation. Florida_sentence_474

Per capita income varies widely by geographic region and profession. Florida_sentence_475

North Florida and the rural counties of the Florida Panhandle are the most impoverished in the state. Florida_sentence_476

Florida has a poverty rate of 14.0%, the seventeenth lowest of any state in the country. Florida_sentence_477

Many coastal cities include some of the wealthiest per-capita areas in the United States. Florida_sentence_478

In 2018, there were more than 427,824 millionaires in the state, the fourth highest number in the nation. Florida_sentence_479

For 2018–19, the approved state budget is $88.7 billion, a 4.4% increase over the previous 2017–18 budget of $84.9 billion. Florida_sentence_480

Chief Executive Magazine named Florida the third "Best State for Business" in 2011. Florida_sentence_481

Personal income Florida_section_26

See also: List of Florida locations by per capita income Florida_sentence_482

In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was $47,684, ranking 26th in the nation. Florida_sentence_483

The state's unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th lowest in the United States. Florida_sentence_484

Florida is one of seven states that do not impose a personal income tax. Florida_sentence_485

In 2017, Florida had a personal income of $1,000,624,065(in thousands of dollars). Florida_sentence_486

This personal income ranked 4th in the United States. Florida_sentence_487

Florida's constitution establishes a state minimum wage, which is adjusted annually for inflation. Florida_sentence_488

As of January 1, 2017, Florida's minimum wage was $5.08 for tipped positions, and $8.10 for non-tipped positions, which was higher than the federal rate of $7.25. Florida_sentence_489

Florida has two cities in the top 25 cities in the U.S. with the highest average credit card debt, Miami and Tampa. Florida_sentence_490

The poverty rate in Florida in 2018 was 14%, down from a peak of 17.1% in 2012. Florida_sentence_491

Real estate Florida_section_27

In the early 20th century, land speculators discovered Florida, and businessmen such as Henry Plant and Henry Flagler developed railroad systems, which led people to move in, drawn by the weather and local economies. Florida_sentence_492

From then on, tourism boomed, fueling a cycle of development that overwhelmed a great deal of farmland. Florida_sentence_493

At the end of the third quarter of 2008, Florida had the highest mortgage delinquency rate in the U.S., with 7.8% of mortgages delinquent at least 60 days. Florida_sentence_494

A 2009 list of national housing markets that were hard hit in the real estate crash included a disproportionate number in Florida. Florida_sentence_495

The early 21st-century building boom left Florida with 300,000 vacant homes in 2009, according to state figures. Florida_sentence_496

In 2009, the US Census Bureau estimated that Floridians spent an average 49.1% of personal income on housing-related costs, the third highest percentage in the U.S. Florida_sentence_497

In the third quarter of 2009, there were 278,189 delinquent loans, 80,327 foreclosures. Florida_sentence_498

Sales of existing homes in February 2010 was 11,890, up 21% from the same month in 2009. Florida_sentence_499

Only two metropolitan areas showed a decrease in homes sold: Panama City and Brevard County. Florida_sentence_500

The average sales price for an existing house was $131,000, 7% decrease from the prior year. Florida_sentence_501

Tourism Florida_section_28

See also: List of amusement parks in Greater Orlando, List of shopping malls in the Miami metropolitan area, and List of casinos in Florida Florida_sentence_502

Tourism makes up one of the largest sectors of the state economy, with nearly 1.4 million people employed in the tourism industry in 2016 (a record for the state, surpassing the 1.2 million employment from 2015). Florida_sentence_503

In 2015, Florida broke the 100-million visitor mark for the first time in state history by hosting a record 105 million visitors. Florida_sentence_504

The state has set tourism records for eight consecutive years, most recently breaking the 120-million visitor mark for the first time in 2018 with 126.1 million visitors reported. Florida_sentence_505

Many beach towns are popular tourist destinations, particularly during winter and spring break. Florida_sentence_506

Twenty-three million tourists visited Florida beaches in 2000, spending $22 billion. Florida_sentence_507

The public has a right to beach access under the public trust doctrine, but some areas have access effectively blocked by private owners for a long distance. Florida_sentence_508

Amusement parks, especially in the Greater Orlando area, make up a significant portion of tourism. Florida_sentence_509

