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For the grammatical concept, see Grammatical gender. Gender_sentence_0

For other uses, see Gender (disambiguation). Gender_sentence_1

Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity. Gender_sentence_2

Depending on the context, these characteristics may include biological sex, sex-based social structures (i.e., gender roles), or gender identity. Gender_sentence_3

Most cultures use a gender binary, having two genders (boys/men and girls/women); those who exist outside these groups fall under the umbrella term non-binary or genderqueer. Gender_sentence_4

Some societies have specific genders besides "man" and "woman", such as the hijras of South Asia; these are often referred to as third genders (and fourth genders, etc.). Gender_sentence_5

Sexologist John Money introduced the terminological distinction between biological sex and gender as a role in 1955. Gender_sentence_6

Before his work, it was uncommon to use the word gender to refer to anything but grammatical categories. Gender_sentence_7

However, Money's meaning of the word did not become widespread until the 1970s, when feminist theory embraced the concept of a distinction between biological sex and the social construct of gender. Gender_sentence_8

Today, the distinction is followed in some contexts, especially the social sciences and documents written by the World Health Organization (WHO). Gender_sentence_9

In other contexts, including some areas of the social sciences, gender includes sex or replaces it. Gender_sentence_10

For instance, in non-human animal research, gender is commonly used to refer to the biological sex of the animals. Gender_sentence_11

This change in the meaning of gender can be traced to the 1980s. Gender_sentence_12

In 1993, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) started to use gender instead of sex. Gender_sentence_13

Later, in 2011, the FDA reversed its position and began using sex as the biological classification and gender as "a person's self representation as male or female, or how that person is responded to by social institutions based on the individual's gender presentation." Gender_sentence_14

The social sciences have a branch devoted to gender studies. Gender_sentence_15

Other sciences, such as sexology and neuroscience, are also interested in the subject. Gender_sentence_16

The social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and gender studies particularly do, while research in the natural sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans; both inform debate about how far biological differences influence the formation of gender identity. Gender_sentence_17

In some English literature, there is also a trichotomy between biological sex, psychological gender, and social gender role. Gender_sentence_18

This framework first appeared in a feminist paper on transsexualism in 1978. Gender_sentence_19

Etymology and usage Gender_section_0

Derivation Gender_section_1

The modern English word gender comes from the Middle English gender, gendre, a loanword from Anglo-Norman and Middle French gendre. Gender_sentence_20

This, in turn, came from Latin . Gender_sentence_21

Both words mean "kind", "type", or "sort". Gender_sentence_22

They derive ultimately from a widely attested Proto-Indo-European (PIE) root gn-, which is also the source of kin, kind, king, and many other English words. Gender_sentence_23

It appears in Modern French in the word genre (type, kind, also ) and is related to the Greek root gen- (to produce), appearing in gene, , and oxygen. Gender_sentence_24

The Oxford Etymological Dictionary of the English Language of 1882 defined gender as kind, breed, sex, derived from the Latin ablative case of genus, like genere natus, which refers to birth. Gender_sentence_25

The first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED1, Volume 4, 1900) notes the original meaning of gender as "kind" had already become obsolete. Gender_sentence_26

History of the concept Gender_section_2

The concept of gender, in the modern sense, is a recent invention in human history. Gender_sentence_27

The ancient world had no basis of understanding gender as it has been understood in the humanities and social sciences for the past few decades. Gender_sentence_28

The term gender had been associated with grammar for most of history and only started to move towards it being a malleable cultural construct in the 1950s and 1960s. Gender_sentence_29

Sexologist John Money introduced the terminological distinction between biological sex and gender as a role in 1955. Gender_sentence_30

Before his work, it was uncommon to use the word gender to refer to anything but grammatical categories. Gender_sentence_31

For example, in a bibliography of 12,000 references on marriage and family from 1900–1964, the term gender does not even emerge once. Gender_sentence_32

Analysis of more than 30 million academic article titles from 1945–2001 showed that the uses of the term "gender", were much rarer than uses of "sex", was often used as a grammatical category early in this period. Gender_sentence_33

By the end of this period, uses of "gender" outnumbered uses of "sex" in the social sciences, arts, and humanities. Gender_sentence_34

It was in the 1970s that feminist scholars adopted the term gender as way of distinguishing "socially constructed" aspects of male–female differences (gender) from "biologically determined" aspects (sex). Gender_sentence_35

In the last two decades of the 20th century, the use of gender in academia has increased greatly, outnumbering uses of sex in the social sciences. Gender_sentence_36

While the spread of the word in science publications can be attributed to the influence of feminism, its use as a synonym for sex is attributed to the failure to grasp the distinction made in feminist theory, and the distinction has sometimes become blurred with the theory itself; David Haig stated, "Among the reasons that working scientists have given me for choosing gender rather than sex in biological contexts are desires to signal sympathy with feminist goals, to use a more academic term, or to avoid the connotation of copulation." Gender_sentence_37

In legal cases alleging discrimination, sex is usually preferred as the determining factor rather than gender as it refers to biology rather than socially constructed norms which are more open to interpretation and dispute. Gender_sentence_38

Julie Greenberg writes that although gender and sex are separate concepts, they are interlinked in that gender discrimination often results from stereotypes based on what is expected of members of each sex. Gender_sentence_39

In J.E.B. Gender_sentence_40 v. Alabama ex rel. Gender_sentence_41 T.B. Gender_sentence_42 , United States Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia wrote: Gender_sentence_43

As a grammatical category Gender_section_3

The word was still widely used, however, in the specific sense of grammatical gender (the assignment of nouns to categories such as masculine, feminine and neuter). Gender_sentence_44

According to Aristotle, this concept was introduced by the Greek philosopher Protagoras. Gender_sentence_45

In 1926, Henry Watson Fowler stated that the definition of the word pertained to this grammar-related meaning: Gender_sentence_46

As a social role Gender_section_4

Sexologist John Money coined the term gender role, and was the first to use it in print in a scientific trade journal. Gender_sentence_47

In a seminal 1955 paper he defined it as "all those things that a person says or does to disclose himself or herself as having the status of boy or man, girl or woman." Gender_sentence_48

The modern academic sense of the word, in the context of social roles of men and women, dates at least back to 1945, and was popularized and developed by the feminist movement from the 1970s onwards (see § Feminism theory and gender studies below), which theorizes that human nature is essentially epicene and social distinctions based on sex are arbitrarily constructed. Gender_sentence_49

In this context, matters pertaining to this theoretical process of social construction were labelled matters of gender. Gender_sentence_50

The popular use of gender simply as an alternative to sex (as a biological category) is also widespread, although attempts are still made to preserve the distinction. Gender_sentence_51

The American Heritage Dictionary (2000) uses the following two sentences to illustrate the difference, noting that the distinction "is useful in principle, but it is by no means widely observed, and considerable variation in usage occurs at all levels." Gender_sentence_52

