Gansu

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Gansu_table_infobox_0

Gansu Province

甘肃省Gansu_header_cell_0_0_0

Name transcription(s)Gansu_header_cell_0_1_0
ChineseGansu_header_cell_0_2_0 甘肃省 (Gānsù Shěng)Gansu_cell_0_2_1
AbbreviationGansu_header_cell_0_3_0 GS / or (pinyin: Gān / Lǒng)Gansu_cell_0_3_1
Named forGansu_header_cell_0_4_0 gān: Ganzhou District, Zhangye

/肅 sù: Suzhou District, JiuquanGansu_cell_0_4_1

Capital

(and largest city)Gansu_header_cell_0_5_0

LanzhouGansu_cell_0_5_1
DivisionsGansu_header_cell_0_6_0 14 prefectures, 86 counties, 1344 townshipsGansu_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentGansu_header_cell_0_7_0
SecretaryGansu_header_cell_0_8_0 Lin DuoGansu_cell_0_8_1
GovernorGansu_header_cell_0_9_0 Tang RenjianGansu_cell_0_9_1
AreaGansu_header_cell_0_10_0
TotalGansu_header_cell_0_11_0 453,700 km (175,200 sq mi)Gansu_cell_0_11_1
Area rankGansu_header_cell_0_12_0 7thGansu_cell_0_12_1
Highest elevationGansu_header_cell_0_13_0 5,830 m (19,130 ft)Gansu_cell_0_13_1
Population (2010)Gansu_header_cell_0_14_0
TotalGansu_header_cell_0_15_0 25,575,254Gansu_cell_0_15_1
RankGansu_header_cell_0_16_0 22ndGansu_cell_0_16_1
DensityGansu_header_cell_0_17_0 56/km (150/sq mi)Gansu_cell_0_17_1
Density rankGansu_header_cell_0_18_0 27thGansu_cell_0_18_1
DemographicsGansu_header_cell_0_19_0
Ethnic compositionGansu_header_cell_0_20_0 Han: 91%

Hui: 5% Dongxiang: 2% Tibetan: 2%Gansu_cell_0_20_1

Languages and dialectsGansu_header_cell_0_21_0 Zhongyuan Mandarin, Lanyin Mandarin, Amdo TibetanGansu_cell_0_21_1
ISO 3166 codeGansu_header_cell_0_22_0 CN-GSGansu_cell_0_22_1
GDP (2017)Gansu_header_cell_0_23_0 CNY 767.70 billion

USD 113.70 billion (27th)Gansu_cell_0_23_1

per capitaGansu_header_cell_0_24_0 CNY 29,326

USD 4,343 (31st)Gansu_cell_0_24_1

HDI (2018)Gansu_header_cell_0_25_0 0.691
medium · 27thGansu_cell_0_25_1
WebsiteGansu_header_cell_0_26_0 (Simplified Chinese)Gansu_cell_0_26_1

Gansu_table_infobox_1

GansuGansu_header_cell_1_0_0
Chinese nameGansu_header_cell_1_1_0
Simplified ChineseGansu_header_cell_1_2_0 甘肃Gansu_cell_1_2_1
Traditional ChineseGansu_header_cell_1_3_0 甘肅Gansu_cell_1_3_1
Literal meaningGansu_header_cell_1_4_0 "Gan (zhou) and Su (zhou)"Gansu_cell_1_4_1
TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinGānsùBopomofoㄍㄢ   ㄙㄨˋGwoyeu RomatzyhGansuhWade–GilesKan-suIPA[kán.sûother MandarinXiao'erjingقًا صُوَع‎DunganГансўWuSuzhouneseKoe-sohYue: CantoneseYale RomanizationGām-sūkJyutpingGam-sukIPA[kɐ́m.sók̚Southern MinTâi-lôKam-siokGansu_cell_1_5_0
TranscriptionsGansu_header_cell_1_6_0
Standard MandarinGansu_header_cell_1_7_0
Hanyu PinyinGansu_header_cell_1_8_0 GānsùGansu_cell_1_8_1
BopomofoGansu_header_cell_1_9_0 ㄍㄢ   ㄙㄨˋGansu_cell_1_9_1
Gwoyeu RomatzyhGansu_header_cell_1_10_0 GansuhGansu_cell_1_10_1
Wade–GilesGansu_header_cell_1_11_0 Kan-suGansu_cell_1_11_1
IPAGansu_header_cell_1_12_0 [kán.sûGansu_cell_1_12_1
other MandarinGansu_header_cell_1_13_0
Xiao'erjingGansu_header_cell_1_14_0 قًا صُوَع‎Gansu_cell_1_14_1
DunganGansu_header_cell_1_15_0 ГансўGansu_cell_1_15_1
WuGansu_header_cell_1_16_0
SuzhouneseGansu_header_cell_1_17_0 Koe-sohGansu_cell_1_17_1
Yue: CantoneseGansu_header_cell_1_18_0
Yale RomanizationGansu_header_cell_1_19_0 Gām-sūkGansu_cell_1_19_1
JyutpingGansu_header_cell_1_20_0 Gam-sukGansu_cell_1_20_1
IPAGansu_header_cell_1_21_0 [kɐ́m.sók̚Gansu_cell_1_21_1
Southern MinGansu_header_cell_1_22_0
Tâi-lôGansu_header_cell_1_23_0 Kam-siokGansu_cell_1_23_1
Tibetan nameGansu_header_cell_1_24_0
TibetanGansu_header_cell_1_25_0 ཀན་སུའུ་Gansu_cell_1_25_1
TranscriptionsWyliekan su'uGansu_cell_1_26_0
TranscriptionsGansu_header_cell_1_27_0
WylieGansu_header_cell_1_28_0 kan su'uGansu_cell_1_28_1
Mongolian nameGansu_header_cell_1_29_0
MongolianGansu_header_cell_1_30_0 ᠭᠠᠩᠰᠤ

