ǂ redirects here.
Not to be confused with the alveolar clicks (Unicode uses the obsolete description "alveolar click" for the palatal-click letter ⟨ǂ⟩).
|Voiced palatal click|
|Palatal nasal click|
The tongue is nearly flat, and is pulled back rather than down as in the postalveolar clicks, making a sharper sound than those consonants.
The tongue makes an extremely broad contact across the roof of the mouth, making a determination of their place of articulation difficult, but Ladefoged & Traill (1984:18) find that the primary place of articulation is the palate, and say that "there is no doubt that [ǂ] should be described as a palatal sound".
An older variant, the double-barred esh, ⟨ ʄ ⟩, is sometimes seen.
In the orthographies of individual languages, palatal clicks may be written either with digraphs based on the vertical-bar letter of the IPA, or using the Latin alphabet.
Nama and most Saan languages use the former.
In the 19th century, ⟨v⟩ was sometimes used (see click letters); this might be the source of the Doke letter for the voiceless palatal click, ⟨ↆ⟩, apparently a v over-struck with a vertical bar.
|Trans. I||Trans. II||Trans. III||Description|
|⟨k͜ǂ⟩||⟨ᵏǂ⟩||⟨ǂ⟩||tenuis palatal click|
|⟨k͜ǂʰ⟩||⟨ᵏǂʰ⟩||⟨ǂʰ⟩||aspirated palatal click|
|⟨ɡ͜ǂ⟩||⟨ᶢǂ⟩||⟨ǂ̬⟩||voiced palatal click|
|⟨ŋ͜ǂ⟩||⟨ᵑǂ⟩||⟨ǂ̃⟩||palatal nasal click|
|⟨ŋ͜ǂ̥ʰ⟩||⟨ᵑǂ̥ʰ⟩||⟨ǂ̥̃ʰ⟩||aspirated palatal nasal click|
|⟨ŋ͜ǂˀ⟩||⟨ᵑǂˀ⟩||⟨ǂ̃ˀ⟩||glottalized palatal nasal click|
|⟨q͜ǂ⟩||⟨ǂ⟩||tenuis palatal click|
|⟨q͜ǂʰ⟩||⟨ǂʰ⟩||aspirated palatal click|
|⟨ɢ͜ǂ⟩||⟨ǂ⟩||voiced palatal click|
|⟨ɴ͜ǂ⟩||⟨ᶰǂ⟩||palatal nasal click|
|⟨ɴ͜ǂ̥ʰ⟩||⟨ᶰǂ̥ʰ⟩||aspirated palatal nasal click|
|⟨ɴ͜ǂˀ⟩||⟨ᶰǂˀ⟩||glottalized palatal nasal click|
Features of palato-alveolar clicks:
- The basic articulation may be voiced, nasal, aspirated, glottalized, etc.
- The forward place of articulation is broad, with the tongue flat against the roof of the mouth from the alveolar ridge to the palate. The release is a sharp, plosive sound.
- Clicks may be oral or nasal, which means that the airflow is either restricted to the mouth, or passes through the nose as well.
- They are central consonants, which means they are produced by releasing the airstream at the center of the tongue, rather than at the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is lingual ingressive (also known as velaric ingressive), which means a pocket of air trapped between two closures is rarefied by a "sucking" action of the tongue, rather than being moved by the glottis or the lungs/diaphragm. The release of the forward closure produces the "click" sound. Voiced and nasal clicks have a simultaneous pulmonic egressive airstream.
|Taa||ǂnûm||[ᵑǂûm] = [ǂ̃ûm]||two|
|[ǂʰáó̯kχʼam]||to be disappointed|
|Yeyi||[kuǂʔapara]||to smash up|
Fricated palatal clicks
|Fricated palatal click|
Ekoka !Kung has a series of laminal postalveolar-to-palatal clicks with a noisy, fricated release which derive historically from more prototypical palatal clicks.
These have been variously described as fricated alveolar clicks and (inaccurately) as retroflex clicks.
Unlike typical palatal clicks, which have a sharp, abrupt release, these have a slow, turbulent anterior release that sounds much like a short inhaled ʃ; they also have a domed tongue rather than a flat tongue like a typical palatal click.
The release has also been described as lateral.
A provisional transcription for the tenuis click is ⟨ǃ͡s⟩, though this misleadingly suggests that the clicks are affricates.
Another proposal is to resurrect the old ʃ-like letter for palatal clicks, ⟨⨎⟩.
- Alveolar click
- Bilabial click
- Dental click
- Lateral click
- Retroflex click
- Index of phonetics articles
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palatal click.