Gender identity and gender roles Gender_section_5

Main articles: Gender identity and Gender role Gender_sentence_53

Gender identity refers to a personal identification with a particular gender and gender role in society. Gender_sentence_54

The term woman has historically been used interchangeably with reference to the female body, though more recently this usage has been viewed as controversial by some feminists. Gender_sentence_55

There are qualitative analyses that explore and present the representations of gender; however, feminists challenge these dominant ideologies concerning gender roles and biological sex. Gender_sentence_56

One's biological sex is directly tied to specific social roles and the expectations. Gender_sentence_57

Judith Butler considers the concept of being a woman to have more challenges, owing not only to society's viewing women as a social category but also as a felt sense of self, a culturally conditioned or constructed subjective identity. Gender_sentence_58

Social identity refers to the common identification with a collectivity or social category that creates a common culture among participants concerned. Gender_sentence_59

According to social identity theory, an important component of the self-concept is derived from memberships in social groups and categories; this is demonstrated by group processes and how inter-group relationships impact significantly on individuals' self perception and behaviors. Gender_sentence_60

The groups people belong to therefore provide members with the definition of who they are and how they should behave within their social sphere. Gender_sentence_61

Categorizing males and females into social roles creates a problem, because individuals feel they have to be at one end of a linear spectrum and must identify themselves as man or woman, rather than being allowed to choose a section in between. Gender_sentence_62

Globally, communities interpret biological differences between men and women to create a set of social expectations that define the behaviors that are "appropriate" for men and women and determine women's and men's different access to rights, resources, power in society and health behaviors. Gender_sentence_63

Although the specific nature and degree of these differences vary from one society to the next, they still tend to typically favor men, creating an imbalance in power and gender inequalities within most societies. Gender_sentence_64

Many cultures have different systems of norms and beliefs based on gender, but there is no universal standard to a masculine or feminine role across all cultures. Gender_sentence_65

Social roles of men and women in relation to each other is based on the cultural norms of that society, which lead to the creation of gender systems. Gender_sentence_66

The gender system is the basis of social patterns in many societies, which include the separation of sexes, and the primacy of masculine norms. Gender_sentence_67

Philosopher Michel Foucault said that as sexual subjects, humans are the object of power, which is not an institution or structure, rather it is a signifier or name attributed to "complex strategical situation". Gender_sentence_68

Because of this, "power" is what determines individual attributes, behaviors, etc. and people are a part of an ontologically and epistemologically constructed set of names and labels. Gender_sentence_69

For example, being female characterizes one as a woman, and being a woman signifies one as weak, emotional, and irrational, and incapable of actions attributed to a "man". Gender_sentence_70

Butler said that gender and sex are more like verbs than nouns. Gender_sentence_71

She reasoned that her actions are limited because she is female. Gender_sentence_72

"I am not permitted to construct my gender and sex willy-nilly," she said. Gender_sentence_73

"[This] is so because gender is politically and therefore socially controlled. Gender_sentence_74

Rather than 'woman' being something one is, it is something one does." Gender_sentence_75

More recent criticisms of Judith Butler's theories critique her writing for reinforcing the very conventional dichotomies of gender. Gender_sentence_76

Social assignment and gender fluidity Gender_section_6

See also: Sex assignment Gender_sentence_77

According to gender theorist Kate Bornstein, gender can have ambiguity and fluidity. Gender_sentence_78

There are two contrasting ideas regarding the definition of gender, and the intersection of both of them is definable as below: Gender_sentence_79

The World Health Organization defines gender as the result of socially constructed ideas about the behavior, actions, and roles a particular sex performs. Gender_sentence_80

The beliefs, values and attitude taken up and exhibited by them is as per the agreeable norms of the society and the personal opinions of the person is not taken into the primary consideration of assignment of gender and imposition of gender roles as per the assigned gender. Gender_sentence_81

Intersections and crossing of the prescribed boundaries have no place in the arena of the social construct of the term "gender". Gender_sentence_82

The assignment of gender involves taking into account the physiological and biological attributes assigned by nature followed by the imposition of the socially constructed conduct. Gender_sentence_83

Gender is a term used to exemplify the attributes that a society or culture constitutes as "masculine" or "feminine". Gender_sentence_84

Although a person's sex as male or female stands as a biological fact that is identical in any culture, what that specific sex means in reference to a person's gender role as a woman or a man in society varies cross culturally according to what things are considered to be masculine or feminine. Gender_sentence_85

These roles are learned from various, intersecting sources such as parental influences, the socialization a child receives in school, and what is portrayed in the local media. Gender_sentence_86

Learning gender roles starts from birth and includes seemingly simple things like what color outfits a baby is clothed in or what toys they are given to play with. Gender_sentence_87

However, a person's gender does not always align with what has been assigned at birth. Gender_sentence_88

Factors other than learned behaviors play a role in the development of gender. Gender_sentence_89

Social categories Gender_section_7

Sexologist John Money coined the term gender role in 1955. Gender_sentence_90

The term gender role is defined as the actions or responses that may reveal their status as boy, man, girl or woman, respectively. Gender_sentence_91

Elements surrounding gender roles include clothing, speech patterns, movement, occupations, and other factors not limited to biological sex. Gender_sentence_92

In contrast to taxonomic approaches, some feminist philosophers have argued that gender "is a vast orchestration of subtle mediations between oneself and others", rather than a "private cause behind manifest behaviours". Gender_sentence_93

Non-binary and third genders Gender_section_8

Main articles: Genderqueer and Third gender Gender_sentence_94

Historically, many if not most societies have recognized only two distinct, broad classes of gender roles, a binary of masculine and feminine, largely corresponding to the biological sexes of male and female. Gender_sentence_95

When a baby is born, society allocates the child to one gender or the other, on the basis of what their genitals resemble. Gender_sentence_96

However, some societies have historically acknowledged and even honored people who fulfill a gender role that exists more in the middle of the continuum between the feminine and masculine polarity. Gender_sentence_97

For example, the Hawaiian māhū, who occupy "a place in the middle" between male and female, or the Ojibwe ikwekaazo, "men who choose to function as women", or ininiikaazo, "women who function as men". Gender_sentence_98

In the language of the sociology of gender, some of these people may be considered third gender, especially by those in gender studies or anthropology. Gender_sentence_99

Contemporary Native American and FNIM people who fulfill these traditional roles in their communities may also participate in the modern, two-spirit community, however, these umbrella terms, neologisms, and ways of viewing gender are not necessarily the type of cultural constructs that more traditional members of these communities agree with. Gender_sentence_100

The hijras of India and Pakistan are often cited as third gender. Gender_sentence_101

Another example may be the muxe (pronounced [ˈmuʃe), found in the state of Oaxaca, in southern Mexico. Gender_sentence_102

The Bugis people of Sulawesi, Indonesia have a tradition that incorporates all the features above. Gender_sentence_103