GansuGansu_cell_1_30_1

Uyghur nameGansu_header_cell_1_31_0
UyghurGansu_header_cell_1_32_0 گەنسۇGansu_cell_1_32_1

Gansu (甘肃; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province in Northwest China. Gansu_sentence_0

Its capital and largest city is Lanzhou, in the southeast part of the province. Gansu_sentence_1

The seventh-largest administrative district by area at 453,700 square kilometres (175,200 sq mi), Gansu lies between the Tibetan and Loess plateaus and borders Mongolia (Govi-Altai Province), Inner Mongolia and Ningxia to the north, Xinjiang and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south and Shaanxi to the east. Gansu_sentence_2

The Yellow River passes through the southern part of the province. Gansu_sentence_3

Part of Gansu's territory is located in the Gobi Desert. Gansu_sentence_4

The Qilian mountains are located in the south of the Province. Gansu_sentence_5

Gansu has a population of 26 million, ranking 22nd in China. Gansu_sentence_6

Its population is mostly Han, along with Hui, Dongxiang and Tibetan minorities. Gansu_sentence_7

The most common language is Mandarin. Gansu_sentence_8

Gansu is among the poorest administrative divisions in China, ranking 31st, last place, in GDP per capita as of 2019. Gansu_sentence_9

Most of Gansu's economy is based on the mining industry and the extraction of minerals, especially rare earth elements. Gansu_sentence_10

Tourism also plays a role in Gansu's economy. Gansu_sentence_11

The State of Qin originated in what is now southeastern Gansu and went on to form the first known Empire in what is now China. Gansu_sentence_12

The Northern Silk Road ran through the Hexi Corridor, which passes through Gansu, resulting in it being an important strategic outpost and communications link for the Chinese empire. Gansu_sentence_13

The city of Jiayuguan, the second most populated city in Gansu, is known for its section of the Great Wall and the Jiayuguan Pass fortress complex. Gansu_sentence_14

Name Gansu_section_0

Gansu is a compound of the names of Gānzhou (now the main urban district and seat of Zhangye) and Sùzhou (an old name and the modern seat of Jiuquan), formerly the two most important Chinese settlements in the Hexi Corridor. Gansu_sentence_15

Gansu is abbreviated as "" (Gān) or "" (Lǒng), and was also known as Longxi (陇西; '"[land] west of Long"') or Longyou (陇右; '"[land] right of Long"') prior to early Western Han dynasty, in reference to the Long Mountain (the modern day Liupan Mountain's southern section) between eastern Gansu and western Shaanxi. Gansu_sentence_16

History Gansu_section_1

Gansu's name is a compound name first used during the Song dynasty. Gansu_sentence_17

It is a combination of the names of two prefecture (州) in the Sui and Tang dynasty: Gan (around Zhangye) and Su (around Jiuquan). Gansu_sentence_18

Its eastern part forms part of one of the cradles of ancient Chinese civilisation. Gansu_sentence_19

Ancient Gansu Gansu_section_2

In prehistoric times, Gansu was host to Neolithic cultures. Gansu_sentence_20

The Dadiwan culture, from where archaeologically significant artifacts have been excavated, flourished in the eastern end of Gansu from about 6000 BC to about 3000 BC. Gansu_sentence_21

The Majiayao culture and part of the Qijia culture took root in Gansu from 3100 BC to 2700 BC and 2400 BC to 1900 BC respectively. Gansu_sentence_22

The Yuezhi originally lived in the very western part of Gansu until they were forced to emigrate by the Xiongnu around 177 BCE. Gansu_sentence_23

The State of Qin, known in China as the founding state of the Chinese empire, grew out from the southeastern part of Gansu, specifically the Tianshui area. Gansu_sentence_24

The Qin name is believed to have originated, in part, from the area. Gansu_sentence_25

Qin tombs and artifacts have been excavated from Fangmatan near Tianshui, including one 2200-year-old map of Guixian County. Gansu_sentence_26

Imperial era Gansu_section_3

In imperial times, Gansu was an important strategic outpost and communications link for the Chinese empire, as the Hexi Corridor runs along the "neck" of the province. Gansu_sentence_27

