Frank Sinatra

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"Sinatra" redirects here. Frank Sinatra_sentence_0

For other uses of the name Sinatra, see Sinatra (disambiguation). Frank Sinatra_sentence_1

Frank Sinatra_table_infobox_0

Frank SinatraFrank Sinatra_header_cell_0_0_0
BornFrank Sinatra_header_cell_0_1_0 Francis Albert Sinatra

(1915-12-12)December 12, 1915 Hoboken, New Jersey, U.S.Frank Sinatra_cell_0_1_1

DiedFrank Sinatra_header_cell_0_2_0 May 14, 1998(1998-05-14) (aged 82)

Los Angeles, California, U.S.Frank Sinatra_cell_0_2_1

Burial placeFrank Sinatra_header_cell_0_3_0 Desert Memorial Park, Cathedral City, California, U.S.Frank Sinatra_cell_0_3_1
OccupationFrank Sinatra_header_cell_0_4_0 Frank Sinatra_cell_0_4_1
Years activeFrank Sinatra_header_cell_0_5_0 1935–1995Frank Sinatra_cell_0_5_1
Spouse(s)Frank Sinatra_header_cell_0_6_0 Nancy Barbato

​ ​(m. 1939; div. 1951)​

Ava Gardner ​ ​(m. 1951; div. 1957)​

Mia Farrow ​ ​(m. 1966; div. 1968)​

Barbara Marx ​(m. 1976)​Frank Sinatra_cell_0_6_1

ChildrenFrank Sinatra_header_cell_0_7_0 Frank Sinatra_cell_0_7_1
Parent(s)Frank Sinatra_header_cell_0_8_0 Frank Sinatra_cell_0_8_1
GenresFrank Sinatra_header_cell_0_9_0 Frank Sinatra_cell_0_9_1
InstrumentsFrank Sinatra_header_cell_0_10_0 VocalsFrank Sinatra_cell_0_10_1
LabelsFrank Sinatra_header_cell_0_11_0 Frank Sinatra_cell_0_11_1
WebsiteFrank Sinatra_header_cell_0_12_0 Frank Sinatra_cell_0_12_1

Francis Albert Sinatra (/sɪˈnɑːtrə/; December 12, 1915 – May 14, 1998) was an American singer, actor and producer who was one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century. Frank Sinatra_sentence_2

He is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 150 million records worldwide. Frank Sinatra_sentence_3

Born to Italian immigrants in Hoboken, New Jersey, Sinatra was greatly influenced by the intimate easy listening vocal style of Bing Crosby and began his musical career in the swing era with bandleaders Harry James and Tommy Dorsey. Frank Sinatra_sentence_4

Sinatra found success as a solo artist after he signed with Columbia Records in 1943, becoming the idol of the "bobby soxers". Frank Sinatra_sentence_5

He released his debut album, The Voice of Frank Sinatra, in 1946. Frank Sinatra_sentence_6

But by the early 1950s his professional career had stalled and he turned to Las Vegas, where he became one of its best known residency performers as part of the Rat Pack. Frank Sinatra_sentence_7

His career was reborn in 1953 with the success of From Here to Eternity, with his performance subsequently winning an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor. Frank Sinatra_sentence_8

Sinatra released several critically lauded albums, including In the Wee Small Hours (1955), Songs for Swingin' Lovers! Frank Sinatra_sentence_9

(1956), Come Fly with Me (1958), Only the Lonely (1958) and Nice 'n' Easy (1960). Frank Sinatra_sentence_10

Sinatra left Capitol in 1960 to start his own record label, Reprise Records, and released a string of successful albums. Frank Sinatra_sentence_11

In 1965, he recorded the retrospective album, September of My Years and starred in the Emmy-winning television special Frank Sinatra: A Man and His Music. Frank Sinatra_sentence_12

After releasing Sinatra at the Sands, recorded at the Sands Hotel and Casino in Vegas with frequent collaborator Count Basie in early 1966, the following year he recorded one of his most famous collaborations with Tom Jobim, the album Francis Albert Sinatra & Antonio Carlos Jobim. Frank Sinatra_sentence_13

It was followed by 1968's Francis A. Frank Sinatra_sentence_14 & Edward K. with Duke Ellington. Frank Sinatra_sentence_15

Sinatra retired for the first time in 1971, but came out of retirement two years later. Frank Sinatra_sentence_16

He recorded several albums and resumed performing at Caesars Palace, and released "New York, New York" in 1980. Frank Sinatra_sentence_17

Using his Las Vegas shows as a home base, he toured both within the United States and internationally until shortly before his death in 1998. Frank Sinatra_sentence_18

Sinatra forged a highly successful career as a film actor. Frank Sinatra_sentence_19

After winning an Academy Award for From Here to Eternity, he starred in The Man with the Golden Arm (1955), and received critical acclaim for his performance in The Manchurian Candidate (1962). Frank Sinatra_sentence_20

He appeared in various musicals such as On the Town (1949), Guys and Dolls (1955), High Society (1956), and Pal Joey (1957), winning another Golden Globe for the latter. Frank Sinatra_sentence_21

Toward the end of his career, he frequently played detectives, including the title character in Tony Rome (1967). Frank Sinatra_sentence_22

Sinatra would later receive the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award in 1971. Frank Sinatra_sentence_23

On television, The Frank Sinatra Show began on ABC in 1950, and he continued to make appearances on television throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Frank Sinatra_sentence_24

Sinatra was also heavily involved with politics from the mid-1940s, and actively campaigned for presidents such as Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan. Frank Sinatra_sentence_25

Sinatra was investigated by the FBI for his alleged relationship with the Mafia. Frank Sinatra_sentence_26

While Sinatra never learned how to read music, he worked very hard from a young age to improve his abilities in all aspects of music. Frank Sinatra_sentence_27

A perfectionist, renowned for his dress sense and performing presence, he always insisted on recording live with his band. Frank Sinatra_sentence_28

His bright blue eyes earned him the popular nickname "Ol' Blue Eyes". Frank Sinatra_sentence_29

Sinatra led a colorful personal life, and was often involved in turbulent affairs with women, such as with his second wife Ava Gardner. Frank Sinatra_sentence_30

He later married Mia Farrow in 1966 and Barbara Marx in 1976. Frank Sinatra_sentence_31

Sinatra had several violent confrontations, usually with journalists he felt had crossed him, or work bosses with whom he had disagreements. Frank Sinatra_sentence_32

He was honored at the Kennedy Center Honors in 1983, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Ronald Reagan in 1985, and the Congressional Gold Medal in 1997. Frank Sinatra_sentence_33

Sinatra was also the recipient of eleven Grammy Awards, including the Grammy Trustees Award, Grammy Legend Award and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Frank Sinatra_sentence_34

He was collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the 20th century's 100 most influential people. Frank Sinatra_sentence_35

After Sinatra's death, American music critic Robert Christgau called him "the greatest singer of the 20th century", and he continues to be seen as an iconic figure. Frank Sinatra_sentence_36

Early life Frank Sinatra_section_0

Main article: Early life of Frank Sinatra Frank Sinatra_sentence_37

Francis Albert Sinatra was born on December 12, 1915, in an upstairs tenement at 415 Monroe Street in Hoboken, New Jersey, the only child of Italian immigrants Natalina "Dolly" Garaventa and Antonino Martino "Marty" Sinatra. Frank Sinatra_sentence_38

Sinatra weighed 13.5 pounds (6.1 kg) at birth and had to be delivered with the aid of forceps, which caused severe scarring to his left cheek, neck, and ear, and perforated his eardrum—damage that remained for life. Frank Sinatra_sentence_39

Due to his injuries at birth, his baptism at St. Francis Church in Hoboken was delayed until April 2, 1916. Frank Sinatra_sentence_40

A childhood operation on his mastoid bone left major scarring on his neck, and during adolescence he suffered from cystic acne that further scarred his face and neck. Frank Sinatra_sentence_41

Sinatra was raised in the Roman Catholic church. Frank Sinatra_sentence_42

Sinatra's mother was energetic and driven, and biographers believe that she was the dominant factor in the development of her son's personality traits and self-confidence. Frank Sinatra_sentence_43

Sinatra's fourth wife Barbara would later claim that Dolly was abusive to him as a child, and "knocked him around a lot". Frank Sinatra_sentence_44

Dolly became influential in Hoboken and in local Democratic Party circles. Frank Sinatra_sentence_45

She worked as a midwife, earning $50 for each delivery, and according to Sinatra biographer Kitty Kelley, also ran an illegal abortion service that catered to Italian Catholic girls, for which she was nicknamed "Hatpin Dolly". Frank Sinatra_sentence_46

She also had a gift for languages and served as a local interpreter. Frank Sinatra_sentence_47

Sinatra's illiterate father was a bantamweight boxer who fought under the name Marty O'Brien. Frank Sinatra_sentence_48

He later worked for 24 years at the Hoboken Fire Department, working his way up to captain. Frank Sinatra_sentence_49

Sinatra spent much time at his parents' tavern in Hoboken, working on his homework and occasionally singing a song on top of the player piano for spare change. Frank Sinatra_sentence_50

During the Great Depression, Dolly provided money to her son for outings with friends and to buy expensive clothes, resulting in neighbors describing him as the "best-dressed kid in the neighborhood". Frank Sinatra_sentence_51

Excessively thin and small as a child and young man, Sinatra's skinny frame later became a staple of jokes during stage shows. Frank Sinatra_sentence_52

Sinatra developed an interest in music, particularly big band jazz, at a young age. Frank Sinatra_sentence_53

He listened to Gene Austin, Rudy Vallée, Russ Colombo, and Bob Eberly, and idolized Bing Crosby. Frank Sinatra_sentence_54

Sinatra's maternal uncle, Domenico, gave him a ukulele for his 15th birthday, and he began performing at family gatherings. Frank Sinatra_sentence_55

Sinatra attended David E. Rue Jr. High School from 1928, and A. J. Demarest High School (since renamed as Hoboken High School) in 1931, where he arranged bands for school dances. Frank Sinatra_sentence_56

He left without graduating, having attended only 47 days before being expelled for "general rowdiness". Frank Sinatra_sentence_57

To please his mother, he enrolled at Drake Business School, but departed after 11 months. Frank Sinatra_sentence_58

Dolly found Sinatra work as a delivery boy at the Jersey Observer newspaper, where his godfather Frank Garrick worked, and after that, Sinatra was a riveter at the Tietjen and Lang shipyard. Frank Sinatra_sentence_59

He performed in local Hoboken social clubs such as The Cat's Meow and The Comedy Club, and sang for free on radio stations such as WAAT in Jersey City. Frank Sinatra_sentence_60

In New York, Sinatra found jobs singing for his supper or for cigarettes. Frank Sinatra_sentence_61

To improve his speech, he began taking elocution lessons for a dollar each from vocal coach John Quinlan, who was one of the first people to notice his impressive vocal range. Frank Sinatra_sentence_62

Music career Frank Sinatra_section_1

Main article: Frank Sinatra discography Frank Sinatra_sentence_63

Hoboken Four, Harry James, and Tommy Dorsey (1935–1939) Frank Sinatra_section_2

Sinatra began singing professionally as a teenager, but he learned music by ear and never learned to read music. Frank Sinatra_sentence_64

He got his first break in 1935 when his mother persuaded a local singing group, the 3 Flashes, to let him join. Frank Sinatra_sentence_65

Fred Tamburro, the group's baritone, stated that "Frank hung around us like we were gods or something", admitting that they only took him on board because he owned a car and could chauffeur the group around. Frank Sinatra_sentence_66

Sinatra soon learned they were auditioning for the Major Bowes Amateur Hour show, and "begged" the group to let him in on the act. Frank Sinatra_sentence_67

With Sinatra, the group became known as the Hoboken Four, and passed an audition from Edward Bowes to appear on the Major Bowes Amateur Hour show. Frank Sinatra_sentence_68

They each earned $12.50 for the appearance, and ended up attracting 40,000 votes and won first prize—a six-month contract to perform on stage and radio across the United States. Frank Sinatra_sentence_69

Sinatra quickly became the group's lead singer, and, much to the jealousy of his fellow group members, garnered most of the attention from girls. Frank Sinatra_sentence_70

Due to the success of the group, Bowes kept asking for them to return, disguised under different names, varying from "The Secaucus Cockamamies" to "The Bayonne Bacalas". Frank Sinatra_sentence_71

In 1938, Sinatra found employment as a singing waiter at a roadhouse called "The Rustic Cabin" in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, for which he was paid $15 a week. Frank Sinatra_sentence_72

The roadhouse was connected to the WNEW radio station in New York City, and he began performing with a group live during the Dance Parade show. Frank Sinatra_sentence_73

Despite the low salary, Sinatra felt that this was the break he was looking for, and boasted to friends that he was going to "become so big that no one could ever touch him". Frank Sinatra_sentence_74

In March 1939, saxophone player Frank Mane, who knew Sinatra from Jersey City radio station WAAT where both performed on live broadcasts, arranged for him to audition and record "Our Love", his first solo studio recording. Frank Sinatra_sentence_75

In June, bandleader Harry James, who had heard Sinatra sing on "Dance Parade", signed a two-year contract of $75 a week one evening after a show at the Paramount Theatre in New York. Frank Sinatra_sentence_76

It was with the James band that Sinatra released his first commercial record "From the Bottom of My Heart" in July. Frank Sinatra_sentence_77

No more than 8,000 copies of the record were sold, and further records released with James through 1939, such as "All or Nothing At All", also had weak sales on their initial release. Frank Sinatra_sentence_78

Thanks to his vocal training, Sinatra could now sing two tones higher, and developed a repertoire which included songs such as "My Buddy", "Willow Weep for Me", "It's Funny to Everyone but Me", "Here Comes the Night", "On a Little Street in Singapore", "Ciribiribin", and "Every Day of My Life". Frank Sinatra_sentence_79

