Fyodor Dostoevsky

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"Dostoevsky" redirects here. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_0

For the surname, see Dostoevsky (surname). Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_1

In this Eastern Slavic name, the patronymic is Mikhailovich and the family name is Dostoevsky. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_2

Fyodor Dostoevsky_table_infobox_0

Fyodor DostoevskyFyodor Dostoevsky_header_cell_0_0_0
BornFyodor Dostoevsky_header_cell_0_1_0 Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky

(1821-11-11)11 November 1821 Moscow, Moskovsky Uyezd, Moscow Governorate, Russian EmpireFyodor Dostoevsky_cell_0_1_1

DiedFyodor Dostoevsky_header_cell_0_2_0 9 February 1881(1881-02-09) (aged 59)

Saint Petersburg, Russian EmpireFyodor Dostoevsky_cell_0_2_1

OccupationFyodor Dostoevsky_header_cell_0_3_0 Fyodor Dostoevsky_cell_0_3_1
NationalityFyodor Dostoevsky_header_cell_0_4_0 RussianFyodor Dostoevsky_cell_0_4_1
EducationFyodor Dostoevsky_header_cell_0_5_0 Military Engineering-Technical University, St. PetersburgFyodor Dostoevsky_cell_0_5_1
GenreFyodor Dostoevsky_header_cell_0_6_0 Fyodor Dostoevsky_cell_0_6_1
SubjectFyodor Dostoevsky_header_cell_0_7_0 Fyodor Dostoevsky_cell_0_7_1
Literary movementFyodor Dostoevsky_header_cell_0_8_0 RealismFyodor Dostoevsky_cell_0_8_1
Notable worksFyodor Dostoevsky_header_cell_0_9_0 Fyodor Dostoevsky_cell_0_9_1
Years activeFyodor Dostoevsky_header_cell_0_10_0 1846–1880Fyodor Dostoevsky_cell_0_10_1
SpouseFyodor Dostoevsky_header_cell_0_11_0 Maria Dmitriyevna Isaeva

​ ​(m. 1857; died 1864)​

Anna Grigoryevna Snitkina ​ ​(m. 1867⁠–⁠1881)​Fyodor Dostoevsky_cell_0_11_1

ChildrenFyodor Dostoevsky_header_cell_0_12_0 Fyodor Dostoevsky_cell_0_12_1
SignatureFyodor Dostoevsky_header_cell_0_13_0 Fyodor Dostoevsky_cell_0_13_1

Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (/ˌdɒstəˈjɛfski, ˌdʌs-/; Russian: Фёдор Михайлович Достоевский, tr. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_3

Fyódor Mikháylovich Dostoyévskiy, IPA: [ˈfʲɵdər mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪdʑ dəstɐˈjɛfskʲɪj (listen); 11 November 1821 – 9 February 1881), sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, was a Russian novelist, philosopher, short story writer, essayist, and journalist. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_4

Dostoevsky's literary works explore human psychology in the troubled political, social, and spiritual atmospheres of 19th-century Russia, and engage with a variety of philosophical and religious themes. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_5

His most acclaimed works include Crime and Punishment (1866), The Idiot (1869), Demons (1872), and The Brothers Karamazov (1880). Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_6

Dostoevsky's body of works consists of 12 novels, four novellas, 16 short stories, and numerous other works. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_7

Many literary critics rate him as one of the greatest psychological novelists in world literature. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_8

His 1864 novel Notes from Underground is considered to be one of the first works of existentialist literature. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_9

Born in Moscow in 1821, Dostoevsky was introduced to literature at an early age through fairy tales and legends, and through books by Russian and foreign authors. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_10

His mother died in 1837 when he was 15, and around the same time, he left school to enter the Nikolayev Military Engineering Institute. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_11

After graduating, he worked as an engineer and briefly enjoyed a lavish lifestyle, translating books to earn extra money. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_12

In the mid-1840s he wrote his first novel, Poor Folk, which gained him entry into Saint Petersburg's literary circles. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_13

Arrested in 1849 for belonging to a literary group that discussed banned books critical of Tsarist Russia, he was sentenced to death but the sentence was commuted at the last moment. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_14

He spent four years in a Siberian prison camp, followed by six years of compulsory military service in exile. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_15

In the following years, Dostoevsky worked as a journalist, publishing and editing several magazines of his own and later A Writer's Diary, a collection of his writings. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_16

He began to travel around western Europe and developed a gambling addiction, which led to financial hardship. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_17

For a time, he had to beg for money, but he eventually became one of the most widely read and highly regarded Russian writers. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_18

Dostoevsky was influenced by a wide variety of philosophers and authors including Pushkin, Gogol, Augustine, Shakespeare, Dickens, Balzac, Lermontov, Hugo, Poe, Plato, Cervantes, Herzen, Kant, Belinsky, Hegel, Schiller, Solovyov, Bakunin, Sand, Hoffmann, and Mickiewicz. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_19

His writings were widely read both within and beyond his native Russia and influenced an equally great number of later writers including Russians such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Anton Chekhov, philosophers Friedrich Nietzsche and Jean-Paul Sartre and the emergence of Existentialism and Freudianism. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_20

His books have been translated into more than 170 languages. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_21

Ancestry Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_0

Dostoevsky's parents were part of a noble family of Russian Orthodox Christians.The family traced its roots back to a Tatar, Aslan Chelebi-Murza, who in 1389 defected from the Golden Horde and joined the forces of Dmitry Donskoy, the first prince of Muscovy to openly challenge the Mongol authority in the region, and whose descendant, Danilo Irtishch, was ennobled and given lands in the Pinsk region (for centuries part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, now in modern-day Belarus) in 1509 for his services under a local prince, his progeny then taking the name "Dostoevsky" based on a village there called Dostoïevo. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_22

Dostoevsky's immediate ancestors on his mother's side were merchants; the male line on his father's side were priests. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_23

Andriy Dostoevsky, the writer's grandfather, was a priest in 1782-1820, signed in Ukrainian – "Andriy". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_24

After him, his son Lev ruled in Viitovtsi (1820–1829). Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_25

Another son, Mykhailo (the writer's father), studied at the Podolsk seminary, which was then founded in Shargorod. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_26

From there, as one of the best students, he was sent to study at the Medical and Surgical Academy in Moscow (after training he became one of the best doctors at the Mariinsky Hospital for the Poor). Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_27

Before the war of 1812 he signed in Ukrainian – "Mykhailo" and only during the war, when he worked as a military doctor, he began to sign in Russian – "Mikhail". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_28

