Fluorophore

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For uses and theory of fluorescence, see Fluorescence in the life sciences. Fluorophore_sentence_0

A fluorophore (or fluorochrome, similarly to a chromophore) is a fluorescent chemical compound that can re-emit light upon light excitation. Fluorophore_sentence_1

Fluorophores typically contain several combined aromatic groups, or planar or cyclic molecules with several π bonds. Fluorophore_sentence_2

Fluorophores are sometimes used alone, as a tracer in fluids, as a dye for staining of certain structures, as a substrate of enzymes, or as a probe or indicator (when its fluorescence is affected by environmental aspects such as polarity or ions). Fluorophore_sentence_3

More generally they are covalently bonded to a macromolecule, serving as a marker (or dye, or tag, or reporter) for affine or bioactive reagents (antibodies, peptides, nucleic acids). Fluorophore_sentence_4

Fluorophores are notably used to stain tissues, cells, or materials in a variety of analytical methods, i.e., fluorescent imaging and spectroscopy. Fluorophore_sentence_5

Fluorescein, via its amine-reactive isothiocyanate derivative fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), has been one of the most popular fluorophores. Fluorophore_sentence_6

From antibody labeling, the applications have spread to nucleic acids thanks to carboxyfluorescein (FAM), TET, ...). Fluorophore_sentence_7

Other historically common fluorophores are derivatives of rhodamine (TRITC), coumarin, and cyanine. Fluorophore_sentence_8

Newer generations of fluorophores, many of which are proprietary, often perform better, being more photostable, brighter, and/or less pH-sensitive than traditional dyes with comparable excitation and emission. Fluorophore_sentence_9

Fluorescence Fluorophore_section_0

The fluorophore absorbs light energy of a specific wavelength and re-emits light at a longer wavelength. Fluorophore_sentence_10

The absorbed wavelengths, energy transfer efficiency, and time before emission depend on both the fluorophore structure and its chemical environment, as the molecule in its excited state interacts with surrounding molecules. Fluorophore_sentence_11

Wavelengths of maximum absorption (≈ excitation) and emission (for example, Absorption/Emission = 485 nm/517 nm) are the typical terms used to refer to a given fluorophore, but the whole spectrum may be important to consider. Fluorophore_sentence_12

The excitation wavelength spectrum may be a very narrow or broader band, or it may be all beyond a cutoff level. Fluorophore_sentence_13

The emission spectrum is usually sharper than the excitation spectrum, and it is of a longer wavelength and correspondingly lower energy. Fluorophore_sentence_14

Excitation energies range from ultraviolet through the visible spectrum, and emission energies may continue from visible light into the near infrared region. Fluorophore_sentence_15

Main characteristics of fluorophores are: Fluorophore_sentence_16

Fluorophore_unordered_list_0

  • Maximum excitation and emission wavelength (expressed in nanometers (nm)): corresponds to the peak in the excitation and emission spectra (usually one peak each).Fluorophore_item_0_0
  • Molar absorption coefficient (in Molarcm): links the quantity of absorbed light, at a given wavelength, to the concentration of fluorophore in solution.Fluorophore_item_0_1
  • Quantum yield: efficiency of the energy transferred from incident light to emitted fluorescence (= number of emitted photons per absorbed photons).Fluorophore_item_0_2
  • Lifetime (in picoseconds): duration of the excited state of a fluorophore before returning to its ground state. It refers to the time taken for a population of excited fluorophores to decay to 1/e (≈0.368) of the original amount.Fluorophore_item_0_3
  • Stokes shift: difference between the maximum excitation and maximum emission wavelengths.Fluorophore_item_0_4
  • Dark fraction: proportion of the molecules active in fluorescence emission. For quantum dots, prolonged single-molecule microscopy showed that 20-90% of all particles never emit fluorescence. On the other hand, conjugated polymer nanoparticles (Pdots) show almost no dark fraction in their fluorescence. Fluorescent proteins can have a dark fraction from protein misfolding or defective chromophore formation.Fluorophore_item_0_5

These characteristics drive other properties, including the photobleaching or photoresistance (loss of fluorescence upon continuous light excitation). Fluorophore_sentence_17

Other parameters should be considered, as the polarity of the fluorophore molecule, the fluorophore size and shape (i.e. for polarization fluorescence pattern), and other factors can change the behavior of fluorophores. Fluorophore_sentence_18

Fluorophores can also be used to quench the fluorescence of other fluorescent dyes (see article Quenching (fluorescence)) or to relay their fluorescence at even longer wavelength (see article Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)). Fluorophore_sentence_19

See more on fluorescence principle. Fluorophore_sentence_20

Size (molecular weight) Fluorophore_section_1

Most fluorophores are organic small molecules of 20 - 100 atoms (200 - 1000 Dalton - the molecular weight may be higher depending on grafted modifications, and conjugated molecules), but there are also much larger natural fluorophores that are proteins: green fluorescent protein (GFP) is 27 kDa and several phycobiliproteins (PE, APC...) are ≈240kDa. Fluorophore_sentence_21

Fluorescence particles like quantum dots: 2-10 nm diameter, 100-100,000 atoms, are also considered fluorophores. Fluorophore_sentence_22

The size of the fluorophore might sterically hinder the tagged molecule, and affect the fluorescence polarity. Fluorophore_sentence_23