In addition to these traditionally recognized third genders, many cultures now recognize, to differing degrees, various non-binary gender identities. Gender_sentence_104

People who are non-binary (or genderqueer) have gender identities that are not exclusively masculine or feminine. Gender_sentence_105

They may identify as having an overlap of gender identities, having two or more genders, having no gender, having a fluctuating gender identity, or being third gender or other-gendered. Gender_sentence_106

Recognition of non-binary genders is still somewhat new to mainstream Western culture, and non-binary people may face increased risk of assault, harassment, and discrimination. Gender_sentence_107

Joan Roughgarden argues that some non-human animal species also have more than two genders, in that there might be multiple templates for behavior available to individual organisms with a given biological sex. Gender_sentence_108

Measurement of gender identity Gender_section_9

Early gender identity research hypothesized a single bipolar dimension of masculinity-femininity, with masculinity and femininity being opposites on one continuum. Gender_sentence_109

Assumptions of the unidimensional model were challenged as societal stereotypes changed, which led to the development of a two-dimensional gender identity model. Gender_sentence_110

In the model, masculinity and femininity were conceptualized as two separate and orthogonal dimensions, coexisting in varying degrees within an individual. Gender_sentence_111

This conceptualization on femininity and masculinity remains the accepted standard today. Gender_sentence_112

Two instruments incorporating the multidimensional nature of masculinity and femininity have dominated gender identity research: The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ). Gender_sentence_113

Both instruments categorize individuals as either being sex typed (males report themselves as identifying primarily with masculine traits, females report themselves as identifying primarily with feminine traits), cross sex-typed (males report themselves as identifying primarily with feminine traits, females report themselves as identifying primarily with masculine traits), androgynous (either males or females who report themselves as high on both masculine and feminine traits) or undifferentiated (either males or females who report themselves as low on both masculine and feminine traits). Gender_sentence_114

Twenge (1997) noted that men are generally more masculine than women and women generally more feminine than men, but the association between biological sex and masculinity/femininity is waning. Gender_sentence_115

Feminist theory and gender studies Gender_section_10

Biologist and feminist academic Anne Fausto-Sterling rejects the discourse of biological versus social determinism and advocates a deeper analysis of how interactions between the biological being and the social environment influence individuals' capacities. Gender_sentence_116

The philosopher and feminist Simone de Beauvoir applied existentialism to women's experience of life: "One is not born a woman, one becomes one." Gender_sentence_117

In context, this is a philosophical statement. Gender_sentence_118

However, it may be analyzed in terms of biology—a girl must pass puberty to become a woman—and sociology, as a great deal of mature relating in social contexts is learned rather than instinctive. Gender_sentence_119

Within feminist theory, terminology for gender issues developed over the 1970s. Gender_sentence_120

In the 1974 edition of Masculine/Feminine or Human, the author uses "innate gender" and "learned sex roles", but in the 1978 edition, the use of sex and gender is reversed. Gender_sentence_121

By 1980, most feminist writings had agreed on using gender only for socioculturally adapted traits. Gender_sentence_122

In gender studies the term gender refers to proposed social and cultural constructions of masculinities and femininities. Gender_sentence_123

In this context, gender explicitly excludes reference to biological differences, to focus on cultural differences. Gender_sentence_124

This emerged from a number of different areas: in sociology during the 1950s; from the theories of the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan; and in the work of French psychoanalysts like Julia Kristeva, Luce Irigaray, and American feminists such as Judith Butler. Gender_sentence_125

Those who followed Butler came to regard gender roles as a practice, sometimes referred to as "performative". Gender_sentence_126

Charles E. Hurst states that some people think sex will, "...automatically determine one's gender demeanor and role (social) as well as one's sexual orientation (sexual attractions and behavior). Gender_sentence_127

Gender sociologists believe that people have cultural origins and habits for dealing with gender. Gender_sentence_128

For example, Michael Schwalbe believes that humans must be taught how to act appropriately in their designated gender to fill the role properly, and that the way people behave as masculine or feminine interacts with social expectations. Gender_sentence_129

Schwalbe comments that humans "are the results of many people embracing and acting on similar ideas". Gender_sentence_130

People do this through everything from clothing and hairstyle to relationship and employment choices. Gender_sentence_131

Schwalbe believes that these distinctions are important, because society wants to identify and categorize people as soon as we see them. Gender_sentence_132

They need to place people into distinct categories to know how we should feel about them. Gender_sentence_133

Hurst comments that in a society where we present our genders so distinctly, there can often be severe consequences for breaking these cultural norms. Gender_sentence_134

Many of these consequences are rooted in discrimination based on sexual orientation. Gender_sentence_135

Gays and lesbians are often discriminated against in our legal system because of societal prejudices. Gender_sentence_136

Hurst describes how this discrimination works against people for breaking gender norms, no matter what their sexual orientation is. Gender_sentence_137

He says that "courts often confuse sex, gender, and sexual orientation, and confuse them in a way that results in denying the rights not only of gays and lesbians, but also of those who do not present themselves or act in a manner traditionally expected of their sex". Gender_sentence_138

This prejudice plays out in our legal system when a person is judged differently because they do not present themselves as the "correct" gender. Gender_sentence_139

Andrea Dworkin stated her "commitment to destroying male dominance and gender itself" while stating her belief in radical feminism. Gender_sentence_140

Political scientist Mary Hawkesworth addresses gender and feminist theory, stating that since the 1970s the concept of gender has transformed and been used in significantly different ways within feminist scholarship. Gender_sentence_141

She notes that a transition occurred when several feminist scholars, such as Sandra Harding and Joan Scott, began to conceive of gender "as an analytic category within which humans think about and organize their social activity". Gender_sentence_142

Feminist scholars in Political Science began employing gender as an analytical category, which highlighted "social and political relations neglected by mainstream accounts". Gender_sentence_143

However, Hawkesworth states "feminist political science has not become a dominant paradigm within the discipline". Gender_sentence_144

American political scientist Karen Beckwith addresses the concept of gender within political science arguing that a "common language of gender" exists and that it must be explicitly articulated in order to build upon it within the political science discipline. Gender_sentence_145

Beckwith describes two ways in which the political scientist may employ 'gender' when conducting empirical research: "gender as a category and as a process." Gender_sentence_146

Employing gender as a category allows for political scientists "to delineate specific contexts where behaviours, actions, attitudes and preferences considered masculine or feminine result in particular" political outcomes. Gender_sentence_147

It may also demonstrate how gender differences, not necessarily corresponding precisely with sex, may "constrain or facilitate political" actors. Gender_sentence_148

Gender as a process has two central manifestations in political science research, firstly in determining "the differential effects of structures and policies upon men and women," and secondly, the ways in which masculine and feminine political actors "actively work to produce favorable gendered outcomes". Gender_sentence_149