In 1809, the 20-year-old Mykhailo Dostoevsky enrolled in Moscow's Imperial Medical-Surgical Academy. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_29

From there he was assigned to a Moscow hospital, where he served as military doctor, and in 1818, he was appointed a senior physician. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_30

In 1819 he married Maria Nechayeva. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_31

The following year, he took up a post at the Mariinsky Hospital for the poor. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_32

In 1828, when his two sons, Mikhail and Fyodor, were eight and seven respectively, he was promoted to collegiate assessor, a position which raised his legal status to that of the nobility and enabled him to acquire a small estate in Darovoye, a town about 150 km (100 miles) from Moscow, where the family usually spent the summers. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_33

Dostoevsky's parents subsequently had six more children: Varvara (1822–1892), Andrei (1825–1897), Lyubov (born and died 1829), Vera (1829–1896), Nikolai (1831–1883) and Aleksandra (1835–1889). Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_34

Childhood (1821–1835) Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_1

Fyodor Dostoevsky, born on 11 November O.S. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_35

30 October] 1821, was the second child of Dr. Mikhail Dostoevsky and Maria Dostoevskaya (born Nechayeva). Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_36

He was raised in the family home in the grounds of the Mariinsky Hospital for the Poor, which was in a lower class district on the edges of Moscow. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_37

Dostoevsky encountered the patients, who were at the lower end of the Russian social scale, when playing in the hospital gardens. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_38

Dostoevsky was introduced to literature at an early age. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_39

From the age of three, he was read heroic sagas, fairy tales and legends by his nanny, Alena Frolovna, an especially influential figure in his upbringing and love for fictional stories. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_40

When he was four his mother used the Bible to teach him to read and write. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_41

His parents introduced him to a wide range of literature, including Russian writers Karamzin, Pushkin and Derzhavin; Gothic fiction such as the works from writer Ann Radcliffe; romantic works by Schiller and Goethe; heroic tales by Miguel de Cervantes and Walter Scott; and Homer's epics. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_42

Although his father's approach to education has been described as strict and harsh, Dostoevsky himself reports that his imagination was brought alive by nightly readings by his parents. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_43

Some of his childhood experiences found their way into his writings. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_44

When a nine-year-old girl had been raped by a drunk, he was asked to fetch his father to attend to her. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_45

The incident haunted him, and the theme of the desire of a mature man for a young girl appears in The Devils, The Brothers Karamazov, Crime and Punishment, and other writings. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_46

An incident involving a family servant, or serf, in the estate in Darovoye, is described in "The Peasant Marey": when the young Dostoevsky imagines hearing a wolf in the forest, Marey, who is working nearby, comforts him. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_47

Although Dostoevsky had a delicate physical constitution, his parents described him as hot-headed, stubborn, and cheeky. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_48

In 1833, Dostoevsky's father, who was profoundly religious, sent him to a French boarding school and then to the Chermak boarding school. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_49

He was described as a pale, introverted dreamer and an over-excitable romantic. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_50

To pay the school fees, his father borrowed money and extended his private medical practice. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_51

Dostoevsky felt out of place among his aristocratic classmates at the Moscow school, and the experience was later reflected in some of his works, notably The Adolescent. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_52

Youth (1836–1843) Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_2

On 27 September 1837 Dostoevsky's mother died of tuberculosis. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_53

The previous May, his parents had sent Dostoevsky and his brother Mikhail to St Petersburg to attend the free Nikolayev Military Engineering Institute, forcing the brothers to abandon their academic studies for military careers. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_54

Dostoevsky entered the academy in January 1838, but only with the help of family members. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_55

Mikhail was refused admission on health grounds and was sent to an academy in Tallinn, Estonia (then known as Reval). Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_56

Dostoevsky disliked the academy, primarily because of his lack of interest in science, mathematics and military engineering and his preference for drawing and architecture. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_57

As his friend Konstantin Trutovsky once said, "There was no student in the entire institution with less of a military bearing than F.M. Dostoevsky. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_58

He moved clumsily and jerkily; his uniform hung awkwardly on him; and his knapsack, shako and rifle all looked like some sort of fetter he had been forced to wear for a time and which lay heavily on him." Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_59

Dostoevsky's character and interests made him an outsider among his 120 classmates: he showed bravery and a strong sense of justice, protected newcomers, aligned himself with teachers, criticised corruption among officers and helped poor farmers. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_60

Although he was solitary and inhabited his own literary world, he was respected by his classmates. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_61

His reclusiveness and interest in religion earned him the nickname "Monk Photius". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_62

Signs of Dostoevsky's epilepsy may have first appeared on learning of the death of his father on 16 June 1839, although the reports of a seizure originated from accounts written by his daughter (later expanded by Sigmund Freud) which are now considered to be unreliable. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_63

His father's official cause of death was an apoplectic stroke, but a neighbour, Pavel Khotiaintsev, accused the father's serfs of murder. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_64

Had the serfs been found guilty and sent to Siberia, Khotiaintsev would have been in a position to buy the vacated land. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_65

The serfs were acquitted in a trial in Tula, but Dostoevsky's brother Andrei perpetuated the story. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_66

After his father's death, Dostoevsky continued his studies, passed his exams and obtained the rank of engineer cadet, entitling him to live away from the academy. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_67

He visited Mikhail in Reval, and frequently attended concerts, operas, plays and ballets. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_68

During this time, two of his friends introduced him to gambling. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_69

On 12 August 1843 Dostoevsky took a job as a lieutenant engineer and lived with Adolph Totleben in an apartment owned by Dr. Rizenkampf, a friend of Mikhail. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_70

Rizenkampf characterised him as "no less good-natured and no less courteous than his brother, but when not in a good mood he often looked at everything through dark glasses, became vexed, forgot good manners, and sometimes was carried away to the point of abusiveness and loss of self-awareness". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_71

Dostoevsky's first completed literary work, a translation of Honoré de Balzac's novel Eugénie Grandet, was published in June and July 1843 in the 6th and 7th volume of the journal Repertoire and Pantheon, followed by several other translations. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_72

None were successful, and his financial difficulties led him to write a novel. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_73

Career Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_3

Early career (1844–1849) Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_4

Dostoevsky completed his first novel, Poor Folk, in May 1845. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_74

His friend Dmitry Grigorovich, with whom he was sharing an apartment at the time, took the manuscript to the poet Nikolay Nekrasov, who in turn showed it to the renowned and influential literary critic Vissarion Belinsky. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_75

