Franklin D. Roosevelt

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"Franklin Roosevelt" and "FDR" redirect here. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_0

For other uses, see Franklin D. Roosevelt (disambiguation) and FDR (disambiguation). Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_1

Franklin D. Roosevelt_table_infobox_0

Franklin D. RooseveltFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_0_0
32nd President of the United StatesFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_1_0
Vice PresidentFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_2_0 Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_2_1
Preceded byFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_3_0 Herbert HooverFranklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_3_1
Succeeded byFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_4_0 Harry S. TrumanFranklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_4_1
44th Governor of New YorkFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_5_0
LieutenantFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_6_0 Herbert H. LehmanFranklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_6_1
Preceded byFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_7_0 Al SmithFranklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_7_1
Succeeded byFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_8_0 Herbert H. LehmanFranklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_8_1
Assistant Secretary of the NavyFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_9_0
PresidentFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_10_0 Woodrow WilsonFranklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_10_1
Preceded byFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_11_0 Beekman WinthropFranklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_11_1
Succeeded byFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_12_0 Gordon WoodburyFranklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_12_1
Member of the New York Senate

from the 26th districtFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_13_0

Preceded byFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_14_0 John F. SchlosserFranklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_14_1
Succeeded byFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_15_0 James E. TownerFranklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_15_1
Personal detailsFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_16_0
BornFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_17_0 Franklin Delano Roosevelt

(1882-01-30)January 30, 1882 Hyde Park, New York, U.S.Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_17_1

DiedFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_18_0 April 12, 1945(1945-04-12) (aged 63)

Warm Springs, Georgia, U.S.Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_18_1

Cause of deathFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_19_0 Cerebral hemorrhageFranklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_19_1
Resting placeFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_20_0 Springwood Estate

Hyde Park, New York, U.S.Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_20_1

Political partyFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_21_0 DemocraticFranklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_21_1
Spouse(s)Franklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_22_0 Eleanor Roosevelt ​(m. 1905)​Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_22_1
ChildrenFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_23_0 6, including Franklin Jr., Anna, Elliott, James, and JohnFranklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_23_1
ParentsFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_24_0 Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_24_1
RelativesFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_25_0 Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_25_1
EducationFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_26_0 Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_26_1
SignatureFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_0_27_0 Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_0_27_1

Franklin Delano Roosevelt (/ˈroʊzəvəlt/, /-vɛlt/; January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American politician who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_2

A member of the Democratic Party, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_3

Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U.S. history. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_4

As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which defined modern liberalism in the United States throughout the middle third of the 20th century. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_5

His third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II, which ended shortly after he died in office. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_6

Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York, to the Roosevelt family made well known by the reputation of Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States, as well as by the reputation of prominent businessman William Henry Aspinwall. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_7

FDR graduated from Groton School and Harvard College, and attended Columbia Law School but left after passing the bar exam to practice law in New York City. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_8

In 1905, he married his fifth cousin once removed, Eleanor Roosevelt. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_9

They had six children, of whom five survived into adulthood. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_10

He won election to the New York State Senate in 1910, and then served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_11

Roosevelt was James M. Cox's running mate on the Democratic Party's 1920 national ticket, but Cox was defeated by Republican Warren G. Harding. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_12

In 1921, Roosevelt contracted a paralytic illness, believed at the time to be polio, and his legs became permanently paralyzed. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_13

While attempting to recover from his condition, Roosevelt founded a rehabilitation center in Warm Springs, Georgia, for people with poliomyelitis. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_14

In spite of being unable to walk unaided, Roosevelt returned to public office by winning election as Governor of New York in 1928. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_15

He served as governor from 1929 to 1933, promoting programs to combat the economic crisis besetting the United States. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_16

In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican President Herbert Hoover in a landslide. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_17

Roosevelt took office in the midst of the Great Depression, the worst economic crisis in U.S. history. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_18

During the first 100 days of the 73rd United States Congress, Roosevelt spearheaded unprecedented federal legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal — a variety of programs designed to produce relief, recovery, and reform. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_19

He created numerous programs to provide relief to the unemployed and farmers while seeking economic recovery with the National Recovery Administration and other programs. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_20

He also instituted major regulatory reforms related to finance, communications, and labor, and presided over the end of Prohibition. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_21

He used radio to speak directly to the American people, giving 30 "fireside chat" radio addresses during his presidency and becoming the first American president to be televised. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_22

With the economy having improved rapidly from 1933 to 1936, Roosevelt won a landslide reelection in 1936. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_23

After the 1936 election, Roosevelt sought passage of the Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937 (the "court packing plan"), which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court of the United States. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_24

The bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented passage of the bill and blocked the implementation of further New Deal programs and reforms. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_25

The economy then relapsed into a deep recession in 1937 and 1938. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_26

Major surviving programs and legislation implemented under Roosevelt include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Labor Relations Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Social Security, and the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_27

The United States reelected FDR in 1940 for his third term, making him the only U.S. president to serve for more than two terms. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_28

With World War II looming after 1938, the U.S. remained officially neutral, but Roosevelt gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China, the United Kingdom and eventually the Soviet Union. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_29

Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, an event he called "a date which will live in infamy", Roosevelt obtained a congressional declaration of war on Japan, and, a few days later, on Germany and Italy. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_30

Assisted by his top aide Harry Hopkins and with very strong national support, he worked closely with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in leading the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_31

Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U.S. economy to support the war effort, and implemented a Europe first strategy, making the defeat of Germany a priority over that of Japan. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_32

He also initiated the development of the world's first atomic bomb, and worked with other Allied leaders to lay the groundwork for the United Nations and other post-war institutions. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_33

Roosevelt won reelection in 1944, but with his physical health declining during the war years, he died in April 1945, less than three months into his fourth term. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_34

The Axis Powers surrendered to the Allies in the months following Roosevelt's death, during the presidency of his successor, Harry S. Truman. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_35

Roosevelt is usually rated by scholars among the nation's greatest presidents, with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, but has also been subject to substantial criticism. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_36

Early life and marriage Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_0

Childhood Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_1

Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, in the Hudson Valley town of Hyde Park, New York, to businessman James Roosevelt I and his second wife, Sara Ann Delano. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_37

Roosevelt's parents, who were sixth cousins, both came from wealthy old New York families, the Roosevelts, the Aspinwalls and the Delanos, respectively. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_38

Roosevelt's patrilineal ancestor migrated to New Amsterdam in the 17th century, and the Roosevelts flourished as merchants and landowners. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_39

The Delano family progenitor, Philip Delano, traveled to the New World on the Fortune in 1621, and the Delanos prospered as merchants and shipbuilders in Massachusetts. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_40

Franklin had a half-brother, James "Rosy" Roosevelt, from his father's previous marriage. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_41

Roosevelt grew up in a wealthy family. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_42

His father James graduated from Harvard Law School in 1851, but chose not to practice law after receiving an inheritance from his grandfather, James Roosevelt. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_43

Roosevelt's father was a prominent Bourbon Democrat who once took Franklin to meet President Grover Cleveland in the White House. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_44

His mother Sara was the dominant influence in Franklin's early years. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_45

She once declared, "My son Franklin is a Delano, not a Roosevelt at all." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_46

James, who was 54 when Franklin was born, was considered by some as a remote father, though biographer James MacGregor Burns indicates James interacted with his son more than was typical at the time. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_47

Roosevelt learned to ride, shoot, row, and to play polo and lawn tennis. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_48

He took up golf in his teen years, becoming a skilled long hitter. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_49

He learned to sail early, and when he was 16, his father gave him a sailboat. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_50

Education and early career Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_2

Frequent trips to Europe — he made his first excursion at the age of two and went with his parents every year from the ages of seven to fifteen — helped Roosevelt become conversant in German and French. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_51

Except for attending public school in Germany at age nine, Roosevelt was home-schooled by tutors until age 14. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_52

He then attended Groton School, an Episcopal boarding school in Groton, Massachusetts, joining the third form. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_53

Its headmaster, Endicott Peabody, preached the duty of Christians to help the less fortunate and urged his students to enter public service. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_54

Peabody remained a strong influence throughout Roosevelt's life, officiating at his wedding and visiting him as president. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_55

Like most of his Groton classmates, Roosevelt went to Harvard College. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_56

Roosevelt was an average student academically, and he later declared, "I took economics courses in college for four years, and everything I was taught was wrong." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_57

He was a member of the Alpha Delta Phi fraternity and the Fly Club, and served as a school cheerleader. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_58

Roosevelt was relatively undistinguished as a student or athlete, but he became editor-in-chief of The Harvard Crimson daily newspaper, a position that required great ambition, energy, and the ability to manage others. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_59

Roosevelt's father died in 1900, causing great distress for him. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_60

The following year, Roosevelt's fifth cousin Theodore Roosevelt became President of the United States. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_61

Theodore's vigorous leadership style and reforming zeal made him Franklin's role model and hero. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_62

Roosevelt graduated from Harvard in 1903 with an A.B. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_63

in history. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_64

He entered Columbia Law School in 1904, but dropped out in 1907 after passing the New York bar exam. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_65

In 1908, he took a job with the prestigious law firm of Carter Ledyard & Milburn, working in the firm's admiralty law division. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_66

Marriage, family, and affairs Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_3

In mid-1902, Franklin began courting his future wife Eleanor Roosevelt, with whom he had been acquainted as a child. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_67

Eleanor and Franklin were fifth cousins, once removed, and Eleanor was a niece of Theodore Roosevelt. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_68

They began corresponding with each other in 1902, and in October 1903, Franklin proposed marriage to Eleanor. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_69

On March 17, 1905, Roosevelt married Eleanor, despite the fierce resistance of his mother. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_70

While she did not dislike Eleanor, Sara Roosevelt was very possessive of her son, believing he was too young for marriage. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_71

She attempted to break the engagement several times. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_72

Eleanor's uncle, President Theodore Roosevelt, stood in at the wedding for Eleanor's deceased father, Elliott. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_73

The young couple moved into Springwood, his family's estate at Hyde Park. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_74

The home was owned by Sara Roosevelt until her death in 1941 and was very much her home as well. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_75

In addition, Franklin and Sara Roosevelt did the planning and furnishing of a townhouse Sara had built for the young couple in New York City; Sara had a twin house built alongside for herself. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_76

Eleanor never felt at home in the houses at Hyde Park or New York, but she loved the family's vacation home on Campobello Island, which Sara gave to the couple. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_77

Biographer James MacGregor Burns said that young Roosevelt was self-assured and at ease in the upper-class. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_78