Families Fluorophore_section_2

Fluorophore molecules could be either utilized alone, or serve as a fluorescent motif of a functional system. Fluorophore_sentence_24

Based on molecular complexity and synthetic methods, fluorophore molecules could be generally classified into four categories: proteins and peptides, small organic compounds, synthetic oligomers and polymers, and multi-component systems. Fluorophore_sentence_25

Fluorescent proteins GFP (green), YFP (yellow) and RFP (red) can be attached to other specific proteins to form a fusion protein, synthesized in cells after transfection of a suitable plasmid carrier. Fluorophore_sentence_26

Non-protein organic fluorophores belong to following major chemical families: Fluorophore_sentence_27

Fluorophore_unordered_list_1

These fluorophores fluoresce due to delocalized electrons which can jump a band and stabilize the energy absorbed. Fluorophore_sentence_28

Benzene, one of the simplest aromatic hydrocarbons, for example, is excited at 254 nm and emits at 300 nm. Fluorophore_sentence_29

This discriminates fluorophores from quantum dots, which are fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles. Fluorophore_sentence_30

They can be attached to protein to specific functional groups, such as - amino groups (active ester, carboxylate, isothiocyanate, hydrazine), carboxyl groups (carbodiimide), thiol (maleimide, acetyl bromide), azide (via click chemistry or non-specifically (glutaraldehyde)). Fluorophore_sentence_31

Additionally, various functional groups can be present to alter its properties, such as solubility, or confer special properties, such as boronic acid which binds to sugars or multiple carboxyl groups to bind to certain cations. Fluorophore_sentence_32

When the dye contains an electron-donating and an electron-accepting group at opposite ends of the aromatic system, this dye will probably be sensitive to the environment's polarity (solvatochromic), hence called environment-sensitive. Fluorophore_sentence_33

Often dyes are used inside cells, which are impermeable to charged molecules, as a result of this the carboxyl groups are converted into an ester, which is removed by esterases inside the cells, e.g., fura-2AM and fluorescein-diacetate. Fluorophore_sentence_34

The following dye families are trademark groups, and do not necessarily share structural similarities. Fluorophore_sentence_35

Fluorophore_unordered_list_2

  • CF dye (Biotium)Fluorophore_item_2_20
  • DRAQ and CyTRAK probes (BioStatus)Fluorophore_item_2_21
  • BODIPY (Invitrogen)Fluorophore_item_2_22
  • EverFluor (Setareh Biotech)Fluorophore_item_2_23
  • Alexa Fluor (Invitrogen)Fluorophore_item_2_24
  • Bella Fluor (Setareh Biotech)Fluorophore_item_2_25
  • DyLight Fluor (Thermo Scientific, Pierce)Fluorophore_item_2_26
  • Atto and Tracy (Sigma Aldrich)Fluorophore_item_2_27
  • FluoProbes (Interchim)Fluorophore_item_2_28
  • Abberior Dyes (Abberior)Fluorophore_item_2_29
  • DY and MegaStokes Dyes (Dyomics)Fluorophore_item_2_30
  • Sulfo Cy dyes (Cyandye)Fluorophore_item_2_31
  • HiLyte Fluor (AnaSpec)Fluorophore_item_2_32
  • Seta, SeTau and Square Dyes (SETA BioMedicals)Fluorophore_item_2_33
  • Quasar and Cal Fluor dyes (Biosearch Technologies)Fluorophore_item_2_34
  • SureLight Dyes (APC, RPEPerCP, Phycobilisomes) (Columbia Biosciences)Fluorophore_item_2_35
  • APC, APCXL, RPE, BPE (Phyco-Biotech, Greensea, Prozyme, Flogen)Fluorophore_item_2_36
  • Vio Dyes (Miltenyi Biotec)Fluorophore_item_2_37