Belinsky described it as Russia's first "social novel". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_76

Poor Folk was released on 15 January 1846 in the St Petersburg Collection almanac and became a commercial success. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_77

Dostoevsky felt that his military career would endanger his now flourishing literary career, so he wrote a letter asking to resign his post. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_78

Shortly thereafter, he wrote his second novel, The Double, which appeared in the journal Notes of the Fatherland on 30 January 1846, before being published in February. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_79

Around the same time, Dostoevsky discovered socialism through the writings of French thinkers Fourier, Cabet, Proudhon and Saint-Simon. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_80

Through his relationship with Belinsky he expanded his knowledge of the philosophy of socialism. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_81

He was attracted to its logic, its sense of justice and its preoccupation with the destitute and the disadvantaged. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_82

However, his relationship with Belinsky became increasingly strained as Belinsky's atheism and dislike of religion clashed with Dostoevsky's Russian Orthodox beliefs. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_83

Dostoevsky eventually parted with him and his associates. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_84

After The Double received negative reviews, Dostoevsky's health declined and he had more frequent seizures, but he continued writing. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_85

From 1846 to 1848 he released several short stories in the magazine Annals of the Fatherland, including "Mr. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_86 Prokharchin", "The Landlady", "A Weak Heart", and "White Nights". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_87

These stories were unsuccessful, leaving Dostoevsky once more in financial trouble, so he joined the utopian socialist Betekov circle, a tightly knit community which helped him to survive. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_88

When the circle dissolved, Dostoevsky befriended Apollon Maykov and his brother Valerian. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_89

In 1846, on the recommendation of the poet Aleksey Pleshcheyev, he joined the Petrashevsky Circle, founded by Mikhail Petrashevsky, who had proposed social reforms in Russia. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_90

Mikhail Bakunin once wrote to Alexander Herzen that the group was "the most innocent and harmless company" and its members were "systematic opponents of all revolutionary goals and means". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_91

Dostoevsky used the circle's library on Saturdays and Sundays and occasionally participated in their discussions on freedom from censorship and the abolition of serfdom. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_92

In 1849, the first parts of Netochka Nezvanova, a novel Dostoevsky had been planning since 1846, were published in Annals of the Fatherland, but his banishment ended the project. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_93

Dostoevsky never attempted to complete it. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_94

Siberian exile (1849–1854) Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_5

The members of the Petrashevsky Circle were denounced to Liprandi, an official at the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_95

Dostoevsky was accused of reading works by Belinsky, including the banned Letter to Gogol, and of circulating copies of these and other works. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_96

Antonelli, the government agent who had reported the group, wrote in his statement that at least one of the papers criticised Russian politics and religion. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_97

Dostoevsky responded to these charges by declaring that he had read the essays only "as a literary monument, neither more nor less"; he spoke of "personality and human egoism" rather than of politics. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_98

Even so, he and his fellow "conspirators" were arrested on 23 April 1849 at the request of Count A. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_99 Orlov and Tsar Nicholas I, who feared a revolution like the Decembrist revolt of 1825 in Russia and the Revolutions of 1848 in Europe. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_100

The members were held in the well-defended Peter and Paul Fortress, which housed the most dangerous convicts. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_101

The case was discussed for four months by an investigative commission headed by the Tsar, with Adjutant General Ivan Nabokov, senator Prince Pavel Gagarin, Prince Vasili Dolgorukov, General Yakov Rostovtsev and General Leonty Dubelt, head of the secret police. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_102

They sentenced the members of the circle to death by firing squad, and the prisoners were taken to Semyonov Place in St Petersburg on 23 December 1849 where they were split into three-man groups. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_103

Dostoevsky was the third in the second row; next to him stood Pleshcheyev and Durov. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_104

The execution was stayed when a cart delivered a letter from the Tsar commuting the sentence. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_105

Dostoevsky served four years of exile with hard labour at a katorga prison camp in Omsk, Siberia, followed by a term of compulsory military service. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_106

After a fourteen-day sleigh ride, the prisoners reached Tobolsk, a prisoner way station. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_107

Despite the circumstances, Dostoevsky consoled the other prisoners, such as the Petrashevist Ivan Yastrzhembsky, who was surprised by Dostoevsky's kindness and eventually abandoned his decision to kill himself. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_108

In Tobolsk, the members received food and clothes from the Decembrist women, as well as several copies of the New Testament with a ten-ruble banknote inside each copy. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_109

Eleven days later, Dostoevsky reached Omsk together with just one other member of the Petrashevsky Circle, the poet Sergei Durov. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_110

Dostoevsky described his barracks: Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_111

Classified as "one of the most dangerous convicts", Dostoevsky had his hands and feet shackled until his release. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_112

He was only permitted to read his New Testament Bible. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_113

In addition to his seizures, he had haemorrhoids, lost weight and was "burned by some fever, trembling and feeling too hot or too cold every night". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_114

The smell of the privy pervaded the entire building, and the small bathroom had to suffice for more than 200 people. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_115

Dostoevsky was occasionally sent to the military hospital, where he read newspapers and Dickens novels. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_116

He was respected by most of the other prisoners, and despised by some because of his supposedly xenophobic statements. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_117

Release from prison and first marriage (1854–1866) Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_6

After his release on 14 February 1854, Dostoevsky asked Mikhail to help him financially and to send him books by Vico, Guizot, Ranke, Hegel and Kant. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_118

The House of the Dead, based on his experience in prison, was published in 1861 in the journal Vremya ("Time") – it was the first published novel about Russian prisons. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_119

Before moving in mid-March to Semipalatinsk, where he was forced to serve in the Siberian Army Corps of the Seventh Line Battalion, Dostoevsky met geographer Pyotr Semyonov and ethnographer Shokan Walikhanuli. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_120

Around November 1854, he met Baron Alexander Egorovich Wrangel, an admirer of his books, who had attended the aborted execution. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_121

They both rented houses in the Cossack Garden outside Semipalatinsk. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_122

Wrangel remarked that Dostoevsky "looked morose. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_123

His sickly, pale face was covered with freckles, and his blond hair was cut short. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_124

He was a little over average height and looked at me intensely with his sharp, grey-blue eyes. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_125

It was as if he were trying to look into my soul and discover what kind of man I was." Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_126

In Semipalatinsk, Dostoevsky tutored several schoolchildren and came into contact with upper-class families, including that of Lieutenant-Colonel Belikhov, who used to invite him to read passages from newspapers and magazines. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_127

