LGBT rights by country or territory

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This article is about current LGBT rights around the world. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_0

For historical and current movements to further LGBT rights, see LGBT social movements. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_1

For intersex rights, see Intersex rights by country and Intersex human rights. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_2

Rights affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people vary greatly by country or jurisdiction – encompassing everything from the legal recognition of same-sex marriage to the death penalty for homosexuality. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_3

Notably, as of 2020, 30 countries recognize same-sex marriage; they are: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Denmark, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, the United States and Uruguay. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_4

By contrast, not counting non-state actors and extrajudicial killings, only one country is believed to impose the death penalty on consensual same-sex sexual acts: Iran. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_5

The death penalty is on the books but, as far as is known, not enforced in Afghanistan, Brunei, Mauritania, Nigeria (in the northern third of the country), Saudi Arabia and Somalia (in the autonomous Jubaland region). LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_6

Sudan rescinded its unenforced death penalty for anal sex (hetero- or homosexual) in 2020. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_7

15 countries have stoning on the books as a penalty for adultery, which would include gay sex, but this is only enforced by the legal authorities in Iran. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_8

In 2011, the United Nations Human Rights Council passed its first resolution recognizing LGBT rights, following which the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights issued a report documenting violations of the rights of LGBT people, including hate crimes, criminalization of homosexual activity, and discrimination. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_9

Following the issuance of the report, the United Nations urged all countries which had not yet done so to enact laws protecting basic LGBT rights. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_10

Scope of laws LGBT rights by country or territory_section_0

Laws that affect LGBT people include, but are not limited to, the following: LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_11

LGBT rights by country or territory_unordered_list_0

History of LGBT-related laws LGBT rights by country or territory_section_1

See also: LGBT history, Timeline of LGBT history, LGBT social movements, History of homosexuality, and Sodomy law § History LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_12

Ancient India LGBT rights by country or territory_section_2

Ayoni or non-vaginal sex of all types are punishable in the Arthashastra. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_13

Homosexual acts are, however, treated as a smaller offence punishable by a fine, while unlawful heterosexual sex carries much harsher punishment. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_14

The Dharmsastras, especially the later ones, prescribe against non-vaginal sex like the Vashistha Dharmasutra. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_15

The Yājñavalkya Smṛti prescribes fines for such acts including those with other men. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_16

Manusmriti prescribes light punishments for such acts. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_17

Vanita states that the verses about punishment for a sex between female and a maiden is due to its strong emphasis on a maiden's sexual purity. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_18

Ancient Israel LGBT rights by country or territory_section_3

The ancient Law of Moses (the Torah) forbids men from lying with men (i.e., from having intercourse) in Leviticus 18 and gives a story of attempted homosexual rape in Genesis 19, in the story of Sodom and Gomorrah, after which the cities were soon destroyed with "brimstone and fire, from the Lord" and the death penalty was prescribed to its inhabitants – and to Lot's wife, who was turned into a pillar of salt because she turned back to watch the cities' destruction. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_19

In Deuteronomy 22:5, cross-dressing is condemned as "abominable". LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_20

Assyria LGBT rights by country or territory_section_4

In Assyrian society, sex crimes were punished identically whether they were homosexual or heterosexual. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_21

An individual faced no punishment for penetrating someone of equal social class, a cult prostitute, or with someone whose gender roles were not considered solidly masculine. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_22

Such sexual relations were even seen as good fortune, with an Akkadian tablet, the Šumma ālu, reading, "If a man copulates with his equal from the rear, he becomes the leader among his peers and brothers". LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_23

However, homosexual relationships with fellow soldiers, slaves, royal attendants, or those where a social better was submissive or penetrated, were treated as bad omens. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_24

Middle Assyrian Law Codes dating 1075 BC has a particularly harsh law for homosexuality in the military, which reads: "If a man have intercourse with his brother-in-arms, they shall turn him into a eunuch." LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_25

A similar law code reads, "If a seignior lay with his neighbor, when they have prosecuted him (and) convicted him, they shall lie with him (and) turn him into a eunuch". LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_26

This law code condemns a situation that involves homosexual rape. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_27

Any Assyrian male could visit a prostitute or lie with another male, just as long as false rumors or forced sex were not involved with another male. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_28

Ancient Rome LGBT rights by country or territory_section_5

In ancient Rome, the bodies of citizen youths were strictly off-limits, and the Lex Scantinia imposed penalties on those who committed a sex crime (stuprum) against a freeborn male minor. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_29

Acceptable same-sex partners were males excluded from legal protections as citizens: slaves, male prostitutes, and the infames, entertainers or others who might be technically free but whose lifestyles set them outside the law. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_30

A male citizen who willingly performed oral sex or received anal sex was disparaged, but there is only limited evidence of legal penalties against these men. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_31