Examples of frequently encountered fluorophores Fluorophore_section_3

Reactive and conjugated dyes Fluorophore_section_4

Fluorophore_table_general_0

DyeFluorophore_header_cell_0_0_0 Ex (nm)Fluorophore_header_cell_0_0_1 Em (nm)Fluorophore_header_cell_0_0_2 MWFluorophore_header_cell_0_0_3 NotesFluorophore_header_cell_0_0_4
HydroxycoumarinFluorophore_cell_0_1_0 325Fluorophore_cell_0_1_1 386Fluorophore_cell_0_1_2 331Fluorophore_cell_0_1_3 Succinimidyl esterFluorophore_cell_0_1_4
AminocoumarinFluorophore_cell_0_2_0 350Fluorophore_cell_0_2_1 445Fluorophore_cell_0_2_2 330Fluorophore_cell_0_2_3 Succinimidyl esterFluorophore_cell_0_2_4
MethoxycoumarinFluorophore_cell_0_3_0 360Fluorophore_cell_0_3_1 410Fluorophore_cell_0_3_2 317Fluorophore_cell_0_3_3 Succinimidyl esterFluorophore_cell_0_3_4
Cascade BlueFluorophore_cell_0_4_0 (375);401Fluorophore_cell_0_4_1 423Fluorophore_cell_0_4_2 596Fluorophore_cell_0_4_3 HydrazideFluorophore_cell_0_4_4
Pacific BlueFluorophore_cell_0_5_0 403Fluorophore_cell_0_5_1 455Fluorophore_cell_0_5_2 406Fluorophore_cell_0_5_3 MaleimideFluorophore_cell_0_5_4
Pacific OrangeFluorophore_cell_0_6_0 403Fluorophore_cell_0_6_1 551Fluorophore_cell_0_6_2 Fluorophore_cell_0_6_3 Fluorophore_cell_0_6_4
Lucifer yellowFluorophore_cell_0_7_0 425Fluorophore_cell_0_7_1 528Fluorophore_cell_0_7_2 Fluorophore_cell_0_7_3 Fluorophore_cell_0_7_4
NBDFluorophore_cell_0_8_0 466Fluorophore_cell_0_8_1 539Fluorophore_cell_0_8_2 294Fluorophore_cell_0_8_3 NBD-XFluorophore_cell_0_8_4
R-Phycoerythrin (PE)Fluorophore_cell_0_9_0 480;565Fluorophore_cell_0_9_1 578Fluorophore_cell_0_9_2 240 kFluorophore_cell_0_9_3 Fluorophore_cell_0_9_4
PE-Cy5 conjugatesFluorophore_cell_0_10_0 480;565;650Fluorophore_cell_0_10_1 670Fluorophore_cell_0_10_2 Fluorophore_cell_0_10_3 aka Cychrome, R670, Tri-Color, Quantum RedFluorophore_cell_0_10_4
PE-Cy7 conjugatesFluorophore_cell_0_11_0 480;565;743Fluorophore_cell_0_11_1 767Fluorophore_cell_0_11_2 Fluorophore_cell_0_11_3 Fluorophore_cell_0_11_4
Red 613Fluorophore_cell_0_12_0 480;565Fluorophore_cell_0_12_1 613Fluorophore_cell_0_12_2 Fluorophore_cell_0_12_3 PE-Texas RedFluorophore_cell_0_12_4
PerCPFluorophore_cell_0_13_0 490Fluorophore_cell_0_13_1 675Fluorophore_cell_0_13_2 35kDaFluorophore_cell_0_13_3 Peridinin chlorophyll proteinFluorophore_cell_0_13_4
TruRedFluorophore_cell_0_14_0 490,675Fluorophore_cell_0_14_1 695Fluorophore_cell_0_14_2 Fluorophore_cell_0_14_3 PerCP-Cy5.5 conjugateFluorophore_cell_0_14_4
FluorXFluorophore_cell_0_15_0 494Fluorophore_cell_0_15_1 520Fluorophore_cell_0_15_2 587Fluorophore_cell_0_15_3 (GE Healthcare)Fluorophore_cell_0_15_4
FluoresceinFluorophore_cell_0_16_0 495Fluorophore_cell_0_16_1 519Fluorophore_cell_0_16_2 389Fluorophore_cell_0_16_3 FITC; pH sensitiveFluorophore_cell_0_16_4
BODIPY-FLFluorophore_cell_0_17_0 503Fluorophore_cell_0_17_1 512Fluorophore_cell_0_17_2 Fluorophore_cell_0_17_3 Fluorophore_cell_0_17_4
G-Dye100Fluorophore_cell_0_18_0 498Fluorophore_cell_0_18_1 524Fluorophore_cell_0_18_2 Fluorophore_cell_0_18_3 suitable for protein labeling and electrophoresisFluorophore_cell_0_18_4
G-Dye200Fluorophore_cell_0_19_0 554Fluorophore_cell_0_19_1 575Fluorophore_cell_0_19_2 Fluorophore_cell_0_19_3 suitable for protein labeling and electrophoresisFluorophore_cell_0_19_4
G-Dye300Fluorophore_cell_0_20_0 648Fluorophore_cell_0_20_1 663Fluorophore_cell_0_20_2 Fluorophore_cell_0_20_3 suitable for protein labeling and electrophoresisFluorophore_cell_0_20_4
G-Dye400Fluorophore_cell_0_21_0 736Fluorophore_cell_0_21_1 760Fluorophore_cell_0_21_2 Fluorophore_cell_0_21_3 suitable for protein labeling and electrophoresisFluorophore_cell_0_21_4
Cy2Fluorophore_cell_0_22_0 489Fluorophore_cell_0_22_1 506Fluorophore_cell_0_22_2 714Fluorophore_cell_0_22_3 QY 0.12Fluorophore_cell_0_22_4
Cy3Fluorophore_cell_0_23_0 (512);550Fluorophore_cell_0_23_1 570;(615)Fluorophore_cell_0_23_2 767Fluorophore_cell_0_23_3 QY 0.15Fluorophore_cell_0_23_4
Cy3BFluorophore_cell_0_24_0 558Fluorophore_cell_0_24_1 572;(620)Fluorophore_cell_0_24_2 658Fluorophore_cell_0_24_3 QY 0.67Fluorophore_cell_0_24_4
Cy3.5Fluorophore_cell_0_25_0 581Fluorophore_cell_0_25_1 594;(640)Fluorophore_cell_0_25_2 1102Fluorophore_cell_0_25_3 QY 0.15Fluorophore_cell_0_25_4
Cy5Fluorophore_cell_0_26_0 (625);650Fluorophore_cell_0_26_1 670Fluorophore_cell_0_26_2 792Fluorophore_cell_0_26_3 QY 0.28Fluorophore_cell_0_26_4
Cy5.5Fluorophore_cell_0_27_0 675Fluorophore_cell_0_27_1 694Fluorophore_cell_0_27_2 1272Fluorophore_cell_0_27_3 QY 0.23Fluorophore_cell_0_27_4
Cy7Fluorophore_cell_0_28_0 743Fluorophore_cell_0_28_1 767Fluorophore_cell_0_28_2 818Fluorophore_cell_0_28_3 QY 0.28Fluorophore_cell_0_28_4
TRITCFluorophore_cell_0_29_0 547Fluorophore_cell_0_29_1 572Fluorophore_cell_0_29_2 444Fluorophore_cell_0_29_3 TRITCFluorophore_cell_0_29_4
X-RhodamineFluorophore_cell_0_30_0 570Fluorophore_cell_0_30_1 576Fluorophore_cell_0_30_2 548Fluorophore_cell_0_30_3 XRITCFluorophore_cell_0_30_4
Lissamine Rhodamine BFluorophore_cell_0_31_0 570Fluorophore_cell_0_31_1 590Fluorophore_cell_0_31_2 Fluorophore_cell_0_31_3 Fluorophore_cell_0_31_4
Texas RedFluorophore_cell_0_32_0 589Fluorophore_cell_0_32_1 615Fluorophore_cell_0_32_2 625Fluorophore_cell_0_32_3 Sulfonyl chlorideFluorophore_cell_0_32_4
Allophycocyanin (APC)Fluorophore_cell_0_33_0 650Fluorophore_cell_0_33_1 660Fluorophore_cell_0_33_2 104 kFluorophore_cell_0_33_3 Fluorophore_cell_0_33_4
APC-Cy7 conjugatesFluorophore_cell_0_34_0 650;755Fluorophore_cell_0_34_1 767Fluorophore_cell_0_34_2 Fluorophore_cell_0_34_3 Far RedFluorophore_cell_0_34_4

