Palatal click

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ǂ redirects here. Palatal click_sentence_0

Not to be confused with or . Palatal click_sentence_1

Not to be confused with the alveolar clicks (Unicode uses the obsolete description "alveolar click" for the palatal-click letter ⟨ǂ⟩). Palatal click_sentence_2

Palatal click_table_infobox_0

Voiced palatal clickPalatal click_header_cell_0_0_0
ǂ̬Palatal click_header_cell_0_1_0
ᶢǂPalatal click_header_cell_0_2_0

Palatal click_table_infobox_1

Palatal nasal clickPalatal click_header_cell_1_0_0
ǂ̃Palatal click_header_cell_1_1_0
ᵑǂPalatal click_header_cell_1_2_0

The palatal or palato-alveolar clicks are a family of click consonants found, as components of words, only in Africa. Palatal click_sentence_3

The tongue is nearly flat, and is pulled back rather than down as in the postalveolar clicks, making a sharper sound than those consonants. Palatal click_sentence_4

The tongue makes an extremely broad contact across the roof of the mouth, making a determination of their place of articulation difficult, but Ladefoged & Traill (1984:18) find that the primary place of articulation is the palate, and say that "there is no doubt that [ǂ] should be described as a palatal sound". Palatal click_sentence_5

The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the place of articulation of these sounds is ⟨ǂ⟩, a double-barred vertical bar. Palatal click_sentence_6

An older variant, the double-barred esh, ⟨ ʄ ⟩, is sometimes seen. Palatal click_sentence_7

This may be combined with a second letter or a diacritic to indicate the manner of articulation, though this is commonly omitted for tenuis clicks. Palatal click_sentence_8

In the orthographies of individual languages, palatal clicks may be written either with digraphs based on the vertical-bar letter of the IPA, or using the Latin alphabet. Palatal click_sentence_9

Nama and most Saan languages use the former. Palatal click_sentence_10

Conventions for the latter include multigraphs based on ⟨ç⟩ in Juǀʼhoansi (1987 orthography) and originally in Naro, the latter since changed to ⟨tc⟩, and on ⟨qc⟩. Palatal click_sentence_11

In the 19th century, ⟨v⟩ was sometimes used (see click letters); this might be the source of the Doke letter for the voiceless palatal click, ⟨ↆ⟩, apparently a v over-struck with a vertical bar. Palatal click_sentence_12

Palatal click_table_general_2

Trans. IPalatal click_header_cell_2_0_0 Trans. IIPalatal click_header_cell_2_0_1 Trans. IIIPalatal click_header_cell_2_0_2 DescriptionPalatal click_header_cell_2_0_3
(velar)Palatal click_header_cell_2_1_0
⟨k͜ǂ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_2_0 ⟨ᵏǂ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_2_1 ⟨ǂ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_2_2 tenuis palatal clickPalatal click_cell_2_2_3
⟨k͜ǂʰ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_3_0 ⟨ᵏǂʰ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_3_1 ⟨ǂʰ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_3_2 aspirated palatal clickPalatal click_cell_2_3_3
⟨ɡ͜ǂ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_4_0 ⟨ᶢǂ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_4_1 ⟨ǂ̬⟩Palatal click_cell_2_4_2 voiced palatal clickPalatal click_cell_2_4_3
⟨ŋ͜ǂ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_5_0 ⟨ᵑǂ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_5_1 ⟨ǂ̃⟩Palatal click_cell_2_5_2 palatal nasal clickPalatal click_cell_2_5_3
⟨ŋ͜ǂ̥ʰ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_6_0 ⟨ᵑǂ̥ʰ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_6_1 ⟨ǂ̥̃ʰ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_6_2 aspirated palatal nasal clickPalatal click_cell_2_6_3
⟨ŋ͜ǂˀ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_7_0 ⟨ᵑǂˀ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_7_1 ⟨ǂ̃ˀ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_7_2 glottalized palatal nasal clickPalatal click_cell_2_7_3
(uvular)Palatal click_header_cell_2_8_0
⟨q͜ǂ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_9_0 ⟨ǂ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_9_1 Palatal click_cell_2_9_2 tenuis palatal clickPalatal click_cell_2_9_3
⟨q͜ǂʰ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_10_0 ⟨ǂʰ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_10_1 Palatal click_cell_2_10_2 aspirated palatal clickPalatal click_cell_2_10_3
⟨ɢ͜ǂ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_11_0 ⟨ǂ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_11_1 Palatal click_cell_2_11_2 voiced palatal clickPalatal click_cell_2_11_3
⟨ɴ͜ǂ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_12_0 ⟨ᶰǂ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_12_1 Palatal click_cell_2_12_2 palatal nasal clickPalatal click_cell_2_12_3
⟨ɴ͜ǂ̥ʰ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_13_0 ⟨ᶰǂ̥ʰ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_13_1 Palatal click_cell_2_13_2 aspirated palatal nasal clickPalatal click_cell_2_13_3
⟨ɴ͜ǂˀ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_14_0 ⟨ᶰǂˀ⟩Palatal click_cell_2_14_1 Palatal click_cell_2_14_2 glottalized palatal nasal clickPalatal click_cell_2_14_3

