Garage rock

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"Garage band" redirects here. Garage rock_sentence_0

For other uses, see Garage band (disambiguation). Garage rock_sentence_1

"Garage punk" redirects here. Garage rock_sentence_2

For the hybrid style from the 1980s combining 1960s garage rock and 1970s punk rock, see Garage punk (fusion genre). Garage rock_sentence_3

"'60s punk" redirects here. Garage rock_sentence_4

For more information regarding punk rock's germination in the 1960s, see Proto-punk and Origins of punk rock. Garage rock_sentence_5

Garage rock_table_infobox_0

Garage rockGarage rock_header_cell_0_0_0
Other namesGarage rock_header_cell_0_1_0 Garage rock_cell_0_1_1
Stylistic originsGarage rock_header_cell_0_2_0 Garage rock_cell_0_2_1
Cultural originsGarage rock_header_cell_0_3_0 Late 1950s to early 1960s, United States and CanadaGarage rock_cell_0_3_1
Derivative formsGarage rock_header_cell_0_4_0 Garage rock_cell_0_4_1
SubgenresGarage rock_header_cell_0_5_0
Fusion genresGarage rock_header_cell_0_6_0
Regional scenesGarage rock_header_cell_0_7_0
Other topicsGarage rock_header_cell_0_8_0

Garage rock (sometimes called garage punk or '60s punk) is a raw and energetic style of rock and roll that flourished in the mid-1960s, most notably in the United States and Canada, and has experienced a series of subsequent revivals. Garage rock_sentence_6

The style is characterized by basic chord structures played on electric guitars and other instruments, sometimes distorted through a fuzzbox, as well as often unsophisticated and occasionally aggressive lyrics and delivery. Garage rock_sentence_7

Its name derives from the perception that groups were often made up of young amateurs who rehearsed in the family garage, although many were professional. Garage rock_sentence_8

In the US and Canada, surf rock—and later the Beatles and other beat groups of the British Invasion—motivated thousands of young people to form bands between 1963 and 1968. Garage rock_sentence_9

Hundreds of acts produced regional hits, and some had national hits, usually played on AM radio stations. Garage rock_sentence_10

With the advent of psychedelia, a number of garage bands incorporated exotic elements into the genre's primitive stylistic framework. Garage rock_sentence_11

After 1968, as more sophisticated forms of rock music came to dominate the marketplace, garage rock records largely disappeared from national and regional charts, and the movement faded. Garage rock_sentence_12

Other countries in the 1960s experienced similar grass-roots rock movements that have sometimes been characterized as variants of garage rock. Garage rock_sentence_13

During the 1960s garage rock was not recognized as a distinct genre and had no specific name, but critical hindsight in the early 1970s—and especially the 1972 compilation album Nuggets—did much to define and memorialize the style. Garage rock_sentence_14

Between 1971 and 1973, certain American rock critics began to retroactively identify the music as a genre and for several years used the term "punk rock" to describe it, making it the first form of music to bear the description, predating the more familiar use of the term appropriated by the later punk rock movement that it influenced. Garage rock_sentence_15

The term "garage rock" gained favor amongst commentators and devotees during the 1980s. Garage rock_sentence_16

The style has also been referred to as "proto-punk" or in certain instances "frat rock". Garage rock_sentence_17

In the early to mid-1980s, several revival scenes emerged featuring acts that consciously attempted to replicate the look and sound of 1960s garage bands. Garage rock_sentence_18

Later in the decade, a louder, more contemporary garage subgenre developed that combined garage rock with modern punk rock and other influences, sometimes using the garage punk label originally and otherwise associated with 1960s garage bands. Garage rock_sentence_19

In the 2000s, a wave of garage-influenced acts associated with the post-punk revival emerged, and some achieved commercial success. Garage rock_sentence_20

Garage rock continues to appeal to musicians and audiences who prefer a "back to basics" or "do-it-yourself" musical approach. Garage rock_sentence_21

Social milieu and stylistic features Garage rock_section_0

The term "garage rock", often used in reference to 1960s acts, stems from the perception that many performers were young amateurs who rehearsed in the family garage. Garage rock_sentence_22

While numerous bands were made up of middle-class teenagers from the suburbs, others were from rural or urban areas or were composed of professional musicians in their twenties. Garage rock_sentence_23

Referring to the 1960s, Mike Markesich commented "teenage rock & roll groups (i.e. combos) proliferated Everywheresville USA". Garage rock_sentence_24

Though it is impossible to determine how many garage bands were active in the era, their numbers were extensive in what Markesich has characterized as a "cyclonic whirlwind of musical activity like none other". Garage rock_sentence_25

According to Mark Nobles, it is estimated that between 1964 and 1968 over 180,000 bands formed in the United States, and several thousand US garage acts made records during the era. Garage rock_sentence_26

Garage bands performed in a variety of venues. Garage rock_sentence_27

Local and regional groups typically played at parties, school dances, and teen clubs. Garage rock_sentence_28

For acts of legal age (and in some cases younger), bars, nightclubs, and college fraternity socials also provided regular engagements. Garage rock_sentence_29

Occasionally, groups had the opportunity to open at shows for famous touring acts. Garage rock_sentence_30

Some garage rock bands went on tour, particularly those better-known, but even more obscure groups sometimes received bookings or airplay beyond their immediate locales. Garage rock_sentence_31

Groups often competed in "battles of the bands", which gave musicians an opportunity to gain exposure and a chance to win a prize, such as free equipment or recording time in a local studio. Garage rock_sentence_32

Contests were held, locally, regionally and nationally, and three of the most prestigious national events were held annually by the Tea Council of the U.S.A., the Music Circus, and the United States Junior Chamber. Garage rock_sentence_33

Performances often sounded amateurish, naïve, or intentionally raw, with typical themes revolving around the traumas of high school life and songs about "lying girls" being particularly common. Garage rock_sentence_34

The lyrics and delivery were frequently more aggressive than that of the more established acts of the time, often with nasal, growled, or shouted vocals, sometimes punctuated by shrieks or screams at climactic moments of release. Garage rock_sentence_35

Instrumentation was characterized by basic chord structures played on electric guitars or keyboards often distorted through a fuzzbox, teamed with bass and drums. Garage rock_sentence_36

Guitarists sometimes played using aggressive-sounding bar chords or power chords. Garage rock_sentence_37

Portable organs such as the Farfisa were used frequently and harmonicas and hand-held percussion such as tambourines were not uncommon. Garage rock_sentence_38

Occasionally, the tempo was sped up in passages sometimes referred to as "raveups". Garage rock_sentence_39

Garage rock acts were diverse in both musical ability and in style, ranging from crude and amateurish to near-studio level musicianship. Garage rock_sentence_40

There were also regional variations in flourishing scenes, such as in California and Texas. Garage rock_sentence_41

The north-western states of Idaho, Washington and Oregon had a distinctly recognizable regional sound with bands such as the Sonics and Paul Revere & the Raiders. Garage rock_sentence_42

Recognition and classification Garage rock_section_1

See also: Punk rock § Etymology and classification Garage rock_sentence_43

In the 1960s, garage rock had no name and was not thought of as a genre distinct from other rock and roll of the era. Garage rock_sentence_44

Rock critic and future Patti Smith Group guitarist Lenny Kaye remarked that the period "dashed by so fast that nobody knew much of what to make of it while it was around". Garage rock_sentence_45

In the early 1970s Kaye and other US rock critics, such as Dave Marsh, Lester Bangs, and Greg Shaw, began to retroactively draw attention to the music, speaking nostalgically of mid-1960s garage bands (and subsequent artists then perceived to be their stylistic inheritors) for the first time as a genre. Garage rock_sentence_46

"Garage rock" was not the initial name applied to the style. Garage rock_sentence_47

In the early 1970s such critics used the term "punk rock" to characterize it, making it the first musical form to bear the description. Garage rock_sentence_48

While the coinage of the term "punk" in relation to rock music is unknown, it was sometimes used at the time to describe primitive or rudimentary rock musicianship, but more specifically 1960s garage as a style. Garage rock_sentence_49

In the May 1971 issue of Creem, Dave Marsh described a performance by ? Garage rock_sentence_50 and the Mysterians as an "exposition of punk rock". Garage rock_sentence_51

Conjuring up the mid-1960s, Lester Bangs in June 1971 wrote: "then punk bands started cropping up who were writing their own songs but taking the Yardbirds' sound and reducing it to this kind of goony fuzztone clatter ... oh, it was beautiful, it was pure folklore, Old America, and sometimes I think those were the best days ever". Garage rock_sentence_52

