Gay pride

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Not to be confused with Pride parade. Gay pride_sentence_0

Gay pride or LGBT pride is the promotion of the self-affirmation, dignity, equality, and increased visibility of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people as a social group. Gay pride_sentence_1

Pride, as opposed to shame and social stigma, is the predominant outlook that bolsters most LGBT rights movements. Gay pride_sentence_2

Pride has lent its name to LGBT-themed organizations, institutes, foundations, book titles, periodicals, a cable TV station, and the Pride Library. Gay pride_sentence_3

Ranging from solemn to carnivalesque, pride events are typically held during LGBT Pride Month or some other period that commemorates a turning point in a country's LGBT history, for example Moscow Pride in May for the anniversary of Russia's 1993 decriminalization of homosexuality. Gay pride_sentence_4

Some pride events include LGBT pride parades and marches, rallies, commemorations, community days, dance parties, and festivals. Gay pride_sentence_5

As of 2017, plans were advancing by the State of New York to host in 2019 the largest international celebration of LGBT pride in history, Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots. Gay pride_sentence_6

In New York City, the Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019 events produced by Heritage of Pride were enhanced through a partnership made with the I LOVE NY program's LGBT division and included a welcome center during the weeks surrounding the Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019 events that were be open to all. Gay pride_sentence_7

Additional commemorative arts, cultural, and educational programming to mark the 50th anniversary of the rebellion at the Stonewall Inn took place throughout the city and the world. Gay pride_sentence_8

Common symbols of pride are the rainbow or pride flag, the lowercase Greek letter lambda (λ), the pink triangle and the black triangle, these latter two reclaimed from use as badges of shame in Nazi concentration camps. Gay pride_sentence_9

Terminology origins Gay pride_section_0

The term "Gay Pride" was crafted by Thom Higgins, a gay rights activist in Minnesota (1969+). Gay pride_sentence_10

Brenda Howard, a bisexual activist, is known as the "Mother of Pride" for her work in coordinating the march, and she also originated the idea for a week-long series of events around Pride Day which became the genesis of the annual LGBT Pride celebrations that are now held around the world every June. Gay pride_sentence_11

Additionally, Howard along with the bisexual activist Robert A. Martin (aka Donny the Punk) and gay activist L. Gay pride_sentence_12 Craig Schoonmaker are credited with popularizing the word "Pride" to describe these festivities. Gay pride_sentence_13

Bisexual activist Tom Limoncelli later stated, "The next time someone asks you why LGBT Pride marches exist or why [LGBT] Pride Month is June tell them 'A bisexual woman named Brenda Howard thought it should be.'" Gay pride_sentence_14

Historical background Gay pride_section_1

Pride precursors Gay pride_section_2

Main article: List of LGBT actions in the United States prior to the Stonewall riots Gay pride_sentence_15

Annual Reminders Gay pride_section_3

The 1950s and 1960s in the United States was an extremely repressive legal and social period for LGBT people. Gay pride_sentence_16

In this context American homophile organizations such as the Daughters of Bilitis and the Mattachine Society coordinated some of the earliest demonstrations of the modern LGBT rights movement. Gay pride_sentence_17

These two organizations in particular carried out pickets called "Annual Reminders" to inform and remind Americans that LGBT people did not receive basic civil rights protections. Gay pride_sentence_18

Annual Reminders began in 1965 and took place each July 4 at Independence Hall in Philadelphia. Gay pride_sentence_19

"Gay is Good" Gay pride_section_4

The anti-LGBT discourse of these times equated both male and female homosexuality with mental illness. Gay pride_sentence_20

Inspired by Stokely Carmichael's "Black is Beautiful", gay civil rights pioneer and participant in the Annual Reminders Frank Kameny originated the slogan "Gay is Good" in 1968 to counter social stigma and personal feelings of guilt and shame. Gay pride_sentence_21

Christopher Street Liberation Day Gay pride_section_5

See also: Stonewall riots Gay pride_sentence_22

Early on the morning of Saturday, June 28, 1969, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons rioted following a police raid on the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar at 43 Christopher Street in Greenwich Village, Manhattan, New York City. Gay pride_sentence_23