During a visit to Belikhov, Dostoevsky met the family of Alexander Ivanovich Isaev and Maria Dmitrievna Isaeva and fell in love with the latter. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_128

Alexander Isaev took a new post in Kuznetsk, where he died in August 1855. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_129

Maria and her son then moved with Dostoevsky to Barnaul. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_130

In 1856 Dostoevsky sent a letter through Wrangel to General Eduard Totleben, apologising for his activity in several utopian circles. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_131

As a result, he obtained the right to publish books and to marry, although he remained under police surveillance for the rest of his life. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_132

Maria married Dostoevsky in Semipalatinsk on 7 February 1857, even though she had initially refused his marriage proposal, stating that they were not meant for each other and that his poor financial situation precluded marriage. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_133

Their family life was unhappy and she found it difficult to cope with his seizures. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_134

Describing their relationship, he wrote: "Because of her strange, suspicious and fantastic character, we were definitely not happy together, but we could not stop loving each other; and the more unhappy we were, the more attached to each other we became". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_135

They mostly lived apart. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_136

In 1859 he was released from military service because of deteriorating health and was granted permission to return to European Russia, first to Tver, where he met his brother for the first time in ten years, and then to St Petersburg. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_137

"A Little Hero" (Dostoevsky's only work completed in prison) appeared in a journal, but "Uncle's Dream" and "The Village of Stepanchikovo" were not published until 1860. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_138

Notes from the House of the Dead was released in Russky Mir (Russian World) in September 1860. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_139

"The Insulted and the Injured" was published in the new Vremya magazine, which had been created with the help of funds from his brother's cigarette factory. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_140

Dostoevsky travelled to western Europe for the first time on 7 June 1862, visiting Cologne, Berlin, Dresden, Wiesbaden, Belgium, and Paris. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_141

In London, he met Herzen and visited the Crystal Palace. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_142

He travelled with Nikolay Strakhov through Switzerland and several North Italian cities, including Turin, Livorno, and Florence. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_143

He recorded his impressions of those trips in Winter Notes on Summer Impressions, in which he criticised capitalism, social modernisation, materialism, Catholicism and Protestantism. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_144

From August to October 1863, Dostoevsky made another trip to western Europe. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_145

He met his second love, Polina Suslova, in Paris and lost nearly all his money gambling in Wiesbaden and Baden-Baden. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_146

In 1864 his wife Maria and his brother Mikhail died, and Dostoevsky became the lone parent of his stepson Pasha and the sole supporter of his brother's family. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_147

The failure of Epoch, the magazine he had founded with Mikhail after the suppression of Vremya, worsened his financial situation, although the continued help of his relatives and friends averted bankruptcy. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_148

Second marriage and honeymoon (1866–1871) Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_7

The first two parts of Crime and Punishment were published in January and February 1866 in the periodical The Russian Messenger, attracting at least 500 new subscribers to the magazine. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_149

Dostoevsky returned to Saint Petersburg in mid-September and promised his editor, Fyodor Stellovsky, that he would complete The Gambler, a short novel focused on gambling addiction, by November, although he had not yet begun writing it. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_150

One of Dostoevsky's friends, Milyukov, advised him to hire a secretary. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_151

Dostoevsky contacted stenographer Pavel Olkhin from Saint Petersburg, who recommended his pupil, the twenty-year-old Anna Grigoryevna Snitkina. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_152

Her shorthand helped Dostoevsky to complete The Gambler on 30 October, after 26 days' work. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_153

She remarked that Dostoevsky was of average height but always tried to carry himself erect. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_154

"He had light brown, slightly reddish hair, he used some hair conditioner, and he combed his hair in a diligent way ... his eyes, they were different: one was dark brown; in the other, the pupil was so big that you could not see its color, [this was caused by an injury]. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_155

The strangeness of his eyes gave Dostoyevsky some mysterious appearance. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_156

His face was pale, and it looked unhealthy." Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_157

On 15 February 1867 Dostoevsky married Snitkina in Trinity Cathedral, Saint Petersburg. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_158

The 7,000 rubles he had earned from Crime and Punishment did not cover their debts, forcing Anna to sell her valuables. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_159

On 14 April 1867, they began a delayed honeymoon in Germany with the money gained from the sale. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_160

They stayed in Berlin and visited the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden, where he sought inspiration for his writing. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_161

They continued their trip through Germany, visiting Frankfurt, Darmstadt, Heidelberg and Karlsruhe. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_162

They spent five weeks in Baden-Baden, where Dostoevsky had a quarrel with Turgenev and again lost much money at the roulette table. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_163

The couple travelled on to Geneva. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_164

In September 1867, Dostoevsky began work on The Idiot, and after a prolonged planning process that bore little resemblance to the published novel, he eventually managed to write the first 100 pages in only 23 days; the serialisation began in The Russian Messenger in January 1868. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_165

Their first child, Sofya, had been conceived in Baden-Baden, and was born in Geneva on 5 March 1868. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_166

The baby died of pneumonia three months later, and Anna recalled how Dostoevsky "wept and sobbed like a woman in despair". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_167

The couple moved from Geneva to Vevey and then to Milan, before continuing to Florence. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_168

The Idiot was completed there in January 1869, the final part appearing in The Russian Messenger in February 1869. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_169

Anna gave birth to their second daughter, Lyubov, on 26 September 1869 in Dresden. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_170

In April 1871, Dostoevsky made a final visit to a gambling hall in Wiesbaden. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_171

Anna claimed that he stopped gambling after the birth of their second daughter, but this is a subject of debate. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_172

After hearing news that the socialist revolutionary group "People's Vengeance" had murdered one of its own members, Ivan Ivanov, on 21 November 1869, Dostoevsky began writing Demons. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_173

In 1871, Dostoevsky and Anna travelled by train to Berlin. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_174

During the trip, he burnt several manuscripts, including those of The Idiot, because he was concerned about potential problems with customs. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_175

The family arrived in Saint Petersburg on 8 July, marking the end of a honeymoon (originally planned for three months) that had lasted over four years. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_176

Back in Russia (1871–1875) Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_8

Back in Russia in July 1871, the family was again in financial trouble and had to sell their remaining possessions. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_177

Their son Fyodor was born on 16 July, and they moved to an apartment near the Institute of Technology soon after. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_178

They hoped to cancel their large debts by selling their rental house in Peski, but difficulties with the tenant resulted in a relatively low selling price, and disputes with their creditors continued. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_179