With regard to gender studies, Jacquetta Newman states that although sex is determined biologically, the ways in which people express gender is not. Gender_sentence_150

Gendering is a socially constructed process based on culture, though often cultural expectations around women and men have a direct relationship to their biology. Gender_sentence_151

Because of this, Newman argues, many privilege sex as being a cause of oppression and ignore other issues like race, ability, poverty, etc. Current gender studies classes seek to move away from that and examine the intersectionality of these factors in determining people's lives. Gender_sentence_152

She also points out that other non-Western cultures do not necessarily have the same views of gender and gender roles. Gender_sentence_153

Newman also debates the meaning of equality, which is often considered the goal of feminism; she believes that equality is a problematic term because it can mean many different things, such as people being treated identically, differently, or fairly based on their gender. Gender_sentence_154

Newman believes this is problematic because there is no unified definition as to what equality means or looks like, and that this can be significantly important in areas like public policy. Gender_sentence_155

Social construction of sex hypotheses Gender_section_11

See also: Sex and gender distinction Gender_sentence_156

Sociologists generally regard gender as a social construct, and various researchers, including many feminists, consider sex to only be a matter of biology and something that is not about social or cultural construction. Gender_sentence_157

For instance, sexologist John Money suggests the distinction between biological sex and gender as a role. Gender_sentence_158

Moreover, Ann Oakley, a professor of sociology and social policy, says "the constancy of sex must be admitted, but so also must the variability of gender." Gender_sentence_159

The World Health Organization states, "'[s]ex' refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women," and "'gender' refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women." Gender_sentence_160

Thus, sex is regarded as a category studied in biology (natural sciences), while gender is studied in humanities and social sciences. Gender_sentence_161

Lynda Birke, a feminist biologist, maintains "'biology' is not seen as something which might change." Gender_sentence_162

Therefore, it is stated that sex is something that does not change, while gender can change according to social structure. Gender_sentence_163

However, there are scholars who argue that sex is also socially constructed. Gender_sentence_164

For example, gender theorist Judith Butler states that "perhaps this construct called 'sex' is as culturally constructed as gender; indeed, perhaps it was always already gender, with the consequence that the distinction between sex and gender turns out to be no distinction at all." Gender_sentence_165

She continues: Gender_sentence_166

Butler argues that "bodies only appear, only endure, only live within the productive constraints of certain highly gendered regulatory schemas," and sex is "no longer as a bodily given on which the construct of gender is artificially imposed, but as a cultural norm which governs the materialization of bodies." Gender_sentence_167

With regard to history, Linda Nicholson, a professor of history and women's studies, argues that the understanding of human bodies as sexually dimorphic was historically not recognised. Gender_sentence_168

She states that male and female genitals were considered inherently the same in Western society until the 18th century. Gender_sentence_169

At that time, female genitals were regarded as incomplete male genitals, and the difference between the two was conceived as a matter of degree. Gender_sentence_170

In other words, there was a belief in a gradation of physical forms, or a spectrum. Gender_sentence_171

Scholars such as Helen King, Joan Cadden, and Michael Stolberg have criticized this interpretation of history. Gender_sentence_172

In addition, drawing from the empirical research of intersex children, Anne Fausto-Sterling, a professor of biology and gender studies, describes how the doctors address the issues of intersexuality. Gender_sentence_173

She starts her argument with an example of the birth of an intersexual individual and maintains "our conceptions of the nature of gender difference shape, even as they reflect, the ways we structure our social system and polity; they also shape and reflect our understanding of our physical bodies." Gender_sentence_174

Then she adds how gender assumptions affects the scientific study of sex by presenting the research of intersexuals by John Money et al., and she concludes that "they never questioned the fundamental assumption that there are only two sexes, because their goal in studying intersexuals was to find out more about 'normal' development." Gender_sentence_175

She also mentions the language the doctors use when they talk with the parents of the intersexuals. Gender_sentence_176

After describing how the doctors inform parents about the intersexuality, she asserts that because the doctors believe that the intersexuals are actually male or female, they tell the parents of the intersexuals that it will take a little bit more time for the doctors to determine whether the infant is a boy or a girl. Gender_sentence_177

That is to say, the doctors' behavior is formulated by the cultural gender assumption that there are only two sexes. Gender_sentence_178

Lastly, she maintains that the differences in the ways in which the medical professionals in different regions treat intersexual people also give us a good example of how sex is socially constructed. Gender_sentence_179

In her Sexing the body: gender politics and the construction of sexuality, she introduces the following example: Gender_sentence_180

Thus it is evident that culture can play a part in assigning gender, particularly in relation to intersex children. Gender_sentence_181

The article Adolescent Gender-Role Identity and Mental Health: Gender Intensification Revisited focuses on the work of Heather A. Priess, Sara M. Lindberg, and Janet Shibley Hyde on whether or not girls and boys diverge in their gender identities during adolescent years. Gender_sentence_182

The researchers based their work on ideas previously mentioned by Hill and Lynch in their gender intensification hypothesis in that signals and messages from parents determine and affect their children's gender role identities. Gender_sentence_183

This hypothesis argues that parents affect their children's gender role identities and that different interactions spent with either parents will affect gender intensification. Gender_sentence_184

Priess and among other's study did not support the hypothesis of Hill and Lynch which stated "that as adolescents experience these and other socializing influences, they will become more stereotypical in their gender-role identities and gendered attitudes and behaviors." Gender_sentence_185

However, the researchers did state that perhaps the hypothesis Hill and Lynch proposed was true in the past but is not true now due to changes in the population of teens in respect to their gender-role identities. Gender_sentence_186

Authors of "Unpacking the Gender System: A Theoretical Perspective on Gender Beliefs and Social Relations", Cecilia Ridgeway and Shelley Correll, argue that gender is more than an identity or role but is something that is institutionalized through "social relational contexts." Gender_sentence_187

Ridgeway and Correll define "social relational contexts" as "any situation in which individuals define themselves in relation to others in order to act." Gender_sentence_188

They also point out that in addition to social relational contexts, cultural beliefs plays a role in the gender system. Gender_sentence_189

The coauthors argue that daily people are forced to acknowledge and interact with others in ways that are related to gender. Gender_sentence_190

Every day, individuals are interacting with each other and comply with society's set standard of hegemonic beliefs, which includes gender roles. Gender_sentence_191

They state that society's hegemonic cultural beliefs sets the rules which in turn create the setting for which social relational contexts are to take place. Gender_sentence_192

Ridgeway and Correll then shift their topic towards sex categorization. Gender_sentence_193

The authors define sex categorization as "the sociocognitive process by which we label another as male or female." Gender_sentence_194

The failure of an attempt to raise David Reimer from infancy through adolescence as a girl after his genitals were accidentally mutilated is cited as disproving the theory that gender identity is determined solely by parenting. Gender_sentence_195