Features Palatal click_section_0

Features of palato-alveolar clicks: Palatal click_sentence_13

Palatal click_unordered_list_0

  • The basic articulation may be voiced, nasal, aspirated, glottalized, etc.Palatal click_item_0_0
  • The forward place of articulation is broad, with the tongue flat against the roof of the mouth from the alveolar ridge to the palate. The release is a sharp, plosive sound.Palatal click_item_0_1
  • Clicks may be oral or nasal, which means that the airflow is either restricted to the mouth, or passes through the nose as well.Palatal click_item_0_2
  • They are central consonants, which means they are produced by releasing the airstream at the center of the tongue, rather than at the sides.Palatal click_item_0_3
  • The airstream mechanism is lingual ingressive (also known as velaric ingressive), which means a pocket of air trapped between two closures is rarefied by a "sucking" action of the tongue, rather than being moved by the glottis or the lungs/diaphragm. The release of the forward closure produces the "click" sound. Voiced and nasal clicks have a simultaneous pulmonic egressive airstream.Palatal click_item_0_4

Occurrence Palatal click_section_1

Palatal clicks only occur in the southern African Khoisan languages (the Khoe, Kx'a, and Tuu families), where they are extremely common, and in Bantu languages such as Yeyi, Zulu and Xhosa. Palatal click_sentence_14

Palatal click_table_general_3

LanguagePalatal click_header_cell_3_0_0 WordPalatal click_header_cell_3_0_1 IPAPalatal click_header_cell_3_0_2 MeaningPalatal click_header_cell_3_0_3
KhoekhoePalatal click_cell_3_1_0 ǂKhoesaobPalatal click_cell_3_1_1 [ǂ͡χòe̯̋sàȍ̯p]Palatal click_cell_3_1_2 JulyPalatal click_cell_3_1_3
TaaPalatal click_cell_3_2_0 ǂnûmPalatal click_cell_3_2_1 [ᵑǂûm] = [ǂ̃ûm]Palatal click_cell_3_2_2 twoPalatal click_cell_3_2_3
ǂHabaPalatal click_cell_3_3_0 ǂHabaPalatal click_cell_3_3_1 [ǂʰabá]Palatal click_cell_3_3_2 (endonym)Palatal click_cell_3_3_3
NaroPalatal click_cell_3_4_0 tcháó-kg'am

(çháó-kg'am)Palatal click_cell_3_4_1

[ǂʰáó̯kχʼam]Palatal click_cell_3_4_2 to be disappointedPalatal click_cell_3_4_3
YeyiPalatal click_cell_3_5_0 Palatal click_cell_3_5_1 [kuǂʔapara]Palatal click_cell_3_5_2 to smash upPalatal click_cell_3_5_3

Fricated palatal clicks Palatal click_section_2

Palatal click_table_infobox_4

Fricated palatal clickPalatal click_header_cell_4_0_0
ʃ =(⨎)Palatal click_header_cell_4_1_0
ǂᶴPalatal click_header_cell_4_2_0
ǂǂPalatal click_header_cell_4_3_0

Ekoka !Kung has a series of laminal postalveolar-to-palatal clicks with a noisy, fricated release which derive historically from more prototypical palatal clicks. Palatal click_sentence_15

These have been variously described as fricated alveolar clicks and (inaccurately) as retroflex clicks. Palatal click_sentence_16

Unlike typical palatal clicks, which have a sharp, abrupt release, these have a slow, turbulent anterior release that sounds much like a short inhaled ʃ; they also have a domed tongue rather than a flat tongue like a typical palatal click. Palatal click_sentence_17

The release has also been described as lateral. Palatal click_sentence_18

Like the clicks they derive from, they do not have the retracted tongue root and back-vowel constraint typical of alveolar clicks. Palatal click_sentence_19

A provisional transcription for the tenuis click is ⟨ǃ͡s⟩, though this misleadingly suggests that the clicks are affricates. Palatal click_sentence_20

Another proposal is to resurrect the old ʃ-like letter for palatal clicks, ⟨⨎⟩. Palatal click_sentence_21

See also Palatal click_section_3

Palatal click_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: click.