Sinatra became increasingly frustrated with the status of the Harry James band, feeling that he was not achieving the major success and acclaim he was looking for. Frank Sinatra_sentence_80

His pianist and close friend Hank Sanicola persuaded him to stay with the group, but in November 1939 he left James to replace Jack Leonard as the lead singer of the Tommy Dorsey band. Frank Sinatra_sentence_81

Sinatra earned $125 a week, appearing at the Palmer House in Chicago, and James released Sinatra from his contract. Frank Sinatra_sentence_82

On January 26, 1940, he made his first public appearance with the band at the Coronado Theatre in Rockford, Illinois, opening the show with "Stardust". Frank Sinatra_sentence_83

Dorsey recalled: "You could almost feel the excitement coming up out of the crowds when the kid stood up to sing. Frank Sinatra_sentence_84

Remember, he was no matinée idol. Frank Sinatra_sentence_85

He was just a skinny kid with big ears. Frank Sinatra_sentence_86

I used to stand there so amazed I'd almost forget to take my own solos". Frank Sinatra_sentence_87

Dorsey was a major influence on Sinatra and became a father figure. Frank Sinatra_sentence_88

Sinatra copied Dorsey's mannerisms and traits, becoming a demanding perfectionist like him, even adopting his hobby of toy trains. Frank Sinatra_sentence_89

He asked Dorsey to be godfather to his daughter Nancy in June 1940. Frank Sinatra_sentence_90

Sinatra later said that "The only two people I've ever been afraid of are my mother and Tommy Dorsey". Frank Sinatra_sentence_91

Though Kelley claims that Sinatra and drummer Buddy Rich were bitter rivals, other authors state that they were friends and even roommates when the band was on the road, but professional jealousy surfaced as both men wanted to be considered the star of Dorsey's band. Frank Sinatra_sentence_92

Later, Sinatra helped Rich form his own band with a $25,000 loan and provided financial help to Rich during times of the drummer's serious illness. Frank Sinatra_sentence_93

In his first year with Dorsey, Sinatra recorded over forty songs. Frank Sinatra_sentence_94

Sinatra's first vocal hit was the song "Polka Dots and Moonbeams" in late April 1940. Frank Sinatra_sentence_95

Two more chart appearances followed with "Say It" and "Imagination", which was Sinatra's first top-10 hit. Frank Sinatra_sentence_96

His fourth chart appearance was "I'll Never Smile Again", topping the charts for twelve weeks beginning in mid-July. Frank Sinatra_sentence_97

Other records with Tommy Dorsey issued by RCA Victor include "Our Love Affair" and "Stardust" in 1940; "Oh! Frank Sinatra_sentence_98 Look at Me Now", "Dolores", "Everything Happens to Me", and "This Love of Mine" in 1941; "Just as Though You Were There", "Take Me", and "There Are Such Things" in 1942; and "It Started All Over Again", "In the Blue of Evening", and "It's Always You" in 1943. Frank Sinatra_sentence_99

As his success and popularity grew, Sinatra pushed Dorsey to allow him to record some solo songs. Frank Sinatra_sentence_100

Dorsey eventually relented, and on January 19, 1942, Sinatra recorded "Night and Day", "The Night We Called It a Day", "The Song is You", and "Lamplighter's Serenade" at a Bluebird recording session, with Axel Stordahl as arranger and conductor. Frank Sinatra_sentence_101

Sinatra first heard the recordings at the Hollywood Palladium and Hollywood Plaza and was astounded at how good he sounded. Frank Sinatra_sentence_102

Stordahl recalled: "He just couldn't believe his ears. Frank Sinatra_sentence_103

He was so excited, you almost believed he had never recorded before. Frank Sinatra_sentence_104

I think this was a turning point in his career. Frank Sinatra_sentence_105

I think he began to see what he might do on his own". Frank Sinatra_sentence_106

After the 1942 recordings, Sinatra believed he needed to go solo, with an insatiable desire to compete with Bing Crosby, but he was hampered by his contract which gave Dorsey 43% of Sinatra's lifetime earnings in the entertainment industry. Frank Sinatra_sentence_107

A legal battle ensued, eventually settled in August 1942. Frank Sinatra_sentence_108

On September 3, 1942, Dorsey bade farewell to Sinatra, reportedly saying as Sinatra left, "I hope you fall on your ass", but he was more gracious on the air when replacing Sinatra with singer Dick Haymes. Frank Sinatra_sentence_109

Rumors began spreading in newspapers that Sinatra's mobster godfather, Willie Moretti, coerced Dorsey to let Sinatra out of his contract for a few thousand dollars, holding a gun to his head. Frank Sinatra_sentence_110

Sinatra persuaded Stordahl to leave Dorsey with him and become his personal arranger, offering him $650 a month, five times the salary of Dorsey. Frank Sinatra_sentence_111

Dorsey and Sinatra, who had been very close, never patched up their differences before Dorsey's death in 1956, worsened by the fact that Dorsey occasionally made biting comments to the press such as "he's the most fascinating man in the world, but don't put your hand in the cage". Frank Sinatra_sentence_112

Onset of Sinatramania and role in World War II (1942–1945) Frank Sinatra_section_3

By May 1941, Sinatra topped the male singer polls in Billboard and DownBeat magazines. Frank Sinatra_sentence_113

His appeal to bobby soxers, as teenage girls of that time were called, revealed a whole new audience for popular music, which had been recorded mainly for adults up to that time. Frank Sinatra_sentence_114

The phenomenon became officially known as "Sinatramania" after his "legendary opening" at the Paramount Theatre in New York on December 30, 1942. Frank Sinatra_sentence_115

According to Nancy Sinatra, Jack Benny later said, "I thought the goddamned building was going to cave in. Frank Sinatra_sentence_116

I never heard such a commotion ... All this for a fellow I never heard of." Frank Sinatra_sentence_117

Sinatra performed for four weeks at the theatre, his act following the Benny Goodman orchestra, after which his contract was renewed for another four weeks by Bob Weitman due to his popularity. Frank Sinatra_sentence_118

He became known as "Swoonatra" or "The Voice", and his fans "Sinatratics". Frank Sinatra_sentence_119

They organized meetings and sent masses of letters of adoration, and within a few weeks of the show, some 1000 Sinatra fan clubs had been reported across the US. Frank Sinatra_sentence_120

Sinatra's publicist, George Evans, encouraged interviews and photographs with fans, and was the man responsible for depicting Sinatra as a vulnerable, shy, Italian–American with a rough childhood who made good. Frank Sinatra_sentence_121

When Sinatra returned to the Paramount in October 1944 only 250 persons left the first show, and 35,000 fans left outside caused a near riot, known as the Columbus Day Riot, outside the venue because they were not allowed in. Frank Sinatra_sentence_122

Such was the bobby-soxer devotion to Sinatra that they were known to write Sinatra's song titles on their clothing, bribe hotel maids for an opportunity to touch his bed, and accost his person in the form of stealing clothing he was wearing, most commonly his bow-tie. Frank Sinatra_sentence_123

Sinatra signed with Columbia Records as a solo artist on June 1, 1943 during the 1942–44 musicians' strike. Frank Sinatra_sentence_124

Columbia Records re-released Harry James and Sinatra's August 1939 version of "All or Nothing at All", which reached number 2 on June 2, and was on the best-selling list for 18 weeks. Frank Sinatra_sentence_125

He initially had great success, and performed on the radio on Your Hit Parade from February 1943 until December 1944, and on stage. Frank Sinatra_sentence_126

Columbia wanted new recordings of their growing star as quickly as possible, so Alec Wilder was hired as an arranger and conductor for several sessions with a vocal group called the Bobby Tucker Singers. Frank Sinatra_sentence_127

These first sessions were on June 7, June 22, August 5, and November 10, 1943. Frank Sinatra_sentence_128

Of the nine songs recorded during these sessions, seven charted on the best-selling list. Frank Sinatra_sentence_129

That year he also made his first solo nightclub appearance at New York's Riobamba, and a successful concert in the Wedgewood Room of the prestigious Waldorf-Astoria New York that year secured his popularity in New York high society. Frank Sinatra_sentence_130

Sinatra released "You'll Never Know", "Close to You", "Sunday, Monday, or Always" and "People Will Say We're in Love" as singles. Frank Sinatra_sentence_131

By the end of 1943 he was more popular in a DownBeat poll than Bing Crosby, Perry Como, Bob Eberly, and Dick Haymes. Frank Sinatra_sentence_132

Sinatra did not serve in the military during World War II. Frank Sinatra_sentence_133

On December 11, 1943, he was officially classified 4-F ("Registrant not acceptable for military service") by his draft board because of a perforated eardrum. Frank Sinatra_sentence_134

However, U.S. Army files reported that Sinatra was "not acceptable material from a psychiatric viewpoint", but his emotional instability was hidden to avoid "undue unpleasantness for both the selectee and the induction service". Frank Sinatra_sentence_135

Briefly, there were rumors reported by columnist Walter Winchell that Sinatra paid $40,000 to avoid the service, but the FBI found this to be without merit. Frank Sinatra_sentence_136

Toward the end of the war, Sinatra entertained the troops during several successful overseas USO tours with comedian Phil Silvers. Frank Sinatra_sentence_137

During one trip to Rome he met the Pope, who asked him if he was an operatic tenor. Frank Sinatra_sentence_138

Sinatra worked frequently with the popular Andrews Sisters in radio in the 1940s, and many USO shows were broadcast to troops via the Armed Forces Radio Service (AFRS). Frank Sinatra_sentence_139

In 1944 Sinatra released "I Couldn't Sleep a Wink Last Night" as a single and recorded his own version of Crosby's "White Christmas", and the following year he released "I Dream of You (More Than You Dream I Do)", "Saturday Night (Is the Loneliest Night of the Week)", "Dream", and "Nancy (with the Laughing Face)" as singles. Frank Sinatra_sentence_140

Columbia years and career slump (1946–1952) Frank Sinatra_section_4

Despite being heavily involved in political activity in 1945 and 1946, in those two years Sinatra sang on 160 radio shows, recorded 36 times, and shot four films. Frank Sinatra_sentence_141

By 1946 he was performing on stage up to 45 times a week, singing up to 100 songs daily, and earning up to $93,000 a week. Frank Sinatra_sentence_142

In 1946 Sinatra released "Oh! Frank Sinatra_sentence_143 What it Seemed to Be", "Day by Day", "They Say It's Wonderful", "Five Minutes More", and "The Coffee Song" as singles, and launched his first album, The Voice of Frank Sinatra, which reached No. Frank Sinatra_sentence_144

1 on the Billboard chart. Frank Sinatra_sentence_145

William Ruhlmann of AllMusic wrote that Sinatra "took the material very seriously, singing the love lyrics with utter seriousness", and that his "singing and the classically influenced settings gave the songs unusual depth of meaning". Frank Sinatra_sentence_146

He was soon selling ten million records a year. Frank Sinatra_sentence_147

Such was Sinatra's command at Columbia that his love of conducting was indulged with the release of the set Frank Sinatra Conducts the Music of Alec Wilder, an offering unlikely to appeal to Sinatra's core fanbase at the time, which consisted of teenage girls. Frank Sinatra_sentence_148

The following year he released his second album, Songs by Sinatra, featuring songs of a similar mood and tempo such as Irving Berlin's "How Deep is the Ocean?" Frank Sinatra_sentence_149

and Harold Arlen's and Jerome Kern's "All The Things You Are". Frank Sinatra_sentence_150

"Mam'selle", composed by Edmund Goulding with lyrics by Mack Gordon for the film The Razor's Edge (1946), was released as a single. Frank Sinatra_sentence_151

Sinatra had competition; versions by Art Lund, Dick Haymes, Dennis Day, and The Pied Pipers also reached the top ten of the Billboard charts. Frank Sinatra_sentence_152

In December he recorded "Sweet Lorraine" with the Metronome All-Stars, featuring talented jazz musicians such as Coleman Hawkins, Harry Carney and Charlie Shavers, with Nat King Cole on piano, in what Charles L. Granata describes as "one of the highlights of Sinatra's Columbia epoch". Frank Sinatra_sentence_153

Sinatra's third album, Christmas Songs by Sinatra, was originally released in 1948 as a 78 rpm album set, and a 10" LP record was released two years later. Frank Sinatra_sentence_154

When Sinatra was featured as a priest in The Miracle of the Bells, due to press negativity surrounding his alleged Mafia connections at the time, it was announced to the public that Sinatra would donate his $100,000 in wages from the film to the Catholic Church. Frank Sinatra_sentence_155

By the end of 1948, Sinatra had slipped to fourth on DownBeat's annual poll of most popular singers (behind Billy Eckstine, Frankie Laine, and Bing Crosby). Frank Sinatra_sentence_156

and in the following year he was pushed out of the top spots in polls for the first time since 1943. Frank Sinatra_sentence_157

Frankly Sentimental (1949) was panned by DownBeat, who commented that "for all his talent, it seldom comes to life". Frank Sinatra_sentence_158

Though "The Hucklebuck" reached the top ten, it was his last single release under the Columbia label. Frank Sinatra_sentence_159

Sinatra's last two albums with Columbia, Dedicated to You and Sing and Dance with Frank Sinatra, were released in 1950. Frank Sinatra_sentence_160

Sinatra would later feature a number of the Sing and Dance with Frank Sinatra album's songs, including "Lover", "It's Only a Paper Moon", "It All Depends on You", on his 1961 Capitol release, [[Sinatra%27s_Swingin%27_Session!! Frank Sinatra_sentence_161