This riot and further protests and rioting over the following nights were the watershed moment in the modern LGBT rights movement and the impetus for organizing LGBT pride marches on a much larger public scale. Gay pride_sentence_24

On November 2, 1969, Craig Rodwell, his partner Fred Sargeant, Ellen Broidy, and Linda Rhodes proposed the first pride march to be held in New York City by way of a resolution at the Eastern Regional Conference of Homophile Organizations (ERCHO) meeting in Philadelphia. Gay pride_sentence_25

All attendees to the ERCHO meeting in Philadelphia voted for the march except for Mattachine Society of New York, which abstained. Gay pride_sentence_26

Members of the Gay Liberation Front (GLF) attended the meeting and were seated as guests of Rodwell's group, Homophile Youth Movement in Neighborhoods (HYMN). Gay pride_sentence_27

Meetings to organize the march began in early January at Rodwell's apartment in 350 Bleecker Street. Gay pride_sentence_28

At first there was difficulty getting some of the major New York City organizations like Gay Activists Alliance (GAA) to send representatives. Gay pride_sentence_29

Craig Rodwell and his partner Fred Sargeant, Ellen Broidy, Michael Brown, Marty Nixon, and Foster Gunnison of Mattachine made up the core group of the CSLD Umbrella Committee (CSLDUC). Gay pride_sentence_30

For initial funding, Gunnison served as treasurer and sought donations from the national homophile organizations and sponsors, while Sargeant solicited donations via the Oscar Wilde Memorial Bookshop customer mailing list and Nixon worked to gain financial support from GLF in his position as treasurer for that organization. Gay pride_sentence_31

Other mainstays of the organizing committee were Judy Miller, Jack Waluska, Steve Gerrie and Brenda Howard of GLF. Gay pride_sentence_32

Believing that more people would turn out for the march on a Sunday, and so as to mark the date of the start of the Stonewall uprising, the CSLDUC scheduled the date for the first march for Sunday, June 28, 1970. Gay pride_sentence_33

With Dick Leitsch's replacement as president of Mattachine NY by Michael Kotis in April 1970, opposition to the march by Mattachine ended. Gay pride_sentence_34

Brenda Howard, a bisexual activist, is known as the "Mother of Pride" for her work in coordinating the march, and she also originated the idea for a week-long series of events around Pride Day which became the genesis of the annual LGBT Pride celebrations that are now held around the world every June. Gay pride_sentence_35

Additionally, Howard along with the bisexual activist Robert A. Martin (aka Donny the Punk) and gay activist L. Gay pride_sentence_36 Craig Schoonmaker are credited with popularizing the word "Pride" to describe these festivities. Gay pride_sentence_37

Bisexual activist Tom Limoncelli later stated, "The next time someone asks you why LGBT Pride marches exist or why [LGBT] Pride Month is June tell them 'A bisexual woman named Brenda Howard thought it should be.'" Gay pride_sentence_38

Christopher Street Liberation Day on June 28, 1970, marked the first anniversary of the Stonewall riots with the march, which was the first Gay Pride march in New York history, and covered the 51 blocks to Central Park. Gay pride_sentence_39

The march took less than half the scheduled time due to excitement, but also due to wariness about walking through the city with gay banners and signs. Gay pride_sentence_40

Although the parade permit was delivered only two hours before the start of the march, the marchers encountered little resistance from onlookers. Gay pride_sentence_41

The New York Times reported (on the front page) that the marchers took up the entire street for about 15 city blocks. Gay pride_sentence_42

Reporting by The Village Voice was positive, describing "the out-front resistance that grew out of the police raid on the Stonewall Inn one year ago". Gay pride_sentence_43

There was also an assembly on Christopher Street. Gay pride_sentence_44

Spread Gay pride_section_6

On Saturday, June 27, 1970, Chicago Gay Liberation organized a march from Washington Square Park ("Bughouse Square") to the Water Tower at the intersection of Michigan and Chicago avenues, which was the route originally planned, and then many of the participants extemporaneously marched on to the Civic Center (now Richard J. Daley) Plaza. Gay pride_sentence_45

The date was chosen because the Stonewall events began on the last Saturday of June and because organizers wanted to reach the maximum number of Michigan Avenue shoppers. Gay pride_sentence_46

Subsequent Chicago parades have been held on the last Sunday of June, coinciding with the date of many similar parades elsewhere. Gay pride_sentence_47

Subsequently, during the same weekend, gay activist groups on the West Coast of the United States held a march in Los Angeles and a march and "Gay-in" in San Francisco. Gay pride_sentence_48

The next year, Gay Pride marches took place in Boston, Dallas, Milwaukee, London, Paris, West Berlin, and Stockholm. Gay pride_sentence_49

By 1972 the participating cities included Atlanta, Brighton, Buffalo, Detroit, Washington D.C., Miami, and Philadelphia, as well as San Francisco. Gay pride_sentence_50

Frank Kameny soon realized the pivotal change brought by the Stonewall riots. Gay pride_sentence_51

An organizer of gay activism in the 1950s, he was used to persuasion, trying to convince heterosexuals that gay people were no different than they were. Gay pride_sentence_52

When he and other people marched in front of the White House, the State Department and Independence Hall only five years earlier, their objective was to look as if they could work for the U.S. government. Gay pride_sentence_53

Ten people marched with Kameny then, and they alerted no press to their intentions. Gay pride_sentence_54

Although he was stunned by the upheaval by participants in the Annual Reminder in 1969, he later observed, "By the time of Stonewall, we had fifty to sixty gay groups in the country. Gay pride_sentence_55

A year later there were at least fifteen hundred. Gay pride_sentence_56

By two years later, to the extent that a count could be made, it was twenty-five hundred." Gay pride_sentence_57

Similar to Kameny's regret at his own reaction to the shift in attitudes after the riots, Randy Wicker came to describe his embarrassment as "one of the greatest mistakes of his life". Gay pride_sentence_58

The image of gays retaliating against police, after so many years of allowing such treatment to go unchallenged, "stirred an unexpected spirit among many homosexuals". Gay pride_sentence_59

Kay Lahusen, who photographed the marches in 1965, stated, "Up to 1969, this movement was generally called the homosexual or homophile movement... Gay pride_sentence_60

Many new activists consider the Stonewall uprising the birth of the gay liberation movement. Gay pride_sentence_61

Certainly it was the birth of gay pride on a massive scale." Gay pride_sentence_62

1980s and 1990s Gay pride_section_7

In the 1980s there was a major cultural shift in the Stonewall Riot commemorations. Gay pride_sentence_63

The previous loosely organized, grassroots marches and parades were taken over by more organized and less radical elements of the gay community. Gay pride_sentence_64

The marches began dropping "Liberation" and "Freedom" from their names under pressure from more conservative members of the community, replacing them with the philosophy of "Gay Pride" (in San Francisco, the name of the gay parade and celebration was not changed from Gay Freedom Day Parade to Gay Pride Day Parade until 1994). Gay pride_sentence_65

The Greek lambda symbol and the pink triangle, which had been revolutionary symbols of the Gay Liberation Movement, were tidied up and incorporated into the Gay Pride, or Pride, movement, providing some symbolic continuity with its more radical beginnings. Gay pride_sentence_66

The pink triangle was also the inspiration for the homomonument in Amsterdam, commemorating all gay men and lesbians who have been subjected to persecution because of their homosexuality. Gay pride_sentence_67

LGBT Pride Month Gay pride_section_8

LGBT Pride Month occurs in the United States to commemorate the Stonewall riots, which occurred at the end of June 1969. Gay pride_sentence_68

As a result, many pride events are held during this month to recognize the impact LGBT people have had in the world. Gay pride_sentence_69

Bisexual activist Brenda Howard is known as the "Mother of Pride", for her work in coordinating the first LGBT Pride march, and she also originated the idea for a week-long series of events around Pride Day which became the genesis of the annual LGBT Pride celebrations that are now held around the world every June. Gay pride_sentence_70

Additionally, Howard along with the bisexual activist Robert A. Martin (aka Donny the Punk) and gay activist L. Gay pride_sentence_71 Craig Schoonmaker are credited with popularizing the word "Pride" to describe these festivities. Gay pride_sentence_72

Bisexual activist Tom Limoncelli later stated, "The next time someone asks you why LGBT Pride marches exist or why [LGBT] Pride Month is June tell them 'A bisexual woman named Brenda Howard thought it should be.'" Gay pride_sentence_73

Two presidents of the United States have officially declared a pride month. Gay pride_sentence_74

First, President Bill Clinton declared June "Gay & Lesbian Pride Month" in 1999 and 2000. Gay pride_sentence_75

Then from 2009 to 2016, each year he was in office, President Barack Obama declared June LGBT Pride Month. Gay pride_sentence_76

Donald Trump became the first Republican president to acknowledge LGBT Pride Month in 2019, but he did so through tweeting rather than an official proclamation. Gay pride_sentence_77

Beginning in 2012, Google displayed some LGBT-related search results with different rainbow-colored patterns each year during June. Gay pride_sentence_78

In 2017, Google also included rainbow coloured streets on Google Maps to display Gay Pride marches occurring across the world. Gay pride_sentence_79

At many colleges, which are not in session in June, LGBT pride is instead celebrated during April, which is dubbed "Gaypril". Gay pride_sentence_80

Pride month is not recognized internationally as pride celebrations take place in many other places at different times, including in the months of February, August, and September. Gay pride_sentence_81

Criticism Gay pride_section_9

From both outside and inside the LGBT community, there is criticism and protest against pride events. Gay pride_sentence_82

Bob Christie's documentary Beyond Gay: The Politics of Pride evaluates gay pride events in different countries within the context of local opposition. Gay pride_sentence_83

Initiatives and criticism by governments and political leaders Gay pride_section_10

Brazil Gay pride_section_11

In August 2011, Sao Paulo city alderman of the right-wing Democrats Party sponsored a bill to organize and sponsor "Heterosexual Pride Day" on the third Sunday of December. Gay pride_sentence_84

Apolinário, an Evangelical Protestant, stated that the intent of the parade was a "struggle ... against excesses and privileges". Gay pride_sentence_85

Members of Grupo Gay da Bahia and the Workers' Party opposed the bill as enhancing "the possibility of discrimination and prejudice". Gay pride_sentence_86

The bill was nevertheless passed by the city council, but never received the signature of mayor Gilberto Kassab. Gay pride_sentence_87

A Brazilian photographer was arrested after refusing to delete photos of police attacking two young people participating in a gay pride parade on October 16, 2011, in the city of Itabuna, Bahia, reported the newspaper Correio 24 horas. Gay pride_sentence_88

According to the website Notícias de Ipiau, Ederivaldo Benedito, known as Bené, said four police officers tried to convince him to delete the photos soon after they realized they were being photographed. Gay pride_sentence_89

When he refused, they ordered him to turn over the camera. Gay pride_sentence_90

When the photographer refused again, the police charged him with contempt and held him in jail for over 21 hours until he gave a statement. Gay pride_sentence_91

According to Chief Marlon Macedo, the police alleged that the photographer was interfering with their work, did not have identification, and became aggressive when he was asked to move. Gay pride_sentence_92

Bené denied the allegations, saying the police were belligerent and that the scene was witnessed by "over 300 people", reported Agência Estado. Gay pride_sentence_93

Spain Gay pride_section_12

In a 2008 interview for the biography book, La Reina muy cerca (The Queen Up Close) by Spanish journalist and writer Pilar Urbano, Queen Sofía of Spain sparked controversy by voicing her disapproval of LGBT pride. Gay pride_sentence_94

This was in addition to overstepping her official duties as a member of the Royal Family by censuring the Spanish Law on Marriage in how it names same-sex unions as "matrimonio" (marriage). Gay pride_sentence_95

Without using the slogan "Straight Pride", Queen Sofía was directly quoted as saying that if heterosexuals were to take the streets as the LGBT community does for Gay Pride parades, that the former collective would bring Madrid to a standstill. Gay pride_sentence_96

Even though the Royal Household of Spain approved publication of the interview and Pilar Urbano offered to share the interview recording, both Queen Sofía and the Royal Household have refuted the comments in question. Gay pride_sentence_97

Turkey Gay pride_section_13

In 2015 police dispersed the LGBT Pride Parade using tear gas and rubber bullets. Gay pride_sentence_98

In 2016 and 2017, the Istanbul Governor's Office did not allow the LGBT Pride Parade to take place, citing security concerns and public order. Gay pride_sentence_99

Uganda Gay pride_section_14

In 2016, Ugandan police broke up a gay pride event in the capital. Gay pride_sentence_100

Homosexual acts are illegal in Uganda. Gay pride_sentence_101

In-group Gay pride_section_15

In a special queer issue of The Stranger in 1999, openly gay author, pundit, and journalist Dan Savage questioned the relevance of pride thirty years later, writing that pride was an effective antidote to shame imposed on LGBT people, but that pride is now making LGBT people dull and slow as a group, as well as being a constant reminder of shame; however, he also states that pride in some simpler forms are still useful to individuals struggling with shame. Gay pride_sentence_102

Savage writes that gay pride can also lead to disillusionment where an LGBT individual realizes the reality that sexual orientation doesn't say much about a person's personality, after being led by the illusion that LGBT individuals are part of a co-supportive and inherently good group of people. Gay pride_sentence_103

The growth and commercialization of Christopher Street Days, coupled with their de-politicalisation, has led to an alternative CSD in Berlin, the so-called "Kreuzberger CSD" or "Transgenialer" ("Transgenial"/Trans Ingenious") CSD. Gay pride_sentence_104

Political party members are not invited for speeches, nor can parties or companies sponsor floats. Gay pride_sentence_105

After the parade, there is a festival with a stage for political speakers and entertainers. Gay pride_sentence_106

Groups discuss lesbian/transsexual/transgender/gay or queer perspectives on issues such as poverty and unemployment benefits (Hartz IV), gentrification, or "Fortress Europe". Gay pride_sentence_107

In June 2010, American philosopher and theorist Judith Butler refused the Civil Courage Award (Zivilcouragepreis) of the Christopher Street Day Parade in Berlin, Germany at the award ceremony, arguing and lamenting in a speech that the parade had become too commercial, and was ignoring the problems of racism and the double discrimination facing homosexual or transsexual migrants. Gay pride_sentence_108

According to Butler, even the organizers themselves promote racism. Gay pride_sentence_109

The general manager of the CSD committee, Robert Kastl, countered Butler's allegations and pointed out that the organizers already awarded a counseling center for lesbians dealing with double discrimination in 2006. Gay pride_sentence_110

Regarding the allegations of commercialism, Kastl further explained that the CSD organizers do not require small groups to pay a participation fee (which starts at 50 € and goes up to 1500 €). Gay pride_sentence_111

He also distanced himself from all forms of racism and Islamophobia. Gay pride_sentence_112

A number of associations and social movements have been denouncing pride in recent years, viewing it as a depletion of the claims of such demonstrations and the merchandization of the parade. Gay pride_sentence_113

In this respect, they defend, in countries like Spain, the United States or Canada, a Critical Pride celebration to give the events a political meaning again. Gay pride_sentence_114

Gay Shame, a radical movement within the LGBT community, opposes the assimilation of LGBT people into mainstream, heteronormative society, the commodification of non-heterosexual identity and culture, and in particular the (over) commercialization of pride events. Gay pride_sentence_115

"Straight Pride" analogy Gay pride_section_16

Main article: Straight pride Gay pride_sentence_116

"Straight Pride" and "Heterosexual Pride" are analogies and slogans that contrast heterosexuality with homosexuality by copying the phrase "Gay Pride". Gay pride_sentence_117

Originating from the Culture Wars in the United States, "Straight Pride" is a form of conservative backlash as there is no straight or heterosexual civil rights movement. Gay pride_sentence_118

While criticism from inside and outside the LGBT community abounds, the "Straight Pride" incidents have gained some media attention, especially when they involve government and public institutions. Gay pride_sentence_119

See also Gay pride_section_17

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: pride.