Abbreviations: Fluorophore_sentence_36

Fluorophore_unordered_list_3

  • Ex (nm): Excitation wavelength in nanometersFluorophore_item_3_38
  • Em (nm): Emission wavelength in nanometersFluorophore_item_3_39
  • MW: Molecular weightFluorophore_item_3_40
  • QY: Quantum yieldFluorophore_item_3_41

Nucleic acid dyes Fluorophore_section_5

Cell function dyes Fluorophore_section_6

Fluorophore_table_general_1

DyeFluorophore_header_cell_1_0_0 Ex (nm)Fluorophore_header_cell_1_0_1 Em (nm)Fluorophore_header_cell_1_0_2 MWFluorophore_header_cell_1_0_3 NotesFluorophore_header_cell_1_0_4
Indo-1Fluorophore_cell_1_1_0 361/330Fluorophore_cell_1_1_1 490/405Fluorophore_cell_1_1_2 1010Fluorophore_cell_1_1_3 AM ester, low/high calcium (Ca)Fluorophore_cell_1_1_4
Fluo-3Fluorophore_cell_1_2_0 506Fluorophore_cell_1_2_1 526Fluorophore_cell_1_2_2 855Fluorophore_cell_1_2_3 AM ester. pH > 6Fluorophore_cell_1_2_4
Fluo-4Fluorophore_cell_1_3_0 491/494Fluorophore_cell_1_3_1 516Fluorophore_cell_1_3_2 1097Fluorophore_cell_1_3_3 AM ester. pH 7.2Fluorophore_cell_1_3_4
DCFHFluorophore_cell_1_4_0 505Fluorophore_cell_1_4_1 535Fluorophore_cell_1_4_2 529Fluorophore_cell_1_4_3 2'7'Dichorodihydrofluorescein, oxidized formFluorophore_cell_1_4_4
DHRFluorophore_cell_1_5_0 505Fluorophore_cell_1_5_1 534Fluorophore_cell_1_5_2 346Fluorophore_cell_1_5_3 Dihydrorhodamine 123, oxidized form, light catalyzes oxidationFluorophore_cell_1_5_4
SNARFFluorophore_cell_1_6_0 548/579Fluorophore_cell_1_6_1 587/635Fluorophore_cell_1_6_2 Fluorophore_cell_1_6_3 pH 6/9Fluorophore_cell_1_6_4