Between the 1960s and 2000, many other newborn and infant boys were surgically reassigned as females if they were born with malformed penises, or if they lost their penises in accidents. Gender_sentence_196

Many surgeons believed such males would be happier being socially and surgically reassigned female. Gender_sentence_197

Available evidence indicates that in such instances, parents were deeply committed to raising these children as girls and in as gender-typical a manner as possible. Gender_sentence_198

Six of seven cases providing orientation in adult follow-up studies identified as heterosexual males, with one retaining a female identity, but who is attracted to women. Gender_sentence_199

Such cases do not support the theory that parenting influences gender identity or sexual orientation of natal males. Gender_sentence_200

Reimer's case is used by organizations such as the Intersex Society of North America to caution against needlessly modifying the genitals of unconsenting minors. Gender_sentence_201

In 2015, the American Academy of Pediatrics released a webinar series on gender, gender identity, gender expression, transgender, etc. Gender_sentence_202

In the first lecture Dr. Sherer explains that parents' influence (through punishment and reward of behavior) can influence gender expression but not gender identity. Gender_sentence_203

She cites a Smithsonian article that shows a photo of a 3 year old President Franklin D. Roosevelt with long hair, wearing a dress. Gender_sentence_204

Children as old as 6 wore gender neutral clothing, consisting of white dresses, until the 1940s. Gender_sentence_205

In 1927, Time magazine printed a chart showing sex-appropriate colors, which consisted of pink for boys and blue for girls. Gender_sentence_206

Dr. Sherer argued that kids will modify their gender expression to seek reward from their parents and society but this will not affect their gender identity (their internal sense of self). Gender_sentence_207

Biological factors and views Gender_section_12

See also: Sexual differentiation and Sexual differentiation in humans Gender_sentence_208

Some gendered behavior is influenced by prenatal and early life androgen exposure. Gender_sentence_209

This includes, for example, gender normative play, self-identification with a gender, and tendency to engage in aggressive behavior. Gender_sentence_210

Males of most mammals, including humans, exhibit more rough and tumble play behavior, which is influenced by maternal testosterone levels. Gender_sentence_211

These levels may also influence sexuality, with non-heterosexual persons exhibiting sex atypical behavior in childhood. Gender_sentence_212

The biology of gender became the subject of an expanding number of studies over the course of the late 20th century. Gender_sentence_213

One of the earliest areas of interest was what became known as "gender identity disorder" (GID) and which is now also described as gender dysphoria. Gender_sentence_214

Studies in this, and related areas, inform the following summary of the subject by John Money. Gender_sentence_215

He stated: Gender_sentence_216

Money refers to attempts to distinguish a difference between biological sex and social gender as "scientifically debased", because of our increased knowledge of a continuum of dimorphic features (Money's word is "dipolar") that link biological and behavioral differences. Gender_sentence_217

These extend from the exclusively biological "genetic" and "prenatal hormonal" differences between men and women, to "postnatal" features, some of which are social, but others have been shown to result from "post-pubertal hormonal" effects. Gender_sentence_218

Although causation from the biological—genetic and hormonal—to the behavioral has been broadly demonstrated and accepted, Money is careful to also note that understanding of the causal chains from biology to behavior in sex and gender issues is very far from complete. Gender_sentence_219

For example, the existence of a "gay gene" has not been proven, but such a gene remains an acknowledged possibility. Gender_sentence_220

There are studies concerning women who have a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia, which leads to the overproduction of the masculine sex hormone, androgen. Gender_sentence_221

These women usually have ordinary female appearances (though nearly all girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have corrective surgery performed on their genitals). Gender_sentence_222

However, despite taking hormone-balancing medication given to them at birth, these females are statistically more likely to be interested in activities traditionally linked to males than female activities. Gender_sentence_223

Psychology professor and CAH researcher Dr. Sheri Berenbaum attributes these differences to an exposure of higher levels of male sex hormones in utero. Gender_sentence_224

Gender taxonomy Gender_section_13

The following gender taxonomy illustrates the kinds of diversity that have been studied and reported in medical literature. Gender_sentence_225

It is placed in roughly chronological order of biological and social development in the human life cycle. Gender_sentence_226

The earlier stages are more purely biological and the latter are more dominantly social. Gender_sentence_227

Causation is known to operate from chromosome to gonads, and from gonads to hormones. Gender_sentence_228

It is also significant from brain structure to gender identity (see Money quote above). Gender_sentence_229

Brain structure and processing (biological) that may explain erotic preference (social), however, is an area of ongoing research. Gender_sentence_230

Terminology in some areas changes quite rapidly as knowledge grows. Gender_sentence_231


Sexual dimorphism Gender_section_14

See also: Sexual differentiation, Sexual dimorphism, and Sex differences in humans Gender_sentence_232

Although sexual reproduction is defined at the cellular level, key features of sexual reproduction operate within the structures of the gamete cells themselves. Gender_sentence_233

Notably, gametes carry very long molecules called DNA that the biological processes of reproduction can "read" like a book of instructions. Gender_sentence_234

In fact, there are typically many of these "books", called chromosomes. Gender_sentence_235

Human gametes usually have 23 chromosomes, 22 of which are common to both sexes. Gender_sentence_236

The final chromosomes in the two human gametes are called sex chromosomes because of their role in sex determination. Gender_sentence_237

Ova always have the same sex chromosome, labelled X. Gender_sentence_238

About half of spermatozoa also have this same X chromosome, the rest have a Y-chromosome. Gender_sentence_239

At fertilization the gametes fuse to form a cell, usually with 46 chromosomes, and either XX female or XY male, depending on whether the sperm carried an X or a Y chromosome. Gender_sentence_240

Some of the other possibilities are listed above. Gender_sentence_241

Genes which are specific to the X or Y chromosome are called sex-linked genes. Gender_sentence_242

For example, the genes which create red and green retinal photoreceptors are located on the X chromosome, which men only have one of. Gender_sentence_243

Thus red-green color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait and is much more common in men. Gender_sentence_244

However, sex-limited genes on any chromosome can be expressed to indicate, for example, "if in a male body, do X; otherwise, do not." Gender_sentence_245

The human XY system is not the only sex determination system. Gender_sentence_246

Birds typically have a reverse, ZW system—males are ZZ and females ZW. Gender_sentence_247

Whether male or female birds influence the sex of offspring is not known for all species. Gender_sentence_248

Several species of butterfly are known to have female parent sex determination. Gender_sentence_249

The platypus has a complex hybrid system, the male has ten sex chromosomes, half X and half Y. Gender_sentence_250

Human brain Gender_section_15

Main article: Neuroscience of sex differences Gender_sentence_251

"It is well established that men have a larger cerebrum than women by about 8–10% (Filipek et al., 1994; Nopoulos et al., 2000; Passe et al., 1997a,b; Rabinowicz et al., 1999; Witelson et al., 1995)." Gender_sentence_252

However, what is functionally relevant are differences in composition and "wiring". Gender_sentence_253