Anna proposed that they raise money on her husband's copyrights and negotiate with the creditors to pay off their debts in installments. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_180

Dostoevsky revived his friendships with Maykov and Strakhov and made new acquaintances, including church politician Terty Filipov and the brothers Vsevolod and Vladimir Solovyov. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_181

Konstantin Pobedonostsev, future Imperial High Commissioner of the Most Holy Synod, influenced Dostoevsky's political progression to conservatism. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_182

Around early 1872 the family spent several months in Staraya Russa, a town known for its mineral spa. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_183

Dostoevsky's work was delayed when Anna's sister Maria Svatkovskaya died on 1 May 1872, either from typhus or malaria, and Anna developed an abscess on her throat. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_184

The family returned to St Petersburg in September. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_185

Demons was finished on 26 November and released in January 1873 by the "Dostoevsky Publishing Company", which was founded by Dostoevsky and his wife. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_186

Although they only accepted cash payments and the bookshop was in their own apartment, the business was successful, and they sold around 3,000 copies of Demons. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_187

Anna managed the finances. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_188

Dostoevsky proposed that they establish a new periodical, which would be called A Writer's Diary and would include a collection of essays, but funds were lacking, and the Diary was published in Vladimir Meshchersky's The Citizen, beginning on 1 January, in return for a salary of 3,000 rubles per year. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_189

In the summer of 1873, Anna returned to Staraya Russa with the children, while Dostoevsky stayed in St Petersburg to continue with his Diary. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_190

In March 1874, Dostoevsky left The Citizen because of the stressful work and interference from the Russian bureaucracy. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_191

In his fifteen months with The Citizen, he had been taken to court twice: on 11 June 1873 for citing the words of Prince Meshchersky without permission, and again on 23 March 1874. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_192

Dostoevsky offered to sell a new novel he had not yet begun to write to The Russian Messenger, but the magazine refused. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_193

Nikolay Nekrasov suggested that he publish A Writer's Diary in Notes of the Fatherland; he would receive 250 rubles for each printer's sheet – 100 more than the text's publication in The Russian Messenger would have earned. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_194

Dostoevsky accepted. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_195

As his health began to decline, he consulted several doctors in St Petersburg and was advised to take a cure outside Russia. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_196

Around July, he reached Ems and consulted a physician, who diagnosed him with acute catarrh. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_197

During his stay he began The Adolescent. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_198

He returned to Saint Petersburg in late July. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_199

Anna proposed that they spend the winter in Staraya Russa to allow Dostoevsky to rest, although doctors had suggested a second visit to Ems because his health had previously improved there. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_200

On 10 August 1875 his son Alexey was born in Staraya Russa, and in mid-September the family returned to Saint Petersburg. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_201

Dostoevsky finished The Adolescent at the end of 1875, although passages of it had been serialised in Notes of the Fatherland since January. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_202

The Adolescent chronicles the life of Arkady Dolgoruky, the illegitimate child of the landowner Versilov and a peasant mother. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_203

It deals primarily with the relationship between father and son, which became a frequent theme in Dostoevsky's subsequent works. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_204

Last years (1876–1881) Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_9

In early 1876, Dostoevsky continued work on his Diary. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_205

The book includes numerous essays and a few short stories about society, religion, politics and ethics. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_206

The collection sold more than twice as many copies as his previous books. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_207

Dostoevsky received more letters from readers than ever before, and people of all ages and occupations visited him. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_208

With assistance from Anna's brother, the family bought a dacha in Staraya Russa. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_209

In the summer of 1876, Dostoevsky began experiencing shortness of breath again. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_210

He visited Ems for the third time and was told that he might live for another 15 years if he moved to a healthier climate. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_211

When he returned to Russia, Tsar Alexander II ordered Dostoevsky to visit his palace to present the Diary to him, and he asked him to educate his sons, Sergey and Paul. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_212

This visit further increased Dosteyevsky's circle of acquaintances. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_213

He was a frequent guest in several salons in Saint Petersburg and met many famous people, including Princess Sophia Tolstaya, Yakov Polonsky, Sergei Witte, Alexey Suvorin, Anton Rubinstein and Ilya Repin. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_214

Dostoevsky's health declined further, and in March 1877 he had four epileptic seizures. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_215

Rather than returning to Ems, he visited Maly Prikol, a manor near Kursk. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_216

While returning to St Petersburg to finalise his Diary, he visited Darovoye, where he had spent much of his childhood. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_217

In December he attended Nekrasov's funeral and gave a speech. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_218

He was appointed an honorary member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, from which he received an honorary certificate in February 1879. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_219

He declined an invitation to an international congress on copyright in Paris after his son Alyosha had a severe epileptic seizure and died on 16 May. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_220

The family later moved to the apartment where Dostoevsky had written his first works. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_221

Around this time, he was elected to the board of directors of the Slavic Benevolent Society in Saint Petersburg. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_222

That summer, he was elected to the honorary committee of the Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale, whose members included Victor Hugo, Ivan Turgenev, Paul Heyse, Alfred Tennyson, Anthony Trollope, Henry Longfellow, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Leo Tolstoy. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_223

Dostoevsky made his fourth and final visit to Ems in early August 1879. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_224

He was diagnosed with early-stage pulmonary emphysema, which his doctor believed could be successfully managed, but not cured. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_225

On 3 February 1880 Dostoevsky was elected vice-president of the Slavic Benevolent Society, and he was invited to speak at the unveiling of the Pushkin memorial in Moscow. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_226

On 8 June he delivered his speech, giving an impressive performance that had a significant emotional impact on his audience. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_227

His speech was met with thunderous applause, and even his long-time rival Turgenev embraced him. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_228

Konstantin Staniukovich praised the speech in his essay "The Pushkin Anniversary and Dostoevsky's Speech" in , writing that "the language of Dostoevsky's [Pushkin Speech] really looks like a sermon. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_229

He speaks with the tone of a prophet. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_230

He makes a sermon like a pastor; it is very deep, sincere, and we understand that he wants to impress the emotions of his listeners." Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_231

The speech was criticised later by liberal political scientist Alexander Gradovsky, who thought that Dostoevsky idolised "the people", and by conservative thinker Konstantin Leontiev, who, in his essay "On Universal Love", compared the speech to French utopian socialism. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_232

The attacks led to a further deterioration in his health. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_233

Death Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_10

On 25 January 1881, while searching for members of the terrorist organisation Narodnaya Volya ("The People's Will") who would soon assassinate Tsar Alexander II, the Tsar's secret police executed a search warrant in the apartment of one of Dostoevsky's neighbours. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_234