!|Sinatra's Swingin' Session!!! Frank Sinatra_sentence_162

]]. Frank Sinatra_sentence_163

Cementing the low of his career was the death of publicist George Evans from a heart attack in January 1950 at 48. Frank Sinatra_sentence_164

According to Jimmy Van Heusen, Sinatra's close friend and songwriter, Evans's death to him was "an enormous shock which defies words", as he had been crucial to his career and popularity with the bobbysoxers. Frank Sinatra_sentence_165

Sinatra's reputation continued to decline as reports broke out in February of his affair with Ava Gardner and the destruction of his marriage to Nancy, though he insisted that his marriage had long been over even before he had met Gardner. Frank Sinatra_sentence_166

In April, Sinatra was engaged to perform at the Copa club in New York, but had to cancel five days of the booking due to suffering a submucosal hemorrhage of the throat. Frank Sinatra_sentence_167

Evans once said that whenever Sinatra suffered from a bad throat and loss of voice it was always due to emotional tension which "absolutely destroyed him". Frank Sinatra_sentence_168

In financial difficulty following his divorce and career decline, Sinatra was forced to borrow $200,000 from Columbia to pay his back taxes after MCA refused to front the money. Frank Sinatra_sentence_169

Rejected by Hollywood, he turned to Las Vegas and made his debut at the Desert Inn in September 1951, and also began singing at the Riverside Hotel in Reno, Nevada. Frank Sinatra_sentence_170

Sinatra became one of Las Vegas's pioneer residency entertainers, and a prominent figure on the Vegas scene throughout the 1950s and 1960s onwards, a period described by Rojek as the "high-water mark" of Sinatra's "hedonism and self absorption". Frank Sinatra_sentence_171

Rojek notes that the Rat Pack "provided an outlet for gregarious banter and wisecracks", but argues that it was Sinatra's vehicle, possessing an "unassailable command over the other performers". Frank Sinatra_sentence_172

Sinatra would fly to Las Vegas from Los Angeles in Van Heusen's single-engine plane. Frank Sinatra_sentence_173

On October 4, 1953, Sinatra made his first performance at the Sands Hotel and Casino, after an invitation by the manager Jack Entratter, who had previously worked at the Copa in New York. Frank Sinatra_sentence_174

Sinatra typically performed there three times a year, and later acquired a share in the hotel. Frank Sinatra_sentence_175

Sinatra's decline in popularity was evident at his concert appearances. Frank Sinatra_sentence_176

At a brief run at the Paramount in New York he drew small audiences. Frank Sinatra_sentence_177

At the Desert Inn in Las Vegas he performed to half-filled houses of wildcatters and ranchers. Frank Sinatra_sentence_178

At a concert at Chez Paree in Chicago, only 150 people in a 1,200-seat capacity venue turned up to see him. Frank Sinatra_sentence_179

By April 1952 he was performing at the Kauai County Fair in Hawaii. Frank Sinatra_sentence_180

Sinatra's relationship with Columbia Records was also disintegrating, with A&R executive Mitch Miller claiming he "couldn't give away" the singer's records. Frank Sinatra_sentence_181

Though several notable recordings were made during this time period, such as "If I Could Write a Book" in January 1952, which Granata sees as a "turning point", forecasting his later work with its sensitivity, Columbia and MCA dropped him later that year. Frank Sinatra_sentence_182

His last studio recording for Columbia, "Why Try To Change Me Now", was recorded in New York on September 17, 1952, with orchestra arranged and conducted by Percy Faith. Frank Sinatra_sentence_183

Journalist Burt Boyar observed, "Sinatra had had it. Frank Sinatra_sentence_184

It was sad. Frank Sinatra_sentence_185

From the top to the bottom in one horrible lesson." Frank Sinatra_sentence_186

Career revival and the Capitol years (1953–1962) Frank Sinatra_section_5

The release of the film From Here to Eternity in August 1953 marked the beginning of a remarkable career revival. Frank Sinatra_sentence_187

Tom Santopietro notes that Sinatra began to bury himself in his work, with an "unparalleled frenetic schedule of recordings, movies and concerts", in what authors Anthony Summers and Robbyn Swan describe as "a new and brilliant phase". Frank Sinatra_sentence_188

On March 13, 1953, Sinatra met with Capitol Records vice president Alan Livingston and signed a seven-year recording contract. Frank Sinatra_sentence_189

His first session for Capitol took place at KHJ studios at Studio C, 5515 Melrose Avenue in Los Angeles, with Axel Stordahl conducting. Frank Sinatra_sentence_190

The session produced four recordings, including "I'm Walking Behind You", Sinatra's first Capitol single. Frank Sinatra_sentence_191

After spending two weeks on location in Hawaii filming From Here to Eternity, Sinatra returned to KHJ on April 30 for his first recording session with Nelson Riddle, an established arranger and conductor at Capitol who was Nat King Cole's musical director. Frank Sinatra_sentence_192

After recording the first song, "I've Got the World on a String", Sinatra offered Riddle a rare expression of praise, "Beautiful! Frank Sinatra_sentence_193

", and after listening to the playbacks, he could not hide his enthusiasm, exclaiming, "I'm back, baby, I'm back!" Frank Sinatra_sentence_194

In subsequent sessions in May and November 1953, Sinatra and Riddle developed and refined their musical collaboration, with Sinatra providing specific guidance on the arrangements. Frank Sinatra_sentence_195

Sinatra's first album for Capitol, Songs for Young Lovers, was released on January 4, 1954, and included "A Foggy Day", "I Get a Kick Out of You", "My Funny Valentine", "Violets for Your Furs" and "They Can't Take That Away from Me", songs which became staples of his later concerts. Frank Sinatra_sentence_196

That same month, Sinatra released the single "Young at Heart", which reached No. Frank Sinatra_sentence_197

2 and was awarded Song of the Year. Frank Sinatra_sentence_198

In March, he recorded and released the single "Three Coins in the Fountain", a "powerful ballad" that reached No. Frank Sinatra_sentence_199

4. Frank Sinatra_sentence_200

Sinatra's second album with Riddle, Swing Easy! Frank Sinatra_sentence_201 , which reflected his "love for the jazz idiom" according to Granata, was released on August 2 of that year and included "Just One of Those Things", "Taking a Chance on Love", "Get Happy", and "All of Me". Frank Sinatra_sentence_202

Swing Easy! Frank Sinatra_sentence_203

was named Album of the Year by Billboard, and he was also named "Favorite Male Vocalist" by Billboard, DownBeat, and Metronome that year. Frank Sinatra_sentence_204

Sinatra came to consider Riddle "the greatest arranger in the world", and Riddle, who considered Sinatra "a perfectionist", offered equal praise of the singer, observing, "It's not only that his intuitions as to tempi, phrasing, and even configuration are amazingly right, but his taste is so impeccable ... there is still no one who can approach him." Frank Sinatra_sentence_205

In 1955 Sinatra released In the Wee Small Hours, his first 12" LP, featuring songs such as "In the Wee Small Hours of the Morning", "Mood Indigo", "Glad to Be Unhappy" and "When Your Lover Has Gone". Frank Sinatra_sentence_206

According to Granata it was the first concept album of his to make a "single persuasive statement", with an extended program and "melancholy mood". Frank Sinatra_sentence_207

Sinatra embarked on his first tour of Australia the same year. Frank Sinatra_sentence_208

Another collaboration with Riddle resulted in the development of Songs for Swingin' Lovers! Frank Sinatra_sentence_209 , sometimes seen as one of his best albums, which was released in March 1956. Frank Sinatra_sentence_210

It features a recording of "I've Got You Under My Skin" by Cole Porter, something which Sinatra paid meticulous care to, taking a reported 22 takes to perfect. Frank Sinatra_sentence_211

His February 1956 recording sessions inaugurated the studios at the Capitol Records Building, complete with a 56-piece symphonic orchestra. Frank Sinatra_sentence_212

According to Granata his recordings of "Night and Day", "Oh! Frank Sinatra_sentence_213

Look At Me Now" and "From This Moment On" revealed "powerful sexual overtones, stunningly achieved through the mounting tension and release of Sinatra's best-teasing vocal lines", while his recording of "River, Stay 'Way from My Door" in April demonstrated his "brilliance as a syncopational improviser". Frank Sinatra_sentence_214

Riddle said that Sinatra took "particular delight" in singing "The Lady is a Tramp", commenting that he "always sang that song with a certain amount of salaciousness", making "cue tricks" with the lyrics. Frank Sinatra_sentence_215

His penchant for conducting was displayed again in 1956's Frank Sinatra Conducts Tone Poems of Color, an instrumental album that has been interpreted to be a catharsis to his failed relationship with Gardner. Frank Sinatra_sentence_216

Also that year, Sinatra sang at the Democratic National Convention, and performed with The Dorsey Brothers for a week soon afterwards at the Paramount Theatre. Frank Sinatra_sentence_217

In 1957, Sinatra released Close to You, A Swingin' Affair! Frank Sinatra_sentence_218

and Where Are You? Frank Sinatra_sentence_219 —his first album in stereo, with Gordon Jenkins. Frank Sinatra_sentence_220

Granata considers "Close to You" to have been thematically his closest concept album to perfection during the "golden" era, and Nelson Riddle's finest work, which was "extremely progressive" by the standards of the day. Frank Sinatra_sentence_221

It is structured like a three-act play, each commencing with the songs "With Every Breath I Take", "Blame It On My Youth" and "It Could Happen to You". Frank Sinatra_sentence_222

For Granata, Sinatra's A Swingin' Affair! Frank Sinatra_sentence_223

and swing music predecessor Songs for Swingin' Lovers! Frank Sinatra_sentence_224

solidified "Sinatra's image as a 'swinger', from both a musical and visual standpoint". Frank Sinatra_sentence_225

Buddy Collette considered the swing albums to have been heavily influenced by Sammy Davis Jr., and stated that when he worked with Sinatra in the mid-1960s he approached a song much differently than he had done in the early 1950s. Frank Sinatra_sentence_226

On June 9, 1957, he performed in a 62-minute concert conducted by Riddle at the Seattle Civic Auditorium, his first appearance in Seattle since 1945. Frank Sinatra_sentence_227

The recording was first released as a bootleg, but in 1999 Artanis Entertainment Group officially released it as the Sinatra '57 in Concert live album, after Sinatra's death. Frank Sinatra_sentence_228

In 1958 Sinatra released the concept album Come Fly with Me with Billy May, designed as a musical world tour. Frank Sinatra_sentence_229

It reached the top spot on the Billboard album chart in its second week, remaining at the top for five weeks, and was nominated for the Grammy Award for Album of the Year at the inaugural Grammy Awards. Frank Sinatra_sentence_230

The title song, "Come Fly With Me", written especially for him, would become one of his best known standards. Frank Sinatra_sentence_231

On May 29 he recorded seven songs in a single session, more than double the usual yield of a recording session, and an eighth was planned, "Lush Life", but Sinatra found it too technically demanding. Frank Sinatra_sentence_232

In September, Sinatra released Frank Sinatra Sings for Only the Lonely, a stark collection of introspective saloon songs and blues-tinged ballads which proved a huge commercial success, spending 120 weeks on Billboards album chart and peaking at No. Frank Sinatra_sentence_233

1. Frank Sinatra_sentence_234

Cuts from this LP, such as "Angel Eyes" and "One for My Baby (and One More for the Road)", would remain staples of the "saloon song" segments of Sinatra's concerts. Frank Sinatra_sentence_235

In 1959, Sinatra released Come Dance with Me! Frank Sinatra_sentence_236 , a highly successful, critically acclaimed album which stayed on Billboard's Pop album chart for 140 weeks, peaking at No. Frank Sinatra_sentence_237

2. Frank Sinatra_sentence_238

It won the Grammy Award for Album of the Year, as well as Best Vocal Performance, Male and Best Arrangement for Billy May. Frank Sinatra_sentence_239

He also released No One Cares in the same year, a collection of "brooding, lonely" torch songs, which critic Stephen Thomas Erlewine thought was "nearly as good as its predecessor Where Are You?, but lacked the "lush" arrangements of it and the "grandiose melancholy" of Only the Lonely. Frank Sinatra_sentence_240

In the words of Kelley, by 1959, Sinatra was "not simply the leader of the Rat Pack" but had "assumed the position of il padrone in Hollywood". Frank Sinatra_sentence_241

He was asked by 20th Century Fox to be the master of ceremonies at a luncheon attended by Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev on September 19, 1959. Frank Sinatra_sentence_242

Nice 'n' Easy, a collection of ballads, topped the Billboard chart in October 1960 and remained in the charts for 86 weeks, winning critical plaudits. Frank Sinatra_sentence_243

Granata noted the "lifelike ambient sound" quality of Nice and Easy, the perfection in the stereo balance, and the "bold, bright and snappy" sound of the band. Frank Sinatra_sentence_244

He highlighted the "close, warm and sharp" feel of Sinatra's voice, particularly on the songs "September in the Rain", "I Concentrate on You", and "My Blue Heaven". Frank Sinatra_sentence_245

Reprise years (1961–1981) Frank Sinatra_section_6

Sinatra grew discontented at Capitol, and fell into a feud with Alan Livingston, which lasted over six months. Frank Sinatra_sentence_246

His first attempt at owning his own label was with his pursuit of buying declining jazz label, Verve Records, which ended once an initial agreement with Verve founder, Norman Granz, "failed to materialize." Frank Sinatra_sentence_247

He decided to form his own label, Reprise Records and, in an effort to assert his new direction, temporarily parted with Riddle, May and Jenkins, working with other arrangers such as Neil Hefti, Don Costa, and Quincy Jones. Frank Sinatra_sentence_248

Sinatra built the appeal of Reprise Records as one in which artists were promised creative control over their music, as well as a guarantee that they would eventually gain "complete ownership of their work, including publishing rights." Frank Sinatra_sentence_249

