Gender identity

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

For identities defined by to whom one is romantically or sexually attracted, see sexual identity and sexual orientation. Gender identity_sentence_0

Gender identity is the personal sense of one's own gender. Gender identity_sentence_1

Gender identity can correlate with a person's assigned sex at birth or can differ from it. Gender identity_sentence_2

Gender expression typically reflects a person's gender identity, but this is not always the case. Gender identity_sentence_3

While a person may express behaviors, attitudes, and appearances consistent with a particular gender role, such expression may not necessarily reflect their gender identity. Gender identity_sentence_4

The term gender identity was originally coined by Robert J. Stoller in 1964. Gender identity_sentence_5

All societies have a set of gender categories that can serve as the basis of a person's self-identity in relation to other members of society. Gender identity_sentence_6

In most societies, there is a basic division between gender attributes assigned to males and females, a gender binary to which most people adhere and which includes expectations of masculinity and femininity in all aspects of sex and gender: biological sex, gender identity, and gender expression. Gender identity_sentence_7

Some people do not identify with some, or all, of the aspects of gender assigned to their biological sex; some of those people are transgender, non-binary, or genderqueer. Gender identity_sentence_8

Some societies have third gender categories. Gender identity_sentence_9

Gender identity is usually formed by age three. Gender identity_sentence_10

After age three, it is extremely difficult to change and attempts to reassign it can result in gender dysphoria. Gender identity_sentence_11

Both biological and social factors have been suggested to influence its formation. Gender identity_sentence_12

Age of formation Gender identity_section_0

There are several theories about how and when gender identity forms, and studying the subject is difficult because children's lack of language requires researchers to make assumptions from indirect evidence. Gender identity_sentence_13

John Money suggested children might have awareness of and attach some significance to gender as early as 18 months to 2 years; Lawrence Kohlberg argued that gender identity does not form until age 3. Gender identity_sentence_14

It is widely agreed that core gender identity is firmly formed by age 3. Gender identity_sentence_15

At this point, children can make firm statements about their gender and tend to choose activities and toys which are considered appropriate for their gender (such as dolls and painting for girls, and tools and rough-housing for boys), although they do not yet fully understand the implications of gender. Gender identity_sentence_16

After age three, core gender identity is extremely difficult to change, and attempts to reassign it can result in gender dysphoria. Gender identity_sentence_17

Gender identity refinement extends into the fourth to sixth years of age, and continues into young adulthood. Gender identity_sentence_18

Martin and Ruble conceptualize this process of development as three stages: (1) as toddlers and preschoolers, children learn about defined characteristics, which are socialized aspects of gender; (2) around the ages of 5–7 years, identity is consolidated and becomes rigid; (3) after this "peak of rigidity," fluidity returns and socially defined gender roles relax somewhat. Gender identity_sentence_19

Barbara Newmann breaks it down into four parts: (1) understanding the concept of gender, (2) learning gender role standards and stereotypes, (3) identifying with parents, and (4) forming gender preference. Gender identity_sentence_20

According to UN agencies, discussions relating to comprehensive sexuality education raise awareness of topics, such as gender and gender identity. Gender identity_sentence_21

Factors influencing formation Gender identity_section_1

Nature vs. nurture Gender identity_section_2

Main article: Nature versus nurture Gender identity_sentence_22

Although the formation of gender identity is not completely understood, many factors have been suggested as influencing its development. Gender identity_sentence_23

In particular, the extent to which it is determined by socialization (environmental factors) versus innate (biological) factors is an ongoing debate in psychology, known as "nature versus nurture". Gender identity_sentence_24

Both factors are thought to play a role. Gender identity_sentence_25

Biological factors that influence gender identity include pre- and post-natal hormone levels. Gender identity_sentence_26

While genetic makeup also influences gender identity, it does not inflexibly determine it. Gender identity_sentence_27

Social factors which may influence gender identity include ideas regarding gender roles conveyed by family, authority figures, mass media, and other influential people in a child's life. Gender identity_sentence_28

When children are raised by individuals who adhere to stringent gender roles, they are more likely to behave in the same way, matching their gender identity with the corresponding stereotypical gender patterns. Gender identity_sentence_29

Language also plays a role: children, while learning a language, learn to separate masculine and feminine characteristics and subconsciously adjust their own behavior to these predetermined roles. Gender identity_sentence_30