Much of the revival of interest in 1960s garage rock can be traced to the release of the 1972 album Nuggets compiled by Lenny Kaye. Garage rock_sentence_53

In the liner notes, Kaye used "punk rock" as a collective term for 1960s garage bands and also "garage-punk" to describe a song recorded in 1966 by the Shadows of Knight. Garage rock_sentence_54

In the January 1973 Rolling Stone review of Nuggets, Greg Shaw commented: "Punk rock is a fascinating genre ... Garage rock_sentence_55

Punk rock at its best is the closest we came in the 1960s to the original rockabilly spirit of rock & roll." Garage rock_sentence_56

In May 1973, Billy Altman launched the short-lived punk magazine, which pre-dated the better-known 1975 publication of the same name, but, unlike the later magazine, was largely devoted to discussion of 1960s garage and psychedelic acts. Garage rock_sentence_57

Greg Shaw's seasonal publication, Who Put the Bomp! Garage rock_sentence_58 , was influential amongst garage rock enthusiasts and collectors in the early 1970s. Garage rock_sentence_59

Though the phrase "punk rock" was the favored generic term in the early 1970s, "garage band" was also mentioned in reference to groups. Garage rock_sentence_60

In Rolling Stone in March 1971 John Mendelsohn made an oblique reference to "every last punk teenage garage band having its Own Original Approach". Garage rock_sentence_61

The term "punk rock" was later appropriated by the more familiar punk rock movement that emerged in the mid-1970s and is now most commonly applied to groups associated with that movement or who followed in its wake. Garage rock_sentence_62

For the 1960s style, the term "garage rock" came into favor in the 1980s. Garage rock_sentence_63

According to Mike Markesich: "Initially launched into the underground vernacular at the start of the '80s, the garage tag ... slowly sifted its way amid like-minded fans to finally be recognized as a worthy descriptive replacement". Garage rock_sentence_64

The term "garage punk" has also persisted, and style has been referred to as "'60s punk" and "proto-punk". Garage rock_sentence_65

"Frat rock" has been used to refer to the R&B- and surf rock- derived garage sounds of certain acts, such as the Kingsmen and others. Garage rock_sentence_66

1958–1964: Origins Garage rock_section_2

Regional rock & roll, instrumental, and surf Garage rock_section_3

See also: Rock and roll, Rhythm and blues, Surf rock, and Instrumental rock Garage rock_sentence_67

In the late 1950s, the initial impact of rock and roll on mainstream American culture waned as major record companies took a controlling influence and sought to market more conventionally acceptable recordings. Garage rock_sentence_68

Electric musical instruments (particularly guitars) and amplification were becoming more affordable, allowing young musicians to form small groups to perform in front of local audiences of their peers; and in some areas there was a breakdown, especially among radio audiences, of traditional black and white markets, with more white teenagers listening to and purchasing R&B records. Garage rock_sentence_69

Numerous young people were inspired by musicians such as Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Bo Diddley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Buddy Holly, and Eddie Cochran, whose recordings of relatively unsophisticated and hard-driving songs from a few years earlier proclaimed personal independence and freedom from parental controls and conservative norms. Garage rock_sentence_70

Ritchie Valens' 1958 hit "La Bamba" helped jump-start the Chicano rock scene in Southern California and provided a three-chord template for the songs of numerous 1960s garage bands. Garage rock_sentence_71

By the end of the 1950s regional scenes were abundant around the country and helped set the stage for garage rock the 1960s. Garage rock_sentence_72

Guitarist Link Wray has been cited as an early influence on garage rock and is known for his innovative use of guitar techniques and effects such as power chords and distortion. Garage rock_sentence_73

He is best known for his 1958 instrumental "Rumble", which featured the sound of distorted, "clanging" guitar chords, which anticipated much of what was to come. Garage rock_sentence_74

The combined influences of early-1960s instrumental rock and surf rock also played significant roles in shaping the sound garage rock. Garage rock_sentence_75

One of the earliest records to feature fuzz-distorted guitar is the instrumental "Buzzzzzz" by Jimmy Gordon, released in 1963. Garage rock_sentence_76

According to Lester Bangs, "the origins of garage rock as a genre can be traced to California and the Pacific Northwest in the early Sixties". Garage rock_sentence_77

The Pacific Northwest, which encompasses Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, played a critical role in the inception of garage rock, hosting the first scene to produce a sizable number of acts, and pre-dated the British Invasion by several years. Garage rock_sentence_78

The signature garage sound that eventually emerged in the Pacific Northwest is sometimes referred to as "the Northwest Sound" and had its origins in the late 1950s, when a handful of R&B and rock & roll acts sprung up in various cities and towns in an area stretching from Puget Sound to Seattle and Tacoma, and beyond. Garage rock_sentence_79

There and elsewhere, groups of teenagers were inspired directly by touring R&B performers such as Johnny Otis and Richard Berry, and began to play cover versions of R&B songs. Garage rock_sentence_80

During the late 1950s and early 1960s other instrumental groups playing in the region, such as the Ventures, formed in 1958 in Tacoma, Washington, who came to specialize in a surf rock sound, and the Frantics from Seattle. Garage rock_sentence_81

The Blue Notes from Tacoma, Washington, fronted by "Rockin' Robin" Roberts, were one of the city's first teenage rock & roll bands. Garage rock_sentence_82

The Wailers (often referred to as the Fabulous Wailers) had national chart hit in 1959, the instrumental "Tall Cool One". Garage rock_sentence_83

After the demise of Blue Notes, "Rockin' Robin" did a brief stint with the Wailers, and with him on vocals in 1962, they recorded a version of Richard Berry's 1957 song "Louie Louie"—their arrangement became the much-replicated blueprint for practically every band in the region, including Portland's the Kingsmen who went on to achieve a major hit with it the following year. Garage rock_sentence_84

Other regional scenes of teenage bands playing R&B-oriented rock were well-established in the early 1960s, several years before the British Invasion, in places such as Texas and the Midwest. Garage rock_sentence_85

At the same time, in southern California surf bands formed, playing raucous guitar- and saxophone-driven instrumentals. Garage rock_sentence_86

Writer Neil Campbell commented: "There were literally thousands of rough-and-ready groups performing in local bars and dance halls throughout the US prior to the arrival of the Beatles ... [T]he indigenous popular music which functioned in this way ... was the protopunk more commonly identified as garage rock". Garage rock_sentence_87

Frat rock and initial commercial success Garage rock_section_4

"Frat rock" redirects here. Garage rock_sentence_88

For other uses, see Frat rock (disambiguation). Garage rock_sentence_89

As a result of cross-pollination between surf rock, hot rod music, and other influences, an energetic and upbeat style sometimes referred to as frat rock emerged, which has been mentioned as an early subgenre of garage rock. Garage rock_sentence_90

The Kingsmen's 1963 off-the-cuff version of "Louie Louie" became the de facto "big bang" for three-chord rock, starting as a regional hit in Seattle, then rising to No. Garage rock_sentence_91

1 on the national charts and eventually becoming a major success overseas. Garage rock_sentence_92

The group unwittingly became the target of an FBI investigation in response to complaints about the song's alleged use of profanity in its nearly indecipherable lyrics. Garage rock_sentence_93

Though often associated with Pacific Northwest acts such as the Kingsmen, frat rock also thrived elsewhere. Garage rock_sentence_94

In 1963 singles by several regional bands from other parts of the United States began appearing on the national charts, including "Surfin' Bird" by the Trashmen from Minneapolis, which essentially fused together parts from two songs previously recorded by the Rivingtons, "The Bird is the Word" and "Papa Oom Mow Mow". Garage rock_sentence_95

"California Sun" by the Rivieras, from South Bend, Indiana followed, becoming a hit in early 1964. Garage rock_sentence_96

Frat rock persisted into the mid-1960s with acts such as the Swingin' Medallions, who had a top twenty hit with "Double Shot (Of My Baby's Love)" in 1966. Garage rock_sentence_97

1964–1968: Peak years Garage rock_section_5

Impact of the Beatles and the British Invasion Garage rock_section_6

Further information: Cultural impact of the Beatles and British Invasion Garage rock_sentence_98

During the mid-1960s garage rock entered its most active period, prompted by the influence of the Beatles and the British Invasion. Garage rock_sentence_99