The Walt Disney World Resort is the most visited vacation resort in the world with more than 58 million visitors annually, consisting of four theme parks, 27 themed resort hotels, nine non-Disney hotels, two water parks, four golf courses and other recreational venues. Florida_sentence_510

Other major theme parks in the area include Universal Orlando Resort, SeaWorld Orlando and Busch Gardens Tampa. Florida_sentence_511

Florida's many state parks and protected areas receive a lot of visitors as well with 25.2 million visitors visiting Florida State Parks in 2013. Florida_sentence_512

Agriculture and fishing Florida_section_29

Agriculture is the second largest industry in the state. Florida_sentence_513

Citrus fruit, especially oranges, are a major part of the economy, and Florida produces the majority of citrus fruit grown in the United States. Florida_sentence_514

In 2006, 67% of all citrus, 74% of oranges, 58% of tangerines, and 54% of grapefruit were grown in Florida. Florida_sentence_515

About 95% of commercial orange production in the state is destined for processing (mostly as orange juice, the official state beverage). Florida_sentence_516

Citrus canker continues to be an issue of concern. Florida_sentence_517

From 1997 to 2013, the growing of citrus trees has declined 25%, from 600,000 to 450,000 acres (240,000 to 180,000 ha). Florida_sentence_518

Citrus greening disease is incurable. Florida_sentence_519

A study states that it has caused the loss of $4.5 billion between 2006 and 2012. Florida_sentence_520

As of 2014, it was the major agricultural concern. Florida_sentence_521

The largest farm category by sales in Florida is the $2.3 billion ornamental industry, which includes nursery, greenhouse, flowers, and sod products. Florida_sentence_522

Other products include sugarcane, strawberries, tomatoes and celery. Florida_sentence_523

The state is the largest producer of sweet corn and green beans for the U.S. Florida_sentence_524

The Everglades Agricultural Area is a major center for agriculture. Florida_sentence_525

The environmental impact of agriculture, especially water pollution, is a major issue in Florida today. Florida_sentence_526

In 2009, fishing was a $6 billion industry, employing 60,000 jobs for sports and commercial purposes. Florida_sentence_527

The state has a near monopoly on saw palmetto berries, an alternative medicine used to treat prostate and urinary disorders. Florida_sentence_528

Industry Florida_section_30

Florida is the leading state for sales of powerboats. Florida_sentence_529

Boats sales totaled $1.96 billion in 2013. Florida_sentence_530

Mining Florida_section_31

Phosphate mining, concentrated in the Bone Valley, is the state's third-largest industry. Florida_sentence_531

The state produces about 75% of the phosphate required by farmers in the United States and 25% of the world supply, with about 95% used for agriculture (90% for fertilizer and 5% for livestock feed supplements) and 5% used for other products. Florida_sentence_532

After the watershed events of Hurricane Andrew in 1992, Florida began investing in economic development through the Office of Trade, Tourism, and Economic Development. Florida_sentence_533

Governor Jeb Bush realized that watershed events such as Andrew negatively impacted Florida's backbone industry of tourism severely. Florida_sentence_534

The office was directed to target Medical/Bio-Sciences among others. Florida_sentence_535

Three years later, The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) announced it had chosen Florida for its newest expansion. Florida_sentence_536

In 2003, TSRI announced plans to establish a major science center in Palm Beach, a 364,000 square feet (33,800 m) facility on 100 acres (40 ha), which TSRI planned to occupy in 2006. Florida_sentence_537

Government Florida_section_32

Since the development of the federal NASA Merritt Island launch sites on Cape Canaveral (most notably Kennedy Space Center) in 1962, Florida has developed a sizable aerospace industry. Florida_sentence_538

Another major economic engine in Florida is the United States military. Florida_sentence_539

There are 24 military bases in the state, housing three Unified Combatant Commands; United States Central Command in Tampa, United States Southern Command in Doral, and United States Special Operations Command in Tampa. Florida_sentence_540

Some 109,390 U.S. military personnel stationed in Florida, contributing, directly and indirectly, $52 billion a year to the state's economy. Florida_sentence_541

In 2009, there were 89,706 federal workers employed within the state. Florida_sentence_542