In contrast, Eleanor at the time was shy and disliked social life, and at first, stayed at home to raise their several children. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_79

As his father had, Franklin left the raising of the children to his wife, while Eleanor in turn largely relied on hired caregivers to raise the children. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_80

Referring to her early experience as a mother, she later stated that she knew "absolutely nothing about handling or feeding a baby." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_81

Although Eleanor had an aversion to sexual intercourse and considered it "an ordeal to be endured", she and Franklin had six children. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_82

Anna, James, and Elliott were born in 1906, 1907, and 1910, respectively. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_83

The couple's second son, Franklin, died in infancy in 1909. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_84

Another son, also named Franklin, was born in 1914, and the youngest child, John, was born in 1916. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_85

Roosevelt had several extra-marital affairs, including one with Eleanor's social secretary Lucy Mercer, which began soon after she was hired in early 1914. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_86

In September 1918, Eleanor found letters revealing the affair in Roosevelt's luggage. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_87

Franklin contemplated divorcing Eleanor, but Sara objected strongly and Lucy would not agree to marry a divorced man with five children. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_88

Franklin and Eleanor remained married, and Roosevelt promised never to see Lucy again. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_89

Eleanor never truly forgave him, and their marriage from that point on was more of a political partnership. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_90

Eleanor soon thereafter established a separate home in Hyde Park at Val-Kill, and increasingly devoted herself to various social and political causes independently of her husband. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_91

The emotional break in their marriage was so severe that when Roosevelt asked Eleanor in 1942 — in light of his failing health — to come back home and live with him again, she refused. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_92

He was not always aware of when she visited the White House and for some time she could not easily reach him on the telephone without his secretary's help; Roosevelt, in turn, did not visit Eleanor's New York City apartment until late 1944. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_93

Franklin broke his promise to Eleanor to refrain from having affairs. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_94

He and Lucy maintained a formal correspondence, and began seeing each other again in 1941, or perhaps earlier. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_95

Lucy was with Roosevelt on the day he died in 1945. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_96

Despite this, Roosevelt's affair was not widely known until the 1960s. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_97

Roosevelt's son Elliott claimed that his father had a 20-year affair with his private secretary, Marguerite "Missy" LeHand. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_98

Another son, James, stated that "there is a real possibility that a romantic relationship existed" between his father and Crown Princess Märtha of Norway, who resided in the White House during part of World War II. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_99

Aides began to refer to her at the time as "the president's girlfriend", and gossip linking the two romantically appeared in the newspapers. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_100

Early political career (1910–1920) Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_4

New York state senator (1910–1913) Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_5

Roosevelt held little passion for the practice of law and confided to friends that he planned to eventually enter politics. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_101

Despite his admiration for his cousin Theodore, Franklin inherited his father's affiliation with the Democratic Party. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_102

Prior to the 1910 elections, the local Democratic Party recruited Roosevelt to run for a seat in the New York State Assembly. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_103

Roosevelt was an attractive recruit for the party because Theodore was still one of the country's most prominent politicians, and a Democratic Roosevelt was good publicity; the candidate could also pay for his own campaign. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_104

Roosevelt's campaign for the state assembly ended after the Democratic incumbent, Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler, chose to seek re-election. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_105

Rather than putting his political hopes on hold, Roosevelt ran for a seat in the state senate. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_106

The senate district, located in Dutchess County, Columbia County, and Putnam County, was strongly Republican. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_107

Roosevelt feared that open opposition from Theodore could effectively end his campaign, but Theodore privately encouraged his cousin's candidacy despite their differences in partisan affiliation. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_108

Acting as his own campaign manager, Roosevelt traveled throughout the senate district via automobile at a time when many could not afford cars. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_109

Due to his aggressive and effective campaign, the Roosevelt name's influence in the Hudson Valley, and the Democratic landslide that year, Roosevelt won the election, surprising almost everyone. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_110

Though legislative sessions rarely lasted more than ten weeks, Roosevelt treated his new position as a full-time career. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_111

Taking his seat on January 1, 1911, Roosevelt immediately became the leader of a group of "Insurgents" who opposed the bossism of the Tammany Hall machine that dominated the state Democratic Party. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_112

In the 1911 U.S. Senate election, which was determined in a joint session of the New York state legislature, Roosevelt and nineteen other Democrats caused a prolonged deadlock by opposing a series of Tammany-backed candidates. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_113

Finally, Tammany threw its backing behind James A. O'Gorman, a highly regarded judge who Roosevelt found acceptable, and O'Gorman won the election in late March. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_114

Roosevelt soon became a popular figure among New York Democrats, though he had not yet become an eloquent speaker. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_115

News articles and cartoons began depicting "the second coming of a Roosevelt" that sent "cold shivers down the spine of Tammany". Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_116

Roosevelt, again in opposition to Tammany Hall, supported New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson's successful bid for the 1912 Democratic nomination, earning an informal designation as an original Wilson man. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_117

The election became a three-way contest, as Theodore Roosevelt left the Republican Party to launch a third party campaign against Wilson and sitting Republican President William Howard Taft. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_118

Franklin's decision to back Wilson over Theodore Roosevelt in the general election alienated some members of his family, although Theodore himself was not offended. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_119

Wilson's victory over the divided Republican Party made him the first Democrat to win a presidential election since 1892. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_120

Overcoming a bout with typhoid fever, and with extensive assistance from journalist Louis McHenry Howe, Roosevelt was re-elected in the 1912 elections. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_121

After the election, he served for a short time as chairman of the Agriculture Committee, and his success with farm and labor bills was a precursor to his New Deal policies twenty years later. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_122

By this time he had become more consistently progressive, in support of labor and social welfare programs for women and children; cousin Theodore was of some influence on these issues. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_123

Assistant Secretary of the Navy (1913–1919) Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_6

Roosevelt's support of Wilson led to his appointment in March 1913 as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, the second-ranking official in the Navy Department after Secretary Josephus Daniels. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_124

Roosevelt had a lifelong affection for the Navy — he had already collected almost 10,000 naval books and claimed to have read all but one — and was more ardent than Daniels in supporting a large and efficient naval force. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_125

With Wilson's support, Daniels and Roosevelt instituted a merit-based promotion system and made other reforms to extend civilian control over the autonomous departments of the Navy. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_126

Roosevelt oversaw the Navy's civilian employees and earned the respect of union leaders for his fairness in resolving disputes. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_127

Not a single strike occurred during his seven-plus years in the office, during which Roosevelt gained experience in labor issues, government management during wartime, naval issues, and logistics, all valuable areas for future office. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_128

In 1914, Roosevelt made an ill-conceived decision to run for the seat of retiring Republican Senator Elihu Root of New York. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_129

Though Roosevelt won the backing of Treasury Secretary William Gibbs McAdoo and Governor Martin H. Glynn, he faced a formidable opponent in the Tammany-backed James W. Gerard. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_130

He also lacked Wilson's backing, as Wilson needed Tammany's forces to help marshal his legislation and secure his 1916 re-election. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_131

Roosevelt was soundly defeated in the Democratic primary by Gerard, who in turn lost the general election to Republican James Wolcott Wadsworth Jr. Roosevelt learned a valuable lesson, that federal patronage alone, without White House support, could not defeat a strong local organization. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_132

After the election, Roosevelt and the boss of the Tammany Hall machine, Charles Francis Murphy, sought an accommodation with one another and became political allies. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_133

Following his defeat in the Senate primary, Roosevelt refocused on the Navy Department. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_134

World War I broke out in July 1914, with the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire seeking to defeat the Allied Powers of Britain, France, and Russia. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_135

Though he remained publicly supportive of Wilson, Roosevelt sympathized with the Preparedness Movement, whose leaders strongly favored the Allied Powers and called for a military build-up. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_136

The Wilson administration initiated an expansion of the Navy after the sinking of the RMS Lusitania by a German submarine, and Roosevelt helped establish the United States Navy Reserve and the Council of National Defense. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_137

In April 1917, after Germany declared it would engage in unrestricted submarine warfare and attacked several U.S. ships, Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_138

Congress approved the declaration of war on Germany on April 6. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_139

Roosevelt requested that he be allowed to serve as a naval officer, but Wilson insisted that he continue to serve as Assistant Secretary of the Navy. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_140

For the next year, Roosevelt remained in Washington to coordinate the mobilization, supply, and deployment of naval vessels and personnel. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_141

In the first six months after the U.S. entered the war, the Navy expanded fourfold. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_142

In the summer of 1918, Roosevelt traveled to Europe to inspect naval installations and meet with French and British officials. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_143

In September, he returned to the United States on board the USS Leviathan, a large troop carrier. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_144

On the 11-day voyage, the pandemic influenza virus struck and killed many on board. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_145

Roosevelt became very ill with influenza and a complicating pneumonia, but he recovered by the time the ship landed in New York. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_146

After Germany signed an armistice in November 1918, surrendering and ending the fighting, Daniels and Roosevelt supervised the demobilization of the Navy. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_147

Against the advice of older officers such as Admiral William Benson—who claimed he could not "conceive of any use the fleet will ever have for aviation"—Roosevelt personally ordered the preservation of the Navy's Aviation Division. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_148

With the Wilson administration coming to an end, Roosevelt began planning for his next run for office. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_149

Roosevelt and his associates approached Herbert Hoover about running for the 1920 Democratic presidential nomination, with Roosevelt as his running mate. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_150

Campaign for Vice President (1920) Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_7

Roosevelt's plan to convince Hoover to run for the Democratic nomination fell through after Hoover publicly declared himself to be a Republican, but Roosevelt nonetheless decided to seek the 1920 vice presidential nomination. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_151

After Governor James M. Cox of Ohio won the party's presidential nomination at the 1920 Democratic National Convention, he chose Roosevelt as his running mate, and the party formally nominated Roosevelt by acclamation. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_152

Although his nomination surprised most people, Roosevelt balanced the ticket as a moderate, a Wilsonian, and a prohibitionist with a famous name. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_153

Roosevelt had just turned 38, four years younger than Theodore had been when he received the same nomination from his party. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_154

Roosevelt resigned as Assistant Secretary of the Navy after the Democratic convention and campaigned across the nation for the Cox–Roosevelt ticket. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_155

During the campaign, Cox and Roosevelt defended the Wilson administration and the League of Nations, both of which were unpopular in 1920. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_156

Roosevelt personally supported U.S. membership in the League of Nations, but, unlike Wilson, he favored compromising with Senator Henry Cabot Lodge and other "Reservationists." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_157

The Cox–Roosevelt ticket was defeated by Republicans Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge in the presidential election by a wide margin, and the Republican ticket carried every state outside of the South. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_158

