French people

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For a specific analysis of the population of France, see Demographics of France French people_sentence_0

"Frenchman" and "Frenchmen" redirect here. French people_sentence_1

For the street in New Orleans, see Frenchmen Street. French people_sentence_2

For other uses, see Frenchman (disambiguation). French people_sentence_3

"The French" redirects here. French people_sentence_4

For other uses, see French (disambiguation). French people_sentence_5

French people_table_infobox_0

French people FrançaisFrench people_table_caption_0
Total populationFrench people_header_cell_0_0_0
Regions with significant populationsFrench people_header_cell_0_1_0
FranceFrench people_header_cell_0_2_0 67,119,000

(including overseas departments)French people_cell_0_2_1

United StatesFrench people_header_cell_0_3_0 10,329,000 (includes ancestry)French people_cell_0_3_1
CanadaFrench people_header_cell_0_4_0 7,167,000 (includes ancestry)French people_cell_0_4_1
ArgentinaFrench people_header_cell_0_5_0 6,000,000 (includes ancestry)French people_cell_0_5_1
BrazilFrench people_header_cell_0_6_0 2,000,000 (includes ancestry)French people_cell_0_6_1
ChileFrench people_header_cell_0_7_0 800,000 (includes ancestry)French people_cell_0_7_1
SwitzerlandFrench people_header_cell_0_8_0 159,000French people_cell_0_8_1
GermanyFrench people_header_cell_0_9_0 127,000

(French citizens)French people_cell_0_9_1

United KingdomFrench people_header_cell_0_10_0 126,000French people_cell_0_10_1
MadagascarFrench people_header_cell_0_11_0 124,000French people_cell_0_11_1
BelgiumFrench people_header_cell_0_12_0 123,000French people_cell_0_12_1
SpainFrench people_header_cell_0_13_0 122,000French people_cell_0_13_1
AustraliaFrench people_header_cell_0_14_0 118,000French people_cell_0_14_1
Other countries

 Portugal92,000 Israel41,000 Algeria32,000 Italy31,000 China31,000 Luxembourg31,000 Mexico30,000 Poland27,000 Hong Kong25,000 Netherlands23,000 Senegal20,000 Mauritius15,000 Ireland12,000 Monaco10,000 Sweden9,000 Austria8,000 Denmark8,000 Romania5,000 New Zealand5,000 Malaysia4,000 Hungary2,000French people_cell_0_15_0

Other countriesFrench people_header_cell_0_16_0
PortugalFrench people_header_cell_0_17_0 92,000French people_cell_0_17_1
IsraelFrench people_header_cell_0_18_0 41,000French people_cell_0_18_1
AlgeriaFrench people_header_cell_0_19_0 32,000French people_cell_0_19_1
ItalyFrench people_header_cell_0_20_0 31,000French people_cell_0_20_1
ChinaFrench people_header_cell_0_21_0 31,000French people_cell_0_21_1
LuxembourgFrench people_header_cell_0_22_0 31,000French people_cell_0_22_1
MexicoFrench people_header_cell_0_23_0 30,000French people_cell_0_23_1
PolandFrench people_header_cell_0_24_0 27,000French people_cell_0_24_1
Hong KongFrench people_header_cell_0_25_0 25,000French people_cell_0_25_1
NetherlandsFrench people_header_cell_0_26_0 23,000French people_cell_0_26_1
SenegalFrench people_header_cell_0_27_0 20,000French people_cell_0_27_1
MauritiusFrench people_header_cell_0_28_0 15,000French people_cell_0_28_1
IrelandFrench people_header_cell_0_29_0 12,000French people_cell_0_29_1
MonacoFrench people_header_cell_0_30_0 10,000French people_cell_0_30_1
SwedenFrench people_header_cell_0_31_0 9,000French people_cell_0_31_1
AustriaFrench people_header_cell_0_32_0 8,000French people_cell_0_32_1
DenmarkFrench people_header_cell_0_33_0 8,000French people_cell_0_33_1
RomaniaFrench people_header_cell_0_34_0 5,000French people_cell_0_34_1
New ZealandFrench people_header_cell_0_35_0 5,000French people_cell_0_35_1
MalaysiaFrench people_header_cell_0_36_0 4,000French people_cell_0_36_1
HungaryFrench people_header_cell_0_37_0 2,000French people_cell_0_37_1
LanguagesFrench people_header_cell_0_38_0
ReligionFrench people_header_cell_0_39_0
Related ethnic groupsFrench people_header_cell_0_40_0

French people (French: Français) are a Western European ethnic group and nation that shares a common French culture, ancestry, French language and is identified with the country of France. French people_sentence_6

The French people, especially the native speakers of langues d'oil from northern and central France, are primarily the descendants of Gauls (including the Belgae) and Romans (or Gallo-Romans, western European Celtic and Italic peoples), as well as Germanic peoples such as the Franks, the Visigoths, the Suebi and the Burgundians who settled in Gaul from east of the Rhine after the fall of the Roman Empire. French people_sentence_7

The Norse also settled in Normandy in the 10th century and contributed ancestry to the Normans. French people_sentence_8

Furthermore, regional ethnic minorities also exist within France that have distinct lineages, languages and cultures such as Bretons in Brittany, Occitans in Occitania, Basques in the French Basque Country, Catalans in northern Catalonia, Germans in Alsace and Flemings in French Flanders. French people_sentence_9

France has long been a patchwork of local customs and regional differences, and while most French people still speak the French language as their mother tongue, languages like Norman, Picard, Poitevin-Saintongeais, Franco-Provencal, Occitan, Catalan, Auvergnat, Corsican, Basque, French Flemish, Lorraine Franconian, Alsatian, and Breton remain spoken in their respective regions. French people_sentence_10

Arabic is also widely spoken, arguably the largest minority language in France as of the 21st century (a spot previously held by Breton and Occitan). French people_sentence_11

Modern French society is a melting pot. French people_sentence_12

From the middle of the 19th century, it experienced a high rate of inward migration, mainly consisting of Arab-Berbers, Jews, Sub-Saharan Africans, Chinese, and other peoples from Africa, the Middle East and East Asia, and the government, defining France as an inclusive nation with universal values, advocated assimilation through which immigrants were expected to adhere to French values and cultural norms. French people_sentence_13

Nowadays, while the government has let newcomers retain their distinctive cultures since the mid-1980s and requires from them a mere integration, French citizens still equate their nationality with citizenship as does French law. French people_sentence_14