Tens of thousands more employees work for contractors who have federal contracts, including those with the military. Florida_sentence_543

In 2012, government of all levels was a top employer in all counties in the state, because this classification includes public school teachers and other school staff. Florida_sentence_544

School boards employ nearly one of every thirty workers in the state. Florida_sentence_545

The federal military was the top employer in three counties. Florida_sentence_546

Seaports Florida_section_33

Florida has many seaports that serve container ships, tank ships, and cruise lines. Florida_sentence_547

Major ports in Florida include Port Tampa Bay in Tampa, Port Everglades in Fort Lauderdale, Port of Jacksonville in Jacksonville, PortMiami in Miami, Port Canaveral in Brevard County, Port Manatee in Manatee County, and Port of Palm Beach in Riviera Beach. Florida_sentence_548

The world's top three busiest cruise ports are found in Florida with PortMiami as the busiest and Port Canaveral and Port Everglades as the second and third busiest. Florida_sentence_549

Port Tampa Bay meanwhile is the largest in the state, having the most tonnage. Florida_sentence_550

As of 2013, Port Tampa Bay ranks 16th in the United States by tonnage in domestic trade, 32nd in foreign trade, and 22nd in total trade. Florida_sentence_551

It is the largest, most diversified port in Florida, has an economic impact of more than $15.1 billion, and supports more than 80,000 jobs. Florida_sentence_552

Health Florida_section_34

There were 2.7 million Medicaid patients in Florida in 2009. Florida_sentence_553

The governor has proposed adding $2.6 billion to care for the expected 300,000 additional patients in 2011. Florida_sentence_554

The cost of caring for 2.3 million clients in 2010 was $18.8 billion. Florida_sentence_555

This is nearly 30% of Florida's budget. Florida_sentence_556

Medicaid paid for 60% of all births in Florida in 2009. Florida_sentence_557

The state has a program for those not covered by Medicaid. Florida_sentence_558

In 2013, Florida refused to participate in providing coverage for the uninsured under the Affordable Care Act, popularly called Obamacare. Florida_sentence_559

The Florida legislature also refused to accept additional Federal funding for Medicaid, although this would have helped its constituents at no cost to the state. Florida_sentence_560

As a result, Florida is second only to Texas in the percentage of its citizens without health insurance. Florida_sentence_561

Architecture Florida_section_35

See also: Architecture of Miami and Architecture of Jacksonville Florida_sentence_562

Florida has the largest collection of Art Deco and Streamline Moderne buildings, both in the United States and in the entire world, most of which are located in the Miami metropolitan area, especially Miami Beach's Art Deco District, constructed as the city was becoming a resort destination. Florida_sentence_563

A unique architectural design found only in Florida is the post-World War II Miami Modern, which can be seen in areas such as Miami's MiMo Historic District. Florida_sentence_564

Being of early importance as a regional center of banking and finance, the architecture of Jacksonville displays a wide variety of styles and design principles. Florida_sentence_565

Many of the state's earliest skyscrapers were constructed in Jacksonville, dating as far back as 1902, and last holding a state height record from 1974 to 1981. Florida_sentence_566

The city is endowed with one of the largest collections of Prairie School buildings outside of the Midwest. Florida_sentence_567

Jacksonville is also noteworthy for its collection of Mid-Century modern architecture. Florida_sentence_568

Some sections of the state feature architectural styles including Spanish revival, Florida vernacular, and Mediterranean Revival. Florida_sentence_569

A notable collection of these styles can be found in St. Florida_sentence_570

Augustine, the oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement within the borders of the United States. Florida_sentence_571

Media Florida_section_36

See also: :Category:Mass media in Florida Florida_sentence_572

Education Florida_section_37

Main article: Education in Florida Florida_sentence_573

See also: List of colleges and universities in Florida, List of high schools in Florida, and List of school districts in Florida Florida_sentence_574

Florida overall was ranked the 7th best state in America for educating students at all levels by U.S. Florida_sentence_575

News & World Report in 2018. Florida_sentence_576

Primary and secondary education Florida_section_38

With an educational system made up of public school districts and independent private institutions, Florida had 2,833,115 students enrolled in 4,269 public primary, secondary, and vocational schools in Florida's 67 regular or seven special school districts as of 2018. Florida_sentence_577