In courtroom and political rhetoric, charges of effeminacy and passive sexual behaviors were directed particularly at "democratic" politicians (populares) such as Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_32

Roman law addressed the rape of a male citizen as early as the 2nd century BC, when a ruling was issued in a case that may have involved a man of same-sex orientation. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_33

It was ruled that even a man who was "disreputable and questionable" had the same right as other citizens not to have his body subjected to forced sex. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_34

A law probably dating to the dictatorship of Julius Caesar defined rape as forced sex against "boy, woman, or anyone"; the rapist was subject to execution, a rare penalty in Roman law. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_35

A male classified as infamis, such as a prostitute or actor, could not as a matter of law be raped, nor could a slave, who was legally classified as property; the slave's owner, however, could prosecute the rapist for property damage. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_36

In the Roman army of the Republic, sex among fellow soldiers violated the decorum against intercourse with citizens and was subject to harsh penalties, including death, as a violation of military discipline. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_37

The Greek historian Polybius (2nd century BC) lists deserters, thieves, perjurers, and "those who in youth have abused their persons" as subject to the fustuarium, clubbing to death. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_38

Ancient sources are most concerned with the effects of sexual harassment by officers, but the young soldier who brought an accusation against his superior needed to show that he had not willingly taken the passive role or prostituted himself. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_39

Soldiers were free to have relations with their male slaves; the use of a fellow citizen-soldier's body was prohibited, not homosexual behaviors per se. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_40

By the late Republic and throughout the Imperial period, there is increasing evidence that men whose lifestyle marked them as "homosexual" in the modern sense served openly. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_41

Although Roman law did not recognize marriage between men, and in general Romans regarded marriage as a heterosexual union with the primary purpose of producing children, in the early Imperial period some male couples were celebrating traditional marriage rites. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_42

Juvenal remarks with disapproval that his friends often attended such ceremonies. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_43

The emperor Nero had two marriages to men, once as the bride (with a freedman Pythagoras) and once as the groom. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_44

His consort Sporus appeared in public as Nero's wife wearing the regalia that was customary for the Roman empress. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_45

Apart from measures to protect the prerogatives of citizens, the prosecution of homosexuality as a general crime began in the 3rd century of the Christian era when male prostitution was banned by Philip the Arab. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_46

By the end of the 4th century, after the Roman Empire had come under Christian rule, passive homosexuality was punishable by burning. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_47

"Death by sword" was the punishment for a "man coupling like a woman" under the Theodosian Code. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_48

Under Justinian, all same-sex acts, passive or active, no matter who the partners, were declared contrary to nature and punishable by death. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_49

British Empire LGBT rights by country or territory_section_6

See also: LGBT rights in the Commonwealth of Nations LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_50

The United Kingdom introduced anti-homosexuality laws throughout its colonies, particularly in the 19th century when the British Empire was at its peak. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_51

As of 2018, more than half of the 71 countries that criminalised homosexuality were former British colonies or protectorates. LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_52

Global LGBT rights maps LGBT rights by country or territory_section_7

Timeline LGBT rights by country or territory_section_8

LGBT rights by country or territory_table_general_0

Decriminalization of homosexuality timelineLGBT rights by country or territory_table_caption_0
LGBT rights by country or territory_header_cell_0_0_0 Countries/Territories/StatesLGBT rights by country or territory_header_cell_0_0_1
Never been illegalLGBT rights by country or territory_cell_0_1_0 ListLGBT rights by country or territory_cell_0_1_1
18th centuryLGBT rights by country or territory_cell_0_2_0 ListLGBT rights by country or territory_cell_0_2_1
19th centuryLGBT rights by country or territory_cell_0_3_0 ListLGBT rights by country or territory_cell_0_3_1
20th centuryLGBT rights by country or territory_cell_0_4_0 ListLGBT rights by country or territory_cell_0_4_1
21st centuryLGBT rights by country or territory_cell_0_5_0 ListLGBT rights by country or territory_cell_0_5_1
LGBT rights by country or territory_cell_0_6_0 NotesLGBT rights by country or territory_cell_0_6_1

LGBT-related laws by country or territory LGBT rights by country or territory_section_9

Africa LGBT rights by country or territory_section_10

Main article: LGBT rights in Africa LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_53

Americas LGBT rights by country or territory_section_11

Main article: LGBT rights in the Americas LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_54

Asia LGBT rights by country or territory_section_12

Main article: LGBT rights in Asia LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_55

Europe LGBT rights by country or territory_section_13

Main article: LGBT rights in Europe LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_56

Oceania LGBT rights by country or territory_section_14

Main article: LGBT rights in Oceania LGBT rights by country or territory_sentence_57

See also LGBT rights by country or territory_section_15

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LGBT rights by country or territory.