Roosevelt accepted the loss without issue and later reflected that the relationships and good will that he built in the 1920 campaign proved to be a major asset in his 1932 campaign. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_159

The 1920 election also saw the first public participation of Eleanor Roosevelt who, with the support of Louis Howe, established herself as a valuable political ally. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_160

Paralytic illness and political comeback (1921–1928) Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_8

Further information: Paralytic illness of Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_161

After the election, Roosevelt returned to New York City, where he practiced law and served as a vice president of the Fidelity and Deposit Company. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_162

He also sought to build support for a political comeback in the 1922 elections, but his career was derailed by illness. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_163

While the Roosevelts were vacationing at Campobello Island in August 1921, he fell ill. His main symptoms were fever; symmetric, ascending paralysis; facial paralysis; bowel and bladder dysfunction; numbness and hyperesthesia; and a descending pattern of recovery. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_164

Roosevelt was left permanently paralyzed from the waist down. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_165

He was diagnosed with poliomyelitis at the time, but his symptoms are retrospectively believed to be more consistent with Guillain–Barré syndrome – an autoimmune neuropathy which Roosevelt's doctors failed to consider as a diagnostic possibility. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_166

Though his mother favored his retirement from public life, Roosevelt, his wife, and Roosevelt's close friend and adviser, Louis Howe, were all determined that he continue his political career. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_167

He convinced many people that he was improving, which he believed to be essential prior to running for public office again. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_168

He laboriously taught himself to walk short distances while wearing iron braces on his hips and legs by swiveling his torso, supporting himself with a cane. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_169

He was careful never to be seen using his wheelchair in public, and great care was taken to prevent any portrayal in the press that would highlight his disability. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_170

However, his disability was well known before and during his presidency and became a major part of his image. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_171

He usually appeared in public standing upright, supported on one side by an aide or one of his sons. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_172

Beginning in 1925, Roosevelt spent most of his time in the Southern United States, at first on his houseboat, the Larooco. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_173

Intrigued by the potential benefits of hydrotherapy, he established a rehabilitation center at Warm Springs, Georgia, in 1926. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_174

To create the rehabilitation center, he assembled a staff of physical therapists and used most of his inheritance to purchase the Merriweather Inn. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_175

In 1938, he founded the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, leading to the development of polio vaccines. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_176

Roosevelt maintained contacts with the Democratic Party during the 1920s, and he remained active in New York politics while also establishing contacts in the South, particularly in Georgia. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_177

He issued an open letter endorsing Al Smith's successful campaign in New York's 1922 gubernatorial election, which both aided Smith and showed Roosevelt's continuing relevance as a political figure. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_178

Roosevelt and Smith came from different backgrounds and never fully trusted one another, but Roosevelt supported Smith's progressive policies, while Smith was happy to have the backing of the prominent and well-respected Roosevelt. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_179

Roosevelt gave presidential nominating speeches for Smith at the 1924 and 1928 Democratic National Conventions; the speech at the 1924 convention marked a return to public life following his illness and convalescence. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_180

That year, the Democrats were badly divided between an urban wing, led by Smith, and a conservative, rural wing, led by William Gibbs McAdoo, on the 101st ballot, the nomination went to John W. Davis, a compromise candidate who suffered a landslide defeat in the 1924 presidential election. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_181

Like many others throughout the United States, Roosevelt did not abstain from alcohol during the Prohibition era, but publicly he sought to find a compromise on Prohibition acceptable to both wings of the party. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_182

In 1925, Smith appointed Roosevelt to the Taconic State Park Commission, and his fellow commissioners chose him as chairman. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_183

In this role, he came into conflict with Robert Moses, a Smith protégé, who was the primary force behind the Long Island State Park Commission and the New York State Council of Parks. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_184

Roosevelt accused Moses of using the name recognition of prominent individuals including Roosevelt to win political support for state parks, but then diverting funds to the ones Moses favored on Long Island, while Moses worked to block the appointment of Howe to a salaried position as the Taconic commission's secretary. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_185

Roosevelt served on the commission until the end of 1928, and his contentious relationship with Moses continued as their careers progressed. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_186

Governor of New York (1929–1932) Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_9

Main article: Governorship of Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_187

As the Democratic Party presidential nominee in the 1928 election, Smith, in turn, asked Roosevelt to run for governor in the state election. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_188

Roosevelt initially resisted the entreaties of Smith and others within the party, as he was reluctant to leave Warm Springs and feared a Republican landslide in 1928. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_189

He agreed to run when party leaders convinced him that only he could defeat the Republican gubernatorial nominee, New York Attorney General Albert Ottinger. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_190

Roosevelt won the party's gubernatorial nomination by acclamation, and he once again turned to Howe to lead his campaign. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_191

Roosevelt was also joined on the campaign trail by Samuel Rosenman, Frances Perkins, and James Farley, all of whom would become important political associates. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_192

While Smith lost the presidency in a landslide, and was defeated in his home state, Roosevelt was elected governor by a one-percent margin. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_193

Roosevelt's election as governor of the most populous state immediately made him a contender in the next presidential election. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_194

Upon taking office in January 1929, Roosevelt proposed the construction of a series of hydroelectric power plants and sought to address the ongoing farm crisis of the 1920s. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_195

Relations between Roosevelt and Smith suffered after Roosevelt chose not to retain key Smith appointees like Moses. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_196

Roosevelt and his wife Eleanor established a political understanding that would last for the duration of his political career; she would dutifully serve as the governor's wife but would also be free to pursue her own agenda and interests. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_197

He also began holding "fireside chats", in which he directly addressed his constituents via radio, often using these chats to pressure the New York State Legislature to advance his agenda. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_198

In October 1929, the Wall Street Crash occurred, and the country began sliding into the Great Depression. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_199

While President Hoover and many state governors believed that the economic crisis would subside, Roosevelt saw the seriousness of the situation and established a state employment commission. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_200

He also became the first governor to publicly endorse the idea of unemployment insurance. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_201

When Roosevelt began his run for a second term in May 1930, he reiterated his doctrine from the campaign two years before: "that progressive government by its very terms must be a living and growing thing, that the battle for it is never-ending and that if we let up for one single moment or one single year, not merely do we stand still but we fall back in the march of civilization." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_202

He ran on a platform that called for aid to farmers, full employment, unemployment insurance, and old-age pensions. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_203

His Republican opponent could not overcome the public's criticism of the Republican Party during the economic downturn, and Roosevelt was elected to a second term by a 14% margin. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_204

With the Hoover administration resisting proposals to directly address the economic crisis, Roosevelt proposed an economic relief package and the establishment of the Temporary Emergency Relief Administration to distribute those funds. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_205

Led first by Jesse I. Straus and then by Harry Hopkins, the agency assisted well over one-third of New York's population between 1932 and 1938. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_206

Roosevelt also began an investigation into corruption in New York City among the judiciary, the police force, and organized crime, prompting the creation of the Seabury Commission. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_207

Many public officials were removed from office as a result. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_208

1932 presidential election Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_10

Main article: 1932 United States presidential election Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_209

As the 1932 presidential election approached, Roosevelt increasingly turned his attention to national politics. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_210

He established a campaign team led by Howe and Farley and a "brain trust" of policy advisers. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_211

With the economy ailing, many Democrats hoped that the 1932 elections would result in the election of the first Democratic president since Woodrow Wilson. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_212

Roosevelt's re-election as governor had established him as the front-runner for the 1932 Democratic presidential nomination. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_213

Roosevelt rallied the progressive supporters of the Wilson administration while also appealing to many conservatives, establishing himself as the leading candidate in the South and West. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_214

The chief opposition to Roosevelt's candidacy came from Northeastern conservatives such as Al Smith, the 1928 Democratic presidential nominee. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_215

Smith hoped to deny Roosevelt the two-thirds support necessary to win the party's presidential nomination at the 1932 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, and then emerge as the nominee after multiple rounds of balloting. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_216

Roosevelt entered the convention with a delegate lead due to his success in the 1932 Democratic primaries, but most delegates entered the convention unbound to any particular candidate. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_217

On the first presidential ballot of the convention, Roosevelt received the votes of more than half but less than two-thirds of the delegates, with Smith finishing in a distant second place. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_218

Speaker of the House John Nance Garner, who controlled the votes of Texas and California, threw his support behind Roosevelt after the third ballot, and Roosevelt clinched the nomination on the fourth ballot. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_219

With little input from Roosevelt, Garner won the vice-presidential nomination. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_220

Roosevelt flew in from New York after learning that he had won the nomination, becoming the first major-party presidential nominee to accept the nomination in person. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_221

In his acceptance speech, Roosevelt declared, "I pledge you, I pledge myself to a new deal for the American people... Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_222

This is more than a political campaign. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_223

It is a call to arms." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_224

Roosevelt promised securities regulation, tariff reduction, farm relief, government-funded public works, and other government actions to address the Great Depression. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_225

Reflecting changing public opinion, the Democratic platform included a call for the repeal of Prohibition; Roosevelt himself had not taken a public stand on the issue prior to the convention but promised to uphold the party platform. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_226

After the convention, Roosevelt won endorsements from several progressive Republicans, including George W. Norris, Hiram Johnson, and Robert La Follette Jr. He also reconciled with the party's conservative wing, and even Al Smith was persuaded to support the Democratic ticket. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_227

Hoover's handling of the Bonus Army further damaged the incumbent's popularity, as newspapers across the country criticized the use of force to disperse assembled veterans. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_228

Roosevelt won 57% of the popular vote and carried all but six states. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_229

Historians and political scientists consider the 1932–36 elections to be a political realignment. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_230

Roosevelt's victory was enabled by the creation of the New Deal coalition, small farmers, the Southern whites, Catholics, big city political machines, labor unions, northern African Americans (southern ones were still disfranchised), Jews, intellectuals, and political liberals. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_231

The creation of the New Deal coalition transformed American politics and started what political scientists call the "New Deal Party System" or the Fifth Party System. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_232

Between the Civil War and 1929, Democrats had rarely controlled both houses of Congress and had won just four of seventeen presidential elections; from 1932 to 1979, Democrats won eight of twelve presidential elections and generally controlled both houses of Congress. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_233

Presidency (1933–1945) Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_11

Main articles: Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, first and second terms and Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, third and fourth terms Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_234