Richard J. Haier and colleagues at the universities of New Mexico and California (Irvine) found, using brain mapping, that men have more grey matter related to general intelligence than women, and women have more white matter related to intelligence than men – the ratio between grey and white matter is 4% higher for men than women. Gender_sentence_254

Grey matter is used for information processing, while white matter consists of the connections between processing centers. Gender_sentence_255

Other differences are measurable but less pronounced. Gender_sentence_256

Most of these differences are produced by hormonal activity, ultimately derived from the Y chromosome and sexual differentiation. Gender_sentence_257

However, differences that arise directly from gene activity have also been observed. Gender_sentence_258

It has also been demonstrated that brain processing responds to the external environment. Gender_sentence_259

Learning, both of ideas and behaviors, appears to be coded in brain processes. Gender_sentence_260

It also appears that in several simplified cases this coding operates differently, but in some ways equivalently, in the brains of men and women. Gender_sentence_261

For example, both men and women learn and use language; however, bio-chemically, they appear to process it differently. Gender_sentence_262

Differences in female and male use of language are likely reflections both of biological preferences and aptitudes, and of learned patterns. Gender_sentence_263

Testosterone acts on many organs of the body, including the SDN-POA located in the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the brain and the Onuf's nucleus in the spinal cord, to create the masculinized patterns. Gender_sentence_264

Gender studies Gender_section_16

Main article: Gender studies Gender_sentence_265

Gender studies is a field of interdisciplinary study and academic field devoted to gender, gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis. Gender_sentence_266

This field includes Women's studies (concerning women, feminity, their gender roles and politics, and feminism), Men's studies (concerning men, masculinity, their gender roles, and politics), and LGBT studies. Gender_sentence_267

Sometimes Gender studies is offered together with Study of Sexuality. Gender_sentence_268

These disciplines study gender and sexuality in the fields of literature and language, history, political science, sociology, anthropology, cinema and media studies, human development, law, and medicine. Gender_sentence_269

It also analyses race, ethnicity, location, nationality, and disability. Gender_sentence_270

Psychology and sociology Gender_section_17

See also: Sex and psychology Gender_sentence_271

Many of the more complicated human behaviors are influenced by both innate factors and by environmental ones, which include everything from genes, gene expression, and body chemistry, through diet and social pressures. Gender_sentence_272

A large area of research in behavioral psychology collates evidence in an effort to discover correlations between behavior and various possible antecedents such as genetics, gene regulation, access to food and vitamins, culture, gender, hormones, physical and social development, and physical and social environments. Gender_sentence_273

A core research area within sociology is the way human behavior operates on itself, in other words, how the behavior of one group or individual influences the behavior of other groups or individuals. Gender_sentence_274

Starting in the late 20th century, the feminist movement has contributed extensive study of gender and theories about it, notably within sociology but not restricted to it. Gender_sentence_275

Social theorists have sought to determine the specific nature of gender in relation to biological sex and sexuality, with the result being that culturally established gender and sex have become interchangeable identifications that signify the allocation of a specific 'biological' sex within a categorical gender. Gender_sentence_276

The second wave feminist view that gender is socially constructed and hegemonic in all societies, remains current in some literary theoretical circles, Kira Hall and Mary Bucholtz publishing new perspectives as recently as 2008. Gender_sentence_277

Contemporary socialisation theory proposes the notion that when a child is first born it has a biological sex but no social gender. Gender_sentence_278

As the child grows, "...society provides a string of prescriptions, templates, or models of behaviors appropriate to the one sex or the other," which socialises the child into belonging to a culturally specific gender. Gender_sentence_279

There is huge incentive for a child to concede to their socialisation with gender shaping the individual's opportunities for education, work, family, sexuality, reproduction, authority, and to make an impact on the production of culture and knowledge. Gender_sentence_280

Adults who do not perform these ascribed roles are perceived from this perspective as deviant and improperly socialized. Gender_sentence_281

Some believe society is constructed in a way that splits gender into a dichotomy via social organisations that constantly invent and reproduce cultural images of gender. Gender_sentence_282

Joan Acker believes gendering occurs in at least five different interacting social processes: Gender_sentence_283


  • The construction of divisions along the lines of gender, such as those produced by labor, power, family, the state, even allowed behaviors and locations in physical spaceGender_item_1_7
  • The construction of symbols and images such as language, ideology, dress and the media, that explain, express and reinforce, or sometimes oppose, those divisionsGender_item_1_8
  • Interactions between men and women, women and women and men and men that involve any form of dominance and submission. Conversational theorists, for example, have studied the way that interruptions, turn taking and the setting of topics re-create gender inequality in the flow of ordinary talkGender_item_1_9
  • The way that the preceding three processes help to produce gendered components of individual identity, i.e., the way they create and maintain an image of a gendered selfGender_item_1_10
  • Gender is implicated in the fundamental, ongoing processes of creating and conceptualising social structures.Gender_item_1_11

Looking at gender through a Foucauldian lens, gender is transfigured into a vehicle for the social division of power. Gender_sentence_284

Gender difference is merely a construct of society used to enforce the distinctions made between what is assumed to be female and male, and allow for the domination of masculinity over femininity through the attribution of specific gender-related characteristics. Gender_sentence_285

"The idea that men and women are more different from one another than either is from anything else, must come from something other than nature... far from being an expression of natural differences, exclusive gender identity is the suppression of natural similarities." Gender_sentence_286

Gender conventions play a large role in attributing masculine and feminine characteristics to a fundamental biological sex. Gender_sentence_287

Socio-cultural codes and conventions, the rules by which society functions, and which are both a creation of society as well as a constituting element of it, determine the allocation of these specific traits to the sexes. Gender_sentence_288

These traits provide the foundations for the creation of hegemonic gender difference. Gender_sentence_289

It follows then, that gender can be assumed as the acquisition and internalisation of social norms. Gender_sentence_290

Individuals are therefore socialized through their receipt of society's expectations of 'acceptable' gender attributes that are flaunted within institutions such as the family, the state and the media. Gender_sentence_291

Such a notion of 'gender' then becomes naturalized into a person's sense of self or identity, effectively imposing a gendered social category upon a sexed body. Gender_sentence_292

The conception that people are gendered rather than sexed also coincides with Judith Butler's theories of gender performativity. Gender_sentence_293

Butler argues that gender is not an expression of what one is, but rather something that one does. Gender_sentence_294

It follows then, that if gender is acted out in a repetitive manner it is in fact re-creating and effectively embedding itself within the social consciousness. Gender_sentence_295

Contemporary sociological reference to male and female gender roles typically uses masculinities and femininities in the plural rather than singular, suggesting diversity both within cultures as well as across them. Gender_sentence_296

The difference between the sociological and popular definitions of gender involve a different dichotomy and focus. Gender_sentence_297