In addition to mainland France, French people and people of French descent can be found internationally, in overseas departments and territories of France such as the French West Indies (French Caribbean), and in foreign countries with significant French-speaking population groups or not, such as Switzerland (French Swiss), the United States (French Americans), Canada (French Canadians), Argentina (French Argentines), Brazil (French Brazilians), Mexico (French Mexicans), Chile (French Chileans) and Uruguay (French Uruguayans). French people_sentence_15

Citizenship and legal residence French people_section_0

To be French, according to the first article of the French Constitution, is to be a citizen of France, regardless of one's origin, race, or religion (sans distinction d'origine, de race ou de religion). French people_sentence_16

According to its principles, France has devoted itself to the destiny of a proposition nation, a generic territory where people are bounded only by the French language and the assumed willingness to live together, as defined by Ernest Renan's "plébiscite de tous les jours" ('everyday plebiscite') on the willingness to live together, in Renan's 1882 essay "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation? French people_sentence_17 "). French people_sentence_18

The debate concerning the integration of this view with the principles underlying the European Community remains open. French people_sentence_19

France has been historically open to immigration, although this has changed in recent years. French people_sentence_20

Referring to this perceived openness, Gertrude Stein, wrote: "America is my country but Paris is my home". French people_sentence_21

Indeed, the country has long valued its openness, tolerance and the quality of services available. French people_sentence_22

Application for French citizenship is often interpreted as a renunciation of previous state allegiance unless a dual citizenship agreement exists between the two countries (for instance, this is the case with Switzerland: one can be both French and Swiss). French people_sentence_23

The European treaties have formally permitted movement and European citizens enjoy formal rights to employment in the state sector (though not as trainees in reserved branches, e.g., as magistrates). French people_sentence_24

Seeing itself as an inclusive nation with universal values, France has always valued and strongly advocated assimilation. French people_sentence_25

However, the success of such assimilation has recently been called into question. French people_sentence_26

There is increasing dissatisfaction with, and within, growing ethno-cultural enclaves (communautarisme). French people_sentence_27

The 2005 French riots in some troubled and impoverished suburbs (les quartiers sensibles) were an example of such tensions. French people_sentence_28

However they should not be interpreted as ethnic conflicts (as appeared before in other countries like the US and the UK) but as social conflicts born out of socioeconomic problems endangering proper integration. French people_sentence_29

History French people_section_1

Main article: History of France French people_sentence_30

Historically the heritage of the French people is mostly of Celtic or Gallic, Latin (Romans) and Germanic (Franks) origin, descending from the ancient and medieval populations of Gauls or Celts from the Atlantic to the Rhone Alps, Germanic tribes that settled France from east of the Rhine and Belgium after the fall of the Roman Empire such as the Franks, Burgundians, Allemanni, Visigoths and Suebi, Latin and Roman tribes such as Ligurians and Gallo-Romans, Norse populations largely settling in Normandy at the beginning of the 10th century and “Bretons” (Celtic Britons) settling in Brittany in Western France. French people_sentence_31

The name "France" etymologically derives from the word Francia, the territory of the Franks. French people_sentence_32

The Franks were a Germanic tribe that overran Roman Gaul at the end of the Roman Empire. French people_sentence_33

Celtic and Roman Gaul French people_section_2

Main articles: Celts, Gaul, Gauls, and Roman Empire French people_sentence_34

In the pre-Roman era, Gaul (an area of Western Europe that encompassed all of what is known today as France, Belgium, part of Germany and Switzerland, and Northern Italy) was inhabited by a variety of peoples who were known collectively as the Gaulish tribes. French people_sentence_35

Their ancestors were Celts who came from Central Europe in the 7th century BCE or earlier, and non-Celtic peoples including the Ligures, Aquitanians and Basques in Aquitaine. French people_sentence_36

The Belgae, who lived in the northern and eastern areas, may have had Germanic admixture; many of these peoples had already spoken Gaulish by the time of the Roman conquest. French people_sentence_37

Gaul was militarily conquered in 58–51 BCE by the Roman legions under the command of General Julius Caesar, except for the south-east which had already been conquered about one century earlier. French people_sentence_38

Over the next six centuries, the two cultures intermingled, creating a hybridized Gallo-Roman culture. French people_sentence_39

In the late Roman era, in addition to colonists from elsewhere in the Empire and Gaulish natives, Gallia also became home to some immigrant populations of Germanic and Scythian origin, such as the Alans. French people_sentence_40

The Gaulish language is thought to have survived into the 6th century in France, despite considerable Romanization of the local material culture. French people_sentence_41

Coexisting with Latin, Gaulish helped shape the Vulgar Latin dialects that developed into French, with effects including loanwords and calques (including oui, the word for "yes"), sound changes, and influences in conjugation and word order. French people_sentence_42

Today, the last redoubt of Celtic language in France can be found in the northwestern region of Brittany, although this is not the result of a survival of Gaulish language but of a 5th-century AD migration of Brythonic speaking Celts from Britain. French people_sentence_43

The Vulgar Latin in the region of Gallia took on a distinctly local character, some of which is attested in graffiti, which evolved into the Gallo-Romance dialects which include French and its closest relatives. French people_sentence_44

Frankish Kingdom French people_section_3

Main articles: Franks and Frankish Kingdom French people_sentence_45

With the decline of the Roman Empire in Western Europe, a federation of Germanic peoples entered the picture: the Franks, from which the word "French" derives. French people_sentence_46

The Franks were Germanic pagans who began to settle in northern Gaul as laeti during the Roman era. French people_sentence_47

They continued to filter across the Rhine River from present-day Netherlands and Germany between the 3rd and 7th centuries. French people_sentence_48

Initially, they served in the Roman army and obtained important commands. French people_sentence_49

Their language is still spoken as a kind of Dutch (French Flemish) in northern France (French Flanders). French people_sentence_50

The Alamans, another Germanic people immigrated to Alsace, hence the Alemannic German now spoken there. French people_sentence_51

The Alamans were competitors of the Franks, and their name is the origin of the French word for "German": Allemand. French people_sentence_52

By the early 6th century the Franks, led by the Merovingian king Clovis I and his sons, had consolidated their hold on much of modern-day France. French people_sentence_53

The other major Germanic people to arrive in France, after the Burgundians and the Visigoths, were the Norsemen or Northmen. French people_sentence_54

