George Gershwin

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This article is about the American composer. George Gershwin_sentence_0

For other uses, see Gershwin (disambiguation). George Gershwin_sentence_1

George Gershwin_table_infobox_0

George GershwinGeorge Gershwin_header_cell_0_0_0
BornGeorge Gershwin_header_cell_0_1_0 Jacob Bruskin Gershowitz

(1898-09-26)September 26, 1898 Brooklyn, New York City, U.S.George Gershwin_cell_0_1_1

DiedGeorge Gershwin_header_cell_0_2_0 July 11, 1937(1937-07-11) (aged 38)

Los Angeles, California, U.S.George Gershwin_cell_0_2_1

Resting placeGeorge Gershwin_header_cell_0_3_0 Westchester Hills CemeteryGeorge Gershwin_cell_0_3_1
OccupationGeorge Gershwin_header_cell_0_4_0 Composer, pianistGeorge Gershwin_cell_0_4_1
Years activeGeorge Gershwin_header_cell_0_5_0 1916–37George Gershwin_cell_0_5_1
HeightGeorge Gershwin_header_cell_0_6_0 5 ft 11 in (180 cm)George Gershwin_cell_0_6_1
RelativesGeorge Gershwin_header_cell_0_7_0 George Gershwin_cell_0_7_1

George Gershwin (/ˈɡɜːrʃ.wɪn/; born Jacob Bruskin Gershowitz; September 26, 1898 – July 11, 1937) was an American composer, pianist and painter whose compositions spanned both popular and classical genres. George Gershwin_sentence_2

Among his best-known works are the orchestral compositions Rhapsody in Blue (1924) and An American in Paris (1928), the songs "Swanee" (1919) and "Fascinating Rhythm" (1924), the jazz standard "I Got Rhythm" (1930), and the opera Porgy and Bess (1935) which gave birth to the hit "Summertime". George Gershwin_sentence_3

Gershwin studied piano under Charles Hambitzer and composition with Rubin Goldmark, Henry Cowell, and Joseph Brody. George Gershwin_sentence_4

He began his career as a song plugger but soon started composing Broadway theater works with his brother Ira Gershwin and with Buddy DeSylva. George Gershwin_sentence_5

He moved to Paris intending to study with Nadia Boulanger, but she refused him. George Gershwin_sentence_6

He subsequently composed An American in Paris, returned to New York City and wrote Porgy and Bess with Ira and DuBose Heyward. George Gershwin_sentence_7

Initially a commercial failure, it came to be considered one of the most important American operas of the twentieth century and an American cultural classic. George Gershwin_sentence_8

Gershwin moved to Hollywood and composed numerous film scores. George Gershwin_sentence_9

He died in 1937 of a malignant brain tumor. George Gershwin_sentence_10

His compositions have been adapted for use in film and television, with several becoming jazz standards recorded and covered in many variations. George Gershwin_sentence_11

Biography George Gershwin_section_0

Ancestors George Gershwin_section_1

Gershwin was of Ukrainian-Jewish ancestry. George Gershwin_sentence_12

His grandfather, Jakov Gershowitz, was born in Odessa and had served for 25 years as a mechanic for the Imperial Russian Army to earn the right of free travel and residence as a Jew; finally retiring near Saint Petersburg. George Gershwin_sentence_13

His teenage son, Moishe Gershowitz, worked as a leather cutter for women's shoes. George Gershwin_sentence_14

Moishe Gershowitz met and fell in love with Roza Bruskina, the teenage daughter of a furrier in Vilnius. George Gershwin_sentence_15

She and her family moved to New York because of increasing anti-Jewish sentiment in Russia, changing her first name to Rose. George Gershwin_sentence_16

Moishe, faced with compulsory military service if he remained in Russia, moved to America as soon as he could afford to. George Gershwin_sentence_17

Once in New York, he changed his first name to Morris. George Gershwin_sentence_18

Gershowitz lived with a maternal uncle in Brooklyn, working as a foreman in a women's shoe factory. George Gershwin_sentence_19

He married Rose on July 21, 1895, and Gershowitz soon Americanized his name to Gershwine. George Gershwin_sentence_20