Miami-Dade County is the largest of Florida's 67 regular districts with more than 350 thousand students and Jefferson is the smallest with less than one thousand students. Florida_sentence_578

Florida spent $8,920 for each student in 2016, and was 43rd in the nation in expenditures per student. Florida_sentence_579

Florida's primary and secondary school systems are administered by the Florida Department of Education. Florida_sentence_580

School districts are organized within county boundaries. Florida_sentence_581

Each school district has an elected Board of Education that sets policy, budget, goals, and approves expenditures. Florida_sentence_582

Management is the responsibility of a Superintendent of schools. Florida_sentence_583

The Florida Department of Education is required by law to train educators in teaching English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL). Florida_sentence_584

Higher education Florida_section_39

The State University System of Florida was founded in 1905, and is governed by the Florida Board of Governors. Florida_sentence_585

During the 2010 academic year, 312,216 students attended one of these twelve universities. Florida_sentence_586

The Florida College System comprises 28 public community and state colleges. Florida_sentence_587

In 2011–12, enrollment consisted of more than 875,000 students. Florida_sentence_588

As of 2017, the University of Central Florida, with more than 64,000 students, is the largest university by enrollment in the United States. Florida_sentence_589

Florida's first private university, Stetson University, was founded in 1883. Florida_sentence_590

The Independent Colleges and Universities of Florida is an association of 28 private, educational institutions in the state. Florida_sentence_591

This Association reported that their member institutions served more than 121,000 students in the fall of 2006. Florida_sentence_592

In 2016, Florida charged the second lowest tuition in the nation for four years, $26,000 for in-state students, to $86,000 for out-of-state students. Florida_sentence_593

This compares with an average of $34,800 nationally for in-state students. Florida_sentence_594


State University System of FloridaFlorida_header_cell_6_0_0
InstitutionFlorida_header_cell_6_1_0 LocationFlorida_header_cell_6_1_1 EstablishedFlorida_header_cell_6_1_2 EnrollmentFlorida_header_cell_6_1_3
Florida A&M UniversityFlorida_cell_6_2_0 TallahasseeFlorida_cell_6_2_1 1887Florida_cell_6_2_2 10,031Florida_cell_6_2_3
Florida Atlantic UniversityFlorida_cell_6_3_0 Boca RatonFlorida_cell_6_3_1 1961Florida_cell_6_3_2 30,808Florida_cell_6_3_3
Florida Gulf Coast UniversityFlorida_cell_6_4_0 Fort MyersFlorida_cell_6_4_1 1991Florida_cell_6_4_2 15,080Florida_cell_6_4_3
Florida International UniversityFlorida_cell_6_5_0 MiamiFlorida_cell_6_5_1 1965Florida_cell_6_5_2 58,787Florida_cell_6_5_3
Florida Polytechnic UniversityFlorida_cell_6_6_0 LakelandFlorida_cell_6_6_1 2012Florida_cell_6_6_2 1,236Florida_cell_6_6_3
Florida State UniversityFlorida_cell_6_7_0 TallahasseeFlorida_cell_6_7_1 1851Florida_cell_6_7_2 41,551Florida_cell_6_7_3
New College of FloridaFlorida_cell_6_8_0 SarasotaFlorida_cell_6_8_1 1960Florida_cell_6_8_2 838Florida_cell_6_8_3
University of Central FloridaFlorida_cell_6_9_0 OrlandoFlorida_cell_6_9_1 1963Florida_cell_6_9_2 69,525Florida_cell_6_9_3
University of FloridaFlorida_cell_6_10_0 GainesvilleFlorida_cell_6_10_1 1853Florida_cell_6_10_2 56,567Florida_cell_6_10_3
University of North FloridaFlorida_cell_6_11_0 JacksonvilleFlorida_cell_6_11_1 1972Florida_cell_6_11_2 17,002Florida_cell_6_11_3
University of South FloridaFlorida_cell_6_12_0 TampaFlorida_cell_6_12_1 1956Florida_cell_6_12_2 51,646Florida_cell_6_12_3
University of West FloridaFlorida_cell_6_13_0 PensacolaFlorida_cell_6_13_1 1963Florida_cell_6_13_2 12,850Florida_cell_6_13_3