Franklin D. Roosevelt_table_infobox_1

Presidency of Franklin D. RooseveltFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_1_0_0
PresidentFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_1_1_0 Franklin D. RooseveltFranklin D. Roosevelt_cell_1_1_1
CabinetFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_1_2_0 See listFranklin D. Roosevelt_cell_1_2_1
PartyFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_1_3_0 DemocraticFranklin D. Roosevelt_cell_1_3_1
ElectionFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_1_4_0 1932, 1936, 1940, 1944Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_1_4_1
SeatFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_1_5_0 White HouseFranklin D. Roosevelt_cell_1_5_1

Roosevelt was elected in November 1932 but, like his predecessors, did not take office until the following March. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_235

After the election, President Hoover sought to convince Roosevelt to renounce much of his campaign platform and to endorse the Hoover administration's policies. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_236

Roosevelt refused Hoover's request to develop a joint program to stop the downward economic spiral, claiming that it would tie his hands and that Hoover had all the power to act if necessary. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_237

The economy spiraled downward until the banking system began a complete nationwide shutdown as Hoover's term ended. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_238

Roosevelt used the transition period to select the personnel for his incoming administration, and he chose Howe as his chief of staff, Farley as Postmaster General, and Frances Perkins as Secretary of Labor. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_239

William H. Woodin, a Republican industrialist close to Roosevelt, was the choice for Secretary of the Treasury, while Roosevelt chose Senator Cordell Hull of Tennessee as Secretary of State. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_240

Harold L. Ickes and Henry A. Wallace, two progressive Republicans, were selected for the roles of Secretary of the Interior and Secretary of Agriculture, respectively. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_241

In February 1933, Roosevelt escaped an assassination attempt by Giuseppe Zangara, who expressed a "hate for all rulers." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_242

Attempting to shoot Roosevelt, Zangara instead mortally wounded Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak, who was sitting alongside Roosevelt. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_243

Roosevelt appointed powerful men to top positions but made all the major decisions, regardless of delays, inefficiency or resentment. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_244

Analyzing the president's administrative style, historian James MacGregor Burns concludes: Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_245

First and second terms (1933–1941) Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_12

When Roosevelt was inaugurated on March 4, 1933, the U.S. was at the nadir of the worst depression in its history. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_246

A quarter of the workforce was unemployed. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_247

Farmers were in deep trouble as prices had fallen by 60%. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_248

Industrial production had fallen by more than half since 1929. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_249

Two million people were homeless. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_250

By the evening of March 4, 32 of the 48 states – as well as the District of Columbia – had closed their banks. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_251

Historians categorized Roosevelt's program as "relief, recovery, and reform." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_252

Relief was urgently needed by tens of millions of unemployed. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_253

Recovery meant boosting the economy back to normal. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_254

Reform meant long-term fixes of what was wrong, especially with the financial and banking systems. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_255

Through Roosevelt's series of radio talks, known as fireside chats, he presented his proposals directly to the American public. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_256

Energized by his personal victory over his paralytic illness, Roosevelt relied on his persistent optimism and activism to renew the national spirit. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_257

First New Deal (1933–1934) Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_13

On his second day in office, Roosevelt declared a four-day national "bank holiday" and called for a special session of Congress to start March 9, on which date Congress passed the Emergency Banking Act. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_258

The act, which was based on a plan developed by the Hoover administration and Wall Street bankers, gave the president the power to determine the opening and closing of banks and authorized the Federal Reserve Banks to issue banknotes. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_259

The ensuing "First 100 Days" of the 73rd United States Congress saw an unprecedented amount of legislation and set a benchmark against which future presidents would be compared. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_260

When the banks reopened on Monday, March 15, stock prices rose by 15 percent and bank deposits exceeded withdrawals, thus ending the bank panic. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_261

On March 22, Roosevelt signed the Cullen–Harrison Act, which effectively ended federal Prohibition. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_262

Roosevelt presided over the establishment of several agencies and measures designed to provide relief for the unemployed and others in need. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_263

The Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), under the leadership of Harry Hopkins, was designed to distribute relief to state governments. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_264

The Public Works Administration (PWA), under the leadership of Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes, was created to oversee the construction of large-scale public works such as dams, bridges, and schools. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_265

The most popular of all New Deal agencies – and Roosevelt's favorite – was the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), which hired 250,000 unemployed young men to work on local rural projects. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_266

Roosevelt also expanded a Hoover agency, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, making it a major source of financing for railroads and industry. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_267

Congress gave the Federal Trade Commission broad new regulatory powers and provided mortgage relief to millions of farmers and homeowners. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_268

Roosevelt also made agricultural relief a high priority and set up the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA). Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_269

The AAA tried to force higher prices for commodities by paying farmers to leave land uncultivated and to cut herds. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_270

Reform of the economy was the goal of the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) of 1933. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_271

It sought to end cutthroat competition by forcing industries to establish rules of operation for all firms within specific industries, such as minimum prices, agreements not to compete, and production restrictions. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_272

Industry leaders negotiated the rules which were approved by NIRA officials. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_273

Industry needed to raise wages as a condition for approval. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_274

Provisions encouraged unions and suspended antitrust laws. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_275

NIRA was found to be unconstitutional by unanimous decision of the Supreme Court in May 1935; Roosevelt strongly protested the decision. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_276

Roosevelt reformed the financial regulatory structure of the nation with the Glass–Steagall Act, creating the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) to underwrite savings deposits. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_277

The act also sought to curb speculation by limiting affiliations between commercial banks and securities firms. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_278

In 1934, the Securities and Exchange Commission was created to regulate the trading of securities, while the Federal Communications Commission was established to regulate telecommunications. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_279

Recovery was pursued through federal spending. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_280

The NIRA included $3.3 billion (equivalent to $65.18 billion in 2019) of spending through the Public Works Administration. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_281

Roosevelt worked with Senator Norris to create the largest government-owned industrial enterprise in American history — the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) — which built dams and power stations, controlled floods, and modernized agriculture and home conditions in the poverty-stricken Tennessee Valley. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_282

Executive Order 6102 declared that all privately held gold of American citizens was to be sold to the U.S. Treasury and the price raised from $20 to $35 per ounce. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_283

The goal was to counter the deflation which was paralyzing the economy. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_284

Roosevelt tried to keep his campaign promise by cutting the federal budget — including a reduction in military spending from $752 million in 1932 to $531 million in 1934 and a 40% cut in spending on veterans benefits — by removing 500,000 veterans and widows from the pension rolls and reducing benefits for the remainder, as well as cutting the salaries of federal employees and reducing spending on research and education. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_285

But the veterans were well organized and strongly protested, and most benefits were restored or increased by 1934. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_286

Veterans groups such as the American Legion and the Veterans of Foreign Wars won their campaign to transform their benefits from payments due in 1945 to immediate cash when Congress overrode the President's veto and passed the Bonus Act in January 1936. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_287

It pumped sums equal to 2% of the GDP into the consumer economy and had a major stimulus effect. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_288

Second New Deal (1935–1936) Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_14

Roosevelt expected that his party would lose several races in the 1934 Congressional elections, as the president's party had done in most previous midterm elections, but the Democrats picked up seats in both houses of Congress. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_289

Empowered by the public's apparent vote of confidence in his administration, the first item on Roosevelt's agenda in the 74th Congress was the creation of a social insurance program. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_290

The Social Security Act established Social Security and promised economic security for the elderly, the poor and the sick. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_291

Roosevelt insisted that it should be funded by payroll taxes rather than from the general fund, saying, "We put those payroll contributions there so as to give the contributors a legal, moral, and political right to collect their pensions and unemployment benefits. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_292

With those taxes in there, no damn politician can ever scrap my social security program." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_293

Compared with the social security systems in western European countries, the Social Security Act of 1935 was rather conservative. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_294

But for the first time, the federal government took responsibility for the economic security of the aged, the temporarily unemployed, dependent children, and the handicapped. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_295

Against Roosevelt's original intention for universal coverage, the act only applied to roughly sixty percent of the labor force, as farmers, domestic workers, and other groups were excluded. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_296

Roosevelt consolidated the various relief organizations, though some, like the PWA, continued to exist. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_297

After winning Congressional authorization for further funding of relief efforts, Roosevelt established the Works Progress Administration (WPA). Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_298

Under the leadership of Harry Hopkins, the WPA employed over three million people in its first year of existence. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_299

The WPA undertook numerous construction projects and provided funding to the National Youth Administration and arts organizations. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_300

Senator Robert Wagner wrote the National Labor Relations Act, which guaranteed workers the right to collective bargaining through unions of their own choice. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_301

The act also established the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to facilitate wage agreements and to suppress the repeated labor disturbances. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_302

The Wagner Act did not compel employers to reach an agreement with their employees, but it opened possibilities for American labor. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_303

The result was a tremendous growth of membership in the labor unions, especially in the mass-production sector. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_304

When the Flint sit-down strike threatened the production of General Motors, Roosevelt broke with the precedent set by many former presidents and refused to intervene; the strike ultimately led to the unionization of both General Motors and its rivals in the American automobile industry. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_305

While the First New Deal of 1933 had broad support from most sectors, the Second New Deal challenged the business community. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_306

Conservative Democrats, led by Al Smith, fought back with the American Liberty League, savagely attacking Roosevelt and equating him with Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_307

But Smith overplayed his hand, and his boisterous rhetoric let Roosevelt isolate his opponents and identify them with the wealthy vested interests that opposed the New Deal, strengthening Roosevelt for the 1936 landslide. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_308

By contrast, labor unions, energized by the Wagner Act, signed up millions of new members and became a major backer of Roosevelt's reelections in 1936, 1940 and 1944. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_309

Biographer James M. Burns suggests that Roosevelt's policy decisions were guided more by pragmatism than ideology and that he "was like the general of a guerrilla army whose columns, fighting blindly in the mountains through dense ravines and thickets, suddenly converge, half by plan and half by coincidence, and debouch into the plain below." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_310

Roosevelt argued that such apparently haphazard methodology was necessary. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_311

"The country needs and, unless I mistake its temper, the country demands bold, persistent experimentation," he wrote. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_312

"It is common sense to take a method and try it; if it fails, admit it frankly and try another. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_313

But above all, try something." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_314

Landslide re-election, 1936 Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_15

Main article: 1936 United States presidential election Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_315

Though eight million workers remained unemployed in 1936, economic conditions had improved since 1932 and Roosevelt was widely popular. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_316

An attempt by Louisiana Senator Huey Long and other individuals to organize a left-wing alternative to the Democratic Party collapsed after Long's assassination in 1935. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_317

Roosevelt won re-nomination with little opposition at the 1936 Democratic National Convention, while his allies overcame Southern resistance to permanently abolish the long-established rule that had required Democratic presidential candidates to win the votes of two-thirds of the delegates rather than a simple majority. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_318