Under Sinatra the company developed into a music industry "powerhouse", and he later sold it for an estimated $80 million. Frank Sinatra_sentence_250

His first album on the label, Ring-a-Ding-Ding! Frank Sinatra_sentence_251

(1961), was a major success, peaking at No.4 on Billboard. Frank Sinatra_sentence_252

The album was released in February 1961, the same month that Reprise Records released Ben Webster's The Warm Moods, Sammy Davis Jr.'s The Wham of Sam, Mavis River's Mavis and Joe E. Lewis's It is Now Post Time. Frank Sinatra_sentence_253

During the initial years of Reprise, Sinatra was still under contract to record for Capitol, completing his contractual commitment with the release of Point of No Return, recorded over a two day period on September 11 and 12, 1961. Frank Sinatra_sentence_254

In 1962, Sinatra released Sinatra and Strings, a set of standard ballads arranged by Don Costa, which became one of the most critically acclaimed works of Sinatra's entire Reprise period. Frank Sinatra_sentence_255

Frank Jr., who was present during the recording, noted the "huge orchestra", which Nancy Sinatra stated "opened a whole new era" in pop music, with orchestras getting bigger, embracing a "lush string sound". Frank Sinatra_sentence_256

Sinatra and Count Basie collaborated for the album Sinatra-Basie the same year, a popular and successful release which prompted them to rejoin two years later for the follow-up It Might as Well Be Swing, arranged by Quincy Jones. Frank Sinatra_sentence_257

The two became frequent performers together, and appeared at the Newport Jazz Festival in 1965. Frank Sinatra_sentence_258

Also in 1962, as the owner of his own record label, Sinatra was able to step on the podium as conductor again, releasing his third instrumental album Frank Sinatra Conducts Music from Pictures and Plays. Frank Sinatra_sentence_259

In 1963, Sinatra reunited with Nelson Riddle for The Concert Sinatra, an ambitious album featuring a 73-piece symphony orchestra arranged and conducted by Riddle. Frank Sinatra_sentence_260

The concert was recorded on a motion picture scoring soundstage with the use of multiple synchronized recording machines that employed an optical signal onto 35 mm film designed for movie soundtracks. Frank Sinatra_sentence_261

Granata considers the album to have been "impeachable" [sic], "one of the very best of the Sinatra-Riddle ballad albums", in which Sinatra displayed an impressive vocal range, particularly in "Ol' Man River", in which he darkened the hue. Frank Sinatra_sentence_262

In 1964 the song "My Kind of Town" was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Song. Frank Sinatra_sentence_263

Sinatra released Softly, as I Leave You, and collaborated with Bing Crosby and Fred Waring on America, I Hear You Singing, a collection of patriotic songs recorded as a tribute to the assassinated President John F. Kennedy. Frank Sinatra_sentence_264

Sinatra increasingly became involved in charitable pursuits in this period. Frank Sinatra_sentence_265

In 1961 and 1962 he went to Mexico, with the sole purpose of putting on performances for Mexican charities, and in July 1964 he was present for the dedication of the Frank Sinatra International Youth Center for Arab and Jewish children in Nazareth. Frank Sinatra_sentence_266

Sinatra's phenomenal success in 1965, coinciding with his 50th birthday, prompted Billboard to proclaim that he may have reached the "peak of his eminence". Frank Sinatra_sentence_267

In June 1965, Sinatra, Sammy Davis Jr., and Dean Martin played live in St. Frank Sinatra_sentence_268 Louis to benefit Dismas House, a prisoner rehabilitation and training center with nationwide programs that in particular helped serve African Americans. Frank Sinatra_sentence_269

The Rat Pack concert, called The Frank Sinatra Spectacular, was broadcast live via satellite to numerous movie theaters across America. Frank Sinatra_sentence_270

The album September of My Years was released September 1965, and went on to win the Grammy Award for best album of the year. Frank Sinatra_sentence_271

Granata considers the album to have been one of the finest of his Reprise years, "a reflective throwback to the concept records of the 1950s, and more than any of those collections, distills everything that Frank Sinatra had ever learned or experienced as a vocalist". Frank Sinatra_sentence_272

One of the album's singles, "It Was a Very Good Year", won the Grammy Award for Best Vocal Performance, Male. Frank Sinatra_sentence_273

A career anthology, A Man and His Music, followed in November, winning Album of the Year at the Grammys the following year. Frank Sinatra_sentence_274

In 1966 Sinatra released That's Life, with both the single of "That's Life" and album becoming Top Ten hits in the US on Billboard's pop charts. Frank Sinatra_sentence_275

Strangers in the Night went on to top the Billboard and UK pop singles charts, winning the award for Record of the Year at the Grammys. Frank Sinatra_sentence_276

Sinatra's first live album, Sinatra at the Sands, was recorded during January and February 1966 at the Sands Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas. Frank Sinatra_sentence_277

Sinatra was backed by the Count Basie Orchestra, with Quincy Jones conducting. Frank Sinatra_sentence_278

Sinatra pulled out from the Sands the following year, when he was driven out by its new owner Howard Hughes, after a fight. Frank Sinatra_sentence_279

Sinatra started 1967 with a series of recording sessions with Antônio Carlos Jobim. Frank Sinatra_sentence_280

He recorded one of his collaborations with Jobim, the Grammy-nominated album Francis Albert Sinatra & Antônio Carlos Jobim, which was one of the best-selling albums of the year, behind the Beatles's Sgt. Frank Sinatra_sentence_281 Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Frank Sinatra_sentence_282

According to Santopietro the album "consists of an extraordinarily effective blend of bossa nova and slightly swinging jazz vocals, and succeeds in creating an unbroken mood of romance and regret". Frank Sinatra_sentence_283

Writer Stan Cornyn wrote that Sinatra sang so softly on the album that it was comparable to the time that he suffered from a vocal hemorrhage in 1950. Frank Sinatra_sentence_284

Sinatra also released the album The World We Knew, which features a chart-topping duet of "Somethin' Stupid" with daughter Nancy. Frank Sinatra_sentence_285

In December, Sinatra collaborated with Duke Ellington on the album Francis A. Frank Sinatra_sentence_286 & Edward K.. Frank Sinatra_sentence_287

According to Granata, the recording of "Indian Summer" on the album was a favorite of Riddle's, noting the "contemplative mood [which] is heightened by a Johnny Hodges alto sax solo that will bring a tear to your eye". Frank Sinatra_sentence_288

With Sinatra in mind, singer-songwriter Paul Anka wrote the song "My Way", using the melody of the French "Comme d'habitude" ("As Usual"), composed by Claude François and Jacques Revaux. Frank Sinatra_sentence_289

Sinatra recorded it just after Christmas 1968. Frank Sinatra_sentence_290

"My Way", Sinatra's best-known song on the Reprise label, was not an instant success, charting at #27 in the US and #5 in the UK, but it remained in the UK charts for 122 weeks, including 75 non-consecutive weeks in the Top 40, between April 1969 and September 1971, which was still a record in 2015. Frank Sinatra_sentence_291

Sinatra told songwriter Ervin Drake in the 1970s that he "detested" singing the song, because he believed audiences would think it was a "self-aggrandizing tribute", professing that he "hated boastfulness in others". Frank Sinatra_sentence_292

In an effort to maintain his commercial viability in the late 1960s, Sinatra would record works by Paul Simon ("Mrs. Frank Sinatra_sentence_293 Robinson"), the Beatles ("Yesterday"), and Joni Mitchell ("Both Sides, Now") in 1969. Frank Sinatra_sentence_294

"Retirement" and return (1970–1981) Frank Sinatra_section_7

In 1970, Sinatra released Watertown, a critically acclaimed concept album, with music by Bob Gaudio (of the Four Seasons) and lyrics by Jake Holmes. Frank Sinatra_sentence_295

However, it sold a mere 30,000 copies that year and reached a peak chart position of 101. Frank Sinatra_sentence_296

He left Caesars Palace in September that year after an incident where executive Sanford Waterman pulled a gun on him. Frank Sinatra_sentence_297

He performed several charity concerts with Count Basie at the Royal Festival Hall in London. Frank Sinatra_sentence_298

On November 2, 1970, Sinatra recorded the last songs for Reprise Records before his self-imposed retirement, announced the following June at a concert in Hollywood to raise money for the Motion Picture and TV Relief Fund. Frank Sinatra_sentence_299

He gave a "rousing" performance of "That's Life", and finished the concert with a Matt Dennis and Earl Brent song, "Angel Eyes" which he had recorded on the Only The Lonely album in 1958. Frank Sinatra_sentence_300

He sang the last line. Frank Sinatra_sentence_301

"'Scuse me while I disappear." Frank Sinatra_sentence_302

The spotlight went dark and he left the stage. Frank Sinatra_sentence_303

He told LIFE journalist Thomas Thompson that "I've got things to do, like the first thing is not to do anything at all for eight months ... maybe a year", while Barbara Sinatra later claimed that Sinatra had grown "tired of entertaining people, especially when all they really wanted were the same old tunes he had long ago become bored by". Frank Sinatra_sentence_304

While he was in retirement, President Richard Nixon asked him to perform at a Young Voters Rally in anticipation of the upcoming campaign. Frank Sinatra_sentence_305

Sinatra obliged and chose to sing "My Kind of Town" for the rally held in Chicago on October 20, 1972. Frank Sinatra_sentence_306

In 1973, Sinatra came out of his short-lived retirement with a television special and album. Frank Sinatra_sentence_307

The album, entitled Ol' Blue Eyes Is Back, arranged by Gordon Jenkins and Don Costa, was a success, reaching number 13 on Billboard and number 12 in the UK. Frank Sinatra_sentence_308

The television special, Magnavox Presents Frank Sinatra, reunited Sinatra with Gene Kelly. Frank Sinatra_sentence_309

He initially developed problems with his vocal cords during the comeback due to a prolonged period without singing. Frank Sinatra_sentence_310

That Christmas he performed at the Sahara Hotel in Las Vegas, and returned to Caesars Palace the following month in January 1974, despite previously vowing to perform there again [sic]. Frank Sinatra_sentence_311

He began what Barbara Sinatra describes as a "massive comeback tour of the United States, Europe, the Far East and Australia". Frank Sinatra_sentence_312

In July, while on a second tour of Australia, he caused an uproar by describing journalists there – who were aggressively pursuing his every move and pushing for a press conference – as "bums, parasites, fags, and buck-and-a-half hookers". Frank Sinatra_sentence_313

After he was pressured to apologize, Sinatra instead insisted that the journalists apologize for "fifteen years of abuse I have taken from the world press". Frank Sinatra_sentence_314

Union actions cancelled concerts and grounded Sinatra's plane, essentially trapping him in Australia. Frank Sinatra_sentence_315

In the end, Sinatra's lawyer, Mickey Rudin, arranged for Sinatra to issue a written conciliatory note and a final concert that was televised to the nation. Frank Sinatra_sentence_316

In October 1974 he appeared at New York City's Madison Square Garden in a televised concert that was later released as an album under the title The Main Event – Live. Frank Sinatra_sentence_317

Backing him was bandleader Woody Herman and the Young Thundering Herd, who accompanied Sinatra on a European tour later that month. Frank Sinatra_sentence_318

In 1975, Sinatra performed in concerts in New York with Count Basie and Ella Fitzgerald, and at the London Palladium with Basie and Sarah Vaughan, and in Tehran at Aryamehr Stadium, giving 140 performances in 105 days. Frank Sinatra_sentence_319

In August he held several consecutive concerts at Lake Tahoe together with the newly-risen singer John Denver, who became a frequent collaborator. Frank Sinatra_sentence_320

Sinatra had recorded Denver's "Leaving on a Jet Plane" and "My Sweet Lady" for Sinatra & Company (1971), and according to Denver, his song "A Baby Just Like You" was written at Sinatra's request for his new grandchild, Angela. Frank Sinatra_sentence_321

During the Labor Day weekend held in 1976, Sinatra was responsible for reuniting old friends and comedy partners Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis for the first time in nearly twenty years, when they performed at the "Jerry Lewis MDA Telethon". Frank Sinatra_sentence_322

That year, the Friars Club selected him as the "Top Box Office Name of the Century", and he was given the Scopus Award by the American Friends of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel and an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from the University of Nevada. Frank Sinatra_sentence_323

Sinatra continued to perform at Caesars Palace in the late 1970s, and was performing there in January 1977 when his mother Dolly died in a plane crash on the way to see him. Frank Sinatra_sentence_324

He cancelled two weeks of shows and spent time recovering from the shock in Barbados. Frank Sinatra_sentence_325

In March, he performed in front of Princess Margaret at the Royal Albert Hall in London, raising money for the NSPCC. Frank Sinatra_sentence_326

On March 14, he recorded with Nelson Riddle for the last time, recording the songs "Linda", "Sweet Loraine", and "Barbara". Frank Sinatra_sentence_327

The two men had a major falling out, and later patched up their differences in January 1985 at a dinner organized for Ronald Reagan, when Sinatra asked Riddle to make another album with him. Frank Sinatra_sentence_328

Riddle was ill at the time, and died that October, before they had a chance to record. Frank Sinatra_sentence_329

In 1978, Sinatra filed a $1 million lawsuit against a land developer for using his name in the "Frank Sinatra Drive Center" in West Los Angeles. Frank Sinatra_sentence_330

During a party at Caesars in 1979, he was awarded the Grammy Trustees Award, while celebrating 40 years in show business and his 64th birthday. Frank Sinatra_sentence_331

That year, former President Gerald Ford awarded Sinatra the International Man of the Year Award, and he performed in front of the Egyptian pyramids for Anwar Sadat, which raised more than $500,000 for Sadat's wife's charities. Frank Sinatra_sentence_332

In 1980, Sinatra's first album in six years was released, Trilogy: Past Present Future, a highly ambitious triple album that features an array of songs from both the pre-rock era and rock era. Frank Sinatra_sentence_333

It was the first studio album of Sinatra's to feature his touring pianist at the time, Vinnie Falcone, and was based on an idea by Sonny Burke. Frank Sinatra_sentence_334

The album garnered six Grammy nominations – winning for best liner notes – and peaked at number 17 on Billboard's album chart, and spawned yet another song that would become a signature tune, "Theme from New York, New York". Frank Sinatra_sentence_335

That year, as part of the Concert of the Americas, he performed in the Maracana Stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which broke records for the "largest live paid audience ever recorded for a solo performer". Frank Sinatra_sentence_336

The following year, Sinatra built on the success of Trilogy with She Shot Me Down, an album that was praised for embodying the dark tone of his Capitol years. Frank Sinatra_sentence_337

Also in 1981, Sinatra was embroiled in controversy when he worked a ten-day engagement for $2 million in Sun City, in the internationally unrecognized Bophuthatswana, breaking a cultural boycott against apartheid-era South Africa. Frank Sinatra_sentence_338

President Lucas Mangope awarded Sinatra with the highest honor, the Order of the Leopard, and made him an honorary tribal chief. Frank Sinatra_sentence_339

Later career (1982–1998) Frank Sinatra_section_8

Santopietro stated that by the early 1980s, Sinatra's voice had "coarsened, losing much of its power and flexibility, but audiences didn't care". Frank Sinatra_sentence_340

In 1982, he signed a $16 million three-year deal with the Golden Nugget of Las Vegas. Frank Sinatra_sentence_341

Kelley notes that by this period Sinatra's voice had grown "darker, tougher and loamier", but he "continued to captivate audiences with his immutable magic". Frank Sinatra_sentence_342

She added that his baritone voice "sometimes cracked, but the gliding intonations still aroused the same raptures of delight as they had at the Paramount Theater". Frank Sinatra_sentence_343

That year he made a reported further $1.3 million from the Showtime television rights to his "Concert of the Americas" in the Dominican Republic, $1.6 million for a concert series at Carnegie Hall, and $250,000 in just one evening at the Chicago Fest. Frank Sinatra_sentence_344

He donated a lot of his earnings to charity. Frank Sinatra_sentence_345

He put on a performance at the White House for the Italian Prime Minister, and performed at the Radio City Music Hall with Luciano Pavarotti and George Shearing. Frank Sinatra_sentence_346

Sinatra was selected as one of the five recipients of the 1983 Kennedy Center Honors, alongside Katherine Dunham, James Stewart, Elia Kazan, and Virgil Thomson. Frank Sinatra_sentence_347

Quoting Henry James, President Reagan said in honoring his old friend that "art was the shadow of humanity" and that Sinatra had "spent his life casting a magnificent and powerful shadow". Frank Sinatra_sentence_348

On September 21, 1983, Sinatra filed a $2 million court case against Kitty Kelley, suing her in punitive damages, before her unofficial biography, His Way, was even published. Frank Sinatra_sentence_349

The book became a best-seller for "all the wrong reasons" and "the most eye-opening celebrity biography of our time", according to William Safire of The New York Times. Frank Sinatra_sentence_350

Sinatra was always adamant that such a book would be written on his terms, and he himself would "set the record straight" in details of his life. Frank Sinatra_sentence_351

According to Kelley, the family detested her and the book, which took its toll on Sinatra's health. Frank Sinatra_sentence_352

Kelley claims that Tina Sinatra blamed her for her father's colon surgery in 1986. Frank Sinatra_sentence_353

He was forced to drop the case on September 19, 1984, with several leading newspapers expressing concerns about his views on censorship. Frank Sinatra_sentence_354

In 1984, Sinatra worked with Quincy Jones for the first time in nearly two decades on the album, L.A. Frank Sinatra_sentence_355 Is My Lady, which was well received critically. Frank Sinatra_sentence_356

The album was a substitute for another Jones project, an album of duets with Lena Horne, which had to be abandoned. Frank Sinatra_sentence_357

In 1986, Sinatra collapsed on stage while performing in Atlantic City and was hospitalized for diverticulitis, which left him looking frail. Frank Sinatra_sentence_358

Two years later, Sinatra reunited with Martin and Davis and went on the Rat Pack Reunion Tour, during which they played a number of large arenas. Frank Sinatra_sentence_359

When Martin dropped out of the tour early on, a rift developed between them and the two never spoke again. Frank Sinatra_sentence_360

On June 6, 1988, Sinatra made his last recordings with Reprise for an album which was not released. Frank Sinatra_sentence_361

He recorded "My Foolish Heart", "Cry Me A River", and other songs. Frank Sinatra_sentence_362

Sinatra never completed the project, but take number 18 of "My Foolish Heart" may be heard in The Complete Reprise Studio Recordings (1995). Frank Sinatra_sentence_363

In 1990, Sinatra was awarded the second "Ella Award" by the Los Angeles-based Society of Singers, and performed for a final time with Ella Fitzgerald at the award ceremony. Frank Sinatra_sentence_364

Sinatra maintained an active touring schedule in the early 1990s, performing 65 concerts in 1990, 73 in 1991 and 84 in 1992 in seventeen different countries. Frank Sinatra_sentence_365

In 1993, Sinatra returned to Capitol Records and the recording studio for Duets, which became his best-selling album. Frank Sinatra_sentence_366

The album and its sequel, Duets II, released the following year, would see Sinatra remake his classic recordings with popular contemporary performers, who added their vocals to a pre-recorded tape. Frank Sinatra_sentence_367

During his tours in the early 1990s, his memory failed him at times during concerts, and he fainted onstage in Richmond, Virginia, in March 1994. Frank Sinatra_sentence_368

His final public concerts were held in Fukuoka Dome in Japan on December 19–20, 1994. Frank Sinatra_sentence_369

The following year, Sinatra sang for the last time on February 25, 1995, before a live audience of 1200 select guests at the Palm Desert Marriott Ballroom, on the closing night of the Frank Sinatra Desert Classic golf tournament. Frank Sinatra_sentence_370

Esquire reported of the show that Sinatra was "clear, tough, on the money" and "in absolute control". Frank Sinatra_sentence_371

Sinatra was awarded the Legend Award at the 1994 Grammy Awards, where he was introduced by Bono, who said of him, "Frank's the chairman of the bad attitude ... Rock 'n roll plays at being tough, but this guy is the boss – the chairman of boss ... Frank Sinatra_sentence_372

I'm not going to mess with him, are you?" Frank Sinatra_sentence_373

In 1995, to mark Sinatra's 80th birthday, the Empire State Building glowed blue. Frank Sinatra_sentence_374

A star-studded birthday tribute, Sinatra: 80 Years My Way, was held at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, featuring performers such as Ray Charles, Little Richard, Natalie Cole and Salt-N-Pepa singing his songs. Frank Sinatra_sentence_375

At the end of the program Sinatra performed on stage for the last time to sing the final notes of the "Theme from New York, New York" with an ensemble. Frank Sinatra_sentence_376

In recognition of his many years of association with Las Vegas, Frank Sinatra was elected to the Gaming Hall of Fame in 1997. Frank Sinatra_sentence_377

Artistry Frank Sinatra_section_9

While Sinatra never learned how to read music well, he had a fine, natural understanding of it, and he worked very hard from a young age to improve his abilities in all aspects of music. Frank Sinatra_sentence_378

He could follow a lead sheet during a performance by "carefully following the patterns and groupings of notes arranged on the page" and made his own notations to the music, using his ear to detect semitonal differences. Frank Sinatra_sentence_379

Granata states that some of the most accomplished classically trained musicians soon noticed his musical understanding, and remarked that Sinatra had a "sixth sense", which "demonstrated unusual proficiency when it came to detecting incorrect notes and sounds within the orchestra". Frank Sinatra_sentence_380

Sinatra was an aficionado of classical music, and would often request classical strains in his music, inspired by composers such as Puccini and Impressionist masters. Frank Sinatra_sentence_381

His personal favorite was Ralph Vaughan Williams. Frank Sinatra_sentence_382

He would insist on always recording live with the band because it gave him a "certain feeling" to perform live surrounded by musicians. Frank Sinatra_sentence_383

By the mid 1940s, such was his understanding of music that after hearing an air check of some compositions by Alec Wilder which were for strings and woodwinds, he became the conductor at Columbia Records for six of Wilder's compositions: "Air for Oboe", "Air for English Horn", "Air for Flute", "Air for Bassoon", "Slow Dance" and "Theme and Variations". Frank Sinatra_sentence_384

The works, which combine elements of jazz and classical music, were considered by Wilder to have been among the finest renditions and recordings of his compositions, past or present. Frank Sinatra_sentence_385

At one recording session with arranger Claus Ogerman and an orchestra, Sinatra heard "a couple of little strangers" in the string section, prompting Ogerman to make corrections to what were thought to be copyist's errors. Frank Sinatra_sentence_386

Critic Gene Lees, a lyricist and the author of the words to the Jobim melody "This Happy Madness", expressed amazement when he heard Sinatra's recording of it on Sinatra & Company (1971), considering him to have delivered the lyrics to perfection. Frank Sinatra_sentence_387

Voice coach John Quinlan was impressed by Sinatra's vocal range, remarking, "He has far more voice than people think he has. Frank Sinatra_sentence_388

He can vocalize to a B-flat on top in full voice, and he doesn't need a mic either". Frank Sinatra_sentence_389

As a singer, early on he was primarily influenced by Bing Crosby, but later believed that Tony Bennett was "the best singer in the business". Frank Sinatra_sentence_390

Bennett also praised Sinatra himself, claiming that as a performer, he had "perfected the art of intimacy." Frank Sinatra_sentence_391

According to Nelson Riddle, Sinatra had a "fairly rangy voice", remarking that "His voice has a very strident, insistent sound in the top register, a smooth lyrical sound in the middle register, and a very tender sound in the low. Frank Sinatra_sentence_392

His voice is built on infinite taste, with an overall inflection of sex. Frank Sinatra_sentence_393

He points everything he does from a sexual standpoint". Frank Sinatra_sentence_394

Despite his heavy New Jersey accent, according to Richard Schuller, when Sinatra sang his accent was barely detectable, with his diction becoming "precise" and articulation "meticulous". Frank Sinatra_sentence_395

His timing was impeccable, allowing him, according to Charles L. Granata, to "toy with the rhythm of a melody, bringing tremendous excitement to his reading of a lyric". Frank Sinatra_sentence_396

Tommy Dorsey observed that Sinatra would "take a musical phrase and play it all the way through seemingly without breathing for eight, ten, maybe sixteen bars". Frank Sinatra_sentence_397

Dorsey was a considerable influence on Sinatra's techniques for his vocal phrasing with his own exceptional breath control on the trombone, and Sinatra regularly swam and held his breath underwater, thinking of song lyrics to increase his breathing power. Frank Sinatra_sentence_398

Arrangers such as Nelson Riddle and Anthony Fanzo found Sinatra to be a perfectionist who constantly drove himself and others around him, stating that his collaborators approached him with a sense of uneasiness because of his unpredictable and often volatile temperament. Frank Sinatra_sentence_399

Granata comments that Sinatra was almost fanatically obsessed with perfection to the point that people began wondering if he was genuinely concerned about the music or showing off his power over others. Frank Sinatra_sentence_400

On days when he felt that his voice was not right, he would know after only a few notes and would postpone the recording session until the following day, yet still pay his musicians. Frank Sinatra_sentence_401

After a period of performing, Sinatra tired of singing a certain set of songs and was always looking for talented new songwriters and composers to work with. Frank Sinatra_sentence_402

Once he found ones that he liked, he actively sought to work with them as often as he could, and made friends with many of them. Frank Sinatra_sentence_403

He once told Sammy Cahn, who wrote songs for Anchors Aweigh, "if you're not there Monday, I'm not there Monday". Frank Sinatra_sentence_404

Over the years he recorded 87 of Cahn's songs, of which 24 were composed by Jule Styne, and 43 by Jimmy Van Heusen. Frank Sinatra_sentence_405

The Cahn-Styne partnership lasted from 1942 until 1954, when Van Heusen succeeded him as Sinatra's main composer. Frank Sinatra_sentence_406

Unlike many of his contemporaries, Sinatra insisted upon direct input regarding arrangements and tempos for his recordings. Frank Sinatra_sentence_407

He would spend weeks thinking about the songs he wanted to record, and would keep an arranger in mind for each song. Frank Sinatra_sentence_408

If it was a mellow love song, he would ask for Gordon Jenkins. Frank Sinatra_sentence_409

If it was a "rhythm" number, he would think of Billy May, or perhaps Neil Hefti or some other favored arranger. Frank Sinatra_sentence_410

Jenkins considered Sinatra's musical sense to be unerring. Frank Sinatra_sentence_411

His changes to Riddle's charts would frustrate Riddle, yet he would usually concede that Sinatra's ideas were superior. Frank Sinatra_sentence_412

Barbara Sinatra notes that Sinatra would almost always credit the songwriter at the end of each number, and would often make comments to the audience, such as "Isn't that a pretty ballad" or "Don't you think that's the most marvelous love song", delivered with "childlike delight". Frank Sinatra_sentence_413

She states that after each show, Sinatra would be "in a buoyant, electrically charged mood, a post-show high that would take him hours to come down from as he quietly relived every note of the performance he'd just given". Frank Sinatra_sentence_414

Sinatra's split with Gardner in the fall of 1953 had a profound impact on the types of songs he sang and on his voice. Frank Sinatra_sentence_415

He began to console himself in songs with a "brooding melancholy", such as "I'm a Fool to Want You", "Don't Worry 'Bout Me", "My One and Only Love" and "There Will Never Be Another You", which Riddle believed was the direct influence of Ava Gardner. Frank Sinatra_sentence_416

Lahr comments that the new Sinatra was "not the gentle boy balladeer of the forties. Frank Sinatra_sentence_417

Fragility had gone from his voice, to be replaced by a virile adult's sense of happiness and hurt". Frank Sinatra_sentence_418

Author Granata considered Sinatra a "master of the art of recording", noting that his work in the studio "set him apart from other gifted vocalists". Frank Sinatra_sentence_419

During his career he made over 1000 recordings. Frank Sinatra_sentence_420

Recording sessions would typically last three hours, though Sinatra would always prepare for them by spending at least an hour by the piano beforehand to vocalize, followed by a short rehearsal with the orchestra to ensure the balance of sound. Frank Sinatra_sentence_421

During his Columbia years Sinatra used an RCA 44 microphone, which Granata describes as "the 'old-fashioned' microphone which is closely associated with Sinatra's crooner image of the 1940s", though when performing on talk shows later he used a bullet-shaped RCA 77. Frank Sinatra_sentence_422

At Capitol he used a Neumann U47, an "ultra-sensitive" microphone which better captured the timbre and tone of his voice. Frank Sinatra_sentence_423

In the 1950s, Sinatra's career was facilitated by developments in technology. Frank Sinatra_sentence_424

Up to sixteen songs could now be held by the twelve-inch L.P., and this allowed Sinatra to use song in a novelistic way, turning each track in a kind of chapter, which built and counterpointed moods to illuminate a larger theme". Frank Sinatra_sentence_425

Santopietro writes that through the 1950s and well into the 1960s, "Every Sinatra LP was a masterpiece of one sort of another, whether uptempo, torch song, or swingin' affairs. Frank Sinatra_sentence_426

Track after track, the brilliant concept albums redefined the nature of pop vocal art". Frank Sinatra_sentence_427

Film career Frank Sinatra_section_10

See also: Frank Sinatra filmography Frank Sinatra_sentence_428

Debut, musical films, and career slump (1941–1952) Frank Sinatra_section_11

Sinatra attempted to pursue an acting career in Hollywood in the early 1940s. Frank Sinatra_sentence_429

While films appealed to him, being exceptionally self-confident, he was rarely enthusiastic about his own acting, once remarking that "pictures stink". Frank Sinatra_sentence_430

Sinatra made his film debut performing in an uncredited sequence in Las Vegas Nights (1941), singing "I'll Never Smile Again" with Tommy Dorsey's Pied Pipers. Frank Sinatra_sentence_431

He had a cameo role along with Duke Ellington and Count Basie in Charles Barton's Reveille with Beverly (1943), making a brief appearance singing "Night and Day". Frank Sinatra_sentence_432

Next, he was given leading roles in Higher and Higher and Step Lively (both 1944) for RKO. Frank Sinatra_sentence_433

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer cast Sinatra opposite Gene Kelly and Kathryn Grayson in the Technicolor musical Anchors Aweigh (1945), in which he played a sailor on leave in Hollywood for four days. Frank Sinatra_sentence_434

A major success, it garnered several Academy Award wins and nominations, and the song "I Fall in Love Too Easily", sung by Sinatra in the film, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Song. Frank Sinatra_sentence_435

He briefly appeared at the end of Richard Whorf's commercially successful Till the Clouds Roll By (1946), a Technicolor musical biopic of Jerome Kern, in which he sang "Ol' Man River". Frank Sinatra_sentence_436

Sinatra co-starred again with Gene Kelly in the Technicolor musical Take Me Out to the Ball Game (1949), a film set in 1908, in which Sinatra and Kelly play baseball players who are part-time vaudevillians. Frank Sinatra_sentence_437

He teamed up with Kelly for a third time in On the Town (also 1949), playing a sailor on leave in New York City. Frank Sinatra_sentence_438

The film remains rated very highly by critics, and in 2006 it ranked No. Frank Sinatra_sentence_439

19 on the American Film Institute's list of best musicals. Frank Sinatra_sentence_440

Both Double Dynamite (1951), an RKO Irving Cummings comedy produced by Howard Hughes, and Joseph Pevney's Meet Danny Wilson (1952) failed to make an impression. Frank Sinatra_sentence_441

The New York World Telegram and Sun ran the headline "Gone on Frankie in '42; Gone in '52". Frank Sinatra_sentence_442

Career comeback and prime (1953–1959) Frank Sinatra_section_12

Fred Zinnemann's From Here to Eternity (1953) deals with the tribulations of three soldiers, played by Burt Lancaster, Montgomery Clift, and Sinatra, stationed on Hawaii in the months leading up to the attack on Pearl Harbor. Frank Sinatra_sentence_443

Sinatra had long been desperate to find a film role which would bring him back into the spotlight, and Columbia Pictures boss Harry Cohn had been inundated by appeals from people across Hollywood to give Sinatra a chance to star as "Maggio" in the film. Frank Sinatra_sentence_444

During production, Montgomery Clift became a close friend, and Sinatra later professed that he "learned more about acting from him than anybody I ever knew before". Frank Sinatra_sentence_445

After several years of critical and commercial decline, his Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor win helped him regain his position as the top recording artist in the world. Frank Sinatra_sentence_446

His performance also won a Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture. Frank Sinatra_sentence_447

The Los Angeles Examiner wrote that Sinatra is "simply superb, comical, pitiful, childishly brave, pathetically defiant", commenting that his death scene is "one of the best ever photographed". Frank Sinatra_sentence_448

Sinatra starred opposite Doris Day in the musical film Young at Heart (1954), and earned critical praise for his performance as a psychopathic killer posing as an FBI agent opposite Sterling Hayden in the film noir Suddenly (also 1954). Frank Sinatra_sentence_449

Sinatra was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor and BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role for his role as a heroin addict in The Man With The Golden Arm (1955). Frank Sinatra_sentence_450

After roles in Guys and Dolls, and The Tender Trap (both 1955), Sinatra was nominated for a BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role for his role as a medical student in Stanley Kramer's directorial début, Not as a Stranger (also 1955). Frank Sinatra_sentence_451

During production, Sinatra got drunk with Robert Mitchum and Broderick Crawford and trashed Kramer's dressing room. Frank Sinatra_sentence_452

Kramer vowed to never hire Sinatra again at the time, and later regretted casting him as a Spanish guerrilla leader in The Pride and the Passion (1957). Frank Sinatra_sentence_453

Sinatra featured alongside Bing Crosby and Grace Kelly in High Society (1956) for MGM, earning a reported $250,000 for the picture. Frank Sinatra_sentence_454

The public rushed to the cinemas to see Sinatra and Crosby together on-screen, and it ended up earning over $13 million at the box office, becoming one of the highest-grossing pictures of its year. Frank Sinatra_sentence_455

He starred opposite Rita Hayworth and Kim Novak in George Sidney's Pal Joey (1957), Sinatra, for which he won for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy. Frank Sinatra_sentence_456

Santopietro considers the scene in which Sinatra sings "The Lady Is a Tramp" to Hayworth to have been the finest moment of his film career. Frank Sinatra_sentence_457

He next portrayed comedian Joe E. Lewis in The Joker Is Wild (also 1957); the song "All the Way" won the Academy Award for Best Original Song. Frank Sinatra_sentence_458

By 1958, Sinatra was one of the ten biggest box office draws in the United States, appearing with Dean Martin and Shirley MacLaine in Vincente Minnelli's Some Came Running and Kings Go Forth (both 1958) with Tony Curtis and Natalie Wood. Frank Sinatra_sentence_459

"High Hopes", sung by Sinatra in the Frank Capra comedy, A Hole in the Head (1959), won the Academy Award for Best Original Song, and became a chart hit, lasting on the Hot 100 for 17 weeks. Frank Sinatra_sentence_460

Later career (1960–1980) Frank Sinatra_section_13

Due to an obligation he owed to 20th Century Fox for walking off the set of Henry King's Carousel (1956), Sinatra starred opposite Shirley MacLaine, Maurice Chevalier and Louis Jourdan in Can-Can (1960). Frank Sinatra_sentence_461

He earned $200,000 and 25% of the profits for the performance. Frank Sinatra_sentence_462

Around the same time, he starred in the Las Vegas-set Ocean's 11 (also 1960), the first film to feature the Rat Pack together and the start of a "new era of screen cool" for Santopietro. Frank Sinatra_sentence_463

Sinatra personally financed the film, and paid Martin and Davis fees of $150,000 and $125,000 respectively, sums considered exorbitant for the period. Frank Sinatra_sentence_464

He had a leading role opposite Laurence Harvey in The Manchurian Candidate (1962), which he considered to be the role he was most excited about and the high point of his film career. Frank Sinatra_sentence_465

Vincent Canby, writing for the magazine Variety, found the portrayal of Sinatra's character to be "a wide-awake pro creating a straight, quietly humorous character of some sensitivity." Frank Sinatra_sentence_466

He appeared with the Rat Pack in the western Sergeants 3 (also 1962), following it with 4 for Texas (1963). Frank Sinatra_sentence_467

For his performance in Come Blow Your Horn (also 1963) adapted from the Neil Simon play, he was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy. Frank Sinatra_sentence_468

Sinatra directed None but the Brave (1965), and Von Ryan's Express (1965) was a major success, However, in the mid 1960s, Brad Dexter wanted to "breathe new life" into Sinatra's film career by helping him display the same professional pride in his films as he did his recordings. Frank Sinatra_sentence_469

On one occasion, he gave Sinatra Anthony Burgess's novel A Clockwork Orange (1962) to read, with the idea of making a film, but Sinatra thought it had no potential and did not understand a word. Frank Sinatra_sentence_470

In the late 1960s, Sinatra became known for playing detectives, including Tony Rome in Tony Rome (1967) and its sequel Lady In Cement (1968). Frank Sinatra_sentence_471

He also played a similar role in The Detective (1968). Frank Sinatra_sentence_472

Sinatra starred opposite George Kennedy in the western Dirty Dingus Magee (1970), an "abysmal" affair according to Santopietro, which was panned by the critics. Frank Sinatra_sentence_473

The following year, Sinatra received a Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award and had intended to play Detective Harry Callahan in Dirty Harry (1971), but had to turn the role down due to developing Dupuytren's contracture in his hand. Frank Sinatra_sentence_474

Sinatra's last major film role was opposite Faye Dunaway in Brian G. Hutton's The First Deadly Sin (1980). Frank Sinatra_sentence_475

Santopietro said that as a troubled New York City homicide cop, Sinatra gave an "extraordinarily rich", heavily layered characterization, one which "made for one terrific farewell" to his film career. Frank Sinatra_sentence_476

Television and radio career Frank Sinatra_section_14

After beginning on the Major Bowes Amateur Hour radio show with the Hoboken Four in 1935, and later WNEW and WAAT in Jersey City, Sinatra became the star of radio shows of his own on NBC and CBS from the early 1940s to the mid-1950s. Frank Sinatra_sentence_477

In 1942, Sinatra hired arranger Axel Stordahl away from Tommy Dorsey before he began his first radio program that year, keeping Stordahl with him for all of his radio work. Frank Sinatra_sentence_478

By the end of 1942, he was named the "Most Popular Male Vocalist on Radio" in a DownBeat poll. Frank Sinatra_sentence_479

Early on he frequently worked with The Andrews Sisters on radio, and they would appear as guests on each other's shows, as well as on many USO shows broadcast to troops via the Armed Forces Radio Service (AFRS). Frank Sinatra_sentence_480

He appeared as a special guest in the sisters' ABC Eight-to-the-Bar Ranch series, while the trio in turn guested on his Songs by Sinatra series on CBS. Frank Sinatra_sentence_481

Sinatra had two stints as a regular member of cast of Your Hit Parade; his first was from 1943 to 1945, and second was from 1946 to May 28, 1949, during which he was paired with the then-new girl singer, Doris Day. Frank Sinatra_sentence_482

Starting in September 1949, the BBD&O advertising agency produced a radio series starring Sinatra for Lucky Strike called Light Up Time – some 176 15-minute shows which featured Frank and Dorothy Kirsten singing – which lasted through to May 1950. Frank Sinatra_sentence_483

In October 1951, the second season of The Frank Sinatra Show began on CBS Television. Frank Sinatra_sentence_484

Ultimately, Sinatra did not find the success on television for which he had hoped. Frank Sinatra_sentence_485

Santopietro writes that Sinatra "simply never appeared fully at ease on his own television series, his edgy, impatient personality conveying a pent up energy on the verge of exploding". Frank Sinatra_sentence_486

In 1953, Sinatra starred in the NBC radio program Rocky Fortune, portraying Rocco Fortunato (a.k.a. Rocky Fortune), a "footloose and fancy free" temporary worker for the Gridley Employment Agency who stumbles into crime-solving. Frank Sinatra_sentence_487

The series aired on NBC radio Tuesday nights from October 1953 to March 1954. Frank Sinatra_sentence_488

In 1957, Sinatra formed a three-year $3 million contract with ABC to launch The Frank Sinatra Show, featuring himself and guests in 36 half hour shows. Frank Sinatra_sentence_489

ABC agreed to allow Sinatra's Hobart Productions to keep 60% of the residuals, and bought stock in Sinatra's film production unit, Kent Productions, guaranteeing him $7 million. Frank Sinatra_sentence_490

Though an initial critical success upon its debut on October 18, 1957, it soon attracted negative reviews from Variety and The New Republic, and The Chicago Sun-Times thought that Sinatra and frequent guest Dean Martin "performed like a pair of adult delinquents", "sharing the same cigarette and leering at girls". Frank Sinatra_sentence_491

In return, Sinatra later made numerous appearances on The Dean Martin Show and Martin's TV specials. Frank Sinatra_sentence_492

Sinatra's fourth and final Timex TV special, Welcome Home Elvis, was broadcast in March 1960, earning massive viewing figures. Frank Sinatra_sentence_493

During the show, he performed a duet with Presley, who sang Sinatra's 1957 hit "Witchcraft" with the host performing the 1956 Presley classic "Love Me Tender". Frank Sinatra_sentence_494

Sinatra had previously been highly critical of Elvis Presley and rock and roll in the 1950s, describing it as a "deplorable, a rancid smelling aphrodisiac" which "fosters almost totally negative and destructive reactions in young people." Frank Sinatra_sentence_495

A CBS News special about the singer's 50th birthday, Frank Sinatra: A Man and His Music, was broadcast on November 16, 1965, and garnered both an Emmy award and a Peabody Award. Frank Sinatra_sentence_496

According his musical collaboration with Jobim and Ella Fitzgerald in 1967, Sinatra appeared in the TV special, A Man and His Music + Ella + Jobim, which was broadcast on CBS on November 13. Frank Sinatra_sentence_497

When Sinatra came out of retirement in 1973, he released both an album and appeared in a TV special named Ol' Blue Eyes Is Back. Frank Sinatra_sentence_498

The TV special was highlighted by a dramatic reading of "Send in the Clowns" and a song-and-dance sequence with former co-star Gene Kelly. Frank Sinatra_sentence_499

In the late 1970s, John Denver appeared as a guest in the Sinatra and Friends ABC-TV Special, singing "September Song" as a duet. Frank Sinatra_sentence_500

Sinatra starred as a detective in Contract on Cherry Street (1977), cited as his "one starring role in a dramatic television film". Frank Sinatra_sentence_501

Ten years later, he made a guest appearance opposite Tom Selleck in Magnum, P.I. Frank Sinatra_sentence_502 , playing a retired policeman who teams up with Selleck to find his granddaughter's murderer. Frank Sinatra_sentence_503

Shot in January 1987, the episode aired on CBS on February 25. Frank Sinatra_sentence_504

Personal life Frank Sinatra_section_15

See also: Personal life of Frank Sinatra Frank Sinatra_sentence_505

Sinatra had three children, Nancy (born 1940), Frank Jr. (born 1944), and Tina (born 1948) with his first wife, Nancy Sinatra (née Barbato, 1917–2018), to whom he was married from 1939 to 1951. Frank Sinatra_sentence_506

Sinatra had met Barbato in Long Branch, New Jersey in the late 1930s, where he spent most of the summer working as a lifeguard. Frank Sinatra_sentence_507

He agreed to marry her after an incident at "The Rustic Cabin" which led to his arrest. Frank Sinatra_sentence_508

Sinatra had numerous extramarital affairs, and gossip magazines published details of affairs with women including Marilyn Maxwell, Lana Turner, and Joi Lansing. Frank Sinatra_sentence_509

Sinatra was married to Hollywood actress Ava Gardner from 1951 to 1957. Frank Sinatra_sentence_510

It was a turbulent marriage with many well-publicized fights and altercations. Frank Sinatra_sentence_511

The couple formally announced their separation on October 29, 1953, through MGM. Frank Sinatra_sentence_512

Gardner filed for divorce in June 1954, at a time when she was dating matador Luis Miguel Dominguín, but the divorce was not settled until 1957. Frank Sinatra_sentence_513

Sinatra continued to feel very strongly for her, and they remained friends for life. Frank Sinatra_sentence_514

He was still dealing with her finances in 1976. Frank Sinatra_sentence_515

Sinatra reportedly broke off engagements to Lauren Bacall in 1958 and Juliet Prowse in 1962. Frank Sinatra_sentence_516

He married Mia Farrow on July 19, 1966, a short marriage that ended with divorce in Mexico in August 1968. Frank Sinatra_sentence_517

They remained close friends for life, and in a 2013 interview Farrow said that Sinatra might be the father of her son Ronan Farrow (born 1987). Frank Sinatra_sentence_518

In a 2015 CBS Sunday Morning interview, Nancy Sinatra dismissed the claim as "nonsense". Frank Sinatra_sentence_519

Sinatra was married to Barbara Marx from 1976 until his death. Frank Sinatra_sentence_520

The couple married on July 11, 1976, at Sunnylands, in Rancho Mirage, California, the estate of media magnate Walter Annenberg. Frank Sinatra_sentence_521

Sinatra was close friends with Jilly Rizzo, songwriter Jimmy Van Heusen, golfer Ken Venturi, comedian Pat Henry and baseball manager Leo Durocher. Frank Sinatra_sentence_522

In his spare time, he enjoyed listening to classical music and attended concerts when he could. Frank Sinatra_sentence_523

He swam daily in the Pacific Ocean, finding it to be therapeutic and giving him much-needed solitude. Frank Sinatra_sentence_524

He often played golf with Venturi at the course in Palm Springs, where he lived, and liked painting, reading, and building model railways. Frank Sinatra_sentence_525

Though Sinatra was critical of the church on numerous occasions and had a pantheistic, Einstein-like view of God in his earlier life, he turned to Roman Catholicism for healing after his mother died in a plane crash in 1977. Frank Sinatra_sentence_526

He died as a practicing Catholic and had a Catholic burial. Frank Sinatra_sentence_527

Style and personality Frank Sinatra_section_16

Sinatra was known for his immaculate sense of style. Frank Sinatra_sentence_528

He spent lavishly on expensive custom-tailored tuxedos and stylish pin-striped suits, which made him feel wealthy and important, and that he was giving his very best to the audience. Frank Sinatra_sentence_529

He was also obsessed with cleanliness—while with the Tommy Dorsey band he developed the nickname "Lady Macbeth", because of frequent showering and switching his outfits. Frank Sinatra_sentence_530

His deep blue eyes earned him the popular nickname "Ol' Blue Eyes". Frank Sinatra_sentence_531

For Santopietro, Sinatra was the personification of America in the 1950s: "cocky, eye on the main chance, optimistic, and full of the sense of possibility". Frank Sinatra_sentence_532

Barbara Sinatra wrote, "A big part of Frank's thrill was the sense of danger that he exuded, an underlying, ever-present tension only those closest to him knew could be defused with humor". Frank Sinatra_sentence_533

Cary Grant, a friend of Sinatra's, stated that Sinatra was the "most honest person he'd ever met", who spoke "a simple truth, without artifice which scared people", and was often moved to tears by his performances. Frank Sinatra_sentence_534

Jo-Caroll Dennison commented that he possessed "great inner strength", and that his energy and drive were "enormous". Frank Sinatra_sentence_535

A workaholic, he reportedly only slept four hours a night on average. Frank Sinatra_sentence_536

Throughout his life, Sinatra had mood swings and bouts of mild to severe depression, stating to an interviewer in the 1950s that "I have an over-acute capacity for sadness as well as elation". Frank Sinatra_sentence_537

Barbara Sinatra stated that he would "snap at anyone for the slightest misdemeanor", while Van Heusen said that when Sinatra got drunk it was "best to disappear". Frank Sinatra_sentence_538

Sinatra's mood swings often developed into violence, directed at people he felt had crossed him, particularly journalists who gave him scathing reviews, publicists, and photographers. Frank Sinatra_sentence_539

According to Rojek he was "capable of deeply offensive behavior that smacked of a persecution complex". Frank Sinatra_sentence_540

He received negative press for fights with Lee Mortimer in 1947, photographer Eddie Schisser in Houston in 1950, Judy Garland's publicist Jim Byron on the Sunset Strip in 1954, and for a confrontation with Washington Post journalist Maxine Cheshire in 1973, in which he implied that she was a cheap prostitute. Frank Sinatra_sentence_541

His feud with then-Chicago Sun Times columnist Mike Royko began when Royko wrote a column questioning why Chicago police offered free protection to Sinatra when the singer had his own security. Frank Sinatra_sentence_542

Sinatra fired off an angry letter in response calling Royko a "pimp", and threatening to "punch you in the mouth" for speculating that he wore a toupée. Frank Sinatra_sentence_543

Royko auctioned the letter, the proceeds going to the Salvation Army. Frank Sinatra_sentence_544

The winner of the auction was Vie Carlson, mother of Bun E. Carlos of the rock group Cheap Trick. Frank Sinatra_sentence_545

After appearing on Antiques Roadshow, Carlson consigned the letter to Freeman's Auctioneers & Appraisers, which auctioned it in 2010. Frank Sinatra_sentence_546

Sinatra was also known for his generosity, particularly after his comeback. Frank Sinatra_sentence_547

Kelley notes that when Lee J. Cobb nearly died from a heart attack in June 1955, Sinatra flooded him with "books, flowers, delicacies", paid his hospital bills, and visited him daily, telling him that his "finest acting" was yet to come. Frank Sinatra_sentence_548

In another instance, after an argument with manager Bobby Burns, rather than apologize, Sinatra bought him a brand new Cadillac. Frank Sinatra_sentence_549

Alleged organized-crime links and Cal Neva Lodge Frank Sinatra_section_17

Sinatra became the stereotype of the "tough working-class Italian American", something which he embraced. Frank Sinatra_sentence_550

He said that if it had not been for his interest in music, he would have likely ended up in a life of crime. Frank Sinatra_sentence_551

Willie Moretti was Sinatra's godfather and the notorious underboss of the Genovese crime family, and he helped Sinatra in exchange for kickbacks and was reported to have intervened in releasing Sinatra from his contract with Tommy Dorsey. Frank Sinatra_sentence_552

Sinatra went to the Mafia Havana Conference in 1946, and the press learned of his being there with Lucky Luciano. Frank Sinatra_sentence_553

One newspaper published the headline, "Shame, Sinatra". Frank Sinatra_sentence_554

He was reported to be a good friend of Sam Giancana, and the two men were seen playing golf together. Frank Sinatra_sentence_555

Kelley quotes Jo-Carrol Silvers that Sinatra "adored" Bugsy Siegel, and boasted to friends about him and how many people he had killed. Frank Sinatra_sentence_556

Kelley claims that Sinatra and mobster Joseph Fischetti had been good friends from 1938 onward, and acted like "Sicilian brothers". Frank Sinatra_sentence_557

She also states that Sinatra and Hank Sanicola were financial partners with Mickey Cohen in the gossip magazine Hollywood Night Life. Frank Sinatra_sentence_558

The FBI kept records amounting to 2,403 pages on Sinatra, who was a natural target with his alleged Mafia ties, his ardent New Deal politics, and his friendship with John F. Kennedy. Frank Sinatra_sentence_559

The FBI kept him under surveillance for almost five decades beginning in the 1940s. Frank Sinatra_sentence_560

The documents include accounts of Sinatra as the target of death threats and extortion schemes. Frank Sinatra_sentence_561

The FBI documented that Sinatra was losing esteem with the Mafia as he grew closer to President Kennedy, whose younger brother Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy was leading a crackdown on organized crime. Frank Sinatra_sentence_562

Sinatra denied Mafia involvement: "Any report that I fraternized with goons or racketeers is a vicious lie". Frank Sinatra_sentence_563

In 1960, Sinatra bought a share in the Cal Neva Lodge & Casino, a casino hotel that straddles the California-Nevada state line on the north shores of Lake Tahoe. Frank Sinatra_sentence_564

Sinatra built the Celebrity Room theater which attracted his show business friends Red Skelton, Marilyn Monroe, Victor Borge, Joe E. Lewis, Lucille Ball, Lena Horne, Juliet Prowse, the McGuire Sisters, and others. Frank Sinatra_sentence_565

By 1962, he reportedly held a 50-percent share in the hotel. Frank Sinatra_sentence_566

Sinatra's gambling license was temporarily stripped by the Nevada Gaming Control Board in 1963 after Giancana was spotted on the premises. Frank Sinatra_sentence_567

Due to ongoing pressure from the FBI and Nevada Gaming Commission on mobster control of casinos, Sinatra agreed to give up his share in Cal Neva and the Sands. Frank Sinatra_sentence_568

That year, his son Frank Jr. was kidnapped but was eventually released unharmed. Frank Sinatra_sentence_569

Sinatra's gaming license was restored in February 1981, following support from Ronald Reagan. Frank Sinatra_sentence_570

Politics and activism Frank Sinatra_section_18

Main article: Political life of Frank Sinatra Frank Sinatra_sentence_571

Sinatra held differing political views throughout his life. Frank Sinatra_sentence_572

His mother, Dolly Sinatra (1896–1977), was a Democratic Party ward leader, and after meeting President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1944, he subsequently heavily campaigned for the Democrats in the 1944 presidential election. Frank Sinatra_sentence_573

According to Jo Carroll Silvers, in his younger years Sinatra had "ardent liberal" sympathies, and was "so concerned about poor people that he was always quoting Henry Wallace". Frank Sinatra_sentence_574

He was outspoken against racism, particularly toward blacks and Italians, from early on. Frank Sinatra_sentence_575

In November 1945 Sinatra was invited by the mayor of Gary, Indiana, to try to settle a strike by white students of Froebel High School against the "Pro-Negro" policies of the new principal. Frank Sinatra_sentence_576

His comments, while praised by liberal publications, led to accusations by some that he was a Communist, which he strongly denied. Frank Sinatra_sentence_577

In the 1948 presidential election, Sinatra actively campaigned for President Harry S. Truman. Frank Sinatra_sentence_578

In 1952 and 1956, he also campaigned for Adlai Stevenson. Frank Sinatra_sentence_579

Of all the U.S. Presidents he associated with during his career, he was closest to John F. Kennedy. Frank Sinatra_sentence_580

Sinatra often invited Kennedy to Hollywood and Las Vegas, and the two would womanize and enjoy parties together. Frank Sinatra_sentence_581