On the following day, Dostoevsky suffered a pulmonary haemorrhage. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_235

Anna denied that the search had caused it, saying that the haemorrhage had occurred after her husband had been looking for a dropped pen holder. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_236

After another haemorrhage, Anna called the doctors, who gave a poor prognosis. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_237

A third haemorrhage followed shortly afterwards. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_238

While seeing his children before dying, Dostoevsky requested that the parable of the Prodigal Son be read to his children. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_239

The profound meaning of this request is pointed out by Frank: Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_240

Among Dostoevsky's last words was his quotation of : "But John forbad him, saying, I have a need to be baptised of thee, and comest thou to me? Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_241

And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be so now: for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness", and he finished with "Hear now—permit it. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_242

Do not restrain me!" Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_243

When he died, his body was placed on a table, following Russian custom. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_244

He was interred in the Tikhvin Cemetery at the Alexander Nevsky Convent, near his favourite poets, Nikolay Karamzin and Vasily Zhukovsky. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_245

It is unclear how many attended his funeral. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_246

According to one reporter, more than 100,000 mourners were present, while others describe attendance between 40,000 and 50,000. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_247

His tombstone is inscribed with lines from the New Testament: Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_248

Personal life Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_11

Extramarital affairs Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_12

Dostoevsky had his first known affair with Avdotya Yakovlevna, whom he met in the Panayev circle in the early 1840s. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_249

He described her as educated, interested in literature, and a femme fatale. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_250

He admitted later that he was uncertain about their relationship. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_251

According to Anna Dostoevskaya's memoirs, Dostoevsky once asked his sister's sister-in-law, Yelena Ivanova, whether she would marry him, hoping to replace her mortally ill husband after he died, but she rejected his proposal. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_252

Dostoevsky and Apollonia (Polina) Suslova had a short but intimate affair, which peaked in the winter of 1862–1863. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_253

Suslova's dalliance with a Spaniard in late spring and Dostoevsky's gambling addiction and age ended their relationship. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_254

He later described her in a letter to Nadezhda Suslova as a "great egoist. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_255

Her egoism and her vanity are colossal. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_256

She demands everything of other people, all the perfections, and does not pardon the slightest imperfection in the light of other qualities that one may possess", and later stated "I still love her, but I do not want to love her any more. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_257

She doesn't deserve this love ..." In 1858 Dostoevsky had a romance with comic actress Aleksandra Ivanovna Schubert. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_258

Although she divorced Dostoevsky's friend Stepan Yanovsky, she would not live with him. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_259

Dostoevsky did not love her either, but they were probably good friends. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_260

She wrote that he "became very attracted to me". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_261

Through a worker in Epoch, Dostoevsky learned of the Russian-born Martha Brown (née Elizaveta Andreyevna Chlebnikova), who had had affairs with several westerners. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_262

Her relationship with Dostoevsky is known only through letters written between November 1864 and January 1865. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_263

In 1865, Dostoevsky met Anna Korvin-Krukovskaya. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_264

Their relationship is not verified; Anna Dostoevskaya spoke of a good affair, but Korvin-Krukovskaya's sister, the mathematician Sofia Kovalevskaya, thought that Korvin-Krukovskaya had rejected him. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_265

Political beliefs Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_13

In his youth, Dostoevsky enjoyed reading Nikolai Karamzin's History of the Russian State, which praised conservatism and Russian independence, ideas that Dostoevsky would embrace later in life. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_266

Before his arrest for participating in the Petrashevsky Circle in 1849, Dostoevsky remarked, "As far as I am concerned, nothing was ever more ridiculous than the idea of a republican government in Russia." Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_267

In an 1881 edition of his Diaries, Dostoevsky stated that the Tsar and the people should form a unity: "For the people, the tsar is not an external power, not the power of some conqueror ... but a power of all the people, an all-unifying power the people themselves desired." Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_268

While critical of serfdom, Dostoevsky was skeptical about the creation of a constitution, a concept he viewed as unrelated to Russia's history. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_269

He described it as a mere "gentleman's rule" and believed that "a constitution would simply enslave the people". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_270

He advocated social change instead, for example removal of the feudal system and a weakening of the divisions between the peasantry and the affluent classes. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_271

His ideal was a utopian, Christianized Russia where "if everyone were actively Christian, not a single social question would come up ... Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_272

If they were Christians they would settle everything". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_273

He thought democracy and oligarchy were poor systems; of France he wrote, "the oligarchs are only concerned with the interest of the wealthy; the democrats, only with the interest of the poor; but the interests of society, the interest of all and the future of France as a whole—no one there bothers about these things." Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_274

He maintained that political parties ultimately led to social discord. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_275

In the 1860s, he discovered Pochvennichestvo, a movement similar to Slavophilism in that it rejected Europe's culture and contemporary philosophical movements, such as nihilism and materialism. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_276

Pochvennichestvo differed from Slavophilism in aiming to establish, not an isolated Russia, but a more open state modelled on the Russia of Peter the Great. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_277

In his incomplete article "Socialism and Christianity", Dostoevsky claimed that civilisation ("the second stage in human history") had become degraded, and that it was moving towards liberalism and losing its faith in God. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_278

He asserted that the traditional concept of Christianity should be recovered. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_279

He thought that contemporary western Europe had "rejected the single formula for their salvation that came from God and was proclaimed through revelation, 'Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself', and replaced it with practical conclusions such as, 'Chacun pour soi et Dieu pour tous' [Every man for himself and God for all], or "scientific" slogans like 'the struggle for survival'". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_280

He considered this crisis to be the consequence of the collision between communal and individual interests, brought about by a decline in religious and moral principles. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_281

Dostoevsky distinguished three "enormous world ideas" prevalent in his time: Roman Catholicism, Protestantism and Russian Orthodoxy. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_282

He claimed that Catholicism had continued the tradition of Imperial Rome and had thus become anti-Christian and proto-socialist, inasmuch as the Church's interest in political and mundane affairs led it to abandon the idea of Christ. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_283

For Dostoevsky, socialism was "the latest incarnation of the Catholic idea" and its "natural ally". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_284

He found Protestantism self-contradictory and claimed that it would ultimately lose power and spirituality. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_285

He deemed Russian Orthodoxy to be the ideal form of Christianity. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_286

For all that, to place politically Dostoevsky is not that simple, but: as a Christian, he rejected the atheistic socialism; as a traditionalist, he rejected the destruction of the institutions and, as a pacifist, any violent method or upheaval led by both progressives or reactionaries. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_287