Their first child, Ira Gershwin, was born on December 6, 1896, after which the family moved into a second-floor apartment on Snediker Avenue in Brooklyn. George Gershwin_sentence_21

Early life George Gershwin_section_2

On September 26, 1898, George was born as second son to Morris and Rose Bruskin Gershwin in their second-floor apartment at 242 Snediker Avenue in Brooklyn. George Gershwin_sentence_22

His birth certificate identifies him as Jacob Gershwin, with the surname pronounced 'Gersh-vin' in the Russian and Yiddish immigrant community. George Gershwin_sentence_23

He had just one given name, contrary to the American practice of giving children both a first and a middle name. George Gershwin_sentence_24

He was named after his grandfather, the army mechanic. George Gershwin_sentence_25

He soon became known as George, and changed the spelling of his surname to 'Gershwin' around the time he became a professional musician; other family members followed suit. George Gershwin_sentence_26

After Ira and George, another boy, Arthur Gershwin (1900–1981), and a girl, Frances Gershwin (1906–1999), were born into the family. George Gershwin_sentence_27

The family lived in many different residences, as their father changed dwellings with each new enterprise in which he became involved. George Gershwin_sentence_28

They grew up mostly in the Yiddish Theater District. George Gershwin_sentence_29

George and Ira frequented the local Yiddish theaters, with George occasionally appearing onstage as an extra. George Gershwin_sentence_30

George lived a boyhood not unusual in New York tenements, which included running around with his friends, roller-skating and misbehaving in the streets. George Gershwin_sentence_31

Until 1908, he cared nothing about music. George Gershwin_sentence_32

Then as a ten-year-old, he was intrigued upon hearing his friend Maxie Rosenzweig's violin recital. George Gershwin_sentence_33

The sound, and the way his friend played, captivated him. George Gershwin_sentence_34

At about the same time, George's parents had bought a piano for his older brother Ira. George Gershwin_sentence_35

To his parents' surprise, though, and to Ira's relief, it was George who spent more time playing it as he continued to enjoy it. George Gershwin_sentence_36

Although his younger sister Frances was the first in the family to make a living through her musical talents, she married young and devoted herself to being a mother and housewife, thus precluding spending any serious time on musical endeavors. George Gershwin_sentence_37

Having given up her performing career, she settled upon painting as a creative outlet, which had also been a hobby George briefly pursued. George Gershwin_sentence_38

Arthur Gershwin followed in the paths of George and Ira, also becoming a composer of songs, musicals, and short piano works. George Gershwin_sentence_39

With a degree of frustration, George tried various piano teachers for about two years (circa 1911) before finally being introduced to Charles Hambitzer by Jack Miller (circa 1913), the pianist in the Beethoven Symphony Orchestra. George Gershwin_sentence_40

Until his death in 1918, Hambitzer remained Gershwin's musical mentor, taught him conventional piano technique, introduced him to music of the European classical tradition, and encouraged him to attend orchestral concerts. George Gershwin_sentence_41

Tin Pan Alley and Broadway, 1913–1923 George Gershwin_section_3

In 1913, Gershwin left school at the age of 15 and found his first job as a "song plugger". George Gershwin_sentence_42

His employer was Jerome H. Remick and Company, a Detroit-based publishing firm with a branch office on New York City's Tin Pan Alley, and he earned $15 a week. George Gershwin_sentence_43

His first published song was "When You Want 'Em, You Can't Get 'Em, When You've Got 'Em, You Don't Want 'Em" in 1916 when Gershwin was only 17 years old. George Gershwin_sentence_44

It earned him 50 cents. George Gershwin_sentence_45

In 1916, Gershwin started working for Aeolian Company and Standard Music Rolls in New York, recording and arranging. George Gershwin_sentence_46

He produced dozens, if not hundreds, of rolls under his own and assumed names (pseudonyms attributed to Gershwin include Fred Murtha and Bert Wynn). George Gershwin_sentence_47

He also recorded rolls of his own compositions for the Duo-Art and Welte-Mignon reproducing pianos. George Gershwin_sentence_48

As well as recording piano rolls, Gershwin made a brief