Known by the shortened name "Norman" in France, these were Viking raiders from modern Denmark and Norway. French people_sentence_55

They settled with Anglo-Scandinavians and Anglo-Saxons from the Danelaw in the region known today as Normandy in the 9th and 10th centuries. French people_sentence_56

This later became a fiefdom of the Kingdom of France under King Charles III. French people_sentence_57

The Vikings eventually intermarried with the local people, converting to Christianity in the process. French people_sentence_58

It was the Normans who, two centuries later, would go on to conquer England and Southern Italy. French people_sentence_59

Eventually, though, the largely autonomous Duchy of Normandy was incorporated back into the royal domain (i. e. the territory under direct control of the French king) in the Middle Ages. French people_sentence_60

In the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, founded in 1099, at most 120,000 Franks, who were predominantly French-speaking Western Christians, ruled over 350,000 Muslims, Jews, and native Eastern Christians. French people_sentence_61

Kingdom of France French people_section_4

See also: Medieval demography French people_sentence_62

Unlike elsewhere in Europe, France experienced relatively low levels of emigration to the Americas, with the exception of the Huguenots, due to a lower birthrate than in the rest of Europe. French people_sentence_63

However, significant emigration of mainly Roman Catholic French populations led to the settlement of the Province of Acadia, Canada (New France) and Louisiana, all (at the time) French possessions, as well as colonies in the West Indies, Mascarene islands and Africa. French people_sentence_64

On 30 December 1687 a community of French Huguenots settled in South Africa. French people_sentence_65

Most of these originally settled in the Cape Colony, but have since been quickly absorbed into the Afrikaner population. French people_sentence_66

After Champlain's founding of Quebec City in 1608, it became the capital of New France. French people_sentence_67

Encouraging settlement was difficult, and while some immigration did occur, by 1763 New France only had a population of some 65,000. French people_sentence_68

From 1713 to 1787, 30,000 colonists immigrated from France to the Saint-Domingue. French people_sentence_69

In 1805, when the French were forced out of Saint-Domingue (Haiti), 35,000 French settlers were given lands in Cuba. French people_sentence_70

By the beginning of the 17th century, some 20% of the total male population of Catalonia was made up of French immigrants. French people_sentence_71

In the 18th century and early 19th century, a small migration of French emigrated by official invitation of the Habsburgs to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, now the nations of Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Serbia and Romania. French people_sentence_72

Some of them, coming from French-speaking communes in Lorraine or being French Swiss Walsers from the Valais canton in Switzerland, maintained for some generations the French language and a specific ethnic identity, later labelled as Banat (French: Français du Banat). French people_sentence_73

By 1788 there were 8 villages populated by French colonists. French people_sentence_74

French Republic French people_section_5

The French First Republic appeared following the 1789 French Revolution. French people_sentence_75

It replaced the ancient kingdom of France, ruled by the divine right of kings. French people_sentence_76

Hobsbawm highlighted the role of conscription, invented by Napoleon, and of the 1880s public instruction laws, which allowed mixing of the various groups of France into a nationalist mold which created the French citizen and his consciousness of membership to a common nation, while the various regional languages of France were progressively eradicated. French people_sentence_77

The 1870 Franco-Prussian War, which led to the short-lived Paris Commune of 1871, was instrumental in bolstering patriotic feelings; until World War I (1914–1918), French politicians never completely lost sight of the disputed Alsace-Lorraine region which played a major role in the definition of the French nation and therefore of the French people. French people_sentence_78

The decrees of 24 October 1870 by Adolphe Crémieux granted automatic and massive French citizenship to all Jewish people of Algeria. French people_sentence_79

20th century French people_section_6

Successive waves of immigrants during the 19th and 20th centuries were rapidly assimilated into French culture. French people_sentence_80

France's population dynamics began to change in the middle of the 19th century, as France joined the Industrial Revolution. French people_sentence_81

The pace of industrial growth attracted millions of European immigrants over the next century, with especially large numbers arriving from Poland, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain. French people_sentence_82

In the period from 1915 to 1950, many immigrants came from Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, Scandinavia and Yugoslavia. French people_sentence_83

Small but significant numbers of Frenchmen in the North and Northeast regions have relatives in Germany and Great Britain. French people_sentence_84

Between 1956 and 1967, about 235,000 North African Jews from Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco also immigrated to France due to the decline of the French empire and following the Six-Day War. French people_sentence_85

Hence, by 1968, Jews of North African origin comprised the majority of the Jewish population of France. French people_sentence_86

As these new immigrants were already culturally French they needed little time to adjust to French society. French people_sentence_87

French law made it easy for thousands of settlers (colons in French), national French from former colonies of North and East Africa, India and Indochina to live in mainland France. French people_sentence_88

It is estimated that 20,000 settlers were living in Saigon in 1945, and there were 68,430 European settlers living in Madagascar in 1958. French people_sentence_89

1.6 million European pieds noirs settlers migrated from Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco. French people_sentence_90

In just a few months in 1962, 900,000 pied noir settlers left Algeria in the most massive relocation of population in Europe since the World War II. French people_sentence_91

In the 1970s, over 30,000 French settlers left Cambodia during the Khmer Rouge regime as the Pol Pot government confiscated their farms and land properties. French people_sentence_92

In the 1960s, a second wave of immigration came to France, which was needed for reconstruction purposes and for cheaper labour after the devastation brought on by World War II. French people_sentence_93

French entrepreneurs went to Maghreb countries looking for cheap labour, thus encouraging work-immigration to France. French people_sentence_94

Their settlement was officialized with Jacques Chirac's family regrouping act of 1976 (regroupement familial). French people_sentence_95

Since then, immigration has become more varied, although France stopped being a major immigration country compared to other European countries. French people_sentence_96

The large impact of North African and Arab immigration is the greatest and has brought racial, socio-cultural and religious questions to a country seen as European, French and Christian for thousands of years. French people_sentence_97

Nevertherless, according to Justin Vaïsse, professor at Sciences Po Paris, integration of Muslim immigrants is happening as part of a background evolution and recent studies confirmed the results of their assimilation, showing that "North Africans seem to be characterized by a high degree of cultural integration reflected in a relatively high propensity to exogamy" with rates ranging from 20% to 50%. French people_sentence_98

According to Emmanuel Todd the relatively high exogamy among French Algerians can be explained by the colonial link between France and Algeria. French people_sentence_99