Fluorescent proteins Fluorophore_section_7

Fluorophore_table_general_2

DyeFluorophore_header_cell_2_0_0 Ex (nm)Fluorophore_header_cell_2_0_1 Em (nm)Fluorophore_header_cell_2_0_2 MWFluorophore_header_cell_2_0_3 QYFluorophore_header_cell_2_0_4 BRFluorophore_header_cell_2_0_5 PSFluorophore_header_cell_2_0_6 NotesFluorophore_header_cell_2_0_7
GFP (Y66H mutation)Fluorophore_cell_2_1_0 360Fluorophore_cell_2_1_1 442Fluorophore_cell_2_1_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_1_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_1_4 Fluorophore_cell_2_1_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_1_6 Fluorophore_cell_2_1_7
GFP (Y66F mutation)Fluorophore_cell_2_2_0 360Fluorophore_cell_2_2_1 508Fluorophore_cell_2_2_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_2_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_2_4 Fluorophore_cell_2_2_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_2_6 Fluorophore_cell_2_2_7
EBFPFluorophore_cell_2_3_0 380Fluorophore_cell_2_3_1 440Fluorophore_cell_2_3_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_3_3 0.18Fluorophore_cell_2_3_4 0.27Fluorophore_cell_2_3_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_3_6 monomerFluorophore_cell_2_3_7
EBFP2Fluorophore_cell_2_4_0 383Fluorophore_cell_2_4_1 448Fluorophore_cell_2_4_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_4_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_4_4 20Fluorophore_cell_2_4_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_4_6 monomerFluorophore_cell_2_4_7
AzuriteFluorophore_cell_2_5_0 383Fluorophore_cell_2_5_1 447Fluorophore_cell_2_5_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_5_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_5_4 15Fluorophore_cell_2_5_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_5_6 monomerFluorophore_cell_2_5_7
GFPuvFluorophore_cell_2_6_0 385Fluorophore_cell_2_6_1 508Fluorophore_cell_2_6_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_6_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_6_4 Fluorophore_cell_2_6_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_6_6 Fluorophore_cell_2_6_7
T-SapphireFluorophore_cell_2_7_0 399Fluorophore_cell_2_7_1 511Fluorophore_cell_2_7_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_7_3 0.60Fluorophore_cell_2_7_4 26Fluorophore_cell_2_7_5 25Fluorophore_cell_2_7_6 weak dimerFluorophore_cell_2_7_7
CeruleanFluorophore_cell_2_8_0 433Fluorophore_cell_2_8_1 475Fluorophore_cell_2_8_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_8_3 0.62Fluorophore_cell_2_8_4 27Fluorophore_cell_2_8_5 36Fluorophore_cell_2_8_6 weak dimerFluorophore_cell_2_8_7
mCFPFluorophore_cell_2_9_0 433Fluorophore_cell_2_9_1 475Fluorophore_cell_2_9_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_9_3 0.40Fluorophore_cell_2_9_4 13Fluorophore_cell_2_9_5 64Fluorophore_cell_2_9_6 monomerFluorophore_cell_2_9_7
mTurquoise2Fluorophore_cell_2_10_0 434Fluorophore_cell_2_10_1 474Fluorophore_cell_2_10_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_10_3 0.93Fluorophore_cell_2_10_4 28Fluorophore_cell_2_10_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_10_6 monomerFluorophore_cell_2_10_7
ECFPFluorophore_cell_2_11_0 434Fluorophore_cell_2_11_1 477Fluorophore_cell_2_11_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_11_3 0.15Fluorophore_cell_2_11_4 3Fluorophore_cell_2_11_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_11_6 Fluorophore_cell_2_11_7
CyPetFluorophore_cell_2_12_0 435Fluorophore_cell_2_12_1 477Fluorophore_cell_2_12_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_12_3 0.51Fluorophore_cell_2_12_4 18Fluorophore_cell_2_12_5 59Fluorophore_cell_2_12_6 weak dimerFluorophore_cell_2_12_7
GFP (Y66W mutation)Fluorophore_cell_2_13_0 436Fluorophore_cell_2_13_1 485Fluorophore_cell_2_13_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_13_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_13_4 Fluorophore_cell_2_13_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_13_6 Fluorophore_cell_2_13_7
mKeima-RedFluorophore_cell_2_14_0 440Fluorophore_cell_2_14_1 620Fluorophore_cell_2_14_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_14_3 0.24Fluorophore_cell_2_14_4 3Fluorophore_cell_2_14_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_14_6 monomer (MBL)Fluorophore_cell_2_14_7
TagCFPFluorophore_cell_2_15_0 458Fluorophore_cell_2_15_1 480Fluorophore_cell_2_15_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_15_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_15_4 29Fluorophore_cell_2_15_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_15_6 dimer (Evrogen)Fluorophore_cell_2_15_7
AmCyan1Fluorophore_cell_2_16_0 458Fluorophore_cell_2_16_1 489Fluorophore_cell_2_16_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_16_3 0.75Fluorophore_cell_2_16_4 29Fluorophore_cell_2_16_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_16_6 tetramer, (Clontech)Fluorophore_cell_2_16_7
mTFP1Fluorophore_cell_2_17_0 462Fluorophore_cell_2_17_1 492Fluorophore_cell_2_17_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_17_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_17_4 54Fluorophore_cell_2_17_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_17_6 dimerFluorophore_cell_2_17_7
GFP (S65A mutation)Fluorophore_cell_2_18_0 471Fluorophore_cell_2_18_1 504Fluorophore_cell_2_18_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_18_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_18_4 Fluorophore_cell_2_18_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_18_6 Fluorophore_cell_2_18_7
Midoriishi CyanFluorophore_cell_2_19_0 472Fluorophore_cell_2_19_1 495Fluorophore_cell_2_19_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_19_3 0.9Fluorophore_cell_2_19_4 25Fluorophore_cell_2_19_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_19_6 dimer (MBL)Fluorophore_cell_2_19_7