The Republicans nominated Kansas Governor Alf Landon, a well-respected but bland candidate whose chances were damaged by the public re-emergence of the still-unpopular Herbert Hoover. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_319

While Roosevelt campaigned on his New Deal programs and continued to attack Hoover, Landon sought to win voters who approved of the goals of the New Deal but disagreed with its implementation. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_320

In the election against Landon and a third-party candidate, Roosevelt won 60.8% of the vote and carried every state except Maine and Vermont. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_321

The Democratic ticket won the highest proportion of the popular vote. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_322

Democrats also expanded their majorities in Congress, winning control of over three-quarters of the seats in each house. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_323

The election also saw the consolidation of the New Deal coalition; while the Democrats lost some of their traditional allies in big business, they were replaced by groups such as organized labor and African Americans, the latter of whom voted Democratic for the first time since the Civil War. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_324

Roosevelt lost high income voters, especially businessmen and professionals, but made major gains among the poor and minorities. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_325

He won 86 percent of the Jewish vote, 81 percent of Catholics, 80 percent of union members, 76 percent of Southerners, 76 percent of blacks in northern cities, and 75 percent of people on relief. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_326

Roosevelt carried 102 of the country's 106 cities with a population of 100,000 or more. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_327

Supreme Court fight and second term legislation Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_16

See also: Franklin D. Roosevelt Supreme Court candidates and Hughes Court Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_328

The Supreme Court became Roosevelt's primary domestic focus during his second term after the court overturned many of his programs, including NIRA. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_329

The more conservative members of the court upheld the principles of the Lochner era, which saw numerous economic regulations struck down on the basis of freedom of contract. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_330

Roosevelt proposed the Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937, which would have allowed him to appoint an additional Justice for each incumbent Justice over the age of 70; in 1937, there were six Supreme Court Justices over the age of 70. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_331

The size of the Court had been set at nine since the passage of the Judiciary Act of 1869, and Congress had altered the number of Justices six other times throughout U.S. history. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_332

Roosevelt's "court packing" plan ran into intense political opposition from his own party, led by Vice President Garner, since it upset the separation of powers. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_333

A bipartisan coalition of liberals and conservatives of both parties opposed the bill, and Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes broke with precedent by publicly advocating defeat of the bill. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_334

Any chance of passing the bill ended with the death of Senate Majority Leader Joseph Taylor Robinson in July 1937. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_335

Starting with the 1937 case of West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish, the court began to take a more favorable view of economic regulations. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_336

That same year, Roosevelt appointed a Supreme Court Justice for the first time, and by 1941, seven of the nine Justices had been appointed by Roosevelt. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_337

After Parish, the Court shifted its focus from judicial review of economic regulations to the protection of civil liberties. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_338

Four of Roosevelt's Supreme Court appointees, Felix Frankfurter, Robert H. Jackson, Hugo Black, and William O. Douglas, would be particularly influential in re-shaping the jurisprudence of the Court. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_339

With Roosevelt's influence on the wane following the failure of the Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937, conservative Democrats joined with Republicans to block the implementation of further New Deal programs. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_340

Roosevelt did manage to pass some legislation, including the Housing Act of 1937, a second Agricultural Adjustment Act, and the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) of 1938, which was the last major piece of New Deal legislation. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_341

The FLSA outlawed child labor, established a federal minimum wage, and required overtime pay for certain employees who work in excess of forty-hours per week. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_342

He also won passage of the Reorganization Act of 1939 and subsequently created the Executive Office of the President, making it "the nerve center of the federal administrative system." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_343

When the economy began to deteriorate again in late 1937, Roosevelt asked Congress for $5 billion (equivalent to $88.92 billion in 2019) in relief and public works funding. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_344

This managed to eventually create as many as 3.3 million WPA jobs by 1938. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_345

Projects accomplished under the WPA ranged from new federal courthouses and post offices to facilities and infrastructure for national parks, bridges and other infrastructure across the country, and architectural surveys and archaeological excavations — investments to construct facilities and preserve important resources. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_346

Beyond this, however, Roosevelt recommended to a special congressional session only a permanent national farm act, administrative reorganization, and regional planning measures, all of which were leftovers from a regular session. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_347

According to Burns, this attempt illustrated Roosevelt's inability to decide on a basic economic program. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_348

Determined to overcome the opposition of conservative Democrats in Congress, Roosevelt became involved in the 1938 Democratic primaries, actively campaigning for challengers who were more supportive of New Deal reform. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_349

Roosevelt failed badly, managing to defeat only one target, a conservative Democrat from New York City. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_350

In the November 1938 elections, Democrats lost six Senate seats and 71 House seats, with losses concentrated among pro-New Deal Democrats. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_351

When Congress reconvened in 1939, Republicans under Senator Robert Taft formed a Conservative coalition with Southern Democrats, virtually ending Roosevelt's ability to enact his domestic proposals. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_352

Despite their opposition to Roosevelt's domestic policies, many of these conservative Congressmen would provide crucial support for Roosevelt's foreign policy before and during World War II. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_353

Conservation and the environment Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_17

Roosevelt had a lifelong interest in the environment and conservation starting with his youthful interest in forestry on his family estate. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_354

Although Roosevelt was never an outdoorsman or sportsman on Theodore Roosevelt's scale, his growth of the national systems were comparable. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_355

Roosevelt was active in expanding, funding, and promoting the National Park and National Forest systems. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_356

Under Roosevelt, their popularity soared, from three million visitors a year at the start of the decade to 15.5 million in 1939. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_357

The Civilian Conservation Corps enrolled 3.4 million young men and built 13,000 miles (21,000 kilometres) of trails, planted two billion trees, and upgraded 125,000 miles (201,000 kilometres) of dirt roads. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_358

Every state had its own state parks, and Roosevelt made sure that WPA and CCC projects were set up to upgrade them as well as the national systems. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_359

GNP and unemployment rates Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_18

See also: Great Depression in the United States § Roosevelt's New Deal Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_360

Franklin D. Roosevelt_table_general_2

Unemployment ratesFranklin D. Roosevelt_table_caption_2
YearFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_2_0_0 LebergottFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_2_0_1 DarbyFranklin D. Roosevelt_header_cell_2_0_2
1929Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_1_0 3.2Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_1_1 3.2Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_1_2
1932Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_2_0 23.6Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_2_1 22.9Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_2_2
1933Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_3_0 24.9Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_3_1 20.6Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_3_2
1934Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_4_0 21.7Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_4_1 16.0Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_4_2
1935Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_5_0 20.1Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_5_1 14.2Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_5_2
1936Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_6_0 16.9Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_6_1 9.9Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_6_2
1937Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_7_0 14.3Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_7_1 9.1Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_7_2
1938Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_8_0 19.0Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_8_1 12.5Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_8_2
1939Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_9_0 17.2Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_9_1 11.3Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_9_2
1940Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_10_0 14.6Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_10_1 9.5Franklin D. Roosevelt_cell_2_10_2

Government spending increased from 8.0% of gross national product (GNP) under Hoover in 1932 to 10.2% of the GNP in 1936. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_361

The national debt as a percentage of the GNP had more than doubled under Hoover from 16% to 40% of the GNP in early 1933. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_362

It held steady at close to 40% as late as fall 1941, then grew rapidly during the war. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_363

The GNP was 34% higher in 1936 than in 1932 and 58% higher in 1940 on the eve of war. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_364

That is, the economy grew 58% from 1932 to 1940 in eight years of peacetime, and then grew 56% from 1940 to 1945 in five years of wartime. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_365

Unemployment fell dramatically during Roosevelt's first term. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_366

It increased in 1938 ("a depression within a depression") but continually declined after 1938. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_367

Total employment during Roosevelt's term expanded by 18.31 million jobs, with an average annual increase in jobs during his administration of 5.3%. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_368

Foreign policy (1933–1941) Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_19

Main article: Foreign policy of the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_369

The main foreign policy initiative of Roosevelt's first term was the Good Neighbor Policy, which was a re-evaluation of U.S. policy toward Latin America. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_370

The United States had frequently intervened in Latin America following the promulgation of the Monroe Doctrine in 1823, and the United States had occupied several Latin American nations in the Banana Wars that had occurred following the Spanish–American War of 1898. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_371

After Roosevelt took office, he withdrew U.S. forces from Haiti and reached new treaties with Cuba and Panama, ending their status as U.S. protectorates. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_372

In December 1933, Roosevelt signed the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, renouncing the right to intervene unilaterally in the affairs of Latin American countries. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_373

Roosevelt also normalized relations with the Soviet Union, which the United States had refused to recognize since the 1920s. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_374

He hoped to renegotiate the Russian debt from World War I and open trade relations, but no progress was made on either issue, and "both nations were soon disillusioned by the accord." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_375

The rejection of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 marked the dominance of isolationism in American foreign policy. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_376

Despite Roosevelt's Wilsonian background, he and Secretary of State Cordell Hull acted with great care not to provoke isolationist sentiment. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_377

The isolationist movement was bolstered in the early to mid-1930s by Senator Gerald Nye and others who succeeded in their effort to stop the "merchants of death" in the U.S. from selling arms abroad. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_378

This effort took the form of the Neutrality Acts; the president asked for, but was refused, a provision to give him the discretion to allow the sale of arms to victims of aggression. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_379

Focused on domestic policy, Roosevelt largely acquiesced to Congress's non-interventionist policies in the early-to-mid 1930s. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_380

In the interim, Fascist Italy under Benito Mussolini proceeded to overcome Ethiopia, and the Italians joined Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler in supporting General Francisco Franco and the Nationalist cause in the Spanish Civil War. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_381

As that conflict drew to a close in early 1939, Roosevelt expressed regret in not aiding the Spanish Republicans. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_382

When Japan invaded China in 1937, isolationism limited Roosevelt's ability to aid China, despite atrocities like the Nanking Massacre and the USS Panay incident. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_383

Germany annexed Austria in 1938, and soon turned its attention to its eastern neighbors. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_384

Roosevelt made it clear that, in the event of German aggression against Czechoslovakia, the U.S. would remain neutral. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_385

After completion of the Munich Agreement and the execution of Kristallnacht, American public opinion turned against Germany, and Roosevelt began preparing for a possible war with Germany. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_386

Relying on an interventionist political coalition of Southern Democrats and business-oriented Republicans, Roosevelt oversaw the expansion U.S. airpower and war production capacity. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_387

When World War II began in September 1939 with Germany's invasion of Poland and Britain and France's subsequent declaration of war upon Germany, Roosevelt sought ways to assist Britain and France militarily. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_388