A small French descent group also subsequently arrived from Latin America (Argentina, Chile and Uruguay) in the 1970s. French people_sentence_100

Languages French people_section_7

In France French people_section_8

Main articles: French language and Languages of France French people_sentence_101

Most French people speak the French language as their mother tongue, but certain languages like Norman, Occitan languages, Corsican, Euskara, French Flemish and Breton remain spoken in certain regions (see Language policy in France). French people_sentence_102

There have also been periods of history when a majority of French people had other first languages (local languages such as Occitan, Catalan, Alsatian, West Flemish, Lorraine Franconian, Gallo, Picard or Ch'timi and Arpitan). French people_sentence_103

Today, many immigrants speak another tongue at home. French people_sentence_104

According to historian Eric Hobsbawm, "the French language has been essential to the concept of 'France'," although in 1789, 50 percent of the French people did not speak it at all, and only 12 to 13 percent spoke it fairly well; even in oïl languages zones, it was not usually used except in cities, and even there not always in the outlying districts. French people_sentence_105

Abroad French people_section_9

Genetics French people_section_10

France sits at the edge of the European peninsula and has seen waves of migration of groups that often settled owing to the presence of physical barriers preventing onward migration. French people_sentence_106

This has led to language and regional cultural variegation, but the extent to which this pattern of migrations showed up in population genetics studies was unclear until the publication of a study in 2019 that used genome wide data. French people_sentence_107

The study identified six different genetic clusters that could be distinguished across populations. French people_sentence_108

The study concluded that the population genetic clusters correlate with linguistic and historical divisions in France and with the presence of geographic barriers such as mountains and major rivers. French people_sentence_109

A population bottleneck was also identified in the fourteenth century, consistent with the timing for the Black Death in Europe. French people_sentence_110

Nationality and citizenship French people_section_11

Further information: Nationality and Citizenship French people_sentence_111

French nationality has not meant automatic citizenship. French people_sentence_112

Some categories of French people have been excluded, throughout the years, from full citizenship: French people_sentence_113

French people_unordered_list_0

  • Women: until the Liberation, they were deprived of the right to vote. The provisional government of General de Gaulle accorded them this right by the 21 April 1944 prescription. However, women are still under-represented in the political class. The 6 June 2000 law on parity attempted to address this question by imposing a de facto quota system for women in French politics.French people_item_0_0
  • Military: for a long time, it was called "la grande muette" ("the great mute") in reference to its prohibition from interfering in political life. During a large part of the Third Republic (1871–1940), the Army was in its majority anti-republican (and thus counterrevolutionary). The Dreyfus Affair and the 16 May 1877 crisis, which almost led to a monarchist coup d'état by MacMahon, are examples of this anti-republican spirit. Therefore, they would only gain the right to vote with the 17 August 1945 prescription: the contribution of De Gaulle to the interior French Resistance reconciled the Army with the Republic. Nevertheless, militaries do not benefit from the whole of public liberties, as the 13 July 1972 law on the general statute of militaries specify.French people_item_0_1
  • Young people: the July 1974 law, voted at the instigation of president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, reduced from 21 to 18 the age of majority.French people_item_0_2
  • Naturalized foreigners: since the 9 January 1973 law, foreigners who have acquired French nationality do not have to wait five years after their naturalization to be able to vote anymore.French people_item_0_3
  • Inhabitants of the colonies: the 7 May 1946 law meant that soldiers from the "Empire" (such as the tirailleurs) killed during World War I and World War II were not citizens.French people_item_0_4
  • The special case of foreign citizens of an EU member state who, even if not French, are allowed to vote in French local elections if living in France, and may turn to any French consular or diplomatic mission if there is no such representations of their own country.French people_item_0_5

France was one of the first countries to implement denaturalization laws. French people_sentence_114

Philosopher Giorgio Agamben has pointed out this fact that the 1915 French law which permitted denaturalization with regard to naturalized citizens of "enemy" origins was one of the first example of such legislation, which Nazi Germany later implemented with the 1935 Nuremberg Laws. French people_sentence_115

Furthermore, some authors who have insisted on the "crisis of the nation-state" allege that nationality and citizenship are becoming separate concepts. French people_sentence_116

They show as example "international", "supranational citizenship" or "world citizenship" (membership to international nongovernmental organizations such as Amnesty International or Greenpeace). French people_sentence_117

This would indicate a path toward a "postnational citizenship". French people_sentence_118

Beside this, modern citizenship is linked to civic participation (also called positive freedom), which implies voting, demonstrations, petitions, activism, etc. French people_sentence_119

Therefore, social exclusion may lead to deprivation of citizenship. French people_sentence_120

This has led various authors (Philippe Van Parijs, Jean-Marc Ferry, Alain Caillé, André Gorz) to theorize a guaranteed minimum income which would impede exclusion from citizenship. French people_sentence_121

Multiculturalism versus universalism French people_section_12

In France, the conception of citizenship teeters between universalism and multiculturalism. French people_sentence_122

French citizenship has been defined for a long time by three factors: integration, individual adherence, and the primacy of the soil (jus soli). French people_sentence_123

Political integration (which includes but is not limited to racial integration) is based on voluntary policies which aims at creating a common identity, and the interiorization by each individual of a common cultural and historic legacy. French people_sentence_124

Since in France, the state preceded the nation, voluntary policies have taken an important place in the creation of this common cultural identity. French people_sentence_125

On the other hand, the interiorization of a common legacy is a slow process, which B. Villalba compares to acculturation. French people_sentence_126

According to him, "integration is therefore the result of a double will: the nation's will to create a common culture for all members of the nation, and the communities' will living in the nation to recognize the legitimacy of this common culture". French people_sentence_127

Villalba warns against confusing recent processes of integration (related to the so-called "second generation immigrants", who are subject to discrimination), with older processes which have made modern France. French people_sentence_128

Villalba thus shows that any democratic nation characterize itself by its project of transcending all forms of particular memberships (whether biological – or seen as such, ethnic, historic, economic, social, religious or cultural). French people_sentence_129

The citizen thus emancipates himself from the particularisms of identity which characterize himself to attain a more "universal" dimension. French people_sentence_130

He is a citizen, before being a member of a community or of a social class French people_sentence_131

Therefore, according to Villalba, "a democratic nation is, by definition, multicultural as it gathers various populations, which differs by their regional origins (Auvergnats, Bretons, Corsicans or Lorrains...), their national origins (immigrant, son or grandson of an immigrant), or religious origins (Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Muslims, Agnostics or Atheists...)." French people_sentence_132