Wild Type GFPFluorophore_cell_2_20_0 396,475Fluorophore_cell_2_20_1 508Fluorophore_cell_2_20_2 26kFluorophore_cell_2_20_3 0.77Fluorophore_cell_2_20_4 Fluorophore_cell_2_20_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_20_6 Fluorophore_cell_2_20_7
GFP (S65C mutation)Fluorophore_cell_2_21_0 479Fluorophore_cell_2_21_1 507Fluorophore_cell_2_21_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_21_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_21_4 Fluorophore_cell_2_21_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_21_6 Fluorophore_cell_2_21_7
TurboGFPFluorophore_cell_2_22_0 482Fluorophore_cell_2_22_1 502Fluorophore_cell_2_22_2 26 kFluorophore_cell_2_22_3 0.53Fluorophore_cell_2_22_4 37Fluorophore_cell_2_22_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_22_6 dimer, (Evrogen)Fluorophore_cell_2_22_7
TagGFPFluorophore_cell_2_23_0 482Fluorophore_cell_2_23_1 505Fluorophore_cell_2_23_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_23_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_23_4 34Fluorophore_cell_2_23_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_23_6 monomer (Evrogen)Fluorophore_cell_2_23_7
GFP (S65L mutation)Fluorophore_cell_2_24_0 484Fluorophore_cell_2_24_1 510Fluorophore_cell_2_24_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_24_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_24_4 Fluorophore_cell_2_24_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_24_6 Fluorophore_cell_2_24_7
EmeraldFluorophore_cell_2_25_0 487Fluorophore_cell_2_25_1 509Fluorophore_cell_2_25_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_25_3 0.68Fluorophore_cell_2_25_4 39Fluorophore_cell_2_25_5 0.69Fluorophore_cell_2_25_6 weak dimer, (Invitrogen)Fluorophore_cell_2_25_7
GFP (S65T mutation)Fluorophore_cell_2_26_0 488Fluorophore_cell_2_26_1 511Fluorophore_cell_2_26_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_26_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_26_4 Fluorophore_cell_2_26_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_26_6 Fluorophore_cell_2_26_7
EGFPFluorophore_cell_2_27_0 488Fluorophore_cell_2_27_1 507Fluorophore_cell_2_27_2 26kFluorophore_cell_2_27_3 0.60Fluorophore_cell_2_27_4 34Fluorophore_cell_2_27_5 174Fluorophore_cell_2_27_6 weak dimer, (Clontech)Fluorophore_cell_2_27_7
Azami GreenFluorophore_cell_2_28_0 492Fluorophore_cell_2_28_1 505Fluorophore_cell_2_28_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_28_3 0.74Fluorophore_cell_2_28_4 41Fluorophore_cell_2_28_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_28_6 monomer (MBL)Fluorophore_cell_2_28_7
ZsGreen1Fluorophore_cell_2_29_0 493Fluorophore_cell_2_29_1 505Fluorophore_cell_2_29_2 105kFluorophore_cell_2_29_3 0.91Fluorophore_cell_2_29_4 40Fluorophore_cell_2_29_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_29_6 tetramer, (Clontech)Fluorophore_cell_2_29_7
TagYFPFluorophore_cell_2_30_0 508Fluorophore_cell_2_30_1 524Fluorophore_cell_2_30_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_30_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_30_4 47Fluorophore_cell_2_30_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_30_6 monomer (Evrogen)Fluorophore_cell_2_30_7
EYFPFluorophore_cell_2_31_0 514Fluorophore_cell_2_31_1 527Fluorophore_cell_2_31_2 26kFluorophore_cell_2_31_3 0.61Fluorophore_cell_2_31_4 51Fluorophore_cell_2_31_5 60Fluorophore_cell_2_31_6 weak dimer, (Clontech)Fluorophore_cell_2_31_7
TopazFluorophore_cell_2_32_0 514Fluorophore_cell_2_32_1 527Fluorophore_cell_2_32_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_32_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_32_4 57Fluorophore_cell_2_32_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_32_6 monomerFluorophore_cell_2_32_7
VenusFluorophore_cell_2_33_0 515Fluorophore_cell_2_33_1 528Fluorophore_cell_2_33_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_33_3 0.57Fluorophore_cell_2_33_4 53Fluorophore_cell_2_33_5 15Fluorophore_cell_2_33_6 weak dimerFluorophore_cell_2_33_7
mCitrineFluorophore_cell_2_34_0 516Fluorophore_cell_2_34_1 529Fluorophore_cell_2_34_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_34_3 0.76Fluorophore_cell_2_34_4 59Fluorophore_cell_2_34_5 49Fluorophore_cell_2_34_6 monomerFluorophore_cell_2_34_7
YPetFluorophore_cell_2_35_0 517Fluorophore_cell_2_35_1 530Fluorophore_cell_2_35_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_35_3 0.77Fluorophore_cell_2_35_4 80Fluorophore_cell_2_35_5 49Fluorophore_cell_2_35_6 weak dimerFluorophore_cell_2_35_7
TurboYFPFluorophore_cell_2_36_0 525Fluorophore_cell_2_36_1 538Fluorophore_cell_2_36_2 26 kFluorophore_cell_2_36_3 0.53Fluorophore_cell_2_36_4 55.7Fluorophore_cell_2_36_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_36_6 dimer, (Evrogen)Fluorophore_cell_2_36_7
ZsYellow1Fluorophore_cell_2_37_0 529Fluorophore_cell_2_37_1 539Fluorophore_cell_2_37_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_37_3 0.65Fluorophore_cell_2_37_4 13Fluorophore_cell_2_37_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_37_6 tetramer, (Clontech)Fluorophore_cell_2_37_7
Kusabira OrangeFluorophore_cell_2_38_0 548Fluorophore_cell_2_38_1 559Fluorophore_cell_2_38_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_38_3 0.60Fluorophore_cell_2_38_4 31Fluorophore_cell_2_38_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_38_6 monomer (MBL)Fluorophore_cell_2_38_7
mOrangeFluorophore_cell_2_39_0 548Fluorophore_cell_2_39_1 562Fluorophore_cell_2_39_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_39_3 0.69Fluorophore_cell_2_39_4 49Fluorophore_cell_2_39_5 9Fluorophore_cell_2_39_6 monomerFluorophore_cell_2_39_7
Allophycocyanin (APC)Fluorophore_cell_2_40_0 652Fluorophore_cell_2_40_1 657.5Fluorophore_cell_2_40_2 105 kDaFluorophore_cell_2_40_3 0.68Fluorophore_cell_2_40_4 Fluorophore_cell_2_40_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_40_6 heterodimer, crosslinkedFluorophore_cell_2_40_7