The social learning theory posits that children furthermore develop their gender identity through observing and imitating gender-linked behaviors, and then being rewarded or punished for behaving that way, thus being shaped by the people surrounding them through trying to imitate and follow them. Gender identity_sentence_31

John Money was instrumental in the early research of gender identity, though he used the term gender role. Gender identity_sentence_32

He disagreed with the previous school of thought that gender was determined solely by biology. Gender identity_sentence_33

He argued that infants are born a blank slate and a parent could be able to decide their babies’ gender. Gender identity_sentence_34

In Money's opinion, if the parent confidently raised their child as the opposite sex, the child would believe that they were born that sex and act accordingly. Gender identity_sentence_35

Money believed that nurture could override nature. Gender identity_sentence_36

A well-known example in the nature-versus-nurture debate is the case of David Reimer, otherwise known as "John/Joan". Gender identity_sentence_37

As a baby, Reimer went through a faulty circumcision, losing his male genitalia. Gender identity_sentence_38

Psychologist John Money convinced Reimer's parents to raise him as a girl. Gender identity_sentence_39

Reimer grew up as a girl, dressing in girl clothes and surrounded by girl toys, but did not feel like a girl. Gender identity_sentence_40

After he tried to commit suicide at age 13, he was told that he had been born with male genitalia, which he underwent surgery to reconstruct. Gender identity_sentence_41

This response went against Money's hypothesis that biology had nothing to do with gender identity or human sexual orientation. Gender identity_sentence_42

Most did not dare to argue against Money's theory. Gender identity_sentence_43

Milton Diamond was a scientist who was one of the few to openly disagree with him and oppose his argument. Gender identity_sentence_44

Diamond had contributed to research involving pregnant rats that showed hormones played a major role in the behavior of different sexes. Gender identity_sentence_45

The researchers in the lab would inject the pregnant rat with testosterone, which would then find its way to the baby's bloodstream. Gender identity_sentence_46

The females that were born had genitalia that looked like male genitalia. Gender identity_sentence_47

The females in the litter also behaved like male rats and would even try to mount other female rats, proving that biology played a major role in animal behavior. Gender identity_sentence_48

One criticism of the Reimer case is that Reimer lost his penis at the age of eight months and underwent sex reassignment surgery at seventeen months, which possibly meant that Reimer had already been influenced by his socialization as a boy. Gender identity_sentence_49

Bradley et al. Gender identity_sentence_50

(1998) report the contrasting case of a 26-year-old woman with XY chromosomes whose penis was lost and who underwent sex reassignment surgery between two and seven months of age (substantially earlier than Reimer), whose parents were also more committed to raising their child as a girl than Reimer's, and who remained a woman into adulthood. Gender identity_sentence_51

She reported that she had been somewhat tomboyish during childhood, enjoying stereotypically masculine childhood toys and interests, although her childhood friends were girls. Gender identity_sentence_52

While she was bisexual, having had relationships with both men and women, she found women more sexually attractive and they featured more in her fantasies. Gender identity_sentence_53

Her job at the time of the study was a blue-collar occupation that was practiced almost exclusively by men. Gender identity_sentence_54

Griet Vandermassen argues that since these are the only two cases being documented in scientific literature, this makes it difficult to draw any firm conclusions from them about the origins of gender identity, particularly given the two cases reached different conclusions. Gender identity_sentence_55

However, Vandermassen also argues that transgender people support the idea of gender identity as being biologically rooted, as they do not identify with their anatomical sex despite being raised and their behaviour reinforced according to their anatomical sex. Gender identity_sentence_56

One study by Reiner et al. Gender identity_sentence_57

looked at fourteen genetic males who had suffered cloacal exstrophy and were thus raised as girls. Gender identity_sentence_58

Six of them changed their gender identity to male, five remained female and three had ambiguous gender identities (though two of them had declared they were male). Gender identity_sentence_59

All the subjects had moderate to marked interests and attitudes consistent with that of biological males. Gender identity_sentence_60

Another study, using data from a variety of cases from the 1970s to the early 2000s (including Reiner et al. Gender identity_sentence_61

), looked at males raised as females due to a variety of developmental disorders (penile agenesis, cloacal exstrophy or penile ablation). Gender identity_sentence_62

It found that 78% of those males raised as females were living as females. Gender identity_sentence_63