Isolationist leaders like Charles Lindbergh and Senator William Borah successfully mobilized opposition to Roosevelt's proposed repeal of the Neutrality Act, but Roosevelt won Congressional approval of the sale of arms on a cash-and-carry basis. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_389

He also began a regular secret correspondence with Britain's First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill, in September 1939 — the first of 1,700 letters and telegrams between them. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_390

Roosevelt forged a close personal relationship with Churchill, who became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in May 1940. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_391

The Fall of France in June 1940 shocked the American public, and isolationist sentiment declined. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_392

In July 1940, Roosevelt appointed two interventionist Republican leaders, Henry L. Stimson and Frank Knox, as Secretaries of War and the Navy, respectively. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_393

Both parties gave support to his plans for a rapid build-up of the American military, but the isolationists warned that Roosevelt would get the nation into an unnecessary war with Germany. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_394

In July 1940, a group of Congressmen introduced a bill that would authorize the nation's first peacetime draft, and with the support of the Roosevelt administration the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 passed in September. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_395

The size of the army would increase from 189,000 men at the end of 1939 to 1.4 million men in mid-1941. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_396

In September 1940, Roosevelt openly defied the Neutrality Acts by reaching the Destroyers for Bases Agreement, which, in exchange for military base rights in the British Caribbean Islands, gave 50 WWI American destroyers to Britain. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_397

Election of 1940: Breaking with tradition Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_20

Main article: 1940 United States presidential election Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_398

In the months prior to the July 1940 Democratic National Convention, there was much speculation as to whether Roosevelt would run for an unprecedented third term. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_399

The two-term tradition, although not yet enshrined in the Constitution, had been established by George Washington when he refused to run for a third term in the 1796 presidential election. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_400

Roosevelt refused to give a definitive statement as to his willingness to be a candidate again, and he even indicated to some ambitious Democrats, such as James Farley, that he would not run for a third term and that they could seek the Democratic nomination. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_401

However, as Germany swept through Western Europe and menaced Britain in mid-1940, Roosevelt decided that only he had the necessary experience and skills to see the nation safely through the Nazi threat. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_402

He was aided by the party's political bosses, who feared that no Democrat except Roosevelt could defeat Wendell Willkie, the popular Republican nominee. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_403

At the July 1940 Democratic Convention in Chicago, Roosevelt easily swept aside challenges from Farley and Vice President Garner, who had turned against Roosevelt in his second term because of his liberal economic and social policies. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_404

To replace Garner on the ticket, Roosevelt turned to Secretary of Agriculture Henry Wallace of Iowa, a former Republican who strongly supported the New Deal and was popular in farm states. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_405

The choice was strenuously opposed by many of the party's conservatives, who felt Wallace was too radical and "eccentric" in his private life to be an effective running mate. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_406

But Roosevelt insisted that without Wallace on the ticket he would decline re-nomination, and Wallace won the vice-presidential nomination, defeating Speaker of the House William B. Bankhead and other candidates. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_407

A late August poll taken by Gallup found the race to be essentially tied, but Roosevelt's popularity surged in September following the announcement of the Destroyers for Bases Agreement. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_408

Willkie supported much of the New Deal as well as rearmament and aid to Britain, but warned that Roosevelt would drag the country into another European war. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_409

Responding to Willkie's attacks, Roosevelt promised to keep the country out of the war. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_410

Roosevelt won the 1940 election with 55% of the popular vote, 38 of the 48 states, and almost 85% of the electoral vote. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_411

Third and fourth terms (1941–1945) Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_21

Main article: Foreign policy of the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_412

The world war dominated FDR's attention, with far more time devoted to world affairs than ever before. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_413

Domestic politics and relations with Congress were largely shaped by his efforts to achieve total mobilization of the nation's economic, financial, and institutional resources for the war effort. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_414

Even relationships with Latin America and Canada were structured by wartime demands. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_415

Roosevelt maintained close personal control of all major diplomatic and military decisions, working closely with his generals and admirals, the war and Navy departments, the British, and even with the Soviet Union. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_416

His key advisors on diplomacy were Harry Hopkins (who was based in the White House), Sumner Welles (based in the State Department), and Henry Morgenthau Jr. at Treasury. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_417

In military affairs, FDR worked most closely with Secretary Henry L. Stimson at the War Department, Army Chief of Staff George Marshall, and Admiral William D. Leahy. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_418

Lead-up to the war Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_22

By late 1940, re-armament was in high gear, partly to expand and re-equip the Army and Navy and partly to become the "Arsenal of Democracy" for Britain and other countries. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_419

With his Four Freedoms speech in January 1941, Roosevelt laid out the case for an Allied battle for basic rights throughout the world. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_420

Assisted by Willkie, Roosevelt won Congressional approval of the Lend-Lease program, which directed massive military and economic aid to Britain, and China. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_421

In sharp contrast to the loans of World War I, there would be no repayment after the war. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_422

As Roosevelt took a firmer stance against Japan, Germany, and Italy, American isolationists such as Charles Lindbergh and the America First Committee vehemently attacked Roosevelt as an irresponsible warmonger. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_423

When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, Roosevelt agreed to extend Lend-Lease to the Soviets. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_424

Thus, Roosevelt had committed the U.S. to the Allied side with a policy of "all aid short of war." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_425

By July 1941, Roosevelt authorized the creation of the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (OCIAA) to counter perceived propaganda efforts in Latin America by Germany and Italy. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_426

In August 1941, Roosevelt and Churchill conducted a highly secret bilateral meeting in which they drafted the Atlantic Charter, conceptually outlining global wartime and postwar goals. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_427

This would be the first of several wartime conferences; Churchill and Roosevelt would meet ten more times in person. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_428

Though Churchill pressed for an American declaration of war against Germany, Roosevelt believed that Congress would reject any attempt to bring the United States into the war. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_429

In September, a German submarine fired on the U.S. destroyer Greer, and Roosevelt declared that the U.S. Navy would assume an escort role for Allied convoys in the Atlantic as far east as Great Britain and would fire upon German ships or submarines (U-boats) of the Kriegsmarine if they entered the U.S. Navy zone. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_430

This "shoot on sight" policy effectively declared naval war on Germany and was favored by Americans by a margin of 2-to-1. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_431

Pearl Harbor and declarations of war Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_23

See also: Events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbor Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_432

After the German invasion of Poland, the primary concern of both Roosevelt and his top military staff was on the war in Europe, but Japan also presented foreign policy challenges. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_433

Relations with Japan had continually deteriorated since its invasion of Manchuria in 1931, and they had further worsened with Roosevelt's support of China. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_434

With the war in Europe occupying the attention of the major colonial powers, Japanese leaders eyed vulnerable colonies such as the Dutch East Indies, French Indochina, and British Malaya. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_435

After Roosevelt announced a $100 million loan (equivalent to $1.8 billion in 2019) to China in reaction to Japan's occupation of northern French Indochina, Japan signed the Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_436

The pact bound each country to defend the others against attack, and Germany, Japan, and Italy became known as the Axis powers. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_437

Overcoming those who favored invading the Soviet Union, the Japanese Army high command successfully advocated for the conquest of Southeast Asia to ensure continued access to raw materials. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_438

In July 1941, after Japan occupied the remainder of French Indochina, Roosevelt cut off the sale of oil to Japan, depriving Japan of more than 95 percent of its oil supply. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_439

He also placed the Philippine military under American command and reinstated General Douglas MacArthur into active duty to command U.S. forces in the Philippines. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_440

The Japanese were incensed by the embargo and Japanese leaders became determined to attack the United States unless it lifted the embargo. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_441

The Roosevelt administration was unwilling to reverse policy, and Secretary of State Hull blocked a potential summit between Roosevelt and Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_442

After diplomatic efforts to end the embargo failed, the Privy Council of Japan authorized a strike against the United States. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_443

The Japanese believed that the destruction of the United States Asiatic Fleet (stationed in the Philippines) and the United States Pacific Fleet (stationed at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii) was vital to the conquest of Southeast Asia. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_444

On the morning of December 7, 1941, the Japanese struck the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor with a surprise attack, knocking out the main American battleship fleet and killing 2,403 American servicemen and civilians. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_445

At the same time, separate Japanese task forces attacked Thailand, British Hong Kong, the Philippines, and other targets. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_446

Roosevelt called for war in his "Infamy Speech" to Congress, in which he said: "Yesterday, December 7, 1941 — a date which will live in infamy — the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_447

In a nearly unanimous vote, Congress declared war on Japan. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_448

After the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor, antiwar sentiment in the United States largely evaporated overnight. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_449

On December 11, 1941, Hitler and Mussolini declared war on the United States, which responded in kind. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_450

A majority of scholars have rejected the conspiracy theories that Roosevelt, or any other high government officials, knew in advance about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_451

The Japanese had kept their secrets closely guarded. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_452

Senior American officials were aware that war was imminent, but they did not expect an attack on Pearl Harbor. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_453

Roosevelt had expected that the Japanese would attack either the Dutch East Indies or Thailand. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_454

War plans Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_24

In late December 1941 Churchill and Roosevelt met at the Arcadia Conference, which established a joint strategy between the U.S. and Britain. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_455

Both agreed on a Europe first strategy that prioritized the defeat of Germany before Japan. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_456

The U.S. and Britain established the Combined Chiefs of Staff to coordinate military policy and the Combined Munitions Assignments Board to coordinate the allocation of supplies. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_457

An agreement was also reached to establish a centralized command in the Pacific theater called ABDA, named for the American, British, Dutch, and Australian forces in the theater. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_458

On January 1, 1942, the United States, Britain, China, the Soviet Union, and twenty-two other countries (the Allied Powers) issued the Declaration by United Nations, in which each nation pledged to defeat the Axis powers. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_459

In 1942, Roosevelt formed a new body, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, which made the final decisions on American military strategy. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_460

Admiral Ernest J. King as Chief of Naval Operations commanded the Navy and Marines, while General George C. Marshall led the Army and was in nominal control of the Air Force, which in practice was commanded by General Hap Arnold. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_461

The Joint Chiefs were chaired by Admiral William D. Leahy, the most senior officer in the military. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_462

Roosevelt avoided micromanaging the war and let his top military officers make most decisions. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_463

Roosevelt's civilian appointees handled the draft and procurement of men and equipment, but no civilians – not even the secretaries of War or Navy – had a voice in strategy. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_464

Roosevelt avoided the State Department and conducted high-level diplomacy through his aides, especially Harry Hopkins, whose influence was bolstered by his control of the Lend Lease funds. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_465

Nuclear program Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_25

See also: History of nuclear weapons and Nuclear weapons of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_466

In August 1939, Leo Szilard and Albert Einstein sent the Einstein–Szilárd letter to Roosevelt, warning of the possibility of a German project to develop nuclear weapons. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_467

Szilard realized that the recently discovered process of nuclear fission could be used to create a nuclear chain reaction that could be used as a weapon of mass destruction. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_468

Roosevelt feared the consequences of allowing Germany to have sole possession of the technology and authorized preliminary research into nuclear weapons. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_469

After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Roosevelt administration secured the funds needed to continue research and selected General Leslie Groves to oversee the Manhattan Project, which was charged with developing the first nuclear weapons. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_470

Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to jointly pursue the project, and Roosevelt helped ensure that American scientists cooperated with their British counterparts. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_471

Wartime conferences Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_26

See also: Diplomatic history of World War II Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_472

Roosevelt coined the term "Four Policemen" to refer to the "Big Four" Allied powers of World War II, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and China. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_473

The "Big Three" of Roosevelt, Churchill, and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, together with Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, cooperated informally on a plan in which American and British troops concentrated in the West; Soviet troops fought on the Eastern front; and Chinese, British and American troops fought in Asia and the Pacific. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_474

The United States also continued to send aid via the Lend-Lease program to the Soviet Union and other countries. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_475

The Allies formulated strategy in a series of high-profile conferences as well as by contact through diplomatic and military channels. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_476

Beginning in May 1942, the Soviets urged an Anglo-American invasion of German-occupied France in order to divert troops from the Eastern front. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_477

Concerned that their forces were not yet ready for an invasion of France, Churchill and Roosevelt decided to delay such an invasion until at least 1943 and instead focus on a landing in North Africa, known as Operation Torch. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_478

In November 1943, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met to discuss strategy and post-war plans at the Tehran Conference, where Roosevelt met Stalin for the first time. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_479

At the conference, Britain and the United States committed to opening a second front against Germany in 1944, while Stalin committed to entering the war against Japan at an unspecified date. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_480

Subsequent conferences at Bretton Woods and Dumbarton Oaks established the framework for the post-war international monetary system and the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization similar to Wilson's failed League of Nations. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_481

Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met for a second time at the February 1945 Yalta Conference in Crimea. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_482

With the end of the war in Europe approaching, Roosevelt's primary focus was on convincing Stalin to enter the war against Japan; the Joint Chiefs had estimated that an American invasion of Japan would cause as many as one million American casualties. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_483

In return for the Soviet Union's entrance into the war against Japan, the Soviet Union was promised control of Asian territories such as Sakhalin Island. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_484

The three leaders agreed to hold a conference in 1945 to establish the United Nations, and they also agreed on the structure of the United Nations Security Council, which would be charged with ensuring international peace and security. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_485

Roosevelt did not push for the immediate evacuation of Soviet soldiers from Poland, but he won the issuance of the Declaration on Liberated Europe, which promised free elections in countries that had been occupied by Germany. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_486

Germany itself would not be dismembered, but would be jointly occupied by the United States, France, Britain, and the Soviet Union. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_487

Against Soviet pressure, Roosevelt and Churchill refused to consent to imposing huge reparations and deindustrialization on Germany after the war. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_488

Roosevelt's role in the Yalta Conference has been controversial; critics charge that he naively trusted the Soviet Union to allow free elections in Eastern Europe, while supporters argue that there was little more that Roosevelt could have done for the Eastern European countries given the Soviet occupation and the need for cooperation with the Soviet Union during and after the war. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_489

Course of the war Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_27

See also: Military history of the United States during World War II Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_490

The Allies invaded French North Africa in November 1942, securing the surrender of Vichy French forces within days of landing. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_491

At the January 1943 Casablanca Conference, the Allies agreed to defeat Axis forces in North Africa and then launch an invasion of Sicily, with an attack on France to take place in 1944. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_492

At the conference, Roosevelt also announced that he would only accept the unconditional surrender of Germany, Japan, and Italy. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_493

In February 1943, the Soviet Union won a major victory at the Battle of Stalingrad, and in May 1943, the Allies secured the surrender of over 250,000 German and Italian soldiers in North Africa, ending the North African Campaign. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_494

The Allies launched an invasion of Sicily in July 1943, capturing the island by the end of the following month. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_495

In September 1943, the Allies secured an armistice from Italian Prime Minister Pietro Badoglio, but Germany quickly restored Mussolini to power. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_496

The Allied invasion of mainland Italy commenced in September 1943, but the Italian Campaign continued until 1945 as German and Italian troops resisted the Allied advance. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_497

To command the invasion of France, Roosevelt chose General Dwight D. Eisenhower, who had successfully commanded a multinational coalition in North Africa and Sicily. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_498

Eisenhower chose to launch Operation Overlord on June 6, 1944. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_499

Supported by 12,000 aircraft and the largest naval force ever assembled, the Allies successfully established a beachhead in Normandy and then advanced further into France. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_500

Though reluctant to back an unelected government, Roosevelt recognized Charles de Gaulle's Provisional Government of the French Republic as the de facto government of France in July 1944. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_501

After most of France had been liberated from German occupation, Roosevelt granted formal recognition to de Gaulle's government in October 1944. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_502

Over the following months, the Allies liberated more territory from Nazi occupation and began the invasion of Germany. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_503

By April 1945, Nazi resistance was crumbling in the face of advances by both the Western Allies and the Soviet Union. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_504

In the opening weeks of the war, Japan conquered the Philippines and the British and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_505

The Japanese advance reached its maximum extent by June 1942, when the U.S. Navy scored a decisive victory at the Battle of Midway. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_506

American and Australian forces then began a slow and costly strategy called island hopping or leapfrogging through the Pacific Islands, with the objective of gaining bases from which strategic airpower could be brought to bear on Japan and from which Japan could ultimately be invaded. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_507

In contrast to Hitler, Roosevelt took no direct part in the tactical naval operations, though he approved strategic decisions. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_508

Roosevelt gave way in part to insistent demands from the public and Congress that more effort be devoted against Japan, but he always insisted on Germany first. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_509

The strength of the Japanese navy was decimated in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, and by April 1945 the Allies had re-captured much of their lost territory in the Pacific. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_510

Home front Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_28

Main article: United States home front during World War II Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_511

The home front was subject to dynamic social changes throughout the war, though domestic issues were no longer Roosevelt's most urgent policy concern. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_512

The military buildup spurred economic growth. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_513

Unemployment fell in half from 7.7 million in spring 1940 to 3.4 million in fall 1941 and fell in half again to 1.5 million in fall 1942, out of a labor force of 54 million. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_514

There was a growing labor shortage, accelerating the second wave of the Great Migration of African Americans, farmers and rural populations to manufacturing centers. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_515

African Americans from the South went to California and other West Coast states for new jobs in the defense industry. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_516

To pay for increased government spending, in 1941 Roosevelt proposed that Congress enact an income tax rate of 99.5% on all income over $100,000; when the proposal failed, he issued an executive order imposing an income tax of 100% on income over $25,000, which Congress rescinded. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_517

The Revenue Act of 1942 instituted top tax rates as high as 94% (after accounting for the excess profits tax), greatly increased the tax base, and instituted the first federal withholding tax. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_518

In 1944, Roosevelt requested that Congress enact legislation which would tax all "unreasonable" profits, both corporate and individual, and thereby support his declared need for over $10 billion in revenue for the war and other government measures. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_519

Congress overrode Roosevelt's veto to pass a smaller revenue bill raising $2 billion. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_520

In 1942, with the United States now in the conflict, war production increased dramatically, but fell short of the goals established by the president, due in part to manpower shortages. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_521

The effort was also hindered by numerous strikes, especially among union workers in the coal mining and railroad industries, which lasted well into 1944. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_522

Nonetheless, between 1941 and 1945, the United States produced 2.4 million trucks, 300,000 military aircraft, 88,400 tanks, and 40 billion rounds of ammunition. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_523

The production capacity of the United States dwarfed that of other countries; for example, in 1944, the United States produced more military aircraft than the combined production of Germany, Japan, Britain, and the Soviet Union. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_524

The White House became the ultimate site for labor mediation, conciliation or arbitration. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_525

One particular battle royale occurred between Vice President Wallace, who headed the Board of Economic Warfare, and Jesse H. Jones, in charge of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation; both agencies assumed responsibility for acquisition of rubber supplies and came to loggerheads over funding. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_526

Roosevelt resolved the dispute by dissolving both agencies. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_527

In 1943, Roosevelt established the Office of War Mobilization to oversee the home front; the agency was led by James F. Byrnes, who came to be known as the "assistant president" due to his influence. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_528

Roosevelt's 1944 State of the Union Address advocated that Americans should think of basic economic rights as a Second Bill of Rights. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_529

He stated that all Americans should have the right to "adequate medical care", "a good education", "a decent home", and a "useful and remunerative job". Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_530

In the most ambitious domestic proposal of his third term, Roosevelt proposed the G.I. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_531 Bill, which would create a massive benefits program for returning soldiers. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_532

Benefits included post-secondary education, medical care, unemployment insurance, job counseling, and low-cost loans for homes and businesses. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_533

The G.I. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_534

Bill passed unanimously in both houses of Congress and was signed into law in June 1944. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_535

Of the fifteen million Americans who served in World War II, more than half benefitted from the educational opportunities provided for in the G.I. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_536

Bill. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_537

Declining health Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_29

Roosevelt, a chain-smoker throughout his entire adult life, had been in declining physical health since at least 1940. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_538

In March 1944, shortly after his 62nd birthday, he underwent testing at Bethesda Hospital and was found to have high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease causing angina pectoris, and congestive heart failure. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_539

Hospital physicians and two outside specialists ordered Roosevelt to rest. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_540

His personal physician, Admiral Ross McIntire, created a daily schedule that banned business guests for lunch and incorporated two hours of rest each day. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_541

During the 1944 re-election campaign, McIntire denied several times that Roosevelt's health was poor; on October 12, for example, he announced that "The President's health is perfectly OK. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_542

There are absolutely no organic difficulties at all." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_543

Roosevelt realized that his declining health could eventually make it impossible for him to continue as president, and in 1945 he told a confidant that he might resign from the presidency following the end of the war. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_544

Election of 1944 Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_30

Main articles: 1944 United States presidential election and 1944 Democratic Party vice presidential candidate selection Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_545

While some Democrats had opposed Roosevelt's nomination in 1940, the president faced little difficulty in securing his re-nomination at the 1944 Democratic National Convention. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_546