He supported private property and business rights, and did not agree with many criticisms of the free market from the socialist utopians of his time. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_288

During the Russo-Turkish War, Dostoevsky asserted that war might be necessary if salvation were to be granted. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_289

He wanted the Muslim Ottoman Empire eliminated and the Christian Byzantine Empire restored, and he hoped for the liberation of Balkan Slavs and their unification with the Russian Empire. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_290

Racial beliefs Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_14

Jewish characters in Dostoevsky's works have been described as displaying negative stereotypes. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_291

In a letter to Arkady Kovner from 1877, a Jew who had accused Dostoevsky of antisemitism, he replied with the following: Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_292

Dostoevsky held negative views of the Ottoman Turks, dedicating multiple pages to them in his "Writer's Diary", professing the need to have no pity for Turks at war and no regrets in killing Turks and depopulating Istanbul of the Turkish population and shipping it off to Asia. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_293

Religious beliefs Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_15

Dostoevsky was an Orthodox Christian who was raised in a religious family and knew the Gospel from a very young age. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_294

He was influenced by the Russian translation of Johannes Hübner's One Hundred and Four Sacred Stories from the Old and New Testaments Selected for Children (partly a German bible for children and partly a catechism). Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_295

He attended Sunday liturgies from an early age and took part in annual pilgrimages to the St. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_296 Sergius Trinity Monastery. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_297

A deacon at the hospital gave him religious instruction. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_298

Among his most cherished childhood memories were reciting prayers in front of guests and reading passages from the Book of Job that impressed him while "still almost a child." Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_299

According to an officer at the military academy, Dostoevsky was profoundly religious, followed Orthodox practice, and regularly read the Gospels and Heinrich Zschokke's Die Stunden der Andacht ("Hours of Devotion"), which "preached a sentimental version of Christianity entirely free from dogmatic content and with a strong emphasis on giving Christian love a social application." Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_300

This book may have prompted his later interest in Christian socialism. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_301

Through the literature of Hoffmann, Balzac, Eugène Sue, and Goethe, Dostoevsky created his own belief system, similar to Russian sectarianism and the Old Belief. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_302

After his arrest, aborted execution, and subsequent imprisonment, he focused intensely on the figure of Christ and on the New Testament: the only book allowed in prison. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_303

In a January 1854 letter to the woman who had sent him the New Testament, Dostoevsky wrote that he was a "child of unbelief and doubt up to this moment, and I am certain that I shall remain so to the grave." Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_304

He also wrote that "even if someone were to prove to me that the truth lay outside Christ, I should choose to remain with Christ rather than with the truth." Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_305

In Semipalatinsk, Dostoevsky revived his faith by looking frequently at the stars. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_306

Wrangel said that he was "rather pious, but did not often go to church, and disliked priests, especially the Siberian ones. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_307

But he spoke about Christ ecstatically." Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_308

Both planned to translate Hegel's works and Carus' Psyche. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_309

Two pilgrimages and two works by Dmitri Rostovsky, an archbishop who influenced Ukrainian and Russian literature by composing groundbreaking religious plays, strengthened his beliefs. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_310

Through his visits to western Europe and discussions with Herzen, Grigoriev, and Strakhov, Dostoevsky discovered the Pochvennichestvo movement and the theory that the Catholic Church had adopted the principles of rationalism, legalism, materialism, and individualism from ancient Rome and had passed on its philosophy to Protestantism and consequently to atheistic socialism. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_311

Themes and style Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_16

Main article: Themes in Fyodor Dostoevsky's writings Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_312

Dostoevsky's canon includes novels, novellas, novelettes, short stories, essays, pamphlets, limericks, epigrams and poems. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_313

He wrote more than 700 letters, a dozen of which are lost. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_314

Dostoevsky expressed religious, psychological, and philosophical ideas in his writings. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_315

His works explore such themes as suicide, poverty, human manipulation, and morality. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_316

Psychological themes include dreaming, first seen in "White Nights", and the father-son relationship, beginning in The Adolescent. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_317

Most of his works demonstrate a vision of the chaotic sociopolitical structure of contemporary Russia. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_318

His early works viewed society (for example, the differences between poor and rich) through the lens of literary realism and naturalism. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_319

The influences of other writers, particularly evident in his early works, led to accusations of plagiarism, but his style gradually became more individual. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_320

After his release from prison, Dostoevsky incorporated religious themes, especially those of Russian Orthodoxy, into his writing. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_321

Elements of gothic fiction, romanticism, and satire are observable in some of his books. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_322

He frequently used autobiographical or semi-autobiographical details. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_323

An important stylistic element in Dostoevsky's writing is polyphony, the simultaneous presence of multiple narrative voices and perspectives. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_324

Polyphony is a literary concept, analogous with musical polyphony, developed by Mikhail Bakhtin on the basis of his analyses of Dostoevsky's works. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_325

Kornelije Kvas wrote that Bakhtin’s theory of "the polyphonic novel and Dostoevsky’s dialogicness of narration postulates the non-existence of the 'final' word, which is why the thoughts, emotions and experiences of the world of the narrator and his/her characters are reflected through the words of another, with which they can never fully blend." Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_326

Legacy Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_17

Reception and influence Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_18

Dostoevsky is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential novelists of the Golden Age of Russian literature. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_327

Leo Tolstoy admired Dostoevsky's works and considered his novels magnificent (and, conversely, Dostoevsky also admired Tolstoy). Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_328

Albert Einstein put him above the mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss, calling him a "great religious writer" who explores "the mystery of spiritual existence". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_329

Friedrich Nietzsche at one point called Dostoevsky "the only psychologist ... from whom I had something to learn; he ranks among the most beautiful strokes of fortune in my life." Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_330

Hermann Hesse enjoyed Dostoevsky's work and cautioned that to read him is like a "glimpse into the havoc". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_331

The Norwegian novelist Knut Hamsun wrote that "no one has analyzed the complicated human structure as Dostoyevsky. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_332

His psychologic sense is overwhelming and visionary." Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_333

The Russian literary theorist Mikhail Bakhtin's analysis of Dostoevsky came to be at the foundation of his theory of the novel. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_334

Bakhtin argued that Dostoevsky's use of multiple voices was a major advancement in the development of the novel as a genre. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_335

In his posthumous collection of sketches A Moveable Feast, Ernest Hemingway stated that in Dostoevsky "there were things believable and not to be believed, but some so true that they changed you as you read them; frailty and madness, wickedness and saintliness, and the insanity of gambling were there to know". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_336