On February 9, 1964, during their first visit to the United States, the Beatles made an historic appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show watched by a record-breaking viewing audience of a nation mourning the recent death of President John F. Kennedy. Garage rock_sentence_100

For many, particularly the young, the Beatles' visit re-ignited the sense of excitement and possibility that had momentarily faded in the wake of the assassination. Garage rock_sentence_101

Much of this new excitement was expressed in rock music, often to the chagrin of parents and elders. Garage rock_sentence_102

In the wake of the Beatles' first visit, a subsequent string of successful British beat groups and acts achieved success in America between 1964 and 1966, often referred to in the US as "the British Invasion". Garage rock_sentence_103

Such acts had a profound impact, leading many (often surf or hot rod groups) to respond by altering their style, and countless new bands to form, as teenagers around the country picked up guitars and started bands by the thousands. Garage rock_sentence_104

In many cases, garage bands were particularly influenced by the increasingly bold sound of a second wave of British groups with a harder, blues-based attack, such as the Kinks, the Who, the Animals, the Yardbirds, Small Faces, Pretty Things, Them, and the Rolling Stones often resulting in a raw and primitive sound. Garage rock_sentence_105

Numerous acts sometimes characterized as garage rock formed in countries outside North America, such as England's the Troggs. Garage rock_sentence_106

Their 1966 worldwide hit "Wild Thing" became a staple in countless American garage bands' repertoires. Garage rock_sentence_107

By 1965, the influence of the British Invasion prompted folk musicians such as Bob Dylan and members of the Byrds to adopt the use of electric guitars and amplifiers, resulting in what became termed folk rock. Garage rock_sentence_108

The resulting success of Dylan, the Byrds, and other folk rock acts influenced the sound and approach of numerous garage bands. Garage rock_sentence_109

Height of success and airplay Garage rock_section_7

In the wake of the British Invasion garage rock experienced a boom in popularity. Garage rock_sentence_110

With thousands of garage bands active in the US and Canada, hundreds produced regional hits during the period, often receiving airplay on local AM radio stations. Garage rock_sentence_111

Several acts gained wider exposure just long enough to have one or occasionally more national hits in an era rife with "One-Hit Wonders". Garage rock_sentence_112

In 1965 the Beau Brummels broke into the national charts with "Laugh, Laugh", followed by "Just a Little". Garage rock_sentence_113

According to Richie Unterberger, they were perhaps the first American group to pose a successful response to the British Invasion. Garage rock_sentence_114

That year, Sam the Sham & the Pharaohs' "Wooly Bully" went to No. Garage rock_sentence_115

2, and they followed it up a year later with another No. Garage rock_sentence_116

2 hit, "Little Red Riding Hood". Garage rock_sentence_117

Also in 1965, the Castaways almost reached Billboard's top ten with "Liar, Liar", which was later included on the 1972 Nuggets compilation. Garage rock_sentence_118

Featuring a lead vocal by Rick Derringer, "Hang On Sloopy" became a #1 hit for Indiana's the McCoys, topping the Billboard charts in October 1965. Garage rock_sentence_119

They were immediately signed to Bang Records and followed up with another hit in 1966, a cover of "Fever", originally recorded by Little Willie John. Garage rock_sentence_120

It is generally agreed that the garage rock boom peaked around 1966. Garage rock_sentence_121

That April, the Outsiders from Cleveland hit No. Garage rock_sentence_122

5 with "Time Won't Let Me", which was later covered by acts such as Iggy Pop. Garage rock_sentence_123

In July, the Standells from Los Angeles almost made it into the US top ten with "Dirty Water", a song now often associated with Boston. Garage rock_sentence_124

"Psychotic Reaction" by the Count Five went to No. Garage rock_sentence_125

5 on Billboard's Hot 100 and was later memorialized by Lester Bangs in his 1971 piece "Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung". Garage rock_sentence_126

"96 Tears" (1966) by Question Mark and the Mysterians, from Saginaw, Michigan, became a No. Garage rock_sentence_127

1 hit in the US. Garage rock_sentence_128

The song's organ riffs and theme of teenage heartbreak have been mentioned as a landmark recording of the garage rock era and recognized for influencing the works of acts as diverse as the B-52's, the Cramps, and Bruce Springsteen. Garage rock_sentence_129

Two months later, the Music Machine, who reached the top 20 with fuzz guitar-driven "Talk Talk", had a sound and image that helped pave the way for later acts such as the Ramones. Garage rock_sentence_130

The Syndicate of Sound's "Little Girl", which featured a cocksure half-spoken lead vocal set over chiming 12-string guitar chords, reached No. Garage rock_sentence_131

8 on the Billboard charts and was later covered by acts such as the Dead Boys, the Banned, and the Chesterfield Kings. Garage rock_sentence_132

Discovered by a Pittsburgh disc jockey in 1965, the resulting success of "Hanky Panky" by a defunct group, the Shondells, whose membership included Tommy James, revived James' career, where he assembled a new group under the name Tommy James and the Shondells. Garage rock_sentence_133

They followed with twelve more top 40 singles. Garage rock_sentence_134

In 1967, Strawberry Alarm Clock emerged from the garage outfit Thee Sixpence and had a No. Garage rock_sentence_135

1 hit in 1967 with psychedelic "Incense and Peppermints". Garage rock_sentence_136

Female garage bands Garage rock_section_8

Garage rock was not an exclusively male phenomenon—it fostered the emergence of all-female bands whose members played their own instruments. Garage rock_sentence_137

One of the first of such acts was New York's Goldie and the Gingerbreads, who appeared at New York's Peppermint Lounge in 1964 and accompanied the Rolling Stones on their American tour the following year. Garage rock_sentence_138

They had a hit in England with a version of "Can't You Hear My Heartbeat". Garage rock_sentence_139

The Continental Co-ets from Fulda, Minnesota, were active from 1963 to 1967 and had a hit in Canada with "I Don't Love You No More". Garage rock_sentence_140

The Pleasure Seekers (later known as Cradle), from Detroit, featured Suzi Quatro and her sisters. Garage rock_sentence_141

Quatro went on to greater fame as a musical solo act and television actress in the 1970s. Garage rock_sentence_142

The Luv'd Ones, also from Michigan, signed with Chicago's Dunwich Records and cut records with a sometimes somber sound, such as "Up Down Sue". Garage rock_sentence_143

San Francisco's the Ace of Cups became a fixture in the Bay Area scene in the late 1960s. Garage rock_sentence_144

Other notable 1960s female groups were the Daughters of Eve from Chicago and She (previously known as the Hairem) from Sacramento, California. Garage rock_sentence_145

All-female bands were not exclusive to North America. Garage rock_sentence_146

The Liverbirds were a beat group from the Beatles' home city of Liverpool, England, but became best known in Germany, often performing in Hamburg's Star-Club. Garage rock_sentence_147

All-female groups of the 1960s anticipated later acts associated with the 1970s punk movement, such as the Runaways and the Slits. Garage rock_sentence_148

Regional scenes in the United States and Canada Garage rock_section_9

Pacific Northwest Garage rock_section_10

In 1964 and 1965 the impact of the Beatles and the British Invasion shifted the musical landscape, presenting not only a challenge, but also a new impetus, as previously established acts in the Pacific Northwest adapted to the new climate, often reaching greater levels of commercial and artistic success than before, while scores of new bands formed. Garage rock_sentence_149

After relocating to Portland, Paul Revere & the Raiders in 1963 became the first rock-and-roll act to be signed to Columbia Records, but did not achieve their commercial breakthrough until 1965 with the song "Steppin Out", which was followed by string of chart-topping hits such as "Just Like Me", originally recorded by the Wilde Knights, and "Kicks". Garage rock_sentence_150

The Sonics from Tacoma had a raunchy, hard-driving sound that influenced later acts such as Nirvana and the White Stripes. Garage rock_sentence_151

According to Peter Blecha, they "were the unholy practitioners of punk rock long before anyone knew what to call it". Garage rock_sentence_152

Founded in 1960, they eventually enlisted the services of vocalist Gerry Rosalie and saxophonist Rob Lind and proceeded to cut their first single," The Witch" in 1964. Garage rock_sentence_153

The song was re-issued again in 1965, this time with the even more intense "Psycho" on the flip side. Garage rock_sentence_154

They released several albums and are also known for other "high-octane" rockers such as "Cinderella" and "He's Waitin'". Garage rock_sentence_155