A minority of those raised as female later switched to male. Gender identity_sentence_64

However, none of the males raised as male switched their gender identity. Gender identity_sentence_65

Those still living as females still showed marked masculinisation of gender role behaviour and those old enough to reported sexual attraction to women. Gender identity_sentence_66

The study's authors caution drawing any strong conclusions from it due to numerous methodological caveats which were a severe problem in studies of this nature. Gender identity_sentence_67

Rebelo et al. Gender identity_sentence_68

argue that the evidence in totality suggests that gender identity is neither determined entirely by childhood rearing nor entirely by biological factors. Gender identity_sentence_69

Biological factors Gender identity_section_3

Several prenatal, biological factors, including genes and hormones, may affect gender identity. Gender identity_sentence_70

Intersex people Gender identity_section_4

Main article: Intersex Gender identity_sentence_71

A survey of the research literature from 1955 to 2000 suggests that more than one in every hundred individuals may have some intersex characteristic. Gender identity_sentence_72

An intersex human or other animal is one possessing any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies". Gender identity_sentence_73

An intersex variation may complicate initial sex assignment and that assignment may not be consistent with the child's future gender identity. Gender identity_sentence_74

Reinforcing sex assignments through surgical and hormonal means may violate the individual's rights. Gender identity_sentence_75

A 2005 study on the gender identity outcomes of female-raised 46,XY persons with penile agenesis, cloacal exstrophy of the bladder, or penile ablation, found that 78% of the study subjects were living as female, as opposed to 22% who decided to initiate a sex change to male in line with their genetic sex. Gender identity_sentence_76

The study concludes: "The findings clearly indicate an increased risk of later patient-initiated gender re-assignment to male after female assignment in infancy or early childhood, but are nevertheless incompatible with the notion of a full determination of core gender identity by prenatal androgens." Gender identity_sentence_77

A 2012 clinical review paper found that between 8.5% and 20% of people with intersex variations experienced gender dysphoria. Gender identity_sentence_78

Sociological research in Australia, a country with a third 'X' sex classification, shows that 19% of people born with atypical sex characteristics selected an "X" or "other" option, while 52% are women, 23% men, and 6% unsure. Gender identity_sentence_79

At birth, 52% of persons in the study were assigned female, and 41% were assigned male. Gender identity_sentence_80

A study by Reiner & Gearhart provides some insight into what can happen when genetically male children with cloacal exstrophy are sexually assigned female and raised as girls, according to an 'optimal gender policy' developed by John Money: in a sample of 14 children, follow-up between the ages of 5 to 12 showed that 8 of them identified as boys, and all of the subjects had at least moderately male-typical attitudes and interests, providing support for the argument that genetic variables affect gender identity and behavior independent of socialization. Gender identity_sentence_81

Transgender and transsexuality Gender identity_section_5

See also: Causes of transsexualism Gender identity_sentence_82

Some studies have investigated whether or not there is a link between biological variables and transgender or transsexual identity. Gender identity_sentence_83

Several studies have shown that sexually dimorphic brain structures in transsexuals are shifted away from what is associated with their birth sex and towards what is associated with their preferred sex. Gender identity_sentence_84

The volume of the central subdivision of the bed nucleus of a stria terminalis or BSTc (a constituent of the basal ganglia of the brain which is affected by prenatal androgens) of transsexual women has been suggested to be similar to women's and unlike men's, but the relationship between BSTc volume and gender identity is still unclear. Gender identity_sentence_85

Similar brain structure differences have been noted between gay and heterosexual men, and between lesbian and heterosexual women. Gender identity_sentence_86

Another study suggests that transsexuality may have a genetic component. Gender identity_sentence_87

Research suggests that the same hormones that promote the differentiation of sex organs in utero also elicit puberty and influence the development of gender identity. Gender identity_sentence_88

Different amounts of these male or female sex hormones within a person can result in behavior and external genitalia that do not match up with the norm of their sex assigned at birth, and in a person acting and looking like their identified gender. Gender identity_sentence_89

Social and environmental factors Gender identity_section_6

Social scientists tend to assume that gender identities arise from social factors. Gender identity_sentence_90

In 1955, John Money proposed that gender identity was malleable and determined by whether a child was raised as male or female in early childhood. Gender identity_sentence_91

Money's hypothesis has since been discredited, but scholars have continued to study the effect of social factors on gender identity formation. Gender identity_sentence_92

In the 1960s and 1970s, factors such as the absence of a father, a mother's wish for a daughter, or parental reinforcement patterns were suggested as influences; more recent theories suggesting that parental psychopathology might partly influence gender identity formation have received only minimal empirical evidence, with a 2004 article noting that "solid evidence for the importance of postnatal social factors is lacking." Gender identity_sentence_93

A 2008 study found that the parents of gender-dysphoric children showed no signs of psychopathological issues aside from mild depression in the mothers. Gender identity_sentence_94

It has been suggested that the attitudes of the child's parents may affect the child's gender identity, although evidence is minimal. Gender identity_sentence_95

Parental establishment of gender roles Gender identity_section_7

Parents who do not support gender nonconformity are more likely to have children with firmer and stricter views on gender identity and gender roles. Gender identity_sentence_96

Recent literature suggests a trend towards less well-defined gender roles and identities, as studies of parental coding of toys as masculine, feminine, or neutral indicate that parents increasingly code kitchens and in some cases dolls as neutral rather than exclusively feminine. Gender identity_sentence_97

However, Emily Kane found that many parents still showed negative responses to items, activities, or attributes that were considered feminine, such as domestic skills, nurturance, and empathy. Gender identity_sentence_98

Research has indicated that many parents attempt to define gender for their sons in a manner that distances the sons from femininity, with Kane stating that "the parental boundary maintenance work evident for sons represents a crucial obstacle limiting boys options, separating boys from girls, devaluing activities marked as feminine for both boys and girls, and thus bolstering gender inequality and heteronormativity." Gender identity_sentence_99

Many parents form gendered expectations for their child before it is even born, after determining the child's sex through technology such as ultrasound. Gender identity_sentence_100

The child thus is born to a gender-specific name, games, and even ambitions. Gender identity_sentence_101

Once the child's sex is determined, most children are raised in accordance with it to be a man or a woman, fitting a male or female gender role defined partly by the parents. Gender identity_sentence_102

When considering the parents' social class, lower-class families typically hold traditional gender roles, where the father works and the mother, who may only work out of financial necessity, still takes care of the household. Gender identity_sentence_103

However, middle-class "professional" couples typically negotiate the division of labor and hold an egalitarian ideology. Gender identity_sentence_104

These different views on gender from a child's parents can shape the child's understanding of gender as well as the child's development of gender. Gender identity_sentence_105

Within a study conducted by Hillary Halpern it was hypothesized, and proven, that parent behaviors, rather than parent beliefs, regarding gender are better predictors for a child's attitude on gender. Gender identity_sentence_106

It was concluded that a mother's behavior was especially influential on a child's assumptions of the child's own gender. Gender identity_sentence_107

For example, mothers who practiced more traditional behaviors around their children resulted in the son displaying fewer stereotypes of male roles while the daughter displayed more stereotypes of female roles. Gender identity_sentence_108

No correlation was found between a father's behavior and his children's knowledge of stereotypes of their own gender. Gender identity_sentence_109

It was concluded, however, that fathers who held the belief of equality between the sexes had children, especially sons, who displayed fewer preconceptions of their opposite gender. Gender identity_sentence_110

Gender variance and non-conformance Gender identity_section_8

Main articles: Gender variance, Transgender, Transsexual, and Non-binary gender Gender identity_sentence_111

See also: Cisgender Gender identity_sentence_112

Gender identity can lead to security issues among individuals that do not fit on a binary scale. Gender identity_sentence_113

In some cases, a person's gender identity is inconsistent with their biological sex characteristics (genitals and secondary sex characteristics), resulting in individuals dressing and/or behaving in a way which is perceived by others as outside cultural gender norms. Gender identity_sentence_114

These gender expressions may be described as gender variant, transgender, or genderqueer (or non-binary) (there is an emerging vocabulary for those who defy traditional gender identity), and people who have such expressions may experience gender dysphoria (traditionally called Gender Identity Disorder or GID). Gender identity_sentence_115

Transgender individuals are often greatly affected by language and gender pronouns before, during, and after their transition. Gender identity_sentence_116

In recent decades it has become possible to reassign sex surgically. Gender identity_sentence_117

Some people who experience gender dysphoria seek such medical intervention to have their physiological sex match their gender identity; others retain the genitalia they were born with (see transsexual for some of the possible reasons) but adopt a gender role that is consistent with their gender identity. Gender identity_sentence_118

History and definitions Gender identity_section_9

Definitions Gender identity_section_10

The terms gender identity and core gender identity were first used with their current meaning—one's personal experience of one's own gender—sometime in the 1960s. Gender identity_sentence_119

To this day they are usually used in that sense, though a few scholars additionally use the term to refer to the sexual orientation and sexual identity categories gay, lesbian and bisexual. Gender identity_sentence_120

Early medical literature Gender identity_section_11

In late-19th-century medical literature, women who chose not to conform to their expected gender roles were called "inverts", and they were portrayed as having an interest in knowledge and learning, and a "dislike and sometimes incapacity for needlework". Gender identity_sentence_121

During the mid-1900s, doctors pushed for corrective therapy on such women and children, which meant that gender behaviors that were not part of the norm would be punished and changed. Gender identity_sentence_122

The aim of this therapy was to push children back to their "correct" gender roles and thereby limit the number of children who became transgender. Gender identity_sentence_123

Freud and Jung's views Gender identity_section_12

In 1905, Sigmund Freud presented his theory of psychosexual development in Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, giving evidence that in the pregenital phase children do not distinguish between sexes, but assume both parents have the same genitalia and reproductive powers. Gender identity_sentence_124

On this basis, he argued that bisexuality was the original sexual orientation and that heterosexuality was resultant of repression during the phallic stage, at which point gender identity became ascertainable. Gender identity_sentence_125

According to Freud, during this stage, children developed an Oedipus complex where they had sexual fantasies for the parent ascribed the opposite gender and hatred for the parent ascribed the same gender, and this hatred transformed into (unconscious) transference and (conscious) identification with the hated parent who both exemplified a model to appease sexual impulses and threatened to castrate the child's power to appease sexual impulses. Gender identity_sentence_126

In 1913, Carl Jung proposed the Electra complex as he both believed that bisexuality did not lie at the origin of psychic life, and that Freud did not give adequate description to the female child (Freud rejected this suggestion). Gender identity_sentence_127

1950s and 1960s Gender identity_section_13

During the 1950s and '60s, psychologists began studying gender development in young children, partially in an effort to understand the origins of homosexuality (which was viewed as a mental disorder at the time). Gender identity_sentence_128

In 1958, the Gender Identity Research Project was established at the UCLA Medical Center for the study of intersex and transsexual individuals. Gender identity_sentence_129

Psychoanalyst Robert Stoller generalized many of the findings of the project in his book Sex and Gender: On the Development of Masculinity and Femininity (1968). Gender identity_sentence_130

He is also credited with introducing the term gender identity to the International Psychoanalytic Congress in Stockholm, Sweden in 1963. Gender identity_sentence_131

Behavioral psychologist John Money was also instrumental in the development of early theories of gender identity. Gender identity_sentence_132

His work at Johns Hopkins Medical School's Gender Identity Clinic (established in 1965) popularized an interactionist theory of gender identity, suggesting that, up to a certain age, gender identity is relatively fluid and subject to constant negotiation. Gender identity_sentence_133

His book Man and Woman, Boy and Girl (1972) became widely used as a college textbook, although many of Money's ideas have since been challenged. Gender identity_sentence_134

Butler's views Gender identity_section_14

In the late 1980s, Judith Butler began lecturing regularly on the topic of gender identity, and in 1990, she published Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity, introducing the concept of gender performativity and arguing that both sex and gender are constructed. Gender identity_sentence_135

Present views Gender identity_section_15

Medical field Gender identity_section_16

Transgender people sometimes wish to undergo physical surgery to refashion their primary sexual characteristics, secondary characteristics, or both, because they feel they will be more comfortable with different genitalia. Gender identity_sentence_136

This may involve removal of penis, testicles or breasts, or the fashioning of a penis, vagina or breasts. Gender identity_sentence_137

In the past, sex assignment surgery has been performed on infants who are born with ambiguous genitalia. Gender identity_sentence_138

However, current medical opinion is strongly against this procedure, since many adults have regretted that these decisions were made for them at birth. Gender identity_sentence_139

Today, sex reassignment surgery is performed on people who choose to have this change so that their anatomical sex will match their gender identity. Gender identity_sentence_140

In the United States, it was decided under the Affordable Care Act that health insurance exchanges would have the ability to collect demographic information on gender identity and sexual identity through optional questions, to help policymakers better recognize the needs of the LGBT community. Gender identity_sentence_141

Gender dysphoria and gender identity disorder Gender identity_section_17

Gender dysphoria (previously called "gender identity disorder" or GID in the DSM) is the formal diagnosis of people who experience significant dysphoria (discontent) with the sex they were assigned at birth and/or the gender roles associated with that sex: "In gender identity disorder, there is discordance between the natal sex of one's external genitalia and the brain coding of one's gender as masculine or feminine." Gender identity_sentence_142

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (302.85) has five criteria that must be met before a diagnosis of gender identity disorder can be made, and the disorder is further subdivided into specific diagnoses based on age, for example gender identity disorder in children (for children who experience gender dysphoria). Gender identity_sentence_143

The concept of gender identity appeared in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in its third edition, DSM-III (1980), in the form of two psychiatric diagnoses of gender dysphoria: gender identity disorder of childhood (GIDC), and transsexualism (for adolescents and adults). Gender identity_sentence_144

The 1987 revision of the manual, the DSM-III-R, added a third diagnosis: gender identity disorder of adolescence and adulthood, nontranssexual type. Gender identity_sentence_145

This latter diagnosis was removed in the subsequent revision, DSM-IV (1994), which also collapsed GIDC and transsexualism into a new diagnosis of gender identity disorder. Gender identity_sentence_146

In 2013, the DSM-5 renamed the diagnosis gender dysphoria and revised its definition. Gender identity_sentence_147

The authors of a 2005 academic paper questioned the classification of gender identity problems as a mental disorder, speculating that certain DSM revisions may have been made on a tit-for-tat basis when certain groups were pushing for the removal of homosexuality as a disorder. Gender identity_sentence_148

This remains controversial, although the vast majority of today's mental health professionals follow and agree with the current DSM classifications. Gender identity_sentence_149

International human rights law Gender identity_section_18

The Yogyakarta Principles, a document on the application of international human rights law, provide in the preamble a definition of gender identity as each person's deeply felt internal and individual experience of gender, which may or may not correspond with the sex assigned at birth, including the person's sense of the body (which may involve, if freely chosen, modification of bodily appearance or function by medical, surgical or other means) and other experience of gender, including dress, speech and mannerism. Gender identity_sentence_150

Principle 3 states that "Each person’s self-defined [...] gender identity is integral to their personality and is one of the most basic aspects of self-determination, dignity and freedom. Gender identity_sentence_151

No one shall be forced to undergo medical procedures, including sex reassignment surgery, sterilisation or hormonal therapy, as a requirement for legal recognition of their gender identity." Gender identity_sentence_152

and Principle 18 states that "Notwithstanding any classifications to the contrary, a person's sexual orientation and gender identity are not, in and of themselves, medical conditions and are not to be treated, cured or suppressed." Gender identity_sentence_153

Relating to this principle, the "Jurisprudential Annotations to the Yogyakarta Principles" observed that "Gender identity differing from that assigned at birth, or socially rejected gender expression, have been treated as a form of mental illness. Gender identity_sentence_154

The pathologization of difference has led to gender-transgressive children and adolescents being confined in psychiatric institutions, and subjected to aversion techniques – including electroshock therapy – as a 'cure'." Gender identity_sentence_155

The "Yogyakarta Principles in Action" says "it is important to note that while 'sexual orientation' has been declassified as a mental illness in many countries, 'gender identity' or 'gender identity disorder' often remains in consideration." Gender identity_sentence_156

These Principles influenced the UN declaration on sexual orientation and gender identity In 2015, gender identity was part of a Supreme Court case in the United States called Obergefell v Hodges in which marriage was no longer restricted between man and woman. Gender identity_sentence_157

Philosophy Gender identity_section_19

See also: Feminist views on transgender topics Gender identity_sentence_158

Kathleen Stock has written that because gender identity is based on a person's feelings, it is detached from both a person's sex and their gender (in the socially constructed sense). Gender identity_sentence_159

Stock also argues that because the concept of gender identity rarely comes up outside the context of gender dysphoria, "it would seem false to say that everyone has one". Gender identity_sentence_160

Measurement Gender identity_section_20

No objective measurement or imaging of the human body exists for gender identity, as gender identity is part of one's subjective experience. Gender identity_sentence_161