mKOFluorophore_cell_2_41_0 548Fluorophore_cell_2_41_1 559Fluorophore_cell_2_41_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_41_3 0.60Fluorophore_cell_2_41_4 31Fluorophore_cell_2_41_5 122Fluorophore_cell_2_41_6 monomerFluorophore_cell_2_41_7
TurboRFPFluorophore_cell_2_42_0 553Fluorophore_cell_2_42_1 574Fluorophore_cell_2_42_2 26 kFluorophore_cell_2_42_3 0.67Fluorophore_cell_2_42_4 62Fluorophore_cell_2_42_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_42_6 dimer, (Evrogen)Fluorophore_cell_2_42_7
tdTomatoFluorophore_cell_2_43_0 554Fluorophore_cell_2_43_1 581Fluorophore_cell_2_43_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_43_3 0.69Fluorophore_cell_2_43_4 95Fluorophore_cell_2_43_5 98Fluorophore_cell_2_43_6 tandem dimerFluorophore_cell_2_43_7
TagRFPFluorophore_cell_2_44_0 555Fluorophore_cell_2_44_1 584Fluorophore_cell_2_44_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_44_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_44_4 50Fluorophore_cell_2_44_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_44_6 monomer (Evrogen)Fluorophore_cell_2_44_7
DsRed monomerFluorophore_cell_2_45_0 556Fluorophore_cell_2_45_1 586Fluorophore_cell_2_45_2 ~28kFluorophore_cell_2_45_3 0.1Fluorophore_cell_2_45_4 3.5Fluorophore_cell_2_45_5 16Fluorophore_cell_2_45_6 monomer, (Clontech)Fluorophore_cell_2_45_7
DsRed2 ("RFP")Fluorophore_cell_2_46_0 563Fluorophore_cell_2_46_1 582Fluorophore_cell_2_46_2 ~110kFluorophore_cell_2_46_3 0.55Fluorophore_cell_2_46_4 24Fluorophore_cell_2_46_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_46_6 (Clontech)Fluorophore_cell_2_46_7
mStrawberryFluorophore_cell_2_47_0 574Fluorophore_cell_2_47_1 596Fluorophore_cell_2_47_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_47_3 0.29Fluorophore_cell_2_47_4 26Fluorophore_cell_2_47_5 15Fluorophore_cell_2_47_6 monomerFluorophore_cell_2_47_7
TurboFP602Fluorophore_cell_2_48_0 574Fluorophore_cell_2_48_1 602Fluorophore_cell_2_48_2 26 kFluorophore_cell_2_48_3 0.35Fluorophore_cell_2_48_4 26Fluorophore_cell_2_48_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_48_6 dimer, (Evrogen)Fluorophore_cell_2_48_7
AsRed2Fluorophore_cell_2_49_0 576Fluorophore_cell_2_49_1 592Fluorophore_cell_2_49_2 ~110kFluorophore_cell_2_49_3 0.21Fluorophore_cell_2_49_4 13Fluorophore_cell_2_49_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_49_6 tetramer, (Clontech)Fluorophore_cell_2_49_7
mRFP1Fluorophore_cell_2_50_0 584Fluorophore_cell_2_50_1 607Fluorophore_cell_2_50_2 ~30kFluorophore_cell_2_50_3 0.25Fluorophore_cell_2_50_4 Fluorophore_cell_2_50_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_50_6 monomer, (Tsien lab)Fluorophore_cell_2_50_7
J-RedFluorophore_cell_2_51_0 584Fluorophore_cell_2_51_1 610Fluorophore_cell_2_51_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_51_3 0.20Fluorophore_cell_2_51_4 8.8Fluorophore_cell_2_51_5 13Fluorophore_cell_2_51_6 dimerFluorophore_cell_2_51_7
R-phycoerythrin (RPE)Fluorophore_cell_2_52_0 565 >498Fluorophore_cell_2_52_1 573Fluorophore_cell_2_52_2 250 kDaFluorophore_cell_2_52_3 0.84Fluorophore_cell_2_52_4 Fluorophore_cell_2_52_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_52_6 heterotrimerFluorophore_cell_2_52_7
B-phycoerythrin (BPE)Fluorophore_cell_2_53_0 545Fluorophore_cell_2_53_1 572Fluorophore_cell_2_53_2 240 kDaFluorophore_cell_2_53_3 0.98Fluorophore_cell_2_53_4 Fluorophore_cell_2_53_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_53_6 heterotrimerFluorophore_cell_2_53_7
mCherryFluorophore_cell_2_54_0 587Fluorophore_cell_2_54_1 610Fluorophore_cell_2_54_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_54_3 0.22Fluorophore_cell_2_54_4 16Fluorophore_cell_2_54_5 96Fluorophore_cell_2_54_6 monomerFluorophore_cell_2_54_7
HcRed1Fluorophore_cell_2_55_0 588Fluorophore_cell_2_55_1 618Fluorophore_cell_2_55_2 ~52kFluorophore_cell_2_55_3 0.03Fluorophore_cell_2_55_4 0.6Fluorophore_cell_2_55_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_55_6 dimer, (Clontech)Fluorophore_cell_2_55_7
KatushaFluorophore_cell_2_56_0 588Fluorophore_cell_2_56_1 635Fluorophore_cell_2_56_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_56_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_56_4 23Fluorophore_cell_2_56_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_56_6 dimerFluorophore_cell_2_56_7
Fluorophore_cell_2_57_0 614Fluorophore_cell_2_57_1 662Fluorophore_cell_2_57_2 ~10,000 kDaFluorophore_cell_2_57_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_57_4 Fluorophore_cell_2_57_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_57_6 phycobilisome complexFluorophore_cell_2_57_7
Peridinin Chlorophyll (PerCP)Fluorophore_cell_2_58_0 483Fluorophore_cell_2_58_1 676Fluorophore_cell_2_58_2 35 kDaFluorophore_cell_2_58_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_58_4 Fluorophore_cell_2_58_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_58_6 trimerFluorophore_cell_2_58_7
mKate (TagFP635)Fluorophore_cell_2_59_0 588Fluorophore_cell_2_59_1 635Fluorophore_cell_2_59_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_59_3 Fluorophore_cell_2_59_4 15Fluorophore_cell_2_59_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_59_6 monomer (Evrogen)Fluorophore_cell_2_59_7
TurboFP635Fluorophore_cell_2_60_0 588Fluorophore_cell_2_60_1 635Fluorophore_cell_2_60_2 26 kFluorophore_cell_2_60_3 0.34Fluorophore_cell_2_60_4 22Fluorophore_cell_2_60_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_60_6 dimer, (Evrogen)Fluorophore_cell_2_60_7
mPlumFluorophore_cell_2_61_0 590Fluorophore_cell_2_61_1 649Fluorophore_cell_2_61_2 51.4 kFluorophore_cell_2_61_3 0.10Fluorophore_cell_2_61_4 4.1Fluorophore_cell_2_61_5 53Fluorophore_cell_2_61_6 Fluorophore_cell_2_61_7
mRaspberryFluorophore_cell_2_62_0 598Fluorophore_cell_2_62_1 625Fluorophore_cell_2_62_2 Fluorophore_cell_2_62_3 0.15Fluorophore_cell_2_62_4 13Fluorophore_cell_2_62_5 Fluorophore_cell_2_62_6 monomer, faster photobleach than mPlumFluorophore_cell_2_62_7