In January 1961 Sinatra and Peter Lawford organized the Inaugural Gala in Washington, D.C., held on the evening before President Kennedy was sworn into office. Frank Sinatra_sentence_582

After taking office, Kennedy decided to cut ties with Sinatra due, in part, to the singer's ties with the Mafia. Frank Sinatra_sentence_583

His brother Robert, who was serving as Attorney General and was known for urging FBI director J. Edgar Hoover to conduct even more crackdowns on the Mafia, was even more distrustful of Sinatra. Frank Sinatra_sentence_584

In 1962, Sinatra's friendship with Kennedy, whom he first met in the 1950s, officially ended when Kennedy officially decided to remove Sinatra, who never shook off rumors of affiliation with the Mafia, from his "gang." Frank Sinatra_sentence_585

Sinatra was snubbed by the President during his visit to Palm Springs, where Sinatra lived, when he decided to stay with the Republican Bing Crosby, due to FBI concerns about Sinatra's alleged connections to organized crime. Frank Sinatra_sentence_586

Despite also having ties with the Mafia, Crosby was not willing to give as much public hints as Sinatra. Frank Sinatra_sentence_587

Sinatra had invested a lot of his own money in upgrading the facilities at his home in anticipation of the President's visit, fitting it with a heliport, which he later smashed up with a sledgehammer upon being rejected. Frank Sinatra_sentence_588

Despite the snub, when he learned of Kennedy's assassination he reportedly sobbed in his bedroom for three days. Frank Sinatra_sentence_589

Sinatra worked with Hubert H. Humphrey in 1968, and remained a supporter of the Democratic Party until the early 1970s. Frank Sinatra_sentence_590

Although still a registered Democrat, Sinatra endorsed Republican Ronald Reagan for a second term as Governor of California in 1970. Frank Sinatra_sentence_591

He officially changed allegiance in July 1972 when he supported Richard Nixon for re-election in the 1972 presidential election. Frank Sinatra_sentence_592

In the 1980 presidential election, Sinatra supported Ronald Reagan and donated $4 million to Reagan's campaign. Frank Sinatra_sentence_593

Sinatra arranged Reagan's Presidential gala, as he had done for Kennedy 20 years previously. Frank Sinatra_sentence_594

In 1985, Reagan presented Sinatra with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, remarking, "His love of country, his generosity for those less fortunate ... make him one of our most remarkable and distinguished Americans." Frank Sinatra_sentence_595

Santopietro notes that Sinatra was a "lifelong sympathizer with Jewish causes". Frank Sinatra_sentence_596

He was awarded the Hollzer Memorial Award by the Los Angeles Jewish Community in 1949. Frank Sinatra_sentence_597

He gave a series of concerts in Israel in 1962, and donated his entire $50,000 fee for appearing in a cameo role in Cast a Giant Shadow (1966) to the Youth Center in Jerusalem. Frank Sinatra_sentence_598

On November 1, 1972, he raised $6.5 million in bond pledges for Israel, and was given the Medallion of Valor for his efforts. Frank Sinatra_sentence_599

The Frank Sinatra Student Center at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem was dedicated in his name in 1978. Frank Sinatra_sentence_600

He owned a Jewish skullcap, known as a kippah or yarmulkah, which was sold as part of his wife's estate many years after his death. Frank Sinatra_sentence_601

From his youth, Sinatra displayed sympathy for African Americans and worked both publicly and privately all his life to help the struggle for equal rights. Frank Sinatra_sentence_602

He blamed racial prejudice on the parents of children. Frank Sinatra_sentence_603

Sinatra played a major role in the desegregation of Nevada hotels and casinos in the 1950s and 1960s. Frank Sinatra_sentence_604

At the Sands in 1955, Sinatra went against policy by inviting Nat King Cole into the dining room, and in 1961, after an incident where an African-American couple entered the lobby of the hotel and were blocked by the security guard, Sinatra and Davis forced the hotel management to begin hiring black waiters and busboys. Frank Sinatra_sentence_605

On January 27, 1961, Sinatra played a benefit show at Carnegie Hall for Martin Luther King Jr. and led his fellow Rat Pack members and Reprise label mates in boycotting hotels and casinos that refused entry to black patrons and performers. Frank Sinatra_sentence_606

According to his son, Frank Jr., King sat weeping in the audience at one of his father's concerts in 1963 as Sinatra sang "Ol' Man River", a song from the musical Show Boat that is sung by an African-American stevedore. Frank Sinatra_sentence_607

When he changed his political affiliations in 1970, Sinatra became less outspoken on racial issues. Frank Sinatra_sentence_608

Though he did much towards civil rights causes, it did not stop the occasional racial jibe from him and the other Rat Pack members toward Davis at concerts. Frank Sinatra_sentence_609

Later life and death Frank Sinatra_section_19

Sinatra died with his wife at his side at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles on May 14, 1998, aged 82, after a heart attack. Frank Sinatra_sentence_610

Sinatra was in ill health during the last few years of his life, and was frequently hospitalized for heart and breathing problems, high blood pressure, pneumonia and bladder cancer. Frank Sinatra_sentence_611

He was further diagnosed as having dementia. Frank Sinatra_sentence_612

He had made no public appearances following a heart attack in February 1997. Frank Sinatra_sentence_613

Sinatra's wife encouraged him to "fight" while attempts were made to stabilize him, and reported that his final words were, "I'm losing." Frank Sinatra_sentence_614

Sinatra's daughter, Tina, later wrote that she and her siblings (Frank Jr. and Nancy) had not been notified of their father's final hospitalization, and it was her belief that "the omission was deliberate. Frank Sinatra_sentence_615

Barbara would be the grieving widow alone at her husband's side." Frank Sinatra_sentence_616

The night after Sinatra's death, the lights on the Empire State Building in New York City were turned blue, the lights at the Las Vegas Strip were dimmed in his honor, and the casinos stopped spinning for one minute. Frank Sinatra_sentence_617

Sinatra's funeral was held at the Roman Catholic Church of the Good Shepherd in Beverly Hills, California, on May 20, 1998, with 400 mourners in attendance and thousands of fans outside. Frank Sinatra_sentence_618

Gregory Peck, Tony Bennett, and Sinatra's son, Frank Jr., addressed the mourners, who included many notable people from film and entertainment. Frank Sinatra_sentence_619

Sinatra was buried in a blue business suit with mementos from family members—cherry-flavored Life Savers, Tootsie Rolls, a bottle of Jack Daniel's, a pack of Camel cigarettes, a Zippo lighter, stuffed toys, a dog biscuit, and a roll of dimes that he always carried—next to his parents in section B-8 of Desert Memorial Park in Cathedral City, California. Frank Sinatra_sentence_620

His close friends Jilly Rizzo and Jimmy Van Heusen are buried nearby. Frank Sinatra_sentence_621

The words "The Best Is Yet to Come", plus "Beloved Husband & Father" are imprinted on Sinatra's grave marker. Frank Sinatra_sentence_622

Significant increases in recording sales worldwide were reported by Billboard in the month of his death. Frank Sinatra_sentence_623

Legacy and honors Frank Sinatra_section_20

See also: List of awards and nominations received by Frank Sinatra Frank Sinatra_sentence_624

Robert Christgau referred to Sinatra as "the greatest singer of the 20th century". Frank Sinatra_sentence_625

His popularity is matched only by Bing Crosby, Elvis Presley, The Beatles, and Michael Jackson. Frank Sinatra_sentence_626

For Santopietro, Sinatra was the "greatest male pop singer in the history of America", who amassed "unprecedented power onscreen and off", and "seemed to exemplify the common man, an ethnic twentieth-century American male who reached the 'top of the heap', yet never forgot his roots". Frank Sinatra_sentence_627

Santopietro argues that Sinatra created his own world, which he was able to dominate—his career was centred around power, perfecting the ability to capture an audience. Frank Sinatra_sentence_628

Encyclopædia Britannica referred to Sinatra as "often hailed as the greatest American singer of 20th-century popular music....Through his life and his art, he transcended the status of mere icon to become one of the most recognizable symbols of American culture." Frank Sinatra_sentence_629

Gus Levene commented that Sinatra's strength was that when it came to lyrics, telling a story musically, Sinatra displayed a "genius" ability and feeling, which with the "rare combination of voice and showmanship" made him the "original singer" which others who followed most tried to emulate. Frank Sinatra_sentence_630

George Roberts, a trombonist in Sinatra's band, remarked that Sinatra had a "charisma, or whatever it is about him, that no one else had". Frank Sinatra_sentence_631

Biographer Arnold Shaw considered that "If Las Vegas had not existed, Sinatra could have invented it". Frank Sinatra_sentence_632

He quoted reporter James Bacon in saying that Sinatra was the "swinging image on which the town is built", adding that no other entertainer quite "embodied the glamour" associated with Las Vegas as him. Frank Sinatra_sentence_633

Sinatra continues to be seen as one of the icons of the 20th century, and has three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his work in film and music. Frank Sinatra_sentence_634

There are stars on east and west sides of the 1600 block of Vine Street respectively, and one on the south side of the 6500 block of Hollywood Boulevard for his work in television. Frank Sinatra_sentence_635

In Sinatra's native New Jersey, Hoboken's Frank Sinatra Park, the Hoboken Post Office, and a residence hall at Montclair State University were named in his honor. Frank Sinatra_sentence_636

He was awarded the Key to the City of Hoboken by Mayor Fred M. De Sapio on October 30, 1947. Frank Sinatra_sentence_637

Other buildings named for Sinatra include the Frank Sinatra School of the Arts in Astoria, Queens, the Frank Sinatra International Student Center at Israel's Hebrew University in Jerusalem dedicated in 1978, and the Frank Sinatra Hall at the USC School of Cinematic Arts in Los Angeles, California, dedicated in 2002. Frank Sinatra_sentence_638

Wynn Resorts' Encore Las Vegas resort features a restaurant dedicated to Sinatra which opened in 2008. Frank Sinatra_sentence_639

Items of memorabilia from Sinatra's life and career are displayed at USC's Frank Sinatra Hall and Wynn Resort's Sinatra restaurant. Frank Sinatra_sentence_640

Near the Las Vegas Strip is a road named Frank Sinatra Drive in his honor. Frank Sinatra_sentence_641

The United States Postal Service issued a 42-cent postage stamp in honor of Sinatra in May 2008, commemorating the tenth anniversary of his death. Frank Sinatra_sentence_642

The United States Congress passed a resolution introduced by Representative Mary Bono Mack on May 20, 2008, designating May 13 as Frank Sinatra Day to honor his contributions to American culture. Frank Sinatra_sentence_643

Sinatra received three honorary degrees during his lifetime. Frank Sinatra_sentence_644

In May 1976, he was invited to speak at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) graduation commencement held at Sam Boyd Stadium. Frank Sinatra_sentence_645

It was at this commencement that he was bestowed an Honorary Doctorate litterarum humanarum by the university. Frank Sinatra_sentence_646

During his speech, Sinatra stated that his education had come from "the school of hard knocks" and was suitably touched by the award. Frank Sinatra_sentence_647

He went on to describe that "this is the first educational degree I have ever held in my hand. Frank Sinatra_sentence_648

I will never forget what you have done for me today". Frank Sinatra_sentence_649

A few years later in 1984 and 1985, Sinatra also received an Honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts from Loyola Marymount University as well as an Honorary Doctorate of Engineering from the Stevens Institute of Technology. Frank Sinatra_sentence_650

Film and television portrayals Frank Sinatra_section_21

Sinatra has been portrayed on numerous occasions in film and television. Frank Sinatra_sentence_651

A television miniseries based on Sinatra's life, titled Sinatra, was aired by CBS in 1992. Frank Sinatra_sentence_652

The series was directed by James Steven Sadwith, who won an Emmy Award for Outstanding Individual Achievement in Directing for a Miniseries or a Special, and starred Philip Casnoff as Sinatra. Frank Sinatra_sentence_653

Sinatra was written by Abby Mann and Philip Mastrosimone, and produced by Sinatra's daughter, Tina. Frank Sinatra_sentence_654

Sinatra has subsequently been portrayed on screen by Ray Liotta (The Rat Pack, 1998), James Russo (Stealing Sinatra, 2003), Dennis Hopper (The Night We Called It a Day, 2003), and Robert Knepper (My Way, 2012), and spoofed by Joe Piscopo and Phil Hartman on Saturday Night Live. Frank Sinatra_sentence_655

A biographical film directed by Martin Scorsese has long been planned. Frank Sinatra_sentence_656

A 1998 episode of the BBC documentary series Arena, The Voice of the Century, focused on Sinatra. Frank Sinatra_sentence_657

Alex Gibney directed a four-part biographical series on Sinatra, All or Nothing At All, for HBO in 2015. Frank Sinatra_sentence_658

A musical tribute was aired on CBS television in December 2015 to mark Sinatra's centenary. Frank Sinatra_sentence_659

Sinatra was convinced that Johnny Fontane, a mob-associated singer in Mario Puzo's novel The Godfather (1969), was based on his life. Frank Sinatra_sentence_660

Puzo wrote in 1972 that when the author and singer met in Chasen's, Sinatra "started to shout abuse", calling Puzo a "pimp" and threatening physical violence. Frank Sinatra_sentence_661

Francis Ford Coppola, director of the film adaptation, said in the audio commentary that "Obviously Johnny Fontane was inspired by a kind of Frank Sinatra character". Frank Sinatra_sentence_662

Discography Frank Sinatra_section_22

For an extended list of albums, compilations, and charting singles, see Frank Sinatra discography. Frank Sinatra_sentence_663

Frank Sinatra_description_list_0

See also Frank Sinatra_section_23

Frank Sinatra_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Sinatra.