However, numerous methods for assessing gender identity exist, including questionnaire-based, interview-based and task-based assessments. Gender identity_sentence_162

These have varying effect sizes among a number of specific sub-populations. Gender identity_sentence_163

Gender identity measures have been applied in clinical assessment studies of people with gender dysphoria or intersex conditions. Gender identity_sentence_164

Non-binary gender identities Gender identity_section_21

See also: Gender binary, Non-binary gender, and Third gender Gender identity_sentence_165

Some people, and some societies, do not construct gender as a binary in which everyone is either a boy or a girl, or a man or a woman. Gender identity_sentence_166

Those who exist outside the binary fall under the umbrella terms non-binary or genderqueer. Gender identity_sentence_167

Some cultures have specific gender roles that are distinct from "man" and "woman." Gender identity_sentence_168

These are often referred to as third genders. Gender identity_sentence_169

Fa'afafine Gender identity_section_22

Main article: Fa'afafine Gender identity_sentence_170

In Samoan culture, or Faʻa Samoa, fa'afafine are considered to be a third gender. Gender identity_sentence_171

They are anatomically male but dress and behave in a manner considered typically feminine. Gender identity_sentence_172

According to Tamasailau Sua'ali'i (see references), fa'afafine in Samoa at least are often physiologically unable to reproduce. Gender identity_sentence_173

Fa'afafine are accepted as a natural gender, and neither looked down upon nor discriminated against. Gender identity_sentence_174

Fa'afafine also reinforce their femininity with the fact that they are only attracted to and receive sexual attention from straight masculine men. Gender identity_sentence_175

They have been and generally still are initially identified in terms of labour preferences, as they perform typically feminine household tasks. Gender identity_sentence_176

The Samoan Prime Minister is patron of the Samoa Fa'afafine Association. Gender identity_sentence_177

Translated literally, fa'afafine means "in the manner of a woman." Gender identity_sentence_178

Hijras Gender identity_section_23

Main article: Hijra (South Asia) Gender identity_sentence_179

Hijras are officially recognized as third gender in the Indian subcontinent, being considered neither completely male nor female. Gender identity_sentence_180

Hijras have a recorded history in the Indian subcontinent since antiquity, as suggested by the Kama Sutra. Gender identity_sentence_181

Many hijras live in well-defined and organised all-hijra communities, led by a guru. Gender identity_sentence_182

These communities have consisted over generations of those who are in abject poverty or who have been rejected by or fled their family of origin. Gender identity_sentence_183

Many work as sex workers for survival. Gender identity_sentence_184

The word "hijra" is a Hindustani word. Gender identity_sentence_185

It has traditionally been translated into English as "eunuch" or "hermaphrodite", where "the irregularity of the male genitalia is central to the definition". Gender identity_sentence_186

However, in general hijras are born male, only a few having been born with intersex variations. Gender identity_sentence_187

Some Hijras undergo an initiation rite into the hijra community called nirvaan, which involves the removal of the penis, scrotum, and testicles. Gender identity_sentence_188

Khanith Gender identity_section_24

Main article: Khanith Gender identity_sentence_189

The khanith form an accepted third gender in Oman. Gender identity_sentence_190

The khanith are male homosexual prostitutes whose dressing is male, featuring pastel colors (rather than white, worn by men), but their mannerisms female. Gender identity_sentence_191

Khanith can mingle with women, and they often do at weddings or other formal events. Gender identity_sentence_192

Khaniths have their own households, performing all tasks (both male and female). Gender identity_sentence_193

However, similarly to men in their society, khaniths can marry women, proving their masculinity by consummating the marriage. Gender identity_sentence_194

Should a divorce or death take place, these men can revert to their status as khaniths at the next wedding. Gender identity_sentence_195

Two-spirit identities Gender identity_section_25

Main article: Two-Spirit Gender identity_sentence_196

Many indigenous North American Nations had more than two gender roles. Gender identity_sentence_197

Those who belong to the additional gender categories, beyond cisgender man and woman, are now often collectively termed "two-spirit" or "two-spirited." Gender identity_sentence_198

There are parts of the community that take "two-spirit" as a category over an identity itself, preferring to identify with culture or Nation-specific gender terms. Gender identity_sentence_199

See also Gender identity_section_26

Gender identity_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: identity.