For example, the sociological approach to "gender" (social roles: female versus male) focuses on the difference in (economic/power) position between a male CEO (disregarding the fact that he is heterosexual or homosexual) to female workers in his employ (disregarding whether they are straight or gay). Gender_sentence_298

However the popular sexual self-conception approach (self-conception: gay versus straight) focuses on the different self-conceptions and social conceptions of those who are gay/straight, in comparison with those who are straight (disregarding what might be vastly differing economic and power positions between female and male groups in each category). Gender_sentence_299

There is then, in relation to definition of and approaches to "gender", a tension between historic feminist sociology and contemporary homosexual sociology. Gender_sentence_300

Legal status Gender_section_18

Gender and society Gender_section_19

Languages Gender_section_20

Natural languages often make gender distinctions. Gender_sentence_301

These may be of various kinds, more or less loosely associated by analogy with various actual or perceived differences between men and women. Gender_sentence_302

Some grammatical gender systems go beyond, or ignore, the masculine-feminine distinction. Gender_sentence_303


  • Many languages include terms that are used asymmetrically in reference to men and women. Concern that current language may be biased in favor of men has led some authors in recent times to argue for the use of a more gender-neutral vocabulary in English and other languages.Gender_item_2_12
  • Several languages attest the use of different vocabulary by men and women, to differing degrees. See, for instance, Gender differences in spoken Japanese. The oldest documented language, Sumerian, records a distinctive sub-language only used by female speakers. Conversely, many Indigenous Australian languages have distinctive registers with a limited lexicon used by men in the presence of their mothers-in-law (see Avoidance speech). As well, quite a few sign languages have a gendered distinction due to boarding schools segregated by gender, such as Irish Sign Language.Gender_item_2_13
  • Several languages such as Persian or Hungarian are gender-neutral. In Persian the same word is used in reference to men and women. Verbs, adjectives and nouns are not gendered. (See Gender-neutrality in genderless languages)Gender_item_2_14
  • Grammatical gender is a property of some languages in which every noun is assigned a gender, often with no direct relation to its meaning. For example, the word for "girl" is (grammatically feminine) in Spanish, (grammatically neuter) in German, and (grammatically masculine) in Irish.Gender_item_2_15
  • The term "grammatical gender" is often applied to more complex noun class systems. This is especially true when a noun class system includes masculine and feminine as well as some other non-gender features like animate, edible, manufactured, and so forth. An example of the latter is found in the Dyirbal language. Other gender systems exist with no distinction between masculine and feminine; examples include a distinction between animate and inanimate things, which is common to, amongst others, Ojibwe, Basque and Hittite; and systems distinguishing between people (whether human or divine) and everything else, which are found in the Dravidian languages and Sumerian.Gender_item_2_16
  • Several languages employ different ways to refer to people where there are three or more genders, such as Navajo or Ojibwe.Gender_item_2_17

Science Gender_section_21

Historically, science has been portrayed as a masculine pursuit in which women have faced significant barriers to participate. Gender_sentence_304

Even after universities began admitting women in the 19th century, women were still largely relegated to certain scientific fields, such as home science, nursing, and child psychology. Gender_sentence_305

Women were also typically given tedious, low-paying jobs and denied opportunities for career advancement. Gender_sentence_306

This was often justified by the stereotype that women were naturally more suited to jobs that required concentration, patience, and dexterity, rather than creativity, leadership, or intellect. Gender_sentence_307

Although these stereotypes have been dispelled in modern times, women are still underrepresented in prestigious "hard science" fields such as physics, and are less likely to hold high-ranking positions. Gender_sentence_308

A situation global initiatives such as the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 5 is trying to rectify. Gender_sentence_309

See also: Women in science Gender_sentence_310

Religion Gender_section_22

Further information: Gender and religion Gender_sentence_311

Poverty Gender_section_23

Main article: Feminization of poverty Gender_sentence_312

Gender inequality is most common in women dealing with poverty. Gender_sentence_313

Many women must shoulder all the responsibility of the household because they must take care of the family. Gender_sentence_314

Oftentimes this may include tasks such as tilling land, grinding grain, carrying water and cooking. Gender_sentence_315

Also, women are more likely to earn low incomes because of gender discrimination, as men are more likely to receive higher pay, have more opportunities, and have overall more political and social capital then women. Gender_sentence_316

Approximately 75% of world's women are unable to obtain bank loans because they have unstable jobs. Gender_sentence_317

It shows that there are many women in the world's population but only a few represent world's wealth. Gender_sentence_318

In many countries, the financial sector largely neglects women even though they play an important role in the economy, as Nena Stoiljkovic pointed out in D+C Development and Cooperation. Gender_sentence_319

In 1978 Diana M. Pearce coined the term feminization of poverty to describe the problem of women having higher rates of poverty. Gender_sentence_320

Women are more vulnerable to chronic poverty because of gender inequalities in the distribution of income, property ownership, credit, and control over earned income. Gender_sentence_321

Resource allocation is typically gender-biased within households, and continue on a higher level regarding state institutions. Gender_sentence_322

Gender and Development (GAD) is a holistic approach to give aid to countries where gender inequality has a great effect of not improving the social and economic development. Gender_sentence_323

It is a program focused on the gender development of women to empower them and decrease the level of inequality between men and women. Gender_sentence_324

The largest discrimination study of the transgender community, conducted in 2013, found that the transgender community is four times more likely to live in extreme poverty (income of less than $10,000 a year) than people who are cisgender. Gender_sentence_325

General strain theory Gender_section_24

According to general strain theory, studies suggest that gender differences between individuals can lead to externalized anger that may result in violent outbursts. Gender_sentence_326

These violent actions related to gender inequality can be measured by comparing violent neighborhoods to non-violent neighborhoods. Gender_sentence_327

By noticing the independent variables (neighborhood violence) and the dependent variable (individual violence), it's possible to analyze gender roles. Gender_sentence_328

The strain in the general strain theory is the removal of a positive stimulus and or the introduction of a negative stimulus, which would create a negative effect (strain) within individual, which is either inner-directed (depression/guilt) or outer-directed (anger/frustration), which depends on whether the individual blames themselves or their environment. Gender_sentence_329

Studies reveal that even though males and females are equally likely to react to a strain with anger, the origin of the anger and their means of coping with it can vary drastically. Gender_sentence_330

Males are likely to put the blame on others for adversity and therefore externalize feelings of anger. Gender_sentence_331

Females typically internalize their angers and tend to blame themselves instead. Gender_sentence_332

Female internalized anger is accompanied by feelings of guilt, fear, anxiety and depression. Gender_sentence_333

Women view anger as a sign that they've somehow lost control, and thus worry that this anger may lead them to harm others and/or damage relationships. Gender_sentence_334

On the other end of the spectrum, men are less concerned with damaging relationships and more focused on using anger as a means of affirming their masculinity. Gender_sentence_335

According to the general strain theory, men would more likely engage in aggressive behavior directed towards others due to externalized anger whereas women would direct their anger towards themselves rather than others. Gender_sentence_336

Economic development Gender_section_25

Climate change Gender_section_26

Main article: Climate change and gender Gender_sentence_337

Gender is a topic of increasing concern within climate change policy and science. Gender_sentence_338

Generally, gender approaches to climate change address gender-differentiated consequences of climate change, as well as unequal adaptation capacities and gendered contribution to climate change. Gender_sentence_339

Furthermore, the intersection of climate change and gender raises questions regarding the complex and intersecting power relations arising from it. Gender_sentence_340

These differences, however, are mostly not due to biological or physical differences, but are formed by the social, institutional and legal context. Gender_sentence_341

Subsequently, vulnerability is less an intrinsic feature of women and girls but rather a product of their marginalization. Gender_sentence_342

Roehr notes that, while the United Nations officially committed to gender mainstreaming, in practice gender equality is not reached in the context of climate change policies. Gender_sentence_343

This is reflected in the fact that discourses of and negotiations over climate change are mostly dominated by men. Gender_sentence_344

Some feminist scholars hold that the debate on climate change is not only dominated by men but also primarily shaped in 'masculine' principles, which limits discussions about climate change to a perspective that focuses on technical solutions. Gender_sentence_345

This perception of climate change hides subjectivity and power relations that actually condition climate-change policy and science, leading to a phenomenon that Tuana terms 'epistemic injustice'. Gender_sentence_346

Similarly, MacGregor attests that by framing climate change as an issue of 'hard' natural scientific conduct and natural security, it is kept within the traditional domains of hegemonic masculinity. Gender_sentence_347

Social media Gender_section_27

Gender roles and stereotypes have slowly started to change in society within the past few decades. Gender_sentence_348

These changes occur mostly in communication, but more specifically during social interactions. Gender_sentence_349

The ways in which people communicate and socialize have also started to change due to advancements in technology. Gender_sentence_350

One of the biggest reasons for this change is the growth of social media. Gender_sentence_351

Over the past few years, the use of social media globally has started to rise. Gender_sentence_352

This rise can be attributed to the abundance of technology available for use among youth. Gender_sentence_353

Recent studies suggest that men and women value and use technology differently. Gender_sentence_354

Forbes published an article in 2010 that reported 57% of Facebook users are women, which was attributed to the fact that women are more active on social media. Gender_sentence_355

On average women have 8% more friends and account for 62% of posts that are shared via Facebook. Gender_sentence_356

Another study in 2010 found that in most Western cultures, women spend more time sending text messages compared to men as well as spending more time on social networking sites as a way to communicate with friends and family. Gender_sentence_357

Hayat, Lesser and Samuel-Azran (2017) have further shown that while men write more posts in social networking sites, women commented on other people's posts more often. Gender_sentence_358

They further showed that women's posts enjoyed higher popularity than men's posts. Gender_sentence_359

Social media is more than just the communication of words. Gender_sentence_360

With social media increasing in popularity, pictures have come to play a large role in how many people communicate. Gender_sentence_361

Research conducted in 2013 found that over 57% of pictures posted on social networking sites were sexual and were created to gain attention. Gender_sentence_362

Moreover, 58% of women and 45% of men don't look into the camera, which creates an illusion of withdrawal. Gender_sentence_363

Other factors to be considered are the poses in pictures such as women lying down in subordinate positions or even touching themselves in childlike ways. Gender_sentence_364

Research has found that images shared online through social networking sites help establish personal self-reflections that individuals want to share with the world. Gender_sentence_365

According to recent research, gender plays a strong role in structuring our social lives, especially since society assigns and creates "male" and "female" categories. Gender_sentence_366

Individuals in society might be able to learn the similarities between gender rather than the differences. Gender_sentence_367

Social media helps create more equality, because every individual is able to express him- or herself however they like. Gender_sentence_368

Every individual also has the right to express their opinion, even though some might disagree, but it still gives each gender an equal amount of power to be heard. Gender_sentence_369

Young adults in the U.S. frequently use social networking sites as a way to connect and communicate with one another, as well as to satisfy their curiosity. Gender_sentence_370

Adolescent girls generally use social networking sites as a tool to communicate with peers and reinforce existing relationships; boys on the other hand tend to use social networking sites as a tool to meet new friends and acquaintances. Gender_sentence_371

Furthermore, social networking sites have allowed individuals to truly express themselves, as they are able to create an identity and socialize with other individuals that can relate. Gender_sentence_372

Social networking sites have also given individuals access to create a space where they feel more comfortable about their sexuality. Gender_sentence_373

Recent research has indicated that social media is becoming a stronger part of younger individuals' media culture, as more intimate stories are being told via social media and are being intertwined with gender, sexuality, and relationships. Gender_sentence_374

Teens are avid internet and social media users in the United States. Gender_sentence_375

Research has found that almost all U.S. teens (95%) aged 12 through 17 are online, compared to only 78% of adults. Gender_sentence_376

Of these teens, 80% have profiles on social media sites, as compared to only 64% of the online population aged 30 and older. Gender_sentence_377

According to a study conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation, 11-to-18-year-olds spend on average over one and a half hours a day using a computer and 27 minutes per day visiting social network sites, i.e. the latter accounts for about one fourth of their daily computer use. Gender_sentence_378

Teen girls and boys differ in what they post in their online profiles. Gender_sentence_379

Studies have shown that female users tend to post more "cute" pictures, while male participants were more likely to post pictures of themselves in activities. Gender_sentence_380

Women in the U.S. also tend to post more pictures of friends, while men tend to post more about sports and humorous links. Gender_sentence_381

The study also found that males would post more alcohol and sexual references. Gender_sentence_382

The roles were reversed however, when looking at a teenage dating site: women made sexual references significantly more often than males. Gender_sentence_383

Boys share more personal information, such as their hometown and phone number, while girls are more conservative about the personal information they allow to go public on these social networking sites. Gender_sentence_384

Boys, meanwhile, are more likely to orient towards technology, sports, and humor in the information they post to their profile. Gender_sentence_385

Social media goes beyond the role of helping individuals express themselves, as it has grown to help individuals create relationships, particularly romantic relationships. Gender_sentence_386

A large number of social media users have found it easier to create relationships in a less direct approach, compared to a traditional approach of awkwardly asking for someone's number. Gender_sentence_387

Social media plays a big role when it comes to communication between genders. Gender_sentence_388

Therefore, it's important to understand how gender stereotypes develop during online interactions. Gender_sentence_389

Research in the 1990s suggested that different genders display certain traits, such as being active, attractive, dependent, dominant, independent, sentimental, sexy, and submissive, in online interaction. Gender_sentence_390

Even though these traits continue to be displayed through gender stereotypes, recent studies show that this isn't necessarily the case any more. Gender_sentence_391

See also Gender_section_28

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