Roosevelt made it clear before the convention that he was seeking another term, and on the lone presidential ballot of the convention, Roosevelt won the vast majority of delegates, although a minority of Southern Democrats voted for Harry F. Byrd. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_547

Party leaders prevailed upon Roosevelt to drop Vice President Wallace from the ticket, believing him to be an electoral liability and a poor potential successor in case of Roosevelt's death. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_548

Roosevelt preferred Byrnes as Wallace's replacement but was convinced to support Senator Harry S. Truman of Missouri, who had earned renown for his investigation of war production inefficiency and was acceptable to the various factions of the party. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_549

On the second vice presidential ballot of the convention, Truman defeated Wallace to win the nomination. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_550

The Republicans nominated Thomas E. Dewey, the governor of New York, who had a reputation as a liberal in his party. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_551

The opposition accused Roosevelt and his administration of domestic corruption, bureaucratic inefficiency, tolerance of Communism, and military blunders. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_552

Labor unions, which had grown rapidly in the war, fully supported Roosevelt. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_553

Roosevelt and Truman won the 1944 election by a comfortable margin, defeating Dewey and his running mate John W. Bricker with 53.4% of the popular vote and 432 out of the 531 electoral votes. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_554

The president campaigned in favor of a strong United Nations, so his victory symbolized support for the nation's future participation in the international community. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_555

Final months, death and aftermath (1945) Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_31

When Roosevelt returned to the United States from the Yalta Conference, many were shocked to see how old, thin and frail he looked. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_556

He spoke while seated in the well of the House, an unprecedented concession to his physical incapacity. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_557

During March 1945, he sent strongly worded messages to Stalin accusing him of breaking his Yalta commitments over Poland, Germany, prisoners of war and other issues. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_558

When Stalin accused the western Allies of plotting behind his back a separate peace with Hitler, Roosevelt replied: "I cannot avoid a feeling of bitter resentment towards your informers, whoever they are, for such vile misrepresentations of my actions or those of my trusted subordinates." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_559

On March 29, 1945, Roosevelt went to the Little White House at Warm Springs, Georgia, to rest before his anticipated appearance at the founding conference of the United Nations. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_560

In the afternoon of April 12, 1945, in Warm Springs, Georgia, while sitting for a portrait, Roosevelt said "I have a terrific headache." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_561

He then slumped forward in his chair, unconscious, and was carried into his bedroom. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_562

The president's attending cardiologist, Dr. Howard Bruenn, diagnosed the medical emergency as a massive intracerebral hemorrhage. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_563

At 3:35 p.m. that day, Roosevelt died at the age of 63. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_564

On the morning of April 13, Roosevelt's body was placed in a flag-draped coffin and loaded onto the presidential train for the trip back to Washington. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_565

Along the route, thousands flocked to the tracks to pay their respects. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_566

After a White House funeral on April 14, Roosevelt was transported by train from Washington, D.C., to his place of birth at Hyde Park. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_567

As was his wish, Roosevelt was buried on April 15 in the Rose Garden of his Springwood estate. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_568

Roosevelt's declining physical health had been kept secret from the general public. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_569

His death was met with shock and grief across the U.S. and around the world. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_570

After Germany surrendered the following month, newly sworn-in President Truman dedicated Victory in Europe Day and its celebrations to Roosevelt's memory, and kept the flags across the U.S. at half-staff for the remainder of the 30-day mourning period, saying that his only wish was "that Franklin D. Roosevelt had lived to witness this day". Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_571

World War II finally ended with the signed surrender of Japan in September following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the very late Soviet entry into the war against the Japanese. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_572

Truman would preside over the demobilization of the war effort and the establishment of the United Nations and other postwar institutions envisioned during Roosevelt's presidency. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_573

Civil rights, internment, and the Holocaust Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_32

Further information: Franklin D. Roosevelt's record on civil rights Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_574

Roosevelt was viewed as a hero by many African Americans, Catholics, and Jews, and he was highly successful in attracting large majorities of these voters into his New Deal coalition. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_575

He won strong support from Chinese Americans and Filipino Americans, but not Japanese Americans, as he presided over their internment in concentration camps during the war. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_576

African Americans and Native Americans fared well in two New Deal relief programs, the Civilian Conservation Corps and the Indian Reorganization Act, respectively. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_577

Sitkoff reports that the WPA "provided an economic floor for the whole black community in the 1930s, rivaling both agriculture and domestic service as the chief source" of income. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_578

Roosevelt did not join NAACP leaders in pushing for federal anti-lynching legislation, as he believed that such legislation was unlikely to pass and that his support for it would alienate Southern congressmen. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_579

He did, however, appoint a "Black Cabinet" of African American advisers to advise on race relations and African American issues, and he publicly denounced lynching as "murder." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_580

First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt vocally supported efforts designed to aid the African American community, including the Fair Labor Standards Act, which helped boost wages for nonwhite workers in the South. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_581

In 1941, Roosevelt established the Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) to implement Executive Order 8802, which prohibited racial and religious discrimination in employment among defense contractors. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_582

The FEPC was the first national program directed against employment discrimination, and it played a major role in opening up new employment opportunities to non-white workers. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_583

During World War II, the proportion of African American men employed in manufacturing positions rose significantly. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_584

In response to Roosevelt's policies, African Americans increasingly defected from the Republican Party during the 1930s and 1940s, becoming an important Democratic voting bloc in several Northern states. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_585

The attack on Pearl Harbor raised concerns in the public regarding the possibility of sabotage by Japanese Americans. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_586

This suspicion was fed by long-standing racism against Japanese immigrants, as well as the findings of the Roberts Commission, which concluded that the attack on Pearl Harbor had been assisted by Japanese spies. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_587

On February 19, 1942, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which relocated hundreds of thousands of the Japanese-American citizens and immigrants. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_588

They were forced to liquidate their properties and businesses and interned in hastily built camps in interior, harsh locations. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_589

Distracted by other issues, Roosevelt had delegated the decision for internment to Secretary of War Stimson, who in turn relied on the judgment of Assistant Secretary of War John J. McCloy. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_590

The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the executive order in the 1944 case of Korematsu v. United States. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_591

Many German and Italian citizens were also arrested or placed into internment camps. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_592

After Kristallnacht in 1938, Roosevelt helped expedite Jewish immigration from Germany and Austria, and allowed German citizens already in the United States to stay indefinitely. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_593

However, he was prevented from accepting further Jewish immigrants, practically refugees, by the restrictive Immigration Act of 1924, and antisemitism among voters. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_594

Hitler chose to implement the "Final Solution" — the extermination of the European Jewish population — by January 1942, and American officials learned of the scale of the Nazi extermination campaign in the following months. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_595

Against the objections of the State Department, Roosevelt convinced the other Allied leaders to jointly issue the Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations, which condemned the ongoing Holocaust and warned to try its perpetrators as war criminals. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_596

In January 1944, Roosevelt established the War Refugee Board to aid Jews and other victims of Axis atrocities. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_597

Aside from these actions, Roosevelt believed that the best way to help the persecuted populations of Europe was to end the war as quickly as possible. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_598

Top military leaders and War Department leaders rejected any campaign to bomb the extermination camps or the rail lines leading to the camps, fearing it would be a diversion from the war effort. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_599

According to biographer Jean Edward Smith, there is no evidence that anyone ever proposed such a campaign to Roosevelt. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_600

Legacy Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_33

Historical reputation Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_34

Roosevelt is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in the history of the United States, as well as one of the most influential figures of the 20th century. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_601

Historians and political scientists consistently rank Roosevelt, George Washington, and Abraham Lincoln as the three greatest presidents. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_602

Reflecting on Roosevelt's presidency, "which brought the United States through the Great Depression and World War II to a prosperous future", said FDR biographer Jean Edward Smith in 2007, "He lifted himself from a wheelchair to lift the nation from its knees." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_603

The rapid expansion of government programs that occurred during Roosevelt's term redefined the role of the government in the United States, and Roosevelt's advocacy of government social programs was instrumental in redefining liberalism for coming generations. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_604

Roosevelt firmly established the United States' leadership role on the world stage, with his role in shaping and financing World War II. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_605

His isolationist critics faded away, and even the Republicans joined in his overall policies. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_606

He also created a new understanding of the presidency, permanently increasing the power of the president at the expense of Congress. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_607

His Second Bill of Rights became, according to historian Joshua Zeitz, "the basis of the Democratic Party's aspirations for the better part of four decades." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_608

After his death, his widow, Eleanor, continued to be a forceful presence in U.S. and world politics, serving as delegate to the conference which established the United Nations and championing civil rights and liberalism generally. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_609

Some junior New Dealers played leading roles in the presidencies of Truman, John Kennedy, and Lyndon Johnson. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_610

Kennedy came from a Roosevelt-hating family. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_611

Historian William Leuchtenburg says that before 1960, "Kennedy showed a conspicuous lack of inclination to identify himself as a New Deal liberal." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_612

He adds, as president, "Kennedy never wholly embraced the Roosevelt tradition and at times he deliberately severed himself from it." Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_613

By contrast, young Lyndon Johnson had been an enthusiastic New Dealer and a favorite of Roosevelt. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_614

Johnson modelled his presidency on FDR and relied heavily on New Deal lawyer Abe Fortas, as well as James H. Rowe, Anna M. Rosenberg, Thomas Gardiner Corcoran, and Benjamin V. Cohen. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_615

During his presidency, and continuing to a lesser extent afterwards, there has been much criticism of Roosevelt, some of it intense. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_616

Critics have questioned not only his policies, positions, and the consolidation of power that occurred due to his responses to the crises of the Depression and World War II but also his breaking with tradition by running for a third term as president. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_617

Long after his death, new lines of attack criticized Roosevelt's policies regarding helping the Jews of Europe, incarcerating the Japanese on the West Coast, and opposing anti-lynching legislation. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_618

Memorials Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_35

Main article: List of memorials to Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_619

Roosevelt's home in Hyde Park is now a National Historic Site and home to his Presidential library. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_620

Washington D.C., hosts two memorials to the former president. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_621

The largest, the 7 ⁄2-acre (3-hectare) Roosevelt Memorial, is located next to the Jefferson Memorial on the Tidal Basin. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_622

A more modest memorial, a block of marble in front of the National Archives building suggested by Roosevelt himself, was erected in 1965. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_623

Roosevelt's leadership in the March of Dimes is one reason he is commemorated on the American dime. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_624

Roosevelt has also appeared on several U.S. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_625 Postage stamps. Franklin D. Roosevelt_sentence_626

See also Franklin D. Roosevelt_section_36

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: D. Roosevelt.