James Joyce praised Dostoevsky's prose: "... he is the man more than any other who has created modern prose, and intensified it to its present-day pitch. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_337

It was his explosive power which shattered the Victorian novel with its simpering maidens and ordered commonplaces; books which were without imagination or violence." Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_338

In her essay The Russian Point of View, Virginia Woolf said, "Out of Shakespeare there is no more exciting reading". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_339

Franz Kafka called Dostoevsky his "blood-relative" and was heavily influenced by his works, particularly The Brothers Karamazov and Crime and Punishment, both of which profoundly influenced The Trial. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_340

Sigmund Freud called The Brothers Karamazov "the most magnificent novel ever written". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_341

Modern cultural movements such as the surrealists, the existentialists and the Beats cite Dostoevsky as an influence, and he is cited as the forerunner of Russian symbolism, existentialism, expressionism and psychoanalysis. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_342

In her essay What Is Romanticism?, Russian-American author Ayn Rand wrote that Dostoevsky was one of the two greatest novelists (the other being Victor Hugo). Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_343

Argentinian writer Julio Cortázar also mentions Dostoevsky in his novel Hopscotch. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_344

Honours Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_19

In 1956 an olive-green postage stamp dedicated to Dostoevsky was released in the Soviet Union, with a print run of 1,000 copies. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_345

A Dostoevsky Museum was opened on 12 November 1971 in the apartment where he wrote his first and final novels. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_346

A crater on Mercury was named after him in 1979, and a minor planet discovered in 1981 by Lyudmila Karachkina was named 3453 Dostoevsky. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_347

Music critic and broadcaster Artemy Troitsky has hosted the radio show "FM Достоевский" (FM Dostoevsky) since 1997. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_348

J.M. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_349 Coetzee featured Dostoevsky as the protagonist in his 1997 novel The Master of Petersburg. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_350

The famous Malayalam novel Oru Sankeerthanam Pole by Perumbadavam Sreedharan deals with the life of Dostoevsky and his love affair with Anna. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_351

Viewers of the TV show Name of Russia voted him the ninth greatest Russian of all time, behind chemist Dmitry Mendeleev and ahead of ruler Ivan IV. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_352

An Eagle Award-winning TV series directed by Vladimir Khotinenko about Dostoevsky's life was screened in 2011. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_353

Numerous memorials were inaugurated in cities and regions such as Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Semipalatinsk, Kusnetsk, Darovoye, Staraya Russa, Lyublino, Tallinn, Dresden, Baden-Baden and Wiesbaden. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_354

The Dostoyevskaya metro station in Saint Petersburg was opened on 30 December 1991, and the station of the same name in Moscow was opened on 19 June 2010, the 75th anniversary of the Moscow Metro. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_355

The Moscow station is decorated with murals by artist Ivan Nikolaev depicting scenes from Dostoevsky's works, such as controversial suicides. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_356

Criticism Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_20

Dostoevsky's work did not always gain a positive reception. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_357

Some critics, such as Nikolay Dobrolyubov, Ivan Bunin and Vladimir Nabokov, viewed his writing as excessively psychological and philosophical rather than artistic. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_358

Others found fault with chaotic and disorganised plots, and others, like Turgenev, objected to "excessive psychologising" and too-detailed naturalism. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_359

His style was deemed "prolix, repetitious and lacking in polish, balance, restraint and good taste". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_360

Saltykov-Shchedrin, Nikolay Mikhaylovsky and others criticised his puppet-like characters, most prominently in The Idiot, Demons (The Possessed, The Devils) and The Brothers Karamazov. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_361

These characters were compared to those of Hoffmann, an author whom Dostoevsky admired. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_362

Basing his estimation on stated criteria of enduring art and individual genius, Nabokov judges Dostoevsky "not a great writer, but rather a mediocre one—with flashes of excellent humour but, alas, with wastelands of literary platitudes in between". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_363

Nabokov complains that the novels are peopled by "neurotics and lunatics" and states that Dostoevsky's characters do not develop: "We get them all complete at the beginning of the tale and so they remain." Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_364

He finds the novels full of contrived "surprises and complications of plot", which are effective when first read, but on second reading, without the shock and benefit of these surprises, appear loaded with "glorified cliché". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_365

The Scottish poet and critic Edwin Muir, however, addressed this criticism, noting that "regarding the 'oddness' of Dostoevsky's characters, it has been pointed out that they perhaps only seem 'pathological', whereas in reality they are 'only visualized more clearly than any figures in imaginative literature'. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_366

Reputation Fyodor Dostoevsky_section_21

Dostoevsky's books have been translated into more than 170 languages. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_367

The German translator Wilhelm Wolfsohn published one of the first translations, parts of Poor Folk, in an 1846–1847 magazine, and a French translation followed. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_368

French, German and Italian translations usually came directly from the original, while English translations were second-hand and of poor quality. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_369

The first English translations were by Marie von Thilo in 1881, but the first highly regarded ones were produced between 1912 and 1920 by Constance Garnett. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_370

Her flowing and easy translations helped popularise Dostoevsky's novels in anglophone countries, and Bakthin's Problems of Dostoevsky's Creative Art (1929) (republished and revised as Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics in 1963) provided further understanding of his style. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_371

Dostoevsky's works were interpreted in film and on stage in many different countries. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_372

Princess Varvara Dmitrevna Obolenskaya was among the first to propose staging Crime and Punishment. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_373

Dostoevsky did not refuse permission, but he advised against it, as he believed that "each art corresponds to a series of poetic thoughts, so that one idea cannot be expressed in another non-corresponding form". Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_374

His extensive explanations in opposition to the transposition of his works into other media were groundbreaking in fidelity criticism. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_375

He thought that just one episode should be dramatised, or an idea should be taken and incorporated into a separate plot. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_376

According to critic Alexander Burry, some of the most effective adaptions are Sergei Prokofiev's opera The Gambler, Leoš Janáček's opera From the House of the Dead, Akira Kurosawa's film The Idiot and Andrzej Wajda's film The Possessed. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_377

After the 1917 Russian Revolution, passages of Dostoevsky books were sometimes shortened, although only two books were censored: Demons and Diary of a Writer. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_378

His philosophy, particularly in Demons, was deemed anti-capitalist but also anti-Communist and reactionary. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_379

According to historian Boris Ilizarov, Stalin read Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov several times. Fyodor Dostoevsky_sentence_380

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fyodor Dostoevsky.