Abbreviations: Fluorophore_sentence_37

Fluorophore_unordered_list_4

  • Ex (nm): Excitation wavelength in nanometersFluorophore_item_4_42
  • Em (nm): Emission wavelength in nanometersFluorophore_item_4_43
  • MW: Molecular weightFluorophore_item_4_44
  • QY: Quantum yieldFluorophore_item_4_45
  • BR: Brightness: Molar absorption coefficient * quantum yield / 1000Fluorophore_item_4_46
  • PS: Photostability: time [sec] to reduce brightness by 50%Fluorophore_item_4_47

Applications Fluorophore_section_8

Further information: Fluorescence in the life sciences Fluorophore_sentence_38

Fluorophores have particular importance in the field of biochemistry and protein studies, e.g., in immunofluorescence but also in cell analysis, e.g. immunohistochemistry and small molecule sensors. Fluorophore_sentence_39

Uses outside the life sciences Fluorophore_section_9

Additionally fluorescent dyes find a wide use in industry, going under the name of "neon colours", such as: Fluorophore_sentence_40

Fluorophore_unordered_list_5

  • Multi-ton scale usages in textile dyeing and optical brighteners in laundry detergentsFluorophore_item_5_48
  • Advanced cosmetic formulations; safety equipment and clothingFluorophore_item_5_49
  • Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED)Fluorophore_item_5_50
  • Fine arts and design (posters and paintings)Fluorophore_item_5_51
  • Synergists for insecticides and experimental drugsFluorophore_item_5_52
  • As a dye in highlighters to give off a glow-like effectFluorophore_item_5_53
  • Solar panels to collect more light / wavelengthsFluorophore_item_5_54

See also Fluorophore_section_10

Fluorophore_unordered_list_6


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorophore.