Galician language

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This article is about the West Iberian language related to Portuguese. Galician language_sentence_0

For the extinct Celtic language from Anatolia, see Galatian language. Galician language_sentence_1

For the Iberian Celtic language, see Gallaecian language. Galician language_sentence_2

For the language spoken in Galicia (Eastern Europe), see Rusyn language. Galician language_sentence_3

"Galego" redirects here. Galician language_sentence_4

For the creation myth from Bugis, Indonesia, see Sureq Galigo. Galician language_sentence_5

For the type of primate, see Galago. Galician language_sentence_6

Galician language_table_infobox_0

GalicianGalician language_header_cell_0_0_0
PronunciationGalician language_header_cell_0_1_0 [ɡaˈleɣʊGalician language_cell_0_1_1
RegionGalician language_header_cell_0_2_0 Galicia and adjacent areas in Asturias and Castile and LeónGalician language_cell_0_2_1
EthnicityGalician language_header_cell_0_3_0 GalicianGalician language_cell_0_3_1
Native speakersGalician language_header_cell_0_4_0 2.4 million (2012)

58% of the population of Galicia (c. 1.56 million) are L1 speakers (2007)Galician language_cell_0_4_1

Language familyGalician language_header_cell_0_5_0 Indo-EuropeanGalician language_cell_0_5_1
Early formGalician language_header_cell_0_6_0 Galician-PortugueseGalician language_cell_0_6_1
Writing systemGalician language_header_cell_0_7_0 Latin (Galician alphabet)

Galician BrailleGalician language_cell_0_7_1

Official statusGalician language_header_cell_0_8_0
Official language inGalician language_header_cell_0_9_0 Galicia (Spain)Galician language_cell_0_9_1
Regulated byGalician language_header_cell_0_10_0 Royal Galician AcademyGalician language_cell_0_10_1
Language codesGalician language_header_cell_0_11_0
ISO 639-1Galician language_header_cell_0_12_0 Galician language_cell_0_12_1
ISO 639-2Galician language_header_cell_0_13_0 Galician language_cell_0_13_1
ISO 639-3Galician language_header_cell_0_14_0 Galician language_cell_0_14_1
GlottologGalician language_header_cell_0_15_0 Galician language_cell_0_15_1
LinguasphereGalician language_header_cell_0_16_0 51-AAA-abGalician language_cell_0_16_1
Distribution of the various dialects of Galician in Spain and the extreme north of Portugal

Western Areas

  Bergantiños   Finisterre   Pontevedra

Central Areas

  Mindoniensis   Central Transitional   Lucu-Auriensis   Eastern Transitional

Eastern Areas

  Asturian   Central Western   Zamora

Other Areas

  Fala languageGalician language_cell_0_17_0

Western Areas

  Bergantiños   Finisterre   PontevedraGalician language_cell_0_18_0

Central Areas

  Mindoniensis   Central Transitional   Lucu-Auriensis   Eastern TransitionalGalician language_cell_0_18_1

Eastern Areas

  Asturian   Central Western   ZamoraGalician language_cell_0_19_0

Other Areas

  Fala languageGalician language_cell_0_19_1

Galician (/ɡəˈlɪʃən/, /ɡəˈlɪsiən/; galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch. Galician language_sentence_7

It is spoken by some 2.4 million people, mainly in Galicia, an autonomous community located in northwestern Spain, where it is co-official with Spanish. Galician language_sentence_8

The language is also spoken in some border zones of the neighboring Spanish regions of Asturias and Castile and León, as well as by Galician migrant communities in the rest of Spain, in Latin America including Puerto Rico, the United States, Switzerland and elsewhere in Europe. Galician language_sentence_9

Modern Galician is part of the West Iberian languages group, a family of Romance languages that includes the Portuguese language, which developed locally from Vulgar Latin and evolved into what modern scholars have called Galician-Portuguese. Galician language_sentence_10

Dialectal divergences are observable between the northern and southern forms of Galician-Portuguese in 13th-century texts but the two dialects were similar enough to maintain a high level of cultural unity until the middle of the 14th century, producing the medieval Galician-Portuguese lyric. Galician language_sentence_11

The divergence has continued to this day, producing the modern languages of Galician and Portuguese. Galician language_sentence_12

The lexicon of Galician is predominantly of Latin extraction, although it also contains a moderate number of words of Germanic and Celtic origin, among other substrates and adstrates, having also received, mainly via Spanish, a number of nouns from Andalusian Arabic. Galician language_sentence_13

The language is officially regulated in Galicia by the Royal Galician Academy. Galician language_sentence_14

Other organizations without institutional support, such as the Galician Association of Language and the Galician Academy of the Portuguese Language, include Galician as part of the Portuguese language. Galician language_sentence_15

Classification and relation with Portuguese Galician language_section_0

Further information: Galician-Portuguese § Language Galician language_sentence_16

Modern Galician and Portuguese originated from a common medieval ancestor designated variously by modern linguists as Galician-Portuguese (or as Medieval Galician, Medieval Portuguese, Old Galician or Old Portuguese). Galician language_sentence_17

This common ancestral stage developed from Vulgar Latin in the territories of the old Kingdom of Galicia, Galicia and Northern Portugal, as a Western Romance language. Galician language_sentence_18

In the 13th century it became a written and cultivated language with two main varieties, but during the 14th century the standards of these varieties, Galician and Portuguese, began to diverge, as Portuguese became the official language of the independent kingdom of Portugal and its chancellery, while Galician was the language of the scriptoria of the lawyers, noblemen and churchmen of the Kingdom of Galicia, then integrated in the crown of Castile and open to influence from Spanish language, culture, and politics. Galician language_sentence_19

During the 16th century the Galician language stopped being used in legal documentation, becoming de facto an oral language spoken by the vast majority of the Galicians, but having just some minor written use in lyric, theatre and private letters. Galician language_sentence_20

It was not until the 18th century that linguists elaborated the first Galician dictionaries, and the language did not recover a proper literature until the 19th century; only since the last quarter of the 20th century is it taught in schools and used in lawmaking. Galician language_sentence_21

The first complete translation of the Bible from the original languages dates from 1989. Galician language_sentence_22

Currently, at the level of rural dialects, Galician forms a dialect continuum with Portuguese in the south, and with Astur-Leonese in the east. Galician language_sentence_23

Mutual intelligibility (estimated at 85% by Robert A. Galician language_sentence_24 Hall, Jr., 1989) is very high between Galicians and northern Portuguese. Galician language_sentence_25

The current linguistic status of Galician with respect to Portuguese is controversial in Galicia, and the issue sometimes carries political overtones. Galician language_sentence_26

There are linguists who deal with modern Galician and Portuguese as norms or varieties of the same language. Galician language_sentence_27

Some authors, such as Lindley Cintra, consider that they are still co-dialects of a common language in spite of differences in phonology and vocabulary, while others argue that they have become separate languages due to differences in phonetics and vocabulary usage, and, to a lesser extent, morphology and syntax. Galician language_sentence_28

Fernández Rei in 1990 stated that the Galician language is, with respect to Portuguese, an ausbau language, a language through elaboration, and not an abstand language, a language through detachment. Galician language_sentence_29

With respect to the external and internal perception of this relation, for instance in past editions of the Encyclopædia Britannica, Galician was defined as a Portuguese dialect spoken in northwestern Spain. Galician language_sentence_30

On the other hand, the director of the Instituto Camões declared in 2019 that Galician and Portuguese were close kin, but different languages. Galician language_sentence_31

According to the Galician government, universities and main cultural institutions, such as the Galician Language Institute or the Royal Galician Academy, Galician and Portuguese are independent languages that stemmed from medieval Galician-Portuguese, and modern Galician must be considered an independent Romance language belonging to the group of Ibero-Romance languages having strong ties with Portuguese and its northern dialects. Galician language_sentence_32

The standard orthography has its roots in the writing of relatively modern Rexurdimento authors, who largely adapted Spanish orthography to the then mostly unwritten language. Galician language_sentence_33

Most Galician speakers do not regard Galician as a variety of Portuguese, but as a different language, which evolved without interruption and in situ from Latin, both languages maintaining separate literary traditions since the 14th century. Galician language_sentence_34

Portuguese Early Modern Era grammars and scholars, at least since Duarte Nunes de Leão in 1606, considered Portuguese and Galician two different languages derived from old Galician, understood as the language spoken in the Northwest before the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal in the 12th century. Galician language_sentence_35

The surge of the two languages would be the result of both the elaboration of Portuguese, through the royal court, its internationalization and its study and culture; and of the stagnation of Galician. Galician language_sentence_36

The earliest internal attestation of the expression Galician language ("lingoajen galego") dates from the 14th century. Galician language_sentence_37

In Spanish "lenguaje gallego" is already documented in this same century, circa 1330; in Occitan circa 1290, in the Regles de Trobar by Catalan author Jofre de Foixà: "si tu vols far un cantar en frances, no·s tayn que·y mescles proençal ne cicilia ne gallego ne altre lengatge que sia strayn a aquell" [If you want to compose a song in French, you should not admix Provençal nor Sicilian nor Galician nor other language which is different from it]. Galician language_sentence_38

Reintegrationism and political implications Galician language_section_1

Private cultural associations, not endorsed by Galician or Portuguese governments, such as the Galician Language Association (Associaçom Galega da Língua) and Galician Academy of the Portuguese Language (Academia Galega da Língua Portuguesa), advocates of the minority Reintegrationist movement, support the idea that differences between Galician and Portuguese speech are not enough to justify considering them as separate languages: Galician would be simply one variety of Galician-Portuguese, along with Brazilian Portuguese; African Portuguese; the Galician-Portuguese still spoken in Spanish Extremadura, Fala; and other dialects. Galician language_sentence_39

They have adopted slightly-modified or actual Portuguese orthography, which has its roots in medieval Galician-Portuguese poetry as later adapted by the Portuguese Chancellery. Galician language_sentence_40

According to Reintegrationists, considering Galician as an independent language reduces contact with Portuguese culture, leaving Galician as a minor language with less capacity to counterbalance the influence of Spanish, the only official language between the 18th century and 1975. Galician language_sentence_41

On the other hand, viewing Galician as a part of the Lusophony, while not denying its own characteristics (cf. Galician language_sentence_42

Swiss German), shifts cultural influence from the Spanish domain to the Portuguese. Galician language_sentence_43

Although it is difficult to clarify the political positions of those who favor one view or the other, Reintegrationism is usually associated with the more radical spectrum of Galician independentism. Galician language_sentence_44

Some scholars have described the situation as properly a continuum, from the Galician variants of Portuguese in one extreme to the Spanish language in the other (which would represent the complete linguistic shift from Galician to Spanish); reintegrationist points of view are closer to the Portuguese extreme, and so-called isolationist ones would be closer to the Spanish one; however, the major Galician nationalist parties, Anova–Nationalist Brotherhood and Galician Nationalist Bloc, do not use reintegrationist orthographical conventions. Galician language_sentence_45

Official relations between Galicia and the Lusophony Galician language_section_2

In 2014, the parliament of Galicia unanimously approved Law 1/2014 regarding the promotion of the Portuguese language and links with the Lusophony. Galician language_sentence_46

Similarly, on 20 October 2016, the city of Santiago de Compostela, the political capital of Galicia, approved by unanimity a proposal to become an observer member of the Union of Portuguese-Speaking Capitals (UCCLA). Galician language_sentence_47

Also, on 1 November 2016, the Council of Galician Culture (Consello da Cultura Galega) was admitted as a consultative observer of the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries (CPLP). Galician language_sentence_48

A "friendship and cooperation" protocol was signed between the Royal Galician Academy (RAG) and the Brazilian Academy of Letters on 10 January 2019. Galician language_sentence_49

Víctor F. Freixanes, president of the RAG, stated during the ceremony that "there is a conscience that the Galician language is part of a family which includes our brothers from Portugal, Brasil, Angola, Cape Verde, Mozambique... a territory full of possibilities also for Galician. Galician language_sentence_50

We always said that Galician is not a regional language, but is in fact part of that international project". Galician language_sentence_51

Geographic distribution and legal status Galician language_section_3

Galician is spoken by some three million people, including most of the population of Galicia and the numerous Galician communities established elsewhere, in Spain (Madrid, Barcelona, Biscay), in other European cities (Andorra la Vella, Geneva, London, Paris), and in the Americas (New York, New Jersey, Buenos Aires, Cordoba/Argentina, Montevideo, Mexico City, Havana, Caracas, San Juan in Puerto Rico, São Paulo, Managua, Mayagüez, Ponce, Panama City). Galician language_sentence_52

Galician is today official, together with the Spanish language, in the autonomous community of Galicia, where it is recognized as the autochthonous language (lingua propia), being by law the first language of the local administrations and governments. Galician language_sentence_53

It is supposed by law to be taught bilingually, alongside Spanish, in both primary and secondary education, although the accomplishment of this law is allegedly doubted. Galician language_sentence_54

It is also used at the three universities established in Galicia, having also the consideration of official language of the three institutions. Galician language_sentence_55

Galician has also legal recognition in the Bierzo region in León, and in four municipalities in Zamora. Galician language_sentence_56

The other languages with official status elsewhere in Spain are Spanish, Catalan (or Valencian), Basque and Aranese. Galician language_sentence_57

Galician has also been accepted orally as Portuguese in the European Parliament, having been used by some Galician representatives, among others: José Posada, Camilo Nogueira and Xosé Manuel Beiras. Galician language_sentence_58

Controversy exists regarding the inclusion of Eonavian (spoken in the western end of Asturias, bordering Galicia) into the Galician language, as it has some traits in common with Western Asturian (spoken in the middle west of Asturias). Galician language_sentence_59

There are those defending these linguistic varieties as dialects of transition to the Astur-Leonese group on the one hand, and those defending it as clearly Galician varieties on the other. Galician language_sentence_60

The recent edition of the cartularies of Oscos in and cartularies of Obona, Cornellana, Corias and Belmonte in middle west of Asturias have shown a huge difference in the medieval speech between both banks of the Navia river. Galician language_sentence_61

An examination of the old documents of the Eonavian monastery of Oscos, written from the late 12th to early 14th century to 16th century, shows a clear identification of this language with the Galician-Portuguese linguistic group; while contemporary parchments elsewhere in Asturias are written in Spanish. Galician language_sentence_62

The two most important traits of those commonly used to tell apart Galician-Portuguese and Asturian-Leonese varieties are the preservation of the mid-open vowels /ɛ/ and /ɔ/, which became diphthongs in Asturian-Leonese, and the loss of intervocalic /n/, preserved in the latter language. Galician language_sentence_63

History Galician language_section_4

Further information: Galician-Portuguese and History of the Galician language Galician language_sentence_64

Latinate Galician charters from the 8th century onward show that the local written Latin was heavily influenced by local spoken Romance, yet is not until the 12th century that there is evidence for the identification of the local language as a language different from Latin itself. Galician language_sentence_65

During this same 12th century there are full Galician sentences being inadvertently used inside Latin texts, while its first reckoned use as a literary language dates to the last years of this same century. Galician language_sentence_66

The linguistic stage from the 13th to the 15th centuries is usually known as Galician-Portuguese (or Old Portuguese, or Old Galician) as an acknowledgement of the cultural and linguistic unity of Galicia and Portugal during the Middle Ages, as the two linguistic varieties differed only in dialectal minor phenomena. Galician language_sentence_67

This language flourished during the 13th and 14th centuries as a language of culture, developing a rich lyric tradition of which some 2000 compositions (cantigas, meaning 'songs') have been preserved—a few hundred even with their musical score—in a series of collections, and belonging to four main genres: cantigas de amor, love songs, where a man sings for his ladylove; cantigas de amigo, where a woman sings for her boyfriend; cantigas de escarnio, crude, taunting, and sexual songs of scorn; cantigas de maldecir, where the poet vents his spleen openly; and also the Cantigas de Santa María, which are religious songs. Galician language_sentence_68

The oldest known document is the poem Ora faz ost'o Senhor de Navarra by Joam Soares de Paiva, written around 1200. Galician language_sentence_69

The first non-literary documents in Galician-Portuguese date from the early 13th century, the Noticia de Torto (1211) and the Testamento of Afonso II of Portugal (1214), both samples of medieval notarial prose. Galician language_sentence_70

Its most notable patrons—themselves reputed authors—were king Dom Dinis in Portugal, and king Alfonso X the Learned in Galicia, Castile and León, who was a great promoter of both Galician and Castilian Spanish languages. Galician language_sentence_71

Not just the kings encouraged literary creation in Galician-Portuguese, but also the noble houses of Galicia and Portugal, as being an author or bringing reputed troubadours into one's home became a way of promoting social prestige; as a result many noblemen, businessmen and clergymen of the 13th and 14th centuries became notable authors, such as Paio Gomes Charinho, lord of Rianxo, and the aforementioned kings. Galician language_sentence_72

Aside from the lyric genres, Galicia developed also a minor tradition on literary prose, most notably in translation of European popular series, as those dealing with King Arthur written by Chretien de Troyes, or those based on the war of Troy, usually paid and commissioned by noblemen who desired to read those romances in their own language. Galician language_sentence_73

Other genres include history books (either translation of Spanish ones, or original creations like the Chronicle of St. Mary of Iria, by Rui Vasques), religious books, legal studies, and a treaty on horse breeding. Galician language_sentence_74

Prose literary creation in Galician had stopped by the 16th century, when printing press became popular; the first complete translation of the Bible was not printed until the 20th century. Galician language_sentence_75

As for other written uses of Galician, legal charters (last wills, hirings, sales, constitutional charters, city council book of acts, guild constitutions, books of possessions, and any type of public or private contracts and inventories) written in Galicia are to be found from 1230 to 1530—the earliest one probably a document from the monastery of Melón, dated in 1231—being Galician by far the most used language during the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries, in substitution of Latin. Galician language_sentence_76

Diglossia and influence of the Spanish language Galician language_section_5

Galician-Portuguese lost its political unity when the County of Portugal obtained its independence from the Kingdom of Leon, a transition initiated in 1139 and completed in 1179, establishing the Kingdom of Portugal. Galician language_sentence_77

Meanwhile, the Kingdom of Galicia was united with the Kingdom of León, and later with the Kingdom of Castile, under kings of the House of Burgundy. Galician language_sentence_78

The Galician and Portuguese standards of the language diverged over time, following independent evolutionary paths. Galician language_sentence_79

Portuguese was the official language of the Portuguese chancellery, while Galician was the usual language not only of troubadours and peasants, but also of local noblemen and clergy, and of their officials, so forging and maintaining two slightly different standards. Galician language_sentence_80

During the reign of Alfonso X, Spanish became the official language of the chancellery of the Kingdom of Castile. Galician language_sentence_81

However, in Galicia and neighboring regions of Asturias and León in 1200–1500, the local languages remained the usual written languages in any type of document, either legal or narrative, public or private. Galician language_sentence_82

Spanish was progressively introduced through Royal decrees and the edicts of foreign churchmen and officials. Galician language_sentence_83

This led, from the late 15th century on, to the end of legal documents in Galician; the last ones were issued around 1530. Galician language_sentence_84

Also, from 1480 on, notaries of the Crown of Castile were required to obtain their licenses in Toledo, where they had to prove their mastery of Spanish. Galician language_sentence_85

In spite of Galician being the most spoken language, during the 17th century the elites of the Kingdom began speaking Spanish, most notably in towns and cities. Galician language_sentence_86

The linguistic situation in Galicia became one of diglossia, with Galician as the low variety and Spanish as the high one. Galician language_sentence_87

In reaction to the relegation of the autochthonous language, a series of literary and historical works (always written in Spanish) appeared in the 17th century through 19th century, meant to vindicate the history, language, people, and culture of Galicia. Galician language_sentence_88

The period from the 16th century to the early 19th century, when Galician had little literary—and no legal—use, is considered the dark age of Galician language. Galician language_sentence_89

The Galician spoken and written then is usually referred to as Middle Galician. Galician language_sentence_90

Middle Galician Galician language_section_6

Middle Galician is known mostly through popular literature (songs, carols, proverbs, theatrical scripts, personal letters), but also through the frequent apparition of Galician interferences and personal and place names in local works and documents otherwise written in Spanish. Galician language_sentence_91

Other important sources are a number of sonnets and other lyric poetry, as well as other literate productions, including the forgery of allegedly mediaeval scriptures or chronicles under diverse pretensions—usually to show the ancient nobility of the forger's family—being these writings elaborated in an archaic looking Galician which nevertheless could not conceal the state of the language during this period. Galician language_sentence_92

Middle Galician is characterized by a series of phonetic processes which led to a further separation from Portuguese, and to the apparition of some of the more notorious dialectal features, among other phenomenons: emergence of the gheada or pronunciation of /ɡ/ as a pharyngeal fricative; denasalization of nasal vowels in most of Galicia, becoming oral vowels in the east, or a group formed by an oral vowels plus a nasal in the west; reduction of the sibilant system, with the confluence (except in the Baixa Limia region) of voiced and voiceless fricatives, followed by a process of de-affrication which led to different results in the west and in the east. Galician language_sentence_93

The most important author during this period of the language was the enlightened scholar Martín Sarmiento, unconditional defender and the first researcher of Galician language (history, evolution, lexicon, etymology, onomastics). Galician language_sentence_94

His Elementos etimológicos segun el método de Euclides (1766), written in Spanish but dealing with Galician, was in fact one of the first comprehensive studies on sound change and evolution of any European language. Galician language_sentence_95

Rexurdimento (Renaissance) Galician language_section_7

During the 19th century a thriving literature developed, in what was called the Rexurdimento (Resurgence), of the Galician language. Galician language_sentence_96

It was headed by three main authors: Rosalia de Castro, an intimist poet; Eduardo Pondal, of nationalist ideology, who championed a Celtic revival; and Manuel Curros Enríquez, a liberal and anticlerical author whose ideas and proclamations were scandalous for part of the 19th-century society. Galician language_sentence_97

An important landmark was the establishment of the Seminario de Estudos Galegos in 1923, devoted to research and study of Galician culture. Galician language_sentence_98

It was created by a group of students: Fermín Bouza Brey, Xosé Filgueira Valverde, Lois Tobío Fernández, with the collaboration of Ricardo Carvalho Calero, Antón Fraguas and Xaquín Lorenzo Fernández. Galician language_sentence_99

Following the victory of Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War, the written or public use of the Galician language was outlawed. Galician language_sentence_100

Publishing of Galician-language material revived on a small scale in the 1950s. Galician language_sentence_101

The Galician language today Galician language_section_8

With the advent of democracy, Galician has been brought into the country's institutions, and it is now co-official with Spanish in Galicia. Galician language_sentence_102

Galician is taught in schools, and there is a public Galician-language television channel, Televisión de Galicia. Galician language_sentence_103

Today, the most common language for everyday use in the largest cities of Galicia is Spanish rather than Galician, as a result of this long process of language shift. Galician language_sentence_104

However, Galician is still the main language in rural areas. Galician language_sentence_105

The Royal Galician Academy and other Galician institutions celebrate each 17 May as Galician Literature Day (Día das Letras Galegas), dedicated each year to a deceased Galician-language writer chosen by the academy. Galician language_sentence_106

Use of the Galician language Galician language_section_9

Use of Galician splits by age, with over half of those over 45 indicating that Galician is their primary language, with lower numbers for the younger population. Galician language_sentence_107

Those under 45 were more likely than those over 45 to answer that they never use Galician. Galician language_sentence_108

Use of Galician also varies greatly depending on the regions and municipalities of Galicia. Galician language_sentence_109

While in two areas of the Province of A Coruña (Costa da Morte and the Southeast) more than 90% of the population always or mostly speaks in Galician, only the 15,2% of the population does the same in the city of Vigo. Galician language_sentence_110

Galician language_table_general_1

RegionGalician language_header_cell_1_0_0 Comarcas includedGalician language_header_cell_1_0_1 Galician speakers (percentage)Galician language_header_cell_1_0_2 Spanish speakers (percentage)Galician language_header_cell_1_0_3 Galician speakers (number)Galician language_header_cell_1_0_4 Spanish speakers (number)Galician language_header_cell_1_0_5
A Barbanza-NoiaGalician language_cell_1_1_0 A Barbanza and NoiaGalician language_cell_1_1_1 88.85Galician language_cell_1_1_2 11.15Galician language_cell_1_1_3 82,434Galician language_cell_1_1_4 10,344Galician language_cell_1_1_5
A CoruñaGalician language_cell_1_2_0 A Coruña and BetanzosGalician language_cell_1_2_1 33.55Galician language_cell_1_2_2 66.45Galician language_cell_1_2_3 137,812Galician language_cell_1_2_4 272,922Galician language_cell_1_2_5
A MariñaGalician language_cell_1_3_0 A Mariña Oriental, A Mariña Central and A Mariña OccidentalGalician language_cell_1_3_1 75.85Galician language_cell_1_3_2 24.15Galician language_cell_1_3_3 50,420Galician language_cell_1_3_4 16,053Galician language_cell_1_3_5
Caldas-O SalnésGalician language_cell_1_4_0 Caldas and O SalnésGalician language_cell_1_4_1 63.40Galician language_cell_1_4_2 36.60Galician language_cell_1_4_3 86,575Galician language_cell_1_4_4 49,980Galician language_cell_1_4_5
Central LugoGalician language_cell_1_5_0 Terra Chá, Lugo, A Ulloa and MeiraGalician language_cell_1_5_1 65.04Galician language_cell_1_5_2 34.96Galician language_cell_1_5_3 105,423Galician language_cell_1_5_4 56,676Galician language_cell_1_5_5
Central OurenseGalician language_cell_1_6_0 Valdeorras, Allariz-Maceda, Terra de Caldelas and Terra de TrivesGalician language_cell_1_6_1 69.45Galician language_cell_1_6_2 30.55Galician language_cell_1_6_3 30,152Galician language_cell_1_6_4 13,265Galician language_cell_1_6_5
Costa da MorteGalician language_cell_1_7_0 Bergantiños, Terra de Soneira, Fisterra, Muros and O XallasGalician language_cell_1_7_1 92.43Galician language_cell_1_7_2 7.57Galician language_cell_1_7_3 117,630Galician language_cell_1_7_4 9,627Galician language_cell_1_7_5
Eastern LugoGalician language_cell_1_8_0 Os Ancares, A Fonsagrada and SarriaGalician language_cell_1_8_1 88.50Galician language_cell_1_8_2 11.50Galician language_cell_1_8_3 32,025Galician language_cell_1_8_4 4,160Galician language_cell_1_8_5
Ferrol-Eume-OrtegalGalician language_cell_1_9_0 Ferrolterra, O Eume and OrtegalGalician language_cell_1_9_1 33.75Galician language_cell_1_9_2 66.25Galician language_cell_1_9_3 60,202Galician language_cell_1_9_4 118,162Galician language_cell_1_9_5
Northeast PontevedraGalician language_cell_1_10_0 O Deza and Tabeirós-Terra de MontesGalician language_cell_1_10_1 81.85Galician language_cell_1_10_2 18.15Galician language_cell_1_10_3 50,720Galician language_cell_1_10_4 11,249Galician language_cell_1_10_5
O Carballiño-O RibeiroGalician language_cell_1_11_0 Carballiño and O RibeiroGalician language_cell_1_11_1 76.42Galician language_cell_1_11_2 23.58Galician language_cell_1_11_3 30,586Galician language_cell_1_11_4 9,436Galician language_cell_1_11_5
O MorrazoGalician language_cell_1_12_0 O MorrazoGalician language_cell_1_12_1 40.56Galician language_cell_1_12_2 59.44Galician language_cell_1_12_3 31,554Galician language_cell_1_12_4 46,233Galician language_cell_1_12_5
OurenseGalician language_cell_1_13_0 OurenseGalician language_cell_1_13_1 39.85Galician language_cell_1_13_2 60.15Galician language_cell_1_13_3 52,632Galician language_cell_1_13_4 79,450Galician language_cell_1_13_5
PontevedraGalician language_cell_1_14_0 PontevedraGalician language_cell_1_14_1 38.82Galician language_cell_1_14_2 61.18Galician language_cell_1_14_3 45,865Galician language_cell_1_14_4 72,292Galician language_cell_1_14_5
SantiagoGalician language_cell_1_15_0 Santiago de Compostela, A Barcala and O SarGalician language_cell_1_15_1 55.39Galician language_cell_1_15_2 44.61Galician language_cell_1_15_3 102,260Galician language_cell_1_15_4 82,374Galician language_cell_1_15_5
Southeast A CoruñaGalician language_cell_1_16_0 Arzúa, Terra de Melide and OrdesGalician language_cell_1_16_1 93.14Galician language_cell_1_16_2 6.86Galician language_cell_1_16_3 59,415Galician language_cell_1_16_4 4,375Galician language_cell_1_16_5
Southern LugoGalician language_cell_1_17_0 Terra de Lemos, Quiroga and ChantadaGalician language_cell_1_17_1 67.19Galician language_cell_1_17_2 32.81Galician language_cell_1_17_3 31,065Galician language_cell_1_17_4 15,172Galician language_cell_1_17_5
Southern OurenseGalician language_cell_1_18_0 A Baixa Limia, A Limia, Verín and VianaGalician language_cell_1_18_1 88.00Galician language_cell_1_18_2 12.00Galician language_cell_1_18_3 64,878Galician language_cell_1_18_4 8,850Galician language_cell_1_18_5
Southern PontevedraGalician language_cell_1_19_0 O Baixo Miño, O Condado and A ParadantaGalician language_cell_1_19_1 58.56Galician language_cell_1_19_2 41.44Galician language_cell_1_19_3 60,392Galician language_cell_1_19_4 42,737Galician language_cell_1_19_5
VigoGalician language_cell_1_20_0 VigoGalician language_cell_1_20_1 25.50Galician language_cell_1_20_2 74.50Galician language_cell_1_20_3 99,968Galician language_cell_1_20_4 292,115Galician language_cell_1_20_5

Galician language_table_general_2

CityGalician language_header_cell_2_0_0 Always speaks GalicianGalician language_header_cell_2_0_1 More Galician than SpanishGalician language_header_cell_2_0_2 More Spanish than GalicianGalician language_header_cell_2_0_3 Always speaks SpanishGalician language_header_cell_2_0_4
A CoruñaGalician language_cell_2_1_0 5.34Galician language_cell_2_1_1 14.64Galician language_cell_2_1_2 31.40Galician language_cell_2_1_3 48.62Galician language_cell_2_1_4
FerrolGalician language_cell_2_2_0 6.71Galician language_cell_2_2_1 10.98Galician language_cell_2_2_2 29.59Galician language_cell_2_2_3 52.72Galician language_cell_2_2_4
LugoGalician language_cell_2_3_0 21.34Galician language_cell_2_3_1 23.36Galician language_cell_2_3_2 28.88Galician language_cell_2_3_3 26.41Galician language_cell_2_3_4
OurenseGalician language_cell_2_4_0 10.71Galician language_cell_2_4_1 22.80Galician language_cell_2_4_2 38.85Galician language_cell_2_4_3 27.65Galician language_cell_2_4_4
PontevedraGalician language_cell_2_5_0 8.38Galician language_cell_2_5_1 14.62Galician language_cell_2_5_2 35.94Galician language_cell_2_5_3 41.06Galician language_cell_2_5_4
Santiago de CompostelaGalician language_cell_2_6_0 20.58Galician language_cell_2_6_1 23.31Galician language_cell_2_6_2 33.46Galician language_cell_2_6_3 22.65Galician language_cell_2_6_4
VigoGalician language_cell_2_7_0 3.85Galician language_cell_2_7_1 11.36Galician language_cell_2_7_2 39,49Galician language_cell_2_7_3 45.31Galician language_cell_2_7_4

Dialects Galician language_section_10

Some authors are of the opinion that Galician possesses no real dialects. Galician language_sentence_111

Despite this, Galician local varieties are collected in three main dialectal blocks, each block comprising a series of areas, being local linguistic varieties that are all mutually intelligible. Galician language_sentence_112

Some of the main features which distinguish the three blocks are: Galician language_sentence_113

Galician language_unordered_list_0

  • The resolution of medieval nasalized vowels and hiatus: these sometimes turned into diphthongs in the east, while in the center and west the vowels in the hiatus were sometimes assimilated. Later, in the eastern—except Ancarese Galician—and central blocks, the nasal trait was lost, while in the west the nasal trait usually developed into an implosive nasal consonant /ŋ/. In general, these led to important dialectal variability in the inflection in genre and number of words ended in a nasal consonant. So, from medieval irmão 'brother', ladrões 'robbers', irmãas 'sisters' developed eastern Galician irmao, ladrois, irmás; central Galician irmao, ladrós, irmás; western Galician irmán, ladróns, irmáns.Galician language_item_0_0

Galician language_description_list_1

  • An exception to this rule is constituted by the hiatus in which the first vowel was a nasalized i or u. In those cases, a nasal, palatal /ɲ/ or velar /ŋ/ was usually inserted: ũa 'a / one (fem.)' > unha (Portuguese uma), -ina > -ĩa > -iña (Portuguese -inha). Nevertheless, in Ancarese and Asturian Galician, this process did not take place: A-G vecía, Ancarese vecĩa vs. standard veciña '(female) neighbor' (Port. vizinha), A-G úa, Ancarese ũa vs. standard unha (Port. uma).Galician language_item_1_1

Galician language_unordered_list_2

  • The resolution of hiatus formed by oral vowels had similar developments, most notably those derived from the loss of /l/, which again had important consequences for the declension of words ending in /l/. So, Medieval Galician animaes 'animals' (sing. animal); central and western Galician animás; eastern Galician animais; Asturian Galician animales (/l/ is preserved).Galician language_item_2_2
  • In the west, /ɡ/ is rendered as a fricative x ~ ħ ~ h (gheada), except after a nasal, where it can become a stop k.Galician language_item_2_3
  • Stressed vowel metaphony is most notable in the west and center, while in the east it is unknown. It is triggered by a final /o/, which tends to close open-mid vowels, or by a final /a/ which tends to open close-mid ones.Galician language_item_2_4
  • There are three main sibilant systems, all derived from the medieval Galician one, which were richer and more complex:Galician language_item_2_5
    • The common one, extended in the eastern and center regions, presents an opposition /ʃ/ – /s/ – /θ/. In the westernmost parts of this area the opposition of /s/ and /θ/ is lost in postnuclear position, in the coda, both being produced /s/.Galician language_item_2_6
    • In the coastal western areas the opposition is /ʃ/ – /s/, /s/ being produced in some regions as a laminal or in some others as an apical. Sometimes this system is even further reduced to just a single /s/. On the other hand, in some areas final /s/ is produced as /ʃ/.Galician language_item_2_7
    • In the Limia Baixa region an old six sibilant system is still preserved, with voiced/voiceless opposition: /ʃ/ – /ʒ/; /s̺/ – /z̺/ (apical) and /s̻/ – /z̻/ (laminal).Galician language_item_2_8

Each dialectal area is then further defined by these and other more restricted traits or isoglosses: Galician language_sentence_114

Galician language_unordered_list_3

  • Eastern Galician: Asturian area (Eonavian), Ancares area, Zamora area and Central-Eastern area.Galician language_item_3_9
  • Central Galician: Mindoniense area, Lucu-auriense area, Central Transitional area, and Eastern Transitional area.Galician language_item_3_10
  • Western Galician: Bergantiños area, Fisterra area, Pontevedra area and Lower Limia area.Galician language_item_3_11

Standard Galician is usually based on Central Galician characteristics, but it also incorporates western and eastern traits and features. Galician language_sentence_115

Examples Galician language_section_11

Galician language_table_general_3

GalicianGalician language_header_cell_3_0_0 Medieval Galician (13th–15th c.)Galician language_header_cell_3_0_3 PortugueseGalician language_header_cell_3_0_4 SpanishGalician language_header_cell_3_0_5 LatinGalician language_header_cell_3_0_6 EnglishGalician language_header_cell_3_0_7
WesternGalician language_header_cell_3_1_0 CentralGalician language_header_cell_3_1_1 EasternGalician language_header_cell_3_1_2
cans [ˈkaŋs]Galician language_cell_3_2_0 cas [ˈkas]Galician language_cell_3_2_1 cais [ˈkajs]Galician language_cell_3_2_2 cães/cããsGalician language_cell_3_2_3 cãesGalician language_cell_3_2_4 perros/canesGalician language_cell_3_2_5 canesGalician language_cell_3_2_6 dogsGalician language_cell_3_2_7
ladróns [laˈðɾoŋs]Galician language_cell_3_3_0 ladrós [laˈðɾɔs]Galician language_cell_3_3_1 ladrois [laˈðɾojs]Galician language_cell_3_3_2 ladrõesGalician language_cell_3_3_3 ladrõesGalician language_cell_3_3_4 ladronesGalician language_cell_3_3_5 latronesGalician language_cell_3_3_6 thievesGalician language_cell_3_3_7
irmán [iɾˈmaŋ]Galician language_cell_3_4_0 irmao [iɾˈmaʊ]Galician language_cell_3_4_1 irmao [iɾˈmaʊ]Galician language_cell_3_4_2 irmãoGalician language_cell_3_4_3 irmãoGalician language_cell_3_4_4 hermanoGalician language_cell_3_4_5 germanusGalician language_cell_3_4_6 brotherGalician language_cell_3_4_7
luz [ˈlus]Galician language_cell_3_5_0 luz [ˈluθ]/[ˈlus]Galician language_cell_3_5_1 luz [ˈluθ]Galician language_cell_3_5_2 luzGalician language_cell_3_5_3 luzGalician language_cell_3_5_4 luzGalician language_cell_3_5_5 lux, gen. lūcisGalician language_cell_3_5_6 lightGalician language_cell_3_5_7
cinco [ˈsiŋkʊ]Galician language_cell_3_6_0 cinco [ˈθiŋkʊ]Galician language_cell_3_6_1 cinco [ˈθiŋkʊ]Galician language_cell_3_6_2 cincoGalician language_cell_3_6_3 cincoGalician language_cell_3_6_4 cincoGalician language_cell_3_6_5 quinqueGalician language_cell_3_6_6 fiveGalician language_cell_3_6_7
ollo [ˈoʎʊ]Galician language_cell_3_7_0 ollo [ˈɔʎʊ]Galician language_cell_3_7_1 ollo [ˈɔʎʊ]Galician language_cell_3_7_2 olhoGalician language_cell_3_7_3 olhoGalician language_cell_3_7_4 ojoGalician language_cell_3_7_5 oculumGalician language_cell_3_7_6 eyeGalician language_cell_3_7_7
hora [ˈɔɾɐ]Galician language_cell_3_8_0 hora [ˈɔɾa]/[ˈoɾɐ]Galician language_cell_3_8_1 hora [ˈoɾɐ]Galician language_cell_3_8_2 horaGalician language_cell_3_8_3 horaGalician language_cell_3_8_4 horaGalician language_cell_3_8_5 horaGalician language_cell_3_8_6 hourGalician language_cell_3_8_7
cantaste(s)Galician language_cell_3_9_0 cantachesGalician language_cell_3_9_1 cantaste/cantacheGalician language_cell_3_9_2 cantasteGalician language_cell_3_9_3 cantasteGalician language_cell_3_9_4 cantasteGalician language_cell_3_9_5 cantavistiGalician language_cell_3_9_6 you sangGalician language_cell_3_9_7
animásGalician language_cell_3_10_0 animásGalician language_cell_3_10_1 animaisGalician language_cell_3_10_2 animaesGalician language_cell_3_10_3 animaisGalician language_cell_3_10_4 animalesGalician language_cell_3_10_5 animaliaGalician language_cell_3_10_6 animalsGalician language_cell_3_10_7

Phonology Galician language_section_12

Main article: Galician phonology Galician language_sentence_116

Grammar Galician language_section_13

Galician allows pronominal clitics to be attached to indicative and subjunctive forms, as does Portuguese, unlike modern Spanish. Galician language_sentence_117

After many centuries of close contact between the two languages, Galician has also adopted many loan words from Spanish, and some calques of Spanish syntax. Galician language_sentence_118

Galician usually makes the difference according to gender and categorizes words as masculine "o rapaz" (the young man) or feminine "a rapaza" (the young woman). Galician language_sentence_119

This difference is present in the articles "o / a / os/ as" (the), nouns "o can / a cadela" (the dog / the (female) dog), pronouns "el / ela", (he / she) and adjectives "bonitiño / bonitiña" (pretty, beautiful). Galician language_sentence_120

There is also a neuter set of demonstrative pronouns "isto, iso, aquilo" (this / that). Galician language_sentence_121

The most typical ending for masculine words is -o, whereas the most typical ending for feminine is -a "o prato / a tixola" (the plate / the frying pan). Galician language_sentence_122

The difference in the grammatical gender of a word may correspond to a real gender difference in the physical world "xuicioso / xuiciosa" (sensible); the former adjective will qualify a male, and the latter, a female. Galician language_sentence_123

However, there is no particular reason for objects to be ascribed to a particular grammatical gender or another, it has to do with the gender having been ascribed by tradition and the use of speakers as in the following examples: "o xis / o samba / a mesa / a caricatura" (chalk / the samba / the table / the caricature). Galician language_sentence_124

Galician expresses the difference in number with a form for the singular and another for the plural. Galician language_sentence_125

The most typical suffix to express a plural number is "s", "cantiga / cantigas". Galician language_sentence_126

There are two different ways of addressing people: one is the most usual informal pronoun "ti" for the second person singular and "vos" for the second person plural. Galician language_sentence_127

There are formal ways of addressing directly people "vostede" for the singular and "vostedes" for the plural. Galician language_sentence_128

The last review of the official grammar has established that the exclamation and question marks will appear only at the end of the sentence if there is no risk of confusion, thus deprecating the general use of Spanish-like inverted question and exclamation marks. Galician language_sentence_129

The verb is inflected. Galician language_sentence_130

There are regular and irregular verbs in the language. Galician language_sentence_131

All verbs will appear listed by means of their infinitive form in dictionaries, and there are three typical endings for verbs "-ar / -er / ir". Galician language_sentence_132

Orthography Galician language_section_14

See also Galician language_section_15

Galician language_unordered_list_4

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: language.