Ernest Renan's What is a Nation? (1882) French people_section_13

Ernest Renan described this republican conception in his famous 11 March 1882 conference at the Sorbonne, Qu'est-ce qu'une nation? French people_sentence_133

("What is a Nation?"). French people_sentence_134

According to him, to belong to a nation is a subjective act which always has to be repeated, as it is not assured by objective criteria. French people_sentence_135

A nation-state is not composed of a single homogeneous ethnic group (a community), but of a variety of individuals willing to live together. French people_sentence_136

Renan's non-essentialist definition, which forms the basis of the French Republic, is diametrically opposed to the German ethnic conception of a nation, first formulated by Fichte. French people_sentence_137

The German conception is usually qualified in France as an "exclusive" view of nationality, as it includes only the members of the corresponding ethnic group, while the Republican conception thinks itself as universalist, following the Enlightenment's ideals officialized by the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. French people_sentence_138

While Ernest Renan's arguments were also concerned by the debate about the disputed Alsace-Lorraine region, he said that not only one referendum had to be made in order to ask the opinions of the Alsatian people, but also a "daily referendum" should be made concerning all those citizens wanting to live in the French nation-state. French people_sentence_139

This plébiscite de tous les jours ('everyday plebiscite') might be compared to a social contract or even to the classic definition of consciousness as an act which repeats itself endlessly. French people_sentence_140

Henceforth, contrary to the German definition of a nation based on objective criteria, such as race or ethnic group, which may be defined by the existence of a common language, among other criteria, the people of France is defined as all the people living in the French nation-state and willing to do so, i.e. by its citizenship. French people_sentence_141

This definition of the French nation-state contradicts the common opinion, which holds that the concept of the French people identifies with one particular ethnic group. French people_sentence_142

This contradiction explains the seeming paradox encountered when attempting to identify a "French ethnic group": the French conception of the nation is radically opposed to (and was thought in opposition to) the German conception of the Volk ("ethnic group"). French people_sentence_143

This universalist conception of citizenship and of the nation has influenced the French model of colonization. French people_sentence_144

While the British empire preferred an indirect rule system, which did not mix the colonized people with the colonists, the French Republic theoretically chose an integration system and considered parts of its colonial empire as France itself and its population as French people. French people_sentence_145

The ruthless conquest of Algeria thus led to the integration of the territory as a Département of the French territory. French people_sentence_146

This ideal also led to the ironic sentence which opened up history textbooks in France as in its colonies: "Our ancestors the Gauls...". French people_sentence_147

However, this universal ideal, rooted in the 1789 French Revolution ("bringing liberty to the people"), suffered from the racism that impregnated colonialism. French people_sentence_148

Thus, in Algeria, the Crémieux decrees at the end of the 19th century gave French citizenship to north African Jews, while Muslims were regulated by the 1881 Indigenous Code. French people_sentence_149

Liberal author Tocqueville himself considered that the British model was better adapted than the French one and did not balk before the cruelties of General Bugeaud's conquest. French people_sentence_150

He went as far as advocating racial segregation there. French people_sentence_151

This paradoxical tension between the universalist conception of the French nation and the racism inherent in colonization is most obvious in Ernest Renan himself, who went as far as advocating a kind of eugenics. French people_sentence_152

In a 26 June 1856 letter to Arthur de Gobineau, author of An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853–55) and one of the first theoreticians of "scientific racism", he wrote: French people_sentence_153

Jus soli and jus sanguinis French people_section_14

Main article: French nationality law French people_sentence_154

During the Ancien Régime (before the 1789 French revolution), jus soli (or "right of territory") was predominant. French people_sentence_155

Feudal law recognized personal allegiance to the sovereign, but the subjects of the sovereign were defined by their birthland. French people_sentence_156

According to the 3 September 1791 Constitution, those who are born in France from a foreign father and have fixed their residency in France, or those who, after being born in foreign country from a French father, have come to France and have sworn their civil oath, become French citizens. French people_sentence_157

Because of the war, distrust toward foreigners led to the obligation on the part of this last category to swear a civil oath in order to gain French nationality. French people_sentence_158

However, the Napoleonic Code would insist on jus sanguinis ("right of blood"). French people_sentence_159

Paternity, against Napoléon Bonaparte's wish, became the principal criterion of nationality, and therefore broke for the first time with the ancient tradition of jus soli, by breaking any residency condition toward children born abroad from French parents. French people_sentence_160

However, according to Patrick Weil, it was not "ethnically motivated" but "only meant that family links transmitted by the pater familias had become more important than subjecthood". French people_sentence_161

With the 7 February 1851 law, voted during the Second Republic (1848–1852), "double jus soli" was introduced in French legislation, combining birth origin with paternity. French people_sentence_162

Thus, it gave French nationality to the child of a foreigner, if both are born in France, except if the year following his coming of age he reclaims a foreign nationality (thus prohibiting dual nationality). French people_sentence_163

This 1851 law was in part passed because of conscription concerns. French people_sentence_164

This system more or less remained the same until the 1993 reform of the Nationality Code, created by the 9 January 1973 law. French people_sentence_165

The 1993 reform, which defines the Nationality law, is deemed controversial by some. French people_sentence_166

It commits young people born in France to foreign parents to solicit French nationality between the ages of 16 and 21. French people_sentence_167

This has been criticized, some arguing that the principle of equality before the law was not complied with, since French nationality was no longer given automatically at birth, as in the classic "double jus soli" law, but was to be requested when approaching adulthood. French people_sentence_168

Henceforth, children born in France from French parents were differentiated from children born in France from foreign parents, creating a hiatus between these two categories. French people_sentence_169

The 1993 reform was prepared by the Pasqua laws. French people_sentence_170

The first Pasqua law, in 1986, restricts residence conditions in France and facilitates expulsions. French people_sentence_171

With this 1986 law, a child born in France from foreign parents can only acquire French nationality if he or she demonstrates his or her will to do so, at age 16, by proving that he or she has been schooled in France and has a sufficient command of the French language. French people_sentence_172

This new policy is symbolized by the expulsion of 101 Malians by charter. French people_sentence_173

The second Pasqua law on "immigration control" makes regularisation of illegal aliens more difficult and, in general, residence conditions for foreigners much harder. French people_sentence_174