Transportation Florida_section_40

Main article: Transportation in Florida Florida_sentence_595

Highways Florida_section_41

Further information: Florida State Highway System, List of state roads in Florida, and County roads in Florida Florida_sentence_596

Florida's highway system contains 1,495 mi (2,406 km) of interstate highway, and 10,601 mi (17,061 km) of non-interstate highway, such as state highways and U.S. Florida_sentence_597

Highways. Florida_sentence_598

Florida's interstates, state highways, and U.S. Florida_sentence_599

Highways are maintained by the Florida Department of Transportation. Florida_sentence_600

In 2011, there were about 9,000 retail gas stations in the state. Florida_sentence_601

Floridians consumed 21 million gallons of gasoline daily in 2011, ranking it third in national use behind California and Texas. Florida_sentence_602

Motorists have the 45th lowest rate of car insurance in the U.S. 24% are uninsured. Florida_sentence_603

Drivers between 15 and 19 years of age averaged 364 car crashes a year per ten thousand licensed Florida drivers in 2010. Florida_sentence_604

Drivers 70 and older averaged 95 per 10,000 during the same time frame. Florida_sentence_605

A spokesperson for the non-profit Insurance Institute said that "Older drivers are more of a threat to themselves." Florida_sentence_606

Intercity bus travel, which utilizes Florida's highway system, is provided by Greyhound, Megabus, and Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach. Florida_sentence_607

Before the construction of routes under the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, Florida began construction of a long cross-state toll road, Florida's Turnpike. Florida_sentence_608

The first section, from Fort Pierce south to the Golden Glades Interchange was completed in 1957. Florida_sentence_609

After a second section north through Orlando to Wildwood (near present-day The Villages), and a southward extension around Miami to Homestead, it was finished in 1974. Florida_sentence_610

Florida's primary interstate routes include: Florida_sentence_611


Airports Florida_section_42

See also: List of airports in Florida and Aviation in Florida Florida_sentence_612

Florida has 131 public airports. Florida_sentence_613

Florida's seven large hub and medium hub airports, as classified by the FAA, are the following: Florida_sentence_614


City servedFlorida_header_cell_7_0_0 CodeFlorida_header_cell_7_0_1 Airport nameFlorida_header_cell_7_0_2 FAA


OrlandoFlorida_cell_7_1_0 MCOFlorida_cell_7_1_1 Orlando International AirportFlorida_cell_7_1_2 Large HubFlorida_cell_7_1_3 21,565,448Florida_cell_7_1_4
MiamiFlorida_cell_7_2_0 MIAFlorida_cell_7_2_1 Miami International AirportFlorida_cell_7_2_2 Large HubFlorida_cell_7_2_3 20,709,225Florida_cell_7_2_4
Fort LauderdaleFlorida_cell_7_3_0 FLLFlorida_cell_7_3_1 Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood Int'l AirportFlorida_cell_7_3_2 Large HubFlorida_cell_7_3_3 15,817,043Florida_cell_7_3_4
TampaFlorida_cell_7_4_0 TPAFlorida_cell_7_4_1 Tampa International AirportFlorida_cell_7_4_2 Large HubFlorida_cell_7_4_3 9,548,580Florida_cell_7_4_4
Fort MyersFlorida_cell_7_5_0 RSWFlorida_cell_7_5_1 Southwest Florida International AirportFlorida_cell_7_5_2 Medium HubFlorida_cell_7_5_3 4,364,224Florida_cell_7_5_4
West Palm BeachFlorida_cell_7_6_0 PBIFlorida_cell_7_6_1 Palm Beach International AirportFlorida_cell_7_6_2 Medium HubFlorida_cell_7_6_3 3,110,450Florida_cell_7_6_4
JacksonvilleFlorida_cell_7_7_0 JAXFlorida_cell_7_7_1 Jacksonville International AirportFlorida_cell_7_7_2 Medium HubFlorida_cell_7_7_3 2,701,861Florida_cell_7_7_4

Intercity rail Florida_section_43


Public transit Florida_section_44

Further information: Transportation in South Florida Florida_sentence_615


Sports Florida_section_45

Main article: Sports in Florida Florida_sentence_616

See also: Sports teams in Florida Florida_sentence_617

Florida has three NFL teams, two MLB teams, two NBA teams, two NHL teams, and two MLS teams. Florida_sentence_618