Prompted by the Sonics, the Wailers entered the mid-1960s with a harder-edged sound in the fuzz-driven "Hang Up" and "Out of Our Tree". Garage rock_sentence_156

New England and Mid-Atlantic Garage rock_section_11

The Barbarians from Cape Cod, wearing sandals and long hair and cultivating an image of "noble savages", recorded an album and several singles, such as "Are You a Boy or Are You a Girl". Garage rock_sentence_157

In 1964 the group appeared on the T.A.M.I. Garage rock_sentence_158 Show on same bill as the Rolling Stones, James Brown. Garage rock_sentence_159

In the film of the show, their drummer, Victor "Moulty" Moulton, is seen holding one of his drumsticks with a prosthetic clamp while playing—the result of a previous accident in which he lost his left hand. Garage rock_sentence_160

In 1966, Moulton recorded "Moulty", a spoken monologue set to music, in which he recounted the travails of his disfigurement, released under the Barbarians' name, but backed by future members of the Band. Garage rock_sentence_161

Boston's the Remains (sometimes called Barry & the Remains), led by Barry Tashian, became one of the region's most popular bands and, in addition to issuing five singles and a self-titled album, toured with the Beatles in 1966. Garage rock_sentence_162

Also from Boston, the Rockin' Ramrods released the distortion-driven "She Lied" in 1964, which Rob Fitzpatrick called "a truly spectacular piece of proto-punk, the sort of perfect blend of melody and aggression that the Ramones would go on to transform the planet with a dozen or more years later". Garage rock_sentence_163

The Squires from Bristol, Connecticut, issued a song now regarded as a garage rock classic, "Going All the Way". Garage rock_sentence_164

Garage rock flourished up and down the Atlantic coast, with acts such as the Vagrants, from Long Island, and Richard and the Young Lions from Newark, New Jersey, and the Blues Magoos from the Bronx, who got their start in New York's Greenwich Village scene and had a hit in 1966 with "(We Ain't Got) Nothin' Yet", which appeared on their debut album, Psychedelic Lollipop, along with a lengthy rendition of the Nashville Teens' "Tobacco Road". Garage rock_sentence_165

California Garage rock_section_12

See also: Sunset Strip, Surf rock, and Chicano rock Garage rock_sentence_166

The garage craze came into full swing in California, particularly in Los Angeles. Garage rock_sentence_167

The Sunset Strip was the center of L.A. nightlife, providing bands with high-profile venues to attract a larger following and possibly capture the attention of record labels looking to sign a new act. Garage rock_sentence_168

Exploitation films such as Riot on Sunset Strip, Mondo Hollywood, captured the musical and social milieu of life on the strip. Garage rock_sentence_169

In Riot on Sunset Strip, several bands make appearances at the Pandora's Box, including the Standells who are seen during the opening credits performing the theme song, as well as San Jose's the Chocolate Watchband. Garage rock_sentence_170

The Seeds and the Leaves were favorites with the "in-crowd" and managed to achieve national hits with songs that have come to be regarded as garage classics: the Seeds with "Pushin' Too Hard" and the Leaves with their version of "Hey Joe", which became a staple in countless bands' repertoires. Garage rock_sentence_171

Love, a racially integrated band headed by African-American musician Arthur Lee, was one of the most popular bands in the scene. Garage rock_sentence_172

Their propulsive 1966 protopunk anthem "7 and 7 Is" was another song often covered by other groups. Garage rock_sentence_173

The Music Machine, led by Sean Bonniwell, employed innovative musical techniques, sometimes building their own custom-made fuzzboxes. Garage rock_sentence_174

Their first album (Turn On) The Music Machine featured the hit "Talk Talk". Garage rock_sentence_175

The Electric Prunes were one of the more successful garage bands to incorporate psychedelic influences into their sound, such as in the hit "I Had Too Much to Dream (Last Night)", whose opening featured a buzzing fuzz-toned guitar, and which appeared on their self titled debut LP. Garage rock_sentence_176

Garage rock was also present in the Latino community of East L.A. The Premiers, who had a hit in 1964 with "Farmer John", and Thee Midniters are considered prominent figures in Chicano rock, as are the San Diego-based, Cannibal & the Headhunters, who had a hit with Chris Kenner's "Land of a Thousand Dances". Garage rock_sentence_177

San Jose and the South Bay area had a bustling scene featuring the Chocolate Watchband, the Count Five, and the Syndicate of Sound. Garage rock_sentence_178

The Chocolate Watchband released several singles in 1967, including "Are You Gonna Be There (at the Love In)", which was also featured on their debut album No Way Out. Garage rock_sentence_179

The album's opening cut was a rendition of "Let's Talk About Girls", previously recorded by the Tongues of Truth (aka the Grodes). Garage rock_sentence_180

Midwest Garage rock_section_13

Chicago, known for electric blues, continued to have a strong recording industry in the 1960s and was also a hotbed of activity for garage rock. Garage rock_sentence_181

Chicago blues as well as the Rolling Stones, the Pretty Things, and the Yardbirds influenced the Shadows of Knight, who recorded for Dunwich Records and were known for a tough, hard-driving sound. Garage rock_sentence_182

In 1966 they had hits with versions of Them's Van Morrison-penned "Gloria" and Bo Diddley's "Oh Yeah", and also released the aggressive "I'm Gonna Make You Mine", which Mike Stax remarked "was recorded live in the studio with the amps cranked beyond distortion, this is 60s punk at its sexually charged, aggressive best." Garage rock_sentence_183

Also recording for Dunwich were the Del-Vetts and the Banshees, who released the cathartic "Project Blue". Garage rock_sentence_184

Other notable Chicago acts were the Little Boy Blues and the New Colony Six. Garage rock_sentence_185

Michigan had one of the largest scenes in the country. Garage rock_sentence_186

In early 1966, Detroit's MC5 released a version of "I Can Only Give You Everything" before they went on to greater success at the end of the decade. Garage rock_sentence_187

The Unrelated Segments recorded a string of songs beginning with local hit "The Story Of My Life", followed by "Where You Gonna Go". Garage rock_sentence_188

In 1966, the Litter from Minneapolis released the guitar-overdriven "Action Woman", a song which Michael Hann described as "one of garage's gnarliest, snarliest, most tight-trousered pieces of hormonal aggression". Garage rock_sentence_189

Other US Regions Garage rock_section_14

In Texas, The 13th Floor Elevators from Austin, featured Roky Erickson on guitar and vocals and are considered one of the prominent bands of the era. Garage rock_sentence_190

They had a regional hit with "You're Gonna Miss Me" and a string of albums, but the band was hampered by drug busts and related legal problems that hastened their demise. Garage rock_sentence_191

Richie Unterberger singled out The Zakary Thaks, from Corpus Christi, for their songwriting skills, and they are best known for the frantic and sped-up "Bad Girl." Garage rock_sentence_192

The Moving Sidewalks, from Houston, featured Billy Gibbons on guitar, later of ZZ Top. Garage rock_sentence_193

The Gentlemen from Dallas cut the fuzz-driven "It's a Cry'n Shame", which in Mike Markesich's Teenbeat Mayhem is ranked as one of the top two garage rock songs of all time, second only to "You're Gonna Miss Me", by the 13th Floor Elevators. Garage rock_sentence_194

The Outcasts from San Antonio cut two highly regarded songs, "I'm in Pittsburgh and It's Raining", which became a local hit, and "1523 Blair", that Jason Ankeny described as "Texas psychedelia at its finest". Garage rock_sentence_195

The Five Americans were from Durant, Oklahoma, and released a string of singles, such as "Western Union", which became a top 10 US hit in 1967. Garage rock_sentence_196

From Phoenix, Arizona, the Spiders featured Vincent Furnier, later known as Alice Cooper, and eventually adopted that name as the group's moniker. Garage rock_sentence_197

As the Spiders they recorded two singles, most notably "Don't Blow Your Mind", which became a local hit in Phoenix in 1966. Garage rock_sentence_198

The group ventured to Los Angeles in 1967 in hopes of achieving greater success, however they found it not there, but while in Detroit several years later, re-christened as Alice Cooper. Garage rock_sentence_199

From Florida, Orlando's We the People came about as the result of the merger of two previous bands and featured songwriters Tommy Talton and Wane Proctor. Garage rock_sentence_200

They recorded a string of self-composed songs, such as primitive rockers, "You Burn Me Upside Down" and "Mirror of my Mind", as well as the esoteric "In the Past", later covered by the Chocolate Watchband. Garage rock_sentence_201

Evil from Miami, had a hard, sometimes thrashing sound and a reputation for musical mayhem, typified in songs such as "From a Curbstone" and "I'm Movin' On". Garage rock_sentence_202

Canada, islands, and territories Garage rock_section_15

Like the United States, Canada experienced a large and vigorous garage rock movement. Garage rock_sentence_203

Vancouver's the Northwest Company, who recorded "Hard to Cry", had a power chord-driven approach. Garage rock_sentence_204

The Painted Ship were known for primal songs such as the angst-ridden "Frustration" and "Little White Lies", which Stansted Montfichet called a "punk classic". Garage rock_sentence_205

The Guess Who from Winnipeg, Manitoba, began in 1958 and entered the mid-1960s with a hit, Johnny Kidd & the Pirates' "Shakin' All Over" and went to greater success in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Garage rock_sentence_206

In 1966 the Ugly Ducklings from Toronto had a hit with "Nothin'" and toured with the Rolling Stones. Garage rock_sentence_207

The Haunted from Montreal specialized in a gritty blues-based sound influenced by the Rolling Stones and released the single "1–2–5". Garage rock_sentence_208

Two other bands from Toronto were the Paupers and the Mynah Birds. Garage rock_sentence_209

The Paupers released several singles and two albums. Garage rock_sentence_210

The Mynah Birds featured the combination of Rick James on lead vocals and Neil Young on guitar, who both went on to fame as solo acts, as well as Bruce Palmer who later accompanied Young to California to join Buffalo Springfield in 1966. Garage rock_sentence_211

They signed a contract with Motown Records and recorded several songs including "It's My Time". Garage rock_sentence_212

Outside of the mainland, garage rock became a fixture in the islands and territories adjacent to the continent. Garage rock_sentence_213

The Savages from Bermuda recorded the album Live 'n Wild, which features "The World Ain't Round It's Square", an angry song of youthful defiance. Garage rock_sentence_214

Variants in regions outside of the US and Canada Garage rock_section_16

The garage phenomenon, though most often associated with North America, was not exclusive to it. Garage rock_sentence_215

As part of the international beat trend of the 1960s, other countries developed grass-roots rock movements that closely mirrored what was happening in North America, which have sometimes been characterized as variants of garage rock or as closely related forms. Garage rock_sentence_216

United Kingdom Garage rock_section_17

See also: British Invasion and Freakbeat Garage rock_sentence_217

Although Britain did not develop a distinct garage rock genre in the same way as the United States, many British beat groups shared important characteristics with the American bands who often attempted to emulate them, and the music of certain UK acts has been mentioned in particular relation to garage. Garage rock_sentence_218

Beat music emerged in Britain in the early 1960s, as musicians who originally came together to play rock and roll or skiffle assimilated American rhythm and blues influences. Garage rock_sentence_219

The genre provided the model for the format of many later rock groups. Garage rock_sentence_220

The Liverpool area had a particularly high concentration of acts and venues, and the Beatles emerged from this thriving music scene. Garage rock_sentence_221

In London and elsewhere, certain groups developed a harder-driving, distinctively British blues style. Garage rock_sentence_222

Nationally popular blues- and R&B- influenced beat groups included the Rolling Stones and the Yardbirds from London, the Animals from Newcastle, and Them, from Belfast, Northern Ireland, featuring Van Morrison. Garage rock_sentence_223

Coinciding with the "British Invasion" of the US, a musical cross-fertilization developed between the two continents. Garage rock_sentence_224

In their 1964 transatlantic hits "You Really Got Me" and "All Day and All of the Night", the Kinks took the influence of the Kingsmen's version of "Louie Louie" and applied greater volume and distortion, which in turn, influenced the approach of many American garage bands. Garage rock_sentence_225

With Van Morrison, Them recorded two songs widely covered by American garage bands: "Gloria", which became a big hit for Chicago's the Shadows of Knight, and "I Can Only Give You Everything". Garage rock_sentence_226

Keith Richards's use of fuzz distortion in the Rolling Stones' 1965 hit, "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction" affected the sound of countless American garage bands. Garage rock_sentence_227

Also influential were the Pretty Things and the Downliners Sect, both of whom were known for a particularly raw approach to blues-influenced rock that has sometimes been compared to garage. Garage rock_sentence_228

By 1965, bands such as the Who and the Small Faces were tailoring their appeal to the mod subculture centered in London. Garage rock_sentence_229

Some of the harder-driving and more obscure bands associated with the mod scene in the UK are sometimes referred to as Freakbeat, which is sometimes viewed as a more stylish British equivalent of garage rock. Garage rock_sentence_230

Several bands often mentioned as Freakbeat are the Creation, the Action, the Move, the Smoke, the Sorrows, and Wimple Winch. Garage rock_sentence_231

Some commentators have branded the Troggs as garage rock. Garage rock_sentence_232

Extolling the virtues of their seemingly unrepentant primitivism and sexually charged innuendo, in 1971 Lester Bangs memorialized the Troggs as a quintessential "punk" [i.e. garage] band of the 1960s. Garage rock_sentence_233

They had a worldwide hit in 1966 with "Wild Thing", written by American Chip Taylor. Garage rock_sentence_234

The Equals, a racially integrated band from North London whose membership included guitarist Eddy Grant, later a popular solo artist, specialized in an upbeat style of rock—their 1966 recording "Baby Come Back" was a hit in Europe before becoming a British number one in 1968. Garage rock_sentence_235

Continental Europe Garage rock_section_18

See also: Nederbeat and Beat-Club Garage rock_sentence_236

The beat boom swept through continental Europe, resulting in the emergence of national movements sometimes cited as European variants of garage rock. Garage rock_sentence_237

The Netherlands had one of the largest scenes, sometimes retroactively described as Nederbeat. Garage rock_sentence_238

From Amsterdam, the Outsiders, who Richie Unterberger singled out as one of the most important 1960s rock acts from a non-English Speaking country, featured Wally Tax on lead vocals and specialized in an eclectic R&B and folk-influenced style. Garage rock_sentence_239

Q65 from the Hague had a diverse but primitive sound, particularly on their early records. Garage rock_sentence_240

Also from the Hague, the Golden Earrings, who later gained international fame in the 1970s and 1980s as Golden Earring, had a top ten hit in the Netherlands in 1965 with "Please Go", followed by "That Day", which went to number two on the Dutch charts. Garage rock_sentence_241

Having nurtured the Beatles' early development in Hamburg, Germany was well-positioned to play a key role as beat music overtook the continent. Garage rock_sentence_242

Bands from Britain and around Europe traveled there to gain exposure, playing in clubs and appearing on popular German television shows such as Beat Club and Beat! Garage rock_sentence_243

Beat! Garage rock_sentence_244

Beat! Garage rock_sentence_245

The Lords, founded in Düsseldorf in 1959, pre-dated the British Invasion by several years, and adapted their sound and look to reflect the influence of the British groups, even singing in English, but providing a comic twist. Garage rock_sentence_246

The Rattles from Hamburg also had a lengthy history, but were more serious in their approach. Garage rock_sentence_247

There were numerous bands active in Spain, such as Los Bravos, who had a worldwide hit with "Black Is Black", as well as los Cheyenes and others. Garage rock_sentence_248

Latin America Garage rock_section_19

See also: Uruguayan Invasion Garage rock_sentence_249

Latin America got swept up in the worldwide beat trend and developed several of its own national scenes. Garage rock_sentence_250

Mexico experienced its own equivalent to North American garage. Garage rock_sentence_251

The nation's proximity to the United States was detectable in the raw sounds produced by a number of groups while the country simultaneously embraced the British Invasion. Garage rock_sentence_252

One of Mexico's most popular acts were Los Dug Dug's, who recorded several albums and stayed active well into the 1970s. Garage rock_sentence_253

The beat boom flourished in Uruguay during the mid-1960s in a period sometimes referred to as the Uruguayan Invasion. Garage rock_sentence_254

Two of the best known acts were Los Shakers and Los Mockers. Garage rock_sentence_255

In Peru, los Saicos were one of the first bands to gain national prominence. Garage rock_sentence_256

Their 1965 song "¡Demolición!" Garage rock_sentence_257

with its humorously anarchistic lyrics was a huge hit in Peru. Garage rock_sentence_258

About them Phil Freeman noted "These guys were a punk rock band, even if nobody outside Lima knew it at the time". Garage rock_sentence_259

Los Yorks became one of Peru's leading groups. Garage rock_sentence_260

Colombia hosted bands such Los Speakers and Los Flippers from Bogotá, Los Yetis from Medellín. Garage rock_sentence_261

Los Gatos Salvajes, who came from Rosario, Argentina, were one of the country's first beat groups, and two of their members went on to form Los Gatos, a popular act in Argentina during the late 1960s. Garage rock_sentence_262

Asia Garage rock_section_20

See also: Group Sounds Garage rock_sentence_263

The far East was not immune to the beat craze, and Japan was no exception, particularly after the Beatles' 1966 visit, when they played five shows at Tokyo's Budokan arena. Garage rock_sentence_264

The popular 1960s beat/garage movement in Japan is often referred to as Group Sounds (or GS). Garage rock_sentence_265

The Spiders were one of the better-known groups. Garage rock_sentence_266

Other notable bands were the Golden Cups and the Tigers. Garage rock_sentence_267

Despite famine, economic hardship, and political instability, India experienced its own proliferation of garage bands in the 1960s, even persisting into the beginning of the next decade with the 1960s musical style intact after it had fallen out of favor practically everywhere else. Garage rock_sentence_268

Mumbai, with its hotels, clubs, and nightlife, had a bustling music scene. Garage rock_sentence_269

The Jets, who were active from 1964 to 1966, were perhaps the first beat group to become popular there. Garage rock_sentence_270

Also popular in Mumbai were the Trojans, featuring Biddu, originally from Bangalore, who later moved to London and become a solo act. Garage rock_sentence_271

Every year the annual Simla Beat Contest was held in Bombay by the Imperial Tobacco Company. Garage rock_sentence_272

Groups from all over India, such as the Fentones and Velvet Fogg, competed in the event. Garage rock_sentence_273

Australia and New Zealand Garage rock_section_21

See also: Australian rock Garage rock_sentence_274

Australia and New Zealand experienced a garage/beat explosion in the mid-1960s. Garage rock_sentence_275

Before the British Invasion hit, the region enjoyed a sizable surf rock scene, with popular bands such as the Atlantics, who had several instrumental hits, as well as the Aztecs and the Sunsets. Garage rock_sentence_276

In late 1963 and early 1964 British Invasion influence began to permeate the music scenes there. Garage rock_sentence_277

In June 1964 the Beatles visited Australia as part of their world tour and were greeted by a crowd of an estimated 300,000 in Adelaide. Garage rock_sentence_278

In response, many prior Australian surf bands adapted by adding vocals over guitars, and a host of new bands formed. Garage rock_sentence_279

The first wave of British-inspired bands tended towards the pop-oriented sound of the Merseybeat. Garage rock_sentence_280

With rise in popularity of bands such as the Rolling Stones and the Animals, a second wave of Australian bands emerged that favored a harder, blues-influenced approach. Garage rock_sentence_281

Sydney was the host to numerous acts. Garage rock_sentence_282

The Atlantics switched to a vocal rock format and brought in veteran singer Johnny Rebb, formerly with Johnny Rebb and His Rebels. Garage rock_sentence_283

"Come On" was their best-known song from this period. Garage rock_sentence_284

The Easybeats, featuring vocalist Stevie Wright and guitarist George Young, the older brother of Angus Young and Malcolm Young later of AC/DC, became the most popular group in Australia during the mid-1960s. Garage rock_sentence_285

One of Sydney's most notorious acts was the Missing Links, who throughout 1965 went through a complete and total lineup change between the release their first single in March and on the subsequent releases later that year, such as the primitivist anthems "Wild About You", as well as their self-titled LP. Garage rock_sentence_286

Also in 1966, the Throb had a hit in Australia with their version of "Fortune Teller", and later that year released "Black", a brooding version of a traditional folk ballad noted for its expressionistic use of guitar feedback. Garage rock_sentence_287

The Black Diamonds' "I Want, Need, Love You" featured an intense and hard-driving guitar sound that Ian D. Marks described as "speaker cone-shredding". Garage rock_sentence_288

From Brisbane came the Pleazers and the Purple Hearts, and from Melbourne the Pink Finks, the Loved Ones, Steve and the Board, and the Moods. Garage rock_sentence_289

Like Sydney's the Missing Links, the Creatures were another notorious group of the period, who Iain McIntyre remarked "Thanks to their brightly coloured hair and bad-ass attitude, the Creatures left in their wake a legacy of multiple arrests, bloodied noses and legendary rave ups". Garage rock_sentence_290

The Masters Apprentices' early sound was largely R&B-influenced garage and psychedelic. Garage rock_sentence_291

From New Zealand, the Bluestars cut the defiant "Social End Product", aimed at social oppression much like the music of 1970s punk rock acts. Garage rock_sentence_292

Chants R&B were known for a raw R&B-influenced sound. Garage rock_sentence_293

The La De Das recorded a version of the Changin' Times' "How is the Air Up There? Garage rock_sentence_294

", which went to No. Garage rock_sentence_295

4 on the nation's charts. Garage rock_sentence_296

Integration with psychedelia and counterculture Garage rock_section_22

Historical and cultural associations Garage rock_section_23

See also: Counterculture of the 1960s and Psychedelia Garage rock_sentence_297

Increasingly throughout 1966, partly due to the growing influence of drugs such as marijuana and LSD, numerous bands began to expand their sound, sometimes employing eastern scales and various sonic effects to achieve exotic and hypnotic soundscapes in their music. Garage rock_sentence_298

The development was nonetheless the result of a longer musical evolution growing out of folk rock and other forms, and prefigured even in certain surf rock recordings. Garage rock_sentence_299

As the decade progressed, psychedelic influences became pervasive in much garage rock. Garage rock_sentence_300

Garage rock helped lay the groundwork for acid rock. Garage rock_sentence_301

By the mid-1960s numerous garage bands began to employ tone-altering devices such as fuzzboxes on guitars often for the purpose of enhancing the music's sonic palate, adding an aggressive edge with loudly amplified instruments to create a barrage of "clanging" sounds, in many cases expressing anger, defiance, and sexual frustration. Garage rock_sentence_302

The genre came into its peak of popularity at a time when a collective sense of discontent and alienation crept into the psyche of the youth in the United States and elsewhere—even in the largely conservative suburban communities which produced so many garage bands. Garage rock_sentence_303

Garage bands, though generally apolitical, nonetheless reflected the attitudes and tenor of the times. Garage rock_sentence_304

Nightly news reports had a cumulative effect on the mass consciousness, including musicians. Garage rock_sentence_305

Detectable in much of the music from this era is a disparate array of raw sounds and emotions, coinciding with surrounding events such as President Kennedy's assassination and the ongoing escalation of troops sent to Vietnam, yet certain commentators have also celebrated what they perceive as an apparent bygone innocence as part of the style's appeal to later generations. Garage rock_sentence_306

In 1965, the influence of artists such as Bob Dylan, who moved beyond political protest by experimenting with abstract and surreal lyrical imagery and switched to electric guitar, became increasingly pervasive across the musical landscape, affecting a number of genres, including garage rock. Garage rock_sentence_307

The members of garage bands, like so many musicians of the 1960s, were part of a generation that was largely born into the paradigm and customs of an older time, but grew up confronting a new set of issues facing a more advanced and technological age. Garage rock_sentence_308

Postwar prosperity brought the advantages of better education, as well as more spare time for recreation, which along with the new technology, made it possible for an increasing number of young people to play music. Garage rock_sentence_309

With the advent of television, nuclear weapons, civil rights, the Cold War, and space exploration, the new generation was more global in its mindset and began to conceive of a higher order of human relations, attempting to reach for a set of transcendent ideals, often expressed through rock music. Garage rock_sentence_310

Though set to a backdrop of tragic events that proved increasingly disillusioning, various forms of personal and musical experimentation held promise, at least for a time, in the minds of many. Garage rock_sentence_311

While testing the frontiers of what the new world had to offer, 1960s youth ultimately had to accept the limitations of the new reality, yet often did so while experiencing the ecstasy of a moment when the realm of the infinite seemed possible and within reach. Garage rock_sentence_312

Garage-based psychedelic/acid rock Garage rock_section_24

Main articles: Psychedelic rock and Acid rock Garage rock_sentence_313

Tapping into the psychedelic zeitgeist, musicians sonically pushed barriers and explored new horizons. Garage rock_sentence_314

Garage acts, while generally lacking the budgetary means to produce musical extravaganzas on the scale of the Beatles' Sgt. Garage rock_sentence_315 Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band or the instrumental virtuosity of acts such as Jimi Hendrix or Cream, nonetheless managed to infuse esoteric elements into basic primitive rock. Garage rock_sentence_316

The 13th Floor Elevators from Austin, Texas, are usually thought to be first band to use the term "psychedelic"—in their promotional literature in early 1966. Garage rock_sentence_317

They also used it in the title of their debut album released in November, The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators. Garage rock_sentence_318

In August 1966, the Deep traveled from New York to Philadelphia to record a set of hallucinogenic songs for the album Psychedelic Moods: A Mind-Expanding Phenomena, released in October 1966, one month before the 13th Floor Elevators' debut album, and whose all-night sessions produced mind-expanding stream of consciousness ramblings. Garage rock_sentence_319

Other notable bands that incorporated psychedelia into garage rock were the Electric Prunes, the Music Machine, the Blues Magoos, and the Chocolate Watchband. Garage rock_sentence_320

Primitivist avant-garde acts Garage rock_section_25

See also: Experimental rock Garage rock_sentence_321

Certain acts conveyed a world view markedly removed from the implicit innocence of much psychedelia and suburban-style garage, often infusing their work with subversive political or philosophical messages, dabbling in musical forms and concepts considered at the time to be uncomfortably out of the mainstream. Garage rock_sentence_322

Such artists shared certain characteristics with the garage bands in their use of primitivistic instrumentation and arrangements, while displaying psychedelic rock's affinity for exploration—creating more urbanized, intellectual, and avant garde forms of primitivist rock, sometimes characterized as variants of garage rock. Garage rock_sentence_323

New York City was the home to several such groups. Garage rock_sentence_324

The Fugs, who formed in 1963, were one of rock's first experimental bands and its core members were singer, poet, and social activist Ed Sanders, along with Tuli Kupferberg and Ken Weaver. Garage rock_sentence_325

They specialized in a satirical mixture of amateurish garage rock, jug, folk, and psychedelic laced with leftist political commentary. Garage rock_sentence_326

In a 1970 interview, Ed Sanders became the first known musician to describe his music as "punk rock". Garage rock_sentence_327

The Velvet Underground, whose roster included Lou Reed, are now generally considered the foremost experimental rock group of the period. Garage rock_sentence_328

At the time of recording their first album, they were involved with Andy Warhol, who produced some its tracks, and his assemblage of "scenesters" at the Factory, including model-turned-singer Nico. Garage rock_sentence_329

She briefly accompanied them on the resulting album, The Velvet Underground & Nico. Garage rock_sentence_330

The album's lyrics, though generally apolitical, depict the world of hard drugs in songs such as "I'm Waiting for the Man" and "Heroin", and other topics considered taboo at the time. Garage rock_sentence_331

Outside of New York were the Monks from Germany, whose members were former US servicemen who chose to remain in Germany, where in 1965 they developed an experimental sound on their album Black Monk Time. Garage rock_sentence_332

The group, who sometimes wore habits and partially shaven tonsures, specialized in a style featuring chanting and hypnotic percussion. Garage rock_sentence_333

Decline Garage rock_section_26

Even at the height of garage rock's popularity in the mid-1960s, the success of most of its records, in spite of a handful of notable exceptions, was relegated to local and regional markets. Garage rock_sentence_334

In the wake of psychedelia, as rock music became increasingly sophisticated, garage rock began to fade. Garage rock_sentence_335

After the release of Sgt. Garage rock_sentence_336 Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band and other late-1960s big-production spectaculars, rock albums became increasingly elaborate and were expected to display maturity and complexity, while the 45-RPM single ceded to the long-play album as the preferred medium. Garage rock_sentence_337

Album-oriented progressive FM stations eventually overtook AM radio in popularity, and as the large major-label record companies became more powerful and less willing to sign new acts, the once plentiful local and regional independent labels of the mid-1960s began to fold. Garage rock_sentence_338

Radio playlists became more regimented and disc jockeys began to have less freedom, making it increasingly difficult for local and regional bands to receive airplay. Garage rock_sentence_339

Teen clubs and dance venues which previously served as reliable and steady engagements for young groups started to close. Garage rock_sentence_340

The garage sound disappeared at both the national and local level, as band members graduated and departed for college, work, or the military. Garage rock_sentence_341

Musicians in bands frequently faced the prospect of the Vietnam War draft, and many were selected for service. Garage rock_sentence_342

Some lost their lives in action. Garage rock_sentence_343

With the tumultuous political events of 1968, the tense mood of the country reached a breaking point, while increasing use of drugs and other factors intermingled with shifting musical tastes. Garage rock_sentence_344

New styles either evolved out of garage rock or replaced it, such as acid rock, progressive rock, heavy metal, country rock, and bubblegum. Garage rock_sentence_345

By 1969 the garage rock phenomenon was largely over. Garage rock_sentence_346

Later developments Garage rock_section_27

1969–1975: Garage-based proto-punk Garage rock_section_28

See also: Proto-punk Garage rock_sentence_347

The garage rock boom faded at the end of the 1960s, but a handful of maverick acts carried its impetus into the next decade, seizing on the style's rougher edges, while brandishing them with increased volume and aggression. Garage rock_sentence_348

Such acts, often retroactively described as "proto-punk", worked in a variety of rock genres and came from various places, most notably Michigan, and specialized in music that was loud, but more primitive than the typical hard rock of the time. Garage rock_sentence_349

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, several Michigan bands rooted in garage rock recorded works that became highly influential, particularly with the 1970s punk movement. Garage rock_sentence_350

In 1969, MC5 issued their live debut LP, Kick Out the Jams, which featured a set of highly energetic, politically-charged songs. Garage rock_sentence_351

The Stooges, from Ann Arbor were fronted by lead singer Iggy Pop, Describing their approach, Stephen Thomas Erlewine commented: "Taking their cue from the over-amplified pounding of British blues, the primal raunch of American garage rock, and the psychedelic rock (as well as the audience-baiting) of the Doors, the Stooges were raw, immediate, and vulgar." Garage rock_sentence_352

The group released three albums during this period, beginning with the self-titled The Stooges in 1969 and culminating with Raw Power (now billed as Iggy and the Stooges) in 1973, which featured the cathartic "Search and Destroy" as its opening track. Garage rock_sentence_353

The Alice Cooper band relocated to Detroit, where they began to gain success with a new "shock rock" image, and recorded 1971's Love It to Death, which featured their breakout hit "I'm Eighteen". Garage rock_sentence_354

Two bands that formed during the waning days of the Detroit scene in the early 1970s were the Punks and Death. Garage rock_sentence_355

The Punks had a sometimes thrashing sound that rock journalist Lester Bangs described as "intense" and their song "My Time's Comin'" was retroactively featured in a 2016 episode of HBO's Vinyl. Garage rock_sentence_356

In 1974, Death, whose membership was made up of brothers David, Bobby, and Dannis Hackney, recorded tracks for an album that remained unreleased for over 30 years, ...For the Whole World to See, which, along with the release of their other previously unissued tracks, finally earned them a reputation as pioneers in punk rock. Garage rock_sentence_357

In Boston, the Modern Lovers, led by Velvet Underground devotee Jonathan Richman, gained attention with their minimalistic style. Garage rock_sentence_358

In 1972, they recorded a set of demos that formed the basis of their belated Modern Lovers album in 1976. Garage rock_sentence_359

In 1974, an updated garage rock scene began to coalesce around the Rathskeller club in Kenmore Square. Garage rock_sentence_360

The Real Kids, a leading band in the scene, were founded by former Modern Lover John Felice. Garage rock_sentence_361

The Electric Eels, who formed in 1972, were a fixture in the underground rock scene in Cleveland, Ohio, which has sometimes been mentioned as a precursor to the punk scenes in New York and London. Garage rock_sentence_362

The Electric Eels were notorious for mayhem at their shows and had a markedly nihilistic approach suggestive of later acts and recorded a set of demos in 1975, from which the single "Agitated" b/w "Cyclotron" was eventually released in 1978, several years after the group's demise. Garage rock_sentence_363

Between 1969 and 1975, other movements further removed from the American garage rock tradition emerged, that nonetheless displayed hallmarks of proto-punk, such as Glam and pub rock in Great Britain, as well as Krautrock in Germany. Garage rock_sentence_364

Glam rock had a reflexive influence on the garage/proto-punk sound of the New York Dolls from New York, exhibited on their 1973 debut album and its follow-up, Too Much Too Soon. Garage rock_sentence_365

The Dictators, fronted by Handsome Dick Manitoba, were another influential New York act of this period. Garage rock_sentence_366

The music from these disparate movements helped set the stage for the punk rock phenomenon of the mid-1970s. Garage rock_sentence_367

Mid-1970s: Emergence of the punk movement Garage rock_section_29

Main articles: Punk rock and Punk subculture Garage rock_sentence_368

Identification of garage rock by certain critics in the early 1970s (and their use of the term "punk rock" to describe it), as well as the 1972 Nuggets compilation exerted a marked degree of influence on the punk movement that emerged in the mid-to-late 1970s. Garage rock_sentence_369

As a result of the popularity of Nuggets and critical attention paid to primitive-sounding rock of the past and present, a self-conscious musical aesthetic began to emerge around the term "punk" that, with the arrival of the punk scenes in New York, London, and elsewhere between 1975 and 1977, transformed into a new movement having its own separate subculture, identity, and values. Garage rock_sentence_370

The mid- to late-1970s saw the arrival of the acts now most commonly identified as punk rock. Garage rock_sentence_371

Frequently mentioned as the first of these were the Ramones from New York, some of whose members earlier played in 1960s garage bands. Garage rock_sentence_372

They were followed by the Sex Pistols in London, who struck a far more defiant pose and effectively heralded the arrival punk as a cause célèbre in the larger public mind. Garage rock_sentence_373

Both bands spearheaded the popular punk movement from their respective locations. Garage rock_sentence_374

Simultaneously, Australia developed its own punk scene, which derived some of its inspiration from the 1960s Australian garage/beat movement. Garage rock_sentence_375

One of its leading bands the Saints, from Brisbane, included a rendition of the Missing Links' "Wild About You" on their 1977 debut album. Garage rock_sentence_376

Despite the influence of garage rock and proto-punk on the originating musicians of these scenes, punk rock emerged as a new phenomenon, distinct from its prior associations, and the garage band era of the 1960s came to be viewed as a distant forerunner. Garage rock_sentence_377

1970s–2000s: Revivalist and hybrid movements Garage rock_section_30

Garage rock has experienced various revivals in the ensuing years and continues to influence numerous modern acts who prefer a "back to basics" and "do it yourself" musical approach. Garage rock_sentence_378

The earliest group to attempt to revive the sound of 1960s garage was the Droogs, from Los Angeles, who formed in 1972 and pre-dated many of the revival acts of the 1980s. Garage rock_sentence_379

In the early 1980s, revival scenes linked to the underground music movements of the period sprang up in Los Angeles, New York, Boston, and elsewhere, with acts such as the Chesterfield Kings, the Fuzztones, the Pandoras, and the Lyres earnestly attempting to replicate the sound and look of the 1960s garage bands. Garage rock_sentence_380

This trend fed in into the alternative rock movement and future grunge explosion, which embraced influences by 1960s garage bands such as the Sonics and the Wailers. Garage rock_sentence_381

Out of the garage revival, a more aggressive form of garage rock known as garage punk emerged in the late 1980s. Garage rock_sentence_382

It differed from the "retro" revival in that its acts did not attempt to replicate the exact look and sound of 1960s groups, and their approach tended to be louder, often infusing garage rock with elements of Stooges-era protopunk, 1970s punk rock, and other influences, creating a new hybrid. Garage rock_sentence_383

Several notable garage punk bands were the Gories, thee Mighty Caesars, the Mummies and thee Headcoats. Garage rock_sentence_384

Out of Japan came Guitar Wolf from Nagasaki and the's from Tokyo. Garage rock_sentence_385

Garage punk and revival acts persisted into the 1990s and the new millennium, with independent record labels releasing records by bands playing fast-paced, lo-fi music. Garage rock_sentence_386

Some of the more prolific independent labels include Estrus, Get Hip, Bomp! Garage rock_sentence_387 , and Sympathy for the Record Industry. Garage rock_sentence_388

In the early 2000s, a garage rock or post-punk revival achieved the airplay and commercial success that had eluded garage rock bands of the past. Garage rock_sentence_389

This was led by four bands: the Strokes of New York City, the Hives of Fagersta, Sweden, the Vines of Sydney, and the White Stripes from Detroit, Michigan. Garage rock_sentence_390

Other products of the Detroit rock scene included the Von Bondies, Electric 6, the Dirtbombs, the Detroit Cobras, and Rocket 455. Garage rock_sentence_391

Elsewhere, acts such as Billy Childish and the Buff Medways from Chatham, England, the (International) Noise Conspiracy from Umeå, Sweden, and Jay Reatard and the Oblivians from Memphis, enjoyed moderate underground success and appeal. Garage rock_sentence_392

A second wave of bands that gained international recognition as a result of the movement included the Black Keys, Black Rebel Motorcycle Club, Death from Above 1979, the Yeah Yeah Yeahs, the Killers, Interpol, Cage the Elephant, and Kings of Leon from the US, the Libertines, Arctic Monkeys, Bloc Party, Editors, and Franz Ferdinand from the UK, Jet from Australia, and the Datsuns and the D4 from New Zealand. Garage rock_sentence_393

The mid-2000s saw several underground bands achieve mainstream prominence. Garage rock_sentence_394

Acts such as Ty Segall, Thee Oh Sees, Black Lips and Jay Reatard, that initially released records on smaller garage punk labels such as In the Red Records, began signing to larger, better-known independent labels. Garage rock_sentence_395

Several bands followed them in signing to larger labels such as Rough Trade and Drag City. Garage rock_sentence_396

Compilations Garage rock_section_31

See also: List of garage rock compilation albums Garage rock_sentence_397

According to Peter Aaron, there are over a thousand garage rock compilations featuring work by various artists of the 1960s. Garage rock_sentence_398

The first major garage rock compilation, Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968, was released by Elektra Records in 1972. Garage rock_sentence_399

Nuggets grew into a multi-volume series, when Rhino Records in the 1980s released fifteen installments that consisted of songs from the original album plus additional tracks. Garage rock_sentence_400

In 1998, Rhino released a four-CD box set version of Nuggets, containing the original album and three additional discs of material, that included extensive liner notes by some of garage rock's most influential writers. Garage rock_sentence_401

The Pebbles series was begun by Greg Shaw and originally appeared on his Bomp label in 1978 and has been issued in successive installments on LP and CD. Garage rock_sentence_402

Back from the Grave is a series issued by Crypt Records that focuses on hard-driving and primitive examples of the genre. Garage rock_sentence_403

Big Beat Records' Uptight Tonight: The Ultimate 1960s Garage Punk Primer also features harder material. Garage rock_sentence_404

There are several notable anthologies devoted to female garage bands from the 1960s. Garage rock_sentence_405

Girls in the Garage was the first female garage rock series, and Ace Records' issued the more recent Girls with Guitars compilations. Garage rock_sentence_406

There are numerous collections featuring garage/beat music from outside of North America. Garage rock_sentence_407

Rhino's Nuggets II: Original Artyfacts from the British Empire and Beyond, 1964–1969 4-CD box set includes music from the United Kingdom and other countries in the British commonwealth. Garage rock_sentence_408

It is of particular interest to fans of freakbeat. Garage rock_sentence_409

Ugly Things was the first compilation series to highlight Australian garage bands from the 1960s. Garage rock_sentence_410

Down Under Nuggets: Original Australian Artyfacts 1965–1967 also covers Australian acts. Garage rock_sentence_411

The Trans World Punk Rave-Up series focuses on garage and Nederbeat music from Continental Europe. Garage rock_sentence_412

Los Nuggetz Volume Uno is devoted primarily to Latin American groups and is available in a single-CD edition, as well as an expanded 4-CD box set. Garage rock_sentence_413

GS I Love You: Japanese Garage Bands of the 1960s and its companion piece GS I Love You Too: Japanese Garage Bands of the 1960s Both sets feature GS acts from Japan. Garage rock_sentence_414

The Simla Beat 70/71 compilation consists of recordings by garage rock acts from India that competed in the 1970 and 1971 Simla Beat contests. Garage rock_sentence_415

Though its tracks were recorded at the turn of the 1970s, most of them bear a striking resemblance to music made in the West several years earlier. Garage rock_sentence_416

List of bands Garage rock_section_32

Main article: List of garage rock bands Garage rock_sentence_417

See also Garage rock_section_33

Garage rock_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: rock.