Charles Pasqua, who said on 11 May 1987: "Some have reproached me of having used a plane, but, if necessary, I will use trains", declared to Le Monde on 2 June 1993: "France has been a country of immigration, it doesn't want to be one anymore. French people_sentence_175

Our aim, taking into account the difficulties of the economic situation, is to tend toward 'zero immigration' ("immigration zéro")". French people_sentence_176

Therefore, modern French nationality law combines four factors: paternality or 'right of blood', birth origin, residency and the will expressed by a foreigner, or a person born in France to foreign parents, to become French. French people_sentence_177

European citizenship French people_section_15

Main article: Citizenship of the European Union French people_sentence_178

The 1992 Maastricht Treaty introduced the concept of European citizenship, which comes in addition to national citizenships. French people_sentence_179

Citizenship of foreigners French people_section_16

By definition, a "foreigner" is someone who does not have French nationality. French people_sentence_180

Therefore, it is not a synonym of "immigrant", as a foreigner may be born in France. French people_sentence_181

On the other hand, a Frenchman born abroad may be considered an immigrant (e.g. former prime minister Dominique de Villepin who lived the majority of his life abroad). French people_sentence_182

In most of the cases, however, a foreigner is an immigrant, and vice versa. French people_sentence_183

They either benefit from legal sojourn in France, which, after a residency of ten years, makes it possible to ask for naturalisation. French people_sentence_184

If they do not, they are considered "illegal aliens". French people_sentence_185

Some argue that this privation of nationality and citizenship does not square with their contribution to the national economic efforts, and thus to economic growth. French people_sentence_186

In any cases, rights of foreigners in France have improved over the last half-century: French people_sentence_187

French people_unordered_list_1

  • 1946: right to elect trade union representative (but not to be elected as a representative)French people_item_1_6
  • 1968: right to become a trade-union delegateFrench people_item_1_7
  • 1972: right to sit in works council and to be a delegate of the workers at the condition of "knowing how to read and write French"French people_item_1_8
  • 1975: additional condition: "to be able to express oneself in French"; they may vote at prud'hommes elections ("industrial tribunal elections") but may not be elected; foreigners may also have administrative or leadership positions in tradeunions but under various conditionsFrench people_item_1_9
  • 1982: those conditions are suppressed, only the function of conseiller prud'hommal is reserved to those who have acquired French nationality. They may be elected in workers' representation functions (Auroux laws). They also may become administrators in public structures such as Social security banks (caisses de sécurité sociale), OPAC (which administers HLMs), Ophlm...French people_item_1_10
  • 1992: for European Union citizens, right to vote at the European elections, first exercised during the 1994 European elections, and at municipal elections (first exercised during the 2001 municipal elections).French people_item_1_11

Statistics French people_section_17

The INSEE does not collect data about language, religion, or ethnicity – on the principle of the secular and unitary nature of the French Republic. French people_sentence_188

Nevertheless, there are some sources dealing with just such distinctions: French people_sentence_189

French people_unordered_list_2

  • The CIA World Factbook defines the ethnic groups of France as being "Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Sub-Saharan African, Indochinese, and Basque minorities. Overseas departments: black, white, mulatto, East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian". Its definition is reproduced on several Web sites collecting or reporting demographic data.French people_item_2_12
  • The U.S. Department of State goes into further detail: "Since prehistoric times, France has been a crossroads of trade, travel, and invasion. Three basic European ethnic stocks – Celtic, Latin, and Teutonic (Frankish) – have blended over the centuries to make up its present population. . . . Traditionally, France has had a high level of immigration. . . . In 2004, there were over 6 million Muslims, largely of North African descent, living in France. France is home to both the largest Muslim and Jewish populations in Europe."French people_item_2_13
  • The Encyclopædia Britannica says that "the French are strongly conscious of belonging to a single nation, but they hardly constitute a unified ethnic group by any scientific gauge", and it mentions as part of the population of France the Basques, the Celts (called Gauls by Romans), and the Germanic (Teutonic) peoples (including the Norsemen or Vikings). France also became "in the 19th and especially in the 20th century, the prime recipient of foreign immigration into Europe. . . ."French people_item_2_14

It is said by some that France adheres to the ideal of a single, homogeneous national culture, supported by the absence of hyphenated identities and by avoidance of the very term "ethnicity" in French discourse. French people_sentence_190

Immigration French people_section_18

Main article: Immigration to France French people_sentence_191

As of 2008, the French national institute of statistics INSEE estimated that 5,3 million foreign-born immigrants and 6,5 million direct descendants of immigrants (born in France with at least one immigrant parent) lived in France representing a total of 11.8 million and 19% of the total population in metropolitan France (62,1 million in 2008). French people_sentence_192

Among them, about 5,5 million are of European origin and 4 million of North African origin. French people_sentence_193

Populations with French ancestry French people_section_19

See also: French diaspora French people_sentence_194

Between 1848 and 1939, 1 million people with French passports emigrated to other countries. French people_sentence_195

The main communities of French ancestry in the New World are found in the United States, Canada and Argentina while sizeable groups are also found in Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Australia. French people_sentence_196

Canada French people_section_20

See also: French Canadian French people_sentence_197

There are nearly seven million French speakers out of nine to ten million people of French and partial French ancestry in Canada. French people_sentence_198

c. 10 million (French-speaking Canadians) The Canadian province of Quebec (2006 census population of 7,546,131), where more than 95 percent of the people speak French as either their first, second or even third language, is the center of French life on the Western side of the Atlantic; however, French settlement began further east, in Acadia. French people_sentence_199

Quebec is home to vibrant French-language arts, media, and learning. French people_sentence_200

There are sizable French-Canadian communities scattered throughout the other provinces of Canada, particularly in Ontario, which has about 1 million people with French ancestry (400 000 who have French as their mother tongue), Manitoba, and New Brunswick, which is the only fully bilingual province and is 33 percent Acadian. French people_sentence_201

United States French people_section_21

See also: French American French people_sentence_202

The United States is home to an estimated 13 to 16 million people of French descent, or 4 to 5 percent of the US population, particularly in Louisiana, New England and parts of the Midwest. French people_sentence_203

The French community in Louisiana consists of the Creoles, the descendants of the French settlers who arrived when Louisiana was a French colony, and the Cajuns, the descendants of Acadian refugees from the Great Upheaval. French people_sentence_204

Very few creoles remain in New Orleans in present times. French people_sentence_205

In New England, the vast majority of French immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries came not from France, but from over the border in Quebec, the Quebec diaspora. French people_sentence_206

These French Canadians arrived to work in the timber mills and textile plants that appeared throughout the region as it industrialized. French people_sentence_207

Today, nearly 25 percent of the population of New Hampshire is of French ancestry, the highest of any state. French people_sentence_208

English and Dutch colonies of pre-Revolutionary America attracted large numbers of French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution in France. French people_sentence_209

In the Dutch colony of New Netherland that later became New York, northern New Jersey, and western Connecticut, these French Huguenots, nearly identical in religion to the Dutch Reformed Church, assimilated almost completely into the Dutch community. French people_sentence_210

However, large it may have been at one time, it has lost all identity of its French origin, often with the translation of names (examples: de la Montagne > Vandenberg by translation; de Vaux > DeVos or Devoe by phonetic respelling). French people_sentence_211

Huguenots appeared in all of the English colonies and likewise assimilated. French people_sentence_212

Even though this mass settlement approached the size of the settlement of the French settlement of Quebec, it has assimilated into the English-speaking mainstream to a much greater extent than other French colonial groups and has left few traces of cultural influence. French people_sentence_213

New Rochelle, New York is named after La Rochelle, France, one of the sources of Huguenot emigration to the Dutch colony; and New Paltz, New York, is one of the few non-urban settlements of Huguenots that did not undergo massive recycling of buildings in the usual redevelopment of such older, larger cities as New York City or New Rochelle. French people_sentence_214

Argentina French people_section_22

See also: French Argentine French people_sentence_215

French Argentines form the third largest ancestry group in Argentina, after Italian and Spanish Argentines. French people_sentence_216

Most of French immigrants came to Argentina between 1871 and 1890, though considerable immigration continued until the late 1940s. French people_sentence_217

At least half of these immigrants came from Southwestern France, especially from the Basque Country, Béarn (Basses-Pyrénées accounted for more than 20% of immigrants), Bigorre and Rouergue but also from Savoy and the Paris region. French people_sentence_218

Today around 6.8 million Argentines have some degree of French ancestry or are of partial or wholly of French descent (up to 17% of the total population). French people_sentence_219

French Argentines had a considerable influence over the country, particularly on its architectural styles and literary traditions, as well as on the scientific field. French people_sentence_220

Some notable Argentines of French descent include writer Julio Cortázar, physiologist and Nobel Prize winner Bernardo Houssay or activist Alicia Moreau de Justo. French people_sentence_221

With something akin to Latin culture, the French immigrants quickly assimilated into mainstream Argentine society. French people_sentence_222

Uruguay French people_section_23

Main article: French Uruguayan French people_sentence_223

French Uruguayans form the third largest ancestry group in Uruguay, after Italian and Spanish Uruguayans. French people_sentence_224

During the first half of the 19th century, Uruguay received mostly French immigrants to South America. French people_sentence_225

It constituted back then the second receptor of French immigrants in the New World after the United States. French people_sentence_226

Thus, while the United States received 195,971 French immigrants between 1820 and 1855, 13,922 Frenchmen, most of them from the Basque Country and Béarn, left for Uruguay between 1833 and 1842. French people_sentence_227

The majority of immigrants were coming from the Basque Country, Béarn and Bigorre. French people_sentence_228

Today, there are an estimated at 300,000 French descendants in Uruguay. French people_sentence_229

United Kingdom French people_section_24

Main article: French British French people_sentence_230

French migration to the United Kingdom is a phenomenon that has occurred at various points in history. French people_sentence_231

Many British people have French ancestry, and French remains the foreign language most learned by British people. French people_sentence_232

Much of the UK's mediaeval aristocracy was descended from Franco-Norman migrants at the time of the Norman Conquest of England, and also during the Angevin Empire of the Plantagenet dynasty. French people_sentence_233

According to a study by, 3 million British people are of French descent. French people_sentence_234

Among those are television presenters Davina McCall and Louis Theroux. French people_sentence_235

There are currently an estimated 400,000 French people in the United Kingdom, most of them in London. French people_sentence_236

Costa Rica French people_section_25

The first French emigration in Costa Rica was a very small number to Cartago in the mid-nineteenth century. French people_sentence_237

Due to World War II, a group of exiled French (mostly soldiers and families orphaned) migrated to the country. French people_sentence_238

Mexico French people_section_26

See also: French immigration to Mexico French people_sentence_239

In Mexico, a sizeable population can trace its ancestry to France. French people_sentence_240

After Spain, this makes France the second largest European ethnicity in the country. French people_sentence_241

The bulk of French immigrants arrived in Mexico during the 19th and early 20th centuries. French people_sentence_242

From 1814 to 1955, inhabitants of Barcelonnette and the surrounding Ubaye Valley emigrated to Mexico by the dozens. French people_sentence_243

Many established textile businesses between Mexico and France. French people_sentence_244

At the turn of the 20th century, there were 5,000 French families from the Barcelonnette region registered with the French Consulate in Mexico. French people_sentence_245

While 90% stayed in Mexico, some returned, and from 1880 to 1930, built grand mansions called Maisons Mexicaines and left a mark upon the city. French people_sentence_246

In the 1860s, during the Second Mexican Empire ruled by Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico—which was part of Napoleon III's scheme to create a Latin empire in the New World (indeed responsible for coining the term of "Amérique latine", "Latin America" in English)-- many French soldiers, merchants, and families set foot upon Mexican soil. French people_sentence_247

Emperor Maximilian's consort, Carlota of Mexico, a Belgian princess, was a granddaughter of Louis-Philippe of France. French people_sentence_248

Many Mexicans of French descent live in cities or states such as Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Monterrey, Puebla, Guadalajara, and the capital, Mexico City, where French surnames such as Chairez/Chaires, Renaux, Pierres, Michel, Betancourt, Alaniz, Blanc, Ney, Jurado (Jure), Colo (Coleau), Dumas, or Moussier can be found. French people_sentence_249

Chile French people_section_27

Main article: French Chilean French people_sentence_250

The French came to Chile in the 18th century, arriving at Concepción as merchants, and in the mid-19th century to cultivate vines in the haciendas of the Central Valley, the homebase of world-famous Chilean wine. French people_sentence_251

The Araucanía Region also has an important number of people of French ancestry, as the area hosted settlers arrived by the second half of the 19th century as farmers and shopkeepers. French people_sentence_252