The Han dynasty extended the Great Wall across this corridor, building the strategic Yumenguan (Jade Gate Pass, near Dunhuang) and Yangguan fort towns along it. Gansu_sentence_28

Remains of the wall and the towns can be found there. Gansu_sentence_29

The Ming dynasty built the Jiayuguan outpost in Gansu. Gansu_sentence_30

To the west of Yumenguan and the Qilian Mountains, at the northwestern end of the province, the Yuezhi, Wusun, and other nomadic tribes dwelt (Shiji 123), occasionally figuring in regional imperial Chinese geopolitics. Gansu_sentence_31

By the Qingshui treaty, concluded in 823 between the Tibetan Empire and the Tang dynasty, China lost much of western Gansu province for a significant period. Gansu_sentence_32

After the fall of the Uyghur Khaganate, a Buddhist Yugur (Uyghur) state called the Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom was established by migrating Uyghurs from the Khaganate in part of Gansu that lasted from 848 to 1036 AD. Gansu_sentence_33

Along the Silk Road, Gansu was an economically important province, as well as a cultural transmission path. Gansu_sentence_34

Temples and Buddhist grottoes such as those at Mogao Caves ('Caves of the Thousand Buddhas') and Maijishan Caves contain artistically and historically revealing murals. Gansu_sentence_35

An early form of paper inscribed with Chinese characters and dating to about 8 BC was discovered at the site of a Western Han garrison near the Yumen pass in August 2006. Gansu_sentence_36

The Xixia or Western Xia dynasty controlled much of Gansu as well as Ningxia. Gansu_sentence_37

The province was also the origin of the Dungan Revolt of 1862–77. Gansu_sentence_38

Among the Qing forces were Muslim generals, including Ma Zhan'ao and Ma Anliang, who helped the Qing crush the rebel Muslims. Gansu_sentence_39

The revolt had spread into Gansu from neighbouring Qinghai. Gansu_sentence_40

There was another Dungan revolt from 1895 to 1896. Gansu_sentence_41

Republican China Gansu_section_4

As a result of frequent earthquakes, droughts and famines, the economic progress of Gansu was significantly slower than that of other provinces of China until recently. Gansu_sentence_42

Based on the area's abundant mineral resources it has begun developing into a vital industrial center. Gansu_sentence_43

An earthquake in Gansu at 8.6 on the Richter scale killed around 180,000 people mostly in the present-day area of Ningxia in 1920, and another with a magnitude of 7.6 killed 275 in 1932. Gansu_sentence_44

The Muslim Conflict in Gansu (1927–1930) was a conflict against the Guominjun. Gansu_sentence_45

While the Muslim General Ma Hongbin was acting chairman of the province, Muslim General Ma Buqing was in virtual control of Gansu in 1940. Gansu_sentence_46

Liangzhou District in Wuwei was previously his headquarters in Gansu, where he controlled 15 million Muslims. Gansu_sentence_47

Xinjiang came under Kuomintang (Nationalist) control after their soldiers entered via Gansu. Gansu_sentence_48

Gansu's Tienshui was the site of a Japanese-Chinese warplane fight. Gansu_sentence_49

Gansu was vulnerable to Soviet penetration via Xinjiang. Gansu_sentence_50

Gansu was a passageway for Soviet supplies during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Gansu_sentence_51

Lanzhou was a destination point via a road coming from Dihua (Ürümqi). Gansu_sentence_52

Lanzhou and Lhasa were designated to be recipients of a new railway. Gansu_sentence_53

The Kuomintang Islamic insurgency in China (1950–1958) was a prolongation of the Chinese Civil War in several provinces including Gansu. Gansu_sentence_54

Geography Gansu_section_5

Gansu has an area of 454,000 square kilometres (175,000 sq mi), and the vast majority of its land is more than 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) above sea level. Gansu_sentence_55

It lies between the Tibetan Plateau and the Loess Plateau, bordering Mongolia (Govi-Altai Province) to the northwest, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia to the north, Shaanxi to the east, Sichuan to the south, and Xinjiang to the west. Gansu_sentence_56

The Yellow River passes through the southern part of the province. Gansu_sentence_57

The province contains the geographical centre of China, marked by the Center of the Country Monument at . Gansu_sentence_58

Part of the Gobi Desert is located in Gansu, as well as small parts of the Badain Jaran Desert and the Tengger Desert. Gansu_sentence_59

The Yellow River gets most of its water from Gansu, flowing straight through Lanzhou. Gansu_sentence_60

The area around Wuwei is part of Shiyang River Basin. Gansu_sentence_61

The landscape in Gansu is very mountainous in the south and flat in the north. Gansu_sentence_62

The mountains in the south are part of the Qilian Mountains, while the far western Altyn-Tagh contains the province's highest point, at 5,830 metres (19,130 ft). Gansu_sentence_63

A natural land passage known as Hexi Corridor, stretching some 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) from Lanzhou to the Jade Gate, is situated within the province. Gansu_sentence_64

It is bound from north by the Gobi Desert and Qilian Mountains from the south. Gansu_sentence_65

Gansu generally has a semi-arid to arid continental climate (Köppen BSk or BWk) with warm to hot summers and cold to very cold winters, although diurnal temperature ranges are often so large that maxima remain above 0 °C (32 °F) even in winter. Gansu_sentence_66

However, due to extreme altitude, some areas of Gansu exhibit a subarctic climate (Dwc) – with winter temperatures sometimes dropping to −40 °C (−40 °F). Gansu_sentence_67

Most of the limited precipitation is delivered in the summer months: winters are so dry that snow cover is confined to very high altitudes and the snow line can be as high as 5,500 metres (18,040 ft) in the southwest. Gansu_sentence_68

Gansu_unordered_list_0

  • Gansu_item_0_0
  • Gansu_item_0_1
  • Gansu_item_0_2
  • Gansu_item_0_3
  • Gansu_item_0_4

Administrative divisions Gansu_section_6

Main articles: List of administrative divisions of Gansu and List of township-level divisions of Gansu Gansu_sentence_69

Gansu is divided into fourteen prefecture-level divisions: twelve prefecture-level cities and two autonomous prefectures: Gansu_sentence_70

The fourteen Prefecture of Gansu are subdivided into 82 county-level divisions (17 districts, 4 county-level cities, 58 counties, and 3 autonomous counties). Gansu_sentence_71

Urban areas Gansu_section_7

Gansu_table_general_2

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county citiesGansu_header_cell_2_0_0
#Gansu_header_cell_2_1_0 CityGansu_header_cell_2_1_1 Urban areaGansu_header_cell_2_1_2 District areaGansu_header_cell_2_1_3 City properGansu_header_cell_2_1_4 Census dateGansu_header_cell_2_1_5
1Gansu_cell_2_2_0 LanzhouGansu_cell_2_2_1 2,438,595Gansu_cell_2_2_2 2,628,426Gansu_cell_2_2_3 3,616,163Gansu_cell_2_2_4 2010-11-01Gansu_cell_2_2_5
2Gansu_cell_2_3_0 TianshuiGansu_cell_2_3_1 544,441Gansu_cell_2_3_2 1,197,174Gansu_cell_2_3_3 3,262,549Gansu_cell_2_3_4 2010-11-01Gansu_cell_2_3_5
3Gansu_cell_2_4_0 BaiyinGansu_cell_2_4_1 362,363Gansu_cell_2_4_2 486,799Gansu_cell_2_4_3 1,708,752Gansu_cell_2_4_4 2010-11-01Gansu_cell_2_4_5
4Gansu_cell_2_5_0 WuweiGansu_cell_2_5_1 331,370Gansu_cell_2_5_2 1,010,295Gansu_cell_2_5_3 1,815,059Gansu_cell_2_5_4 2010-11-01Gansu_cell_2_5_5
5Gansu_cell_2_6_0 JiuquanGansu_cell_2_6_1 255,739Gansu_cell_2_6_2 428,346Gansu_cell_2_6_3 1,095,947Gansu_cell_2_6_4 2010-11-01Gansu_cell_2_6_5
6Gansu_cell_2_7_0 PingliangGansu_cell_2_7_1 248,421Gansu_cell_2_7_2 504,848Gansu_cell_2_7_3 2,068,033Gansu_cell_2_7_4 2010-11-01Gansu_cell_2_7_5
7Gansu_cell_2_8_0 LinxiaGansu_cell_2_8_1 220,895Gansu_cell_2_8_2 274,466Gansu_cell_2_8_3 part of Linxia PrefectureGansu_cell_2_8_4 2010-11-01Gansu_cell_2_8_5
8Gansu_cell_2_9_0 ZhangyeGansu_cell_2_9_1 216,760Gansu_cell_2_9_2 507,433Gansu_cell_2_9_3 1,199,515Gansu_cell_2_9_4 2010-11-01Gansu_cell_2_9_5
9Gansu_cell_2_10_0 JiayuguanGansu_cell_2_10_1 216,362Gansu_cell_2_10_2 231,853Gansu_cell_2_10_3 231,853Gansu_cell_2_10_4 2010-11-01Gansu_cell_2_10_5
10Gansu_cell_2_11_0 JinchangGansu_cell_2_11_1 195,409Gansu_cell_2_11_2 228,561Gansu_cell_2_11_3 464,050Gansu_cell_2_11_4 2010-11-01Gansu_cell_2_11_5
11Gansu_cell_2_12_0 QingyangGansu_cell_2_12_1 181,780Gansu_cell_2_12_2 377,528Gansu_cell_2_12_3 2,211,191Gansu_cell_2_12_4 2010-11-01Gansu_cell_2_12_5
12Gansu_cell_2_13_0 DingxiGansu_cell_2_13_1 158,062Gansu_cell_2_13_2 420,614Gansu_cell_2_13_3 2,698,624Gansu_cell_2_13_4 2010-11-01Gansu_cell_2_13_5
13Gansu_cell_2_14_0 LongnanGansu_cell_2_14_1 136,468Gansu_cell_2_14_2 555,004Gansu_cell_2_14_3 2,567,718Gansu_cell_2_14_4 2010-11-01Gansu_cell_2_14_5
14Gansu_cell_2_15_0 DunhuangGansu_cell_2_15_1 111,535Gansu_cell_2_15_2 186,027Gansu_cell_2_15_3 see JiuquanGansu_cell_2_15_4 2010-11-01Gansu_cell_2_15_5
(15)Gansu_cell_2_16_0 HuatingGansu_cell_2_16_1 88,454Gansu_cell_2_16_2 189,333Gansu_cell_2_16_3 see PingliangGansu_cell_2_16_4 2010-11-01Gansu_cell_2_16_5
16Gansu_cell_2_17_0 YumenGansu_cell_2_17_1 78,940Gansu_cell_2_17_2 159,792Gansu_cell_2_17_3 see JiuquanGansu_cell_2_17_4 2010-11-01Gansu_cell_2_17_5
17Gansu_cell_2_18_0 HezuoGansu_cell_2_18_1 57,384Gansu_cell_2_18_2 90,290Gansu_cell_2_18_3 see Gannan PrefectureGansu_cell_2_18_4 2010-11-01Gansu_cell_2_18_5

Politics Gansu_section_8

Further information: List of provincial leaders of the People's Republic of China Gansu_sentence_72

Secretaries of the CPC Gansu Committee: The Secretary of the CPC Gansu Committee is the highest-ranking office within Gansu Province. Gansu_sentence_73

Gansu_ordered_list_1

  1. Zhang Desheng (张德生): 1949–1954Gansu_item_1_5
  2. Zhang Zhongliang (张仲良): 1954–1961Gansu_item_1_6
  3. Wang Feng (汪锋): 1961–1966Gansu_item_1_7
  4. Hu Jizong (胡继宗): 1966–1967Gansu_item_1_8
  5. Xian Henghan (冼恒汉): 1970–1977Gansu_item_1_9
  6. Song Ping (宋平): 1977–1981Gansu_item_1_10
  7. Feng Jixin (冯纪新): 1981–1983Gansu_item_1_11
  8. Li Ziqi (李子奇): 1983–1990Gansu_item_1_12
  9. Gu Jinchi (顾金池): 1990–1993Gansu_item_1_13
  10. Yan Haiwang (阎海旺): 1993–1998Gansu_item_1_14
  11. Sun Ying (孙英): 1998–2001Gansu_item_1_15
  12. Song Zhaosu (宋照肃): 2001–2003Gansu_item_1_16
  13. Su Rong (苏荣): 2003–2007Gansu_item_1_17
  14. Lu Hao (陆浩): April 2007 − December 2011Gansu_item_1_18
  15. Wang Sanyun (王三运): December 2011 − March 2017Gansu_item_1_19
  16. Lin Duo (林铎): March 2017 − incumbentGansu_item_1_20

Governors of Gansu: The Governorship of Gansu is the second highest-ranking official within Gansu, behind the Secretary of the CPC Gansu Committee. Gansu_sentence_74

The governor is responsible for all issues related to economics, personnel, political initiatives, the environment and the foreign affairs of the province. Gansu_sentence_75

The Governor is appointed by the Gansu Provincial People's Congress, which is the province's legislative body. Gansu_sentence_76

Gansu_ordered_list_2

  1. Wang Shitai (王世泰): 1949–1950Gansu_item_2_21
  2. Deng Baoshan (邓宝姗): 1950–1967Gansu_item_2_22
  3. Xian Henghan (冼恒汉): 1967–1977Gansu_item_2_23
  4. Song Ping (宋平): 1977–1979Gansu_item_2_24
  5. Feng Jixin (冯纪新): 1979–1981Gansu_item_2_25
  6. Li Dengying (李登瀛): 1981–1983Gansu_item_2_26
  7. Chen Guangyi (陈光毅): 1983–1986Gansu_item_2_27
  8. Jia Zhijie (贾志杰): 1986–1993Gansu_item_2_28
  9. Yan Haiwang (阎海旺): 1993Gansu_item_2_29
  10. Zhang Wule (张吾乐): 1993–1996Gansu_item_2_30
  11. Sun Ying (孙英): 1996–1998Gansu_item_2_31
  12. Song Zhaosu (宋照肃): 1998–2001Gansu_item_2_32
  13. Lu Hao (陆浩): 2001–2006Gansu_item_2_33
  14. Xu Shousheng (徐守盛): January 2007 – July 2010Gansu_item_2_34
  15. Liu Weiping (刘伟平): July 2010 – April 2016Gansu_item_2_35
  16. Lin Duo (林铎): April 2016 – April 2017Gansu_item_2_36
  17. Tang Renjian (唐仁健): April 2017−incumbentGansu_item_2_37

Economy Gansu_section_9

Agricultural production includes cotton, linseed oil, maize, melons (such as the honeydew melon, known locally as the Bailan melon or "Wallace" due to its introduction by US vice president Henry A. Wallace), millet, and wheat. Gansu_sentence_77

Gansu is known as a source for wild medicinal herbs which are used in Chinese medicine. Gansu_sentence_78

However, pollution by heavy metals, such as cadmium in irrigation water, has resulted in the poisoning of many acres of agricultural land. Gansu_sentence_79

The extent and nature of the heavy metal pollution is considered a state secret. Gansu_sentence_80

However, most of Gansu's economy is based on mining and the extraction of minerals, especially rare earth elements. Gansu_sentence_81

The province has significant deposits of antimony, chromium, coal, cobalt, copper, fluorite, gypsum, iridium, iron, lead, limestone, mercury, mirabilite, nickel, crude oil, platinum, troilite, tungsten, and zinc among others. Gansu_sentence_82

The oil fields at Yumen and Changqing are considered significant. Gansu_sentence_83

Gansu has China's largest nickel deposits accounting for over 90% of China's total nickel reserves. Gansu_sentence_84

Industries other than mining include electricity generation, petrochemicals, oil exploration machinery, and building materials. Gansu_sentence_85

According to some sources, the province is also a center of China's nuclear industry. Gansu_sentence_86

Despite recent growth in Gansu and the booming economy in the rest of China, Gansu is still considered to be one of the poorest provinces in China. Gansu_sentence_87

Its nominal GDP for 2017 was about 767.7 billion yuan (US$113.70 billion) and per capita of 29,326 RMB (US$4,343). Gansu_sentence_88

Tourism has been a bright spot in contributing to Gansu's overall economy. Gansu_sentence_89

As mentioned below, Gansu offers a wide variety of choices for national and international tourists. Gansu_sentence_90

As stipulated in the country's 12th Five Year Plan, the local government of Gansu hopes to grow the province's GDP by 10% annually by focusing investments on five pillar industries: renewable energy, coal, chemicals, nonferrous metals, pharmaceuticals and services. Gansu_sentence_91

Economic and technological development zones Gansu_section_10

The following economic and technological zones are situated in Gansu: Gansu_sentence_92

Gansu_unordered_list_3

  • Lanzhou National Economic and Technological Development Zone was established in 1993, located in the center of Lanzhou Anning District. The zone has a planned area of 9.53 km (3.68 sq mi). 17 colleges, 11 scientific research institutions, 21 large and medium-size companies and other 1735 enterprises have been set up in the zone. Main industries include textile mills, rubber, fertilizer plants, oil refinery, petrochemical, machinery, and metallurgical industry.Gansu_item_3_38
  • Lanzhou New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone, Lanzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone, one of the first 27 national hi-tech industrial development zones, was established in 1998 covering more than 10 km (3.9 sq mi). It is expected to expand another 19 km (7.3 sq mi). The zone mainly focuses on Biotechnology, chemical industry, building decoration materials and information technology.Gansu_item_3_39

Demographics Gansu_section_11

Gansu province is home to 30,711,287 people. Gansu_sentence_93

73% of the population is rural. Gansu_sentence_94

Gansu is 92% Han and also has Hui, Tibetan, Dongxiang, Tu, Yugur, Bonan, Mongolian, Salar, and Kazakh minorities. Gansu_sentence_95

Gansu province's community of Chinese Hui Muslims was bolstered by Hui Muslims resettled from Shaanxi province during the Dungan Revolt. Gansu_sentence_96

Gansu is also a historical home, along with Shaanxi, of the dialect of the Dungans, who migrated to Central Asia. Gansu_sentence_97

The southwestern corner of Gansu is home to a large ethnic Tibetan population. Gansu_sentence_98

Languages Gansu_section_12

Most of the inhabitants of Gansu speak dialects of Northern Mandarin Chinese. Gansu_sentence_99

On the border areas of Gansu one might encounter Tu, Amdo Tibetan, Mongolian, and the Kazakh language. Gansu_sentence_100

Most of the minorities also speak Chinese. Gansu_sentence_101

Culture Gansu_section_13

See also: Music of Gansu Gansu_sentence_102

The cuisine of Gansu is based on the staple crops grown there: wheat, barley, millet, beans, and sweet potatoes. Gansu_sentence_103

Within China, Gansu is known for its lamian (pulled noodles), and Muslim restaurants which feature authentic Gansu cuisine. Gansu_sentence_104

Religion Gansu_section_14

According to a 2012 survey only around 12% of the population of Gansu belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 8.2%, followed by Muslims with 3.4%, Protestants with 0.4% and Catholic with 0.1% (in total, as of 2012 Christians comprise 0.5% of the population, decreasing from 1.02% in 2004) Around 88% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and folk religious sects. Gansu_sentence_105

Muslim restaurants are common, and feature typical Chinese dishes, but without any pork products, and instead an emphasis on lamb and mutton. Gansu_sentence_106

Gansu has many works of Buddhist art, including the Maijishan Grottoes. Gansu_sentence_107

Dunhuang was a major centre of Buddhism in the Middle Ages. Gansu_sentence_108

Tourism Gansu_section_15

Jiayuguan Pass of the Great Wall Gansu_section_16

Main article: Jiayuguan Pass Gansu_sentence_109

Jiayuguan Pass, in Jiayuguan city, is the largest and most intact pass, or entrance, of the Great Wall. Gansu_sentence_110

Jiayuguan Pass was built in the early Ming dynasty, somewhere around the year 1372. Gansu_sentence_111

It was built near an oasis that was then on the extreme western edge of China. Gansu_sentence_112

Jiayuguan Pass was the first pass on the west end of the great wall so it earned the name "The First And Greatest Pass Under Heaven". Gansu_sentence_113

An extra brick is said to rest on a ledge over one of the gates. Gansu_sentence_114

One legend holds that the official in charge asked the designer to calculate how many bricks would be used. Gansu_sentence_115

The designer gave him the number and when the project was finished, only one brick was left. Gansu_sentence_116

It was put on the top of the pass as a symbol of commemoration. Gansu_sentence_117

Another account holds that the building project was assigned to a military manager and an architect. Gansu_sentence_118

The architect presented the manager with a requisition for the total number of bricks that he would need. Gansu_sentence_119

When the manager found out that the architect had not asked for any extra bricks, he demanded that the architect make some provision for unforeseen circumstances. Gansu_sentence_120

The architect, taking this as an insult to his planning ability, added a single extra brick to the request. Gansu_sentence_121

When the gate was finished, the single extra brick was, in fact, extra and was left on the ledge over the gate. Gansu_sentence_122

Mogao Grottoes Gansu_section_17

Main article: Mogao Caves Gansu_sentence_123

The Mogao Grottoes near Dunhuang have a collection of Buddhist art. Gansu_sentence_124

Originally there were a thousand grottoes, but now only 492 cave temples remain. Gansu_sentence_125

Each temple has a large statue of a buddha or bodhisattva and paintings of religious scenes. Gansu_sentence_126

In 336 AD, a monk named Le Zun (Lo-tsun) came near Echoing Sand Mountain, when he had a vision. Gansu_sentence_127

He started to carve the first grotto. Gansu_sentence_128

During the Five Dynasties period they ran out of room on the cliff and could not build any more grottoes. Gansu_sentence_129

Silk Road and Dunhuang City Gansu_section_18

The historic Silk Road starts in Chang'an and goes to Constantinople. Gansu_sentence_130

On the way merchants would go to Dunhuang in Gansu. Gansu_sentence_131

In Dunhuang they would get fresh camels, food and guards for the journey around the dangerous Taklamakan Desert. Gansu_sentence_132

Before departing Dunhuang they would pray to the Mogao Grottoes for a safe journey, if they came back alive they would thank the gods at the grottoes. Gansu_sentence_133

Across the desert they would form a train of camels to protect themselves from thieving bandits. Gansu_sentence_134

The next stop, Kashi (Kashgar), was a welcome sight to the merchants. Gansu_sentence_135

At Kashi most would trade and go back and the ones who stayed would eat fruit and trade their Bactrian camels for single humped ones. Gansu_sentence_136

After Kashi they would keep going until they reached their next destination. Gansu_sentence_137

Located about 5 km (3.1 mi) southwest of the city, the Crescent Lake or Yueyaquan is an oasis and popular spot for tourists seeking respite from the heat of the desert. Gansu_sentence_138

Activities includes camel and 4x4 rides. Gansu_sentence_139

Silk Route Museum Gansu_section_19

Main article: Silk Route Museum Gansu_sentence_140

The Silk Route Museum is located in Jiuquan along the Silk Road, a trading route connecting Rome to China, used by Marco Polo. Gansu_sentence_141

It is also built over the tomb of the Western Liang King. Gansu_sentence_142

Bingling Temple Gansu_section_20

Main article: Bingling Temple Gansu_sentence_143

Bingling Temple, or Bingling Grottoes, is a Buddhist cave complex in a canyon along the Yellow River. Gansu_sentence_144

Begun in 420 AD during the Jin dynasty, the site contains dozens of caves and caverns filled with outstanding examples of carvings, sculpture, and frescoes. Gansu_sentence_145

The great Maitreya Buddha is more than 27 meters tall and is similar in style to the great Buddhas that once lined the cliffs of Bamiyan, Afghanistan. Gansu_sentence_146

Access to the site is by boat from Yongjing in the summer or fall. Gansu_sentence_147

There is no other access point. Gansu_sentence_148

Labrang Monastery Gansu_section_21

Main article: Labrang Monastery Gansu_sentence_149

Labrang Tashikyil Monastery is located in Xiahe County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, located in the southern part of Gansu, and part of the traditional Tibetan province of Amdo. Gansu_sentence_150

It is one of the six major monasteries of the Gelukpa tradition of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet, and the most important one in Amdo. Gansu_sentence_151

Built in 1710, it is headed by the Jamyang-zhaypa. Gansu_sentence_152

It has 6 dratsang (colleges), and houses over sixty thousand religious texts and other works of literature as well as other cultural artifacts. Gansu_sentence_153

Maijishan Grottoes Gansu_section_22

Main article: Maijishan Grottoes Gansu_sentence_154

The Maijishan Grottoes are a series of 194 caves cut in the side of the hill of Majishan in Tianshui. Gansu_sentence_155

This example of rock cut architecture contains over 7,200 Buddhist sculptures and over 1,000 square meters of murals. Gansu_sentence_156

Construction began in the Later Qin era (384–417 CE). Gansu_sentence_157

Education Gansu_section_23

Gansu province is home to the only class A Double First Class University in China's northwest, Lanzhou University. Gansu_sentence_158

Colleges and universities Gansu_section_24

See also: List of universities and colleges in Gansu Gansu_sentence_159

Gansu_unordered_list_4

Natural resources Gansu_section_25

Land Gansu_section_26

Gansu_unordered_list_5

  • 166,400 square kilometres (64,200 sq mi) grasslandGansu_item_5_54
  • 46,700 square kilometres (18,000 sq mi) mountain slopes suitable for livestock breedingGansu_item_5_55
  • 46,200 square kilometres (17,800 sq mi) forests (standing timber reserves of 0.2 cubic kilometres (0.048 cu mi))Gansu_item_5_56
  • 35,300 square kilometres (13,600 sq mi) cultivated land (1,400 square metres (15,000 sq ft) per capita)Gansu_item_5_57
  • 66,600 square kilometres (25,700 sq mi) wasteland suitable for forestationGansu_item_5_58
  • 10,000 square kilometres (3,900 sq mi) wasteland suitable for farmingGansu_item_5_59

Minerals Gansu_section_27

Three thousand deposits of 145 different minerals. Gansu_sentence_160

Ninety-four minerals have been found and ascertained, including nickel, cobalt, platinum, selenium, casting clay, finishing serpentine, whose reserves are the largest in China. Gansu_sentence_161

Gansu has advantages in getting nickel, zinc, cobalt, platinum, iridium, copper, barite, and baudisserite. Gansu_sentence_162

Energy Gansu_section_28

Among Gansu's most important sources of energy are its water resources: the Yellow River and other inland river drainage basins. Gansu_sentence_163

Gansu is placed ninth among China's provinces in annual hydropower potential and water discharge. Gansu_sentence_164

Gansu produces 17.24 gigawatts of hydropower a year. Gansu_sentence_165

Twenty-nine hydropower stations have been constructed in Gansu, altogether(?) Gansu_sentence_166

capable of generating 30 gigawatts. Gansu_sentence_167

Gansu has an estimated coal reserve of 8.92 billion tons and petroleum reserve of 700 million tons. Gansu_sentence_168

There is also good potential for wind and solar power development. Gansu_sentence_169

The Gansu Wind Farm project – already producing 7.965GW in 2015 – is expected to achieve 20GW by 2020, at which time it will likely become the world's biggest collective windfarm. Gansu_sentence_170

In November 2017 an agreement between the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Gansu government was announced, to site and begin operations of a molten salt reactor pilot project in the province by 2020. Gansu_sentence_171

Flora and fauna Gansu_section_29

Gansu has 659 species of wild animals. Gansu_sentence_172

It has twenty-four rare animals which are under a state protection. Gansu_sentence_173

Gansu's mammals include some of the world's most charismatic: the giant panda, golden monkeys, lynx, snow leopards, sika deer, musk deer, and the Bactrian camel. Gansu_sentence_174

Among zoologists who study moles, the Gansu mole is of great interest. Gansu_sentence_175

For a reason that can only be speculated, it is taxologically a New World mole living among Old World moles: that is to say, an American mole living in a sea of Euro-Asians. Gansu_sentence_176

Gansu is home to 441 species of birds; it is a center of endemism and home to many species and subspecies which occur nowhere else in the world. Gansu_sentence_177

Gansu is China's second-largest producer of medicinal plants and herbs, including some produced nowhere else, such as the hairy asiabell root, fritillary bulb, and Chinese caterpillar fungus. Gansu_sentence_178

Environment Gansu_section_30

Natural disasters Gansu_section_31

See also: 1920 Haiyuan earthquake Gansu_sentence_179

On 16 December 1920, Gansu witnessed the deadliest landslide ever recorded. Gansu_sentence_180

A series of landslides, triggered by a single earthquake, accounted for most of the 180,000 people killed in the event. Gansu_sentence_181

Anti-desertification project Gansu_section_32

The Asian Development Bank is working with the State Forestry Administration of China on the Silk Road Ecosystem Restoration Project, designed to prevent degradation and desertification in Gansu. Gansu_sentence_182

It is estimated to cost up to US$150 million. Gansu_sentence_183

Space launch center Gansu_section_33

The Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, located in the Gobi desert, is named after the city of Jiuquan, Gansu, the nearest city, although the center itself is in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Gansu_sentence_184

See also Gansu_section_34

Gansu_unordered_list_6


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gansu.