Florida gained its first permanent major-league professional sports team in 1966 when the American Football League added the Miami Dolphins. Florida_sentence_619

Florida has given professional sports franchises some subsidies in the form of tax breaks since 1991. Florida_sentence_620

About half of all Major League Baseball teams conduct spring training in the state, with teams informally organized into the "Grapefruit League". Florida_sentence_621

Throughout MLB history, other teams have held spring training in Florida. Florida_sentence_622

NASCAR (headquartered in Daytona Beach) begins all three of its major auto racing series in Florida at Daytona International Speedway in February, featuring the Daytona 500, and ends all three Series in November at Homestead-Miami Speedway. Florida_sentence_623

Daytona also has the Coke Zero Sugar 400 NASCAR race weekend around Independence Day in July. Florida_sentence_624

The 24 Hours of Daytona is one of the world's most prestigious endurance auto races. Florida_sentence_625

The Grand Prix of St. Petersburg and Grand Prix of Miami have held IndyCar races as well. Florida_sentence_626

Florida is a major golf hub. Florida_sentence_627

The PGA of America is headquartered in Palm Beach Gardens, the PGA Tour is headquartered in Ponte Vedra Beach, and the LPGA is headquartered in Daytona Beach. Florida_sentence_628

The Players Championship, WGC-Cadillac Championship, Arnold Palmer Invitational, Honda Classic and Valspar Championship are PGA Tour rounds. Florida_sentence_629

Florida has teams in all five American major league sports. Florida_sentence_630

Florida's most recent major-league team, Inter Miami, began play in MLS in 2020. Florida_sentence_631

The Miami Masters is an ATP World Tour Masters 1000 and WTA Premier tennis event, whereas the Delray Beach International Tennis Championships is an ATP World Tour 250 event. Florida_sentence_632

Minor league baseball, football, basketball, ice hockey, soccer and indoor football teams are based in Florida. Florida_sentence_633

Ben Hill Griffin Stadium is the largest football stadium in Florida, the 12th largest stadium in American college football, and the 18th largest stadium in the world, as measured by its official seating capacity of 88,548—though, it has often held over 90,000 for Florida's home football games. Florida_sentence_634

Florida's universities have a number of collegiate sport programs. Florida_sentence_635

Major college football programs include the Florida State Seminoles and Miami Hurricanes of the Atlantic Coast Conference, and the Florida Gators of the Southeastern Conference. Florida_sentence_636

Since 1996, Florida has added four additional programs to the ranks of Division I FCS: UCF Knights, South Florida Bulls, Florida Atlantic Owls and FIU Panthers. Florida_sentence_637

State symbols Florida_section_46

Main article: List of Florida state symbols Florida_sentence_638

The majority of the symbols were chosen after 1950; only the two oldest symbols—the state flower (chosen in 1909), and the state bird (chosen in 1927), and the state nickname (chosen in 1970)—are not listed in the 2010 Florida Statutes. Florida_sentence_639


Sister states Florida_section_47


Sister jurisdictionFlorida_header_cell_8_0_0 CountryFlorida_header_cell_8_0_1 YearFlorida_header_cell_8_0_2
Languedoc-RoussillonFlorida_cell_8_1_0 FranceFlorida_cell_8_1_1 1989Florida_cell_8_1_2
Taiwan ProvinceFlorida_cell_8_2_0 Taiwan, R.O.C.Florida_cell_8_2_1 1992Florida_cell_8_2_2
Wakayama PrefectureFlorida_cell_8_3_0 JapanFlorida_cell_8_3_1 1995Florida_cell_8_3_2
Western CapeFlorida_cell_8_4_0 South AfricaFlorida_cell_8_4_1 1995Florida_cell_8_4_2
Nueva EspartaFlorida_cell_8_5_0 VenezuelaFlorida_cell_8_5_1 1999Florida_cell_8_5_2
KyonggiFlorida_cell_8_6_0 South KoreaFlorida_cell_8_6_1 2000Florida_cell_8_6_2

See also Florida_section_48


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florida.