With something akin to Latin culture, the French immigrants quickly assimilated into mainstream Chilean society. French people_sentence_253

From 1840 to 1940, around 25,000 Frenchmen immigrated to Chile. French people_sentence_254

80% of them were coming from Southwestern France, especially from Basses-Pyrénées (Basque country and Béarn), Gironde, Charente-Inférieure and Charente and regions situated between Gers and Dordogne. French people_sentence_255

Most of French immigrants settled in the country between 1875 and 1895. French people_sentence_256

Between October 1882 and December 1897, 8,413 Frenchmen settled in Chile, making up 23% of immigrants (second only after Spaniards) from this period. French people_sentence_257

In 1863, 1,650 French citizens were registered in Chile. French people_sentence_258

At the end of the century they were almost 30,000. French people_sentence_259

According to the census of 1865, out of 23,220 foreigners established in Chile, 2,483 were French, the third largest European community in the country after Germans and Englishmen. French people_sentence_260

In 1875, the community reached 3,000 members, 12% of the almost 25,000 foreigners established in the country. French people_sentence_261

It was estimated that 10,000 Frenchmen were living in Chile in 1912, 7% of the 149,400 Frenchmen living in Latin America. French people_sentence_262

Today it is estimated that 500,000 Chileans are of French descent. French people_sentence_263

Former president of Chile, Michelle Bachelet is of French origin, as was Augusto Pinochet. French people_sentence_264

A large percentage of politicians, businessmen, professionals and entertainers in the country are of French ancestry. French people_sentence_265

Brazil French people_section_28

Main article: French Brazilian French people_sentence_266

It is estimated that there are 1 million to 2 million or more Brazilians of French descent today. French people_sentence_267

This gives Brazil the second largest French community in South America. French people_sentence_268

From 1819 to 1940, 40,383 Frenchmen immigrated to Brazil. French people_sentence_269

Most of them settled in the country between 1884 and 1925 (8,008 from 1819 to 1883, 25,727 from 1884 to 1925, 6,648 from 1926 to 1940). French people_sentence_270

Another source estimates that around 100,000 French people immigrated to Brazil between 1850 and 1965. French people_sentence_271

The French community in Brazil numbered 592 in 1888 and 5,000 in 1915. French people_sentence_272

It was estimated that 14,000 Frenchmen were living in Brazil in 1912, 9% of the 149,400 Frenchmen living in Latin America, the second largest community after Argentina (100,000). French people_sentence_273

The Brazilian Imperial Family originates from the Portuguese House of Braganza and the last emperor's heir and daughter, Isabella, married Prince Gaston d'Orleans, Comte d'Eu, a member of the House of Orléans, a cadet branch of the Bourbons, the French Royal Family. French people_sentence_274

Guatemala French people_section_29

See also: French Guatemalan French people_sentence_275

The first French immigrants were politicians such as Nicolas Raoul and Isidore Saget, Henri Terralonge and officers Aluard, Courbal, Duplessis, Gibourdel and Goudot. French people_sentence_276

Later, when the Central American Federation was divided in 7 countries, Some of them settled to Costa Rica, others to Nicaragua, although the majority still remained in Guatemala. French people_sentence_277

The relationships start to 1827, politicians, scientists, painters, builders, singers and some families emigrated to Guatemala. French people_sentence_278

Later in a Conservative government, annihilated nearly all the relations between France and Guatemala, and most of French immigrants went to Costa Rica, but these relationships were again return to the late of the nineteenth century. French people_sentence_279

Latin America French people_section_30

Further information: Rubber boom French people_sentence_280

Elsewhere in the Americas, French settlement took place in the 16th to 20th centuries. French people_sentence_281

They can be found in Haiti, Cuba (refugees from the Haitian Revolution) and Uruguay. French people_sentence_282

The Betancourt political families who influenced Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Puerto Rico, Bolivia and Panama have some French ancestry. French people_sentence_283

Huguenots French people_section_31

Large numbers of Huguenots are known to have settled in the United Kingdom (ab 50 000), Ireland (10,000), in Protestant areas of Germany (especially the city of Berlin) (ab 40 000), in the Netherlands (ab 50 000), in South Africa and in North America. French people_sentence_284

Many people in these countries still bear French names. French people_sentence_285

Asia French people_section_32

In Asia, a proportion of people with mixed French and Vietnamese descent can be found in Vietnam. French people_sentence_286

Including the number of persons of pure French descent. French people_sentence_287

Many are descendants of French settlers who intermarried with local Vietnamese people. French people_sentence_288

Approximately 5,000 in Vietnam are of pure French descent, however, this number is disputed. French people_sentence_289

A small proportion of people with mixed French and Khmer descent can be found in Cambodia. French people_sentence_290

These people number approximately 16,000 in Cambodia, among this number, approximately 3,000 are of pure French descent. French people_sentence_291

An unknown number with mixed French and Lao ancestry can be found throughout Laos. French people_sentence_292

A few thousand French citizens of Indian, European or creole ethnic origins live in the former French possessions in India (mostly Pondicherry). French people_sentence_293

In addition to these Countries, small minorities can be found elsewhere in Asia; the majority of these living as expatriates. French people_sentence_294

Scandinavia French people_section_33

Main article: French people in Sweden French people_sentence_295

During the great power era, about 100 French families came to Sweden. French people_sentence_296

They had mainly emigrated to Sweden as a result of religious oppression. French people_sentence_297

These include the Bedoire, De Laval and De Flon families. French people_sentence_298

Several of whom worked as merchants and craftsmen. French people_sentence_299

In Stockholm, the French Lutheran congregation was formed in 1687, later dissolved in 1791, which was not really an actual congregation but rather a series of private gatherings of religious practice. French people_sentence_300

These include the Bedoire, De Laval and De Flon families. French people_sentence_301

Several of whom worked as merchants and craftsmen. French people_sentence_302

In Stockholm, the French Lutheran congregation was formed in 1687, later dissolved in 1791, which was not really an actual congregation but rather a series of private gatherings of religious practice. French people_sentence_303

Elsewhere French people_section_34

Apart from Québécois, Acadians, Cajuns, and Métis, other populations with some French ancestry outside metropolitan France include the Caldoches of New Caledonia, Louisiana Creole people of the United States, the so-called Zoreilles and Petits-blancs of various Indian Ocean islands, as well as populations of the former French colonial empire in Africa and the West Indies. French people_sentence_304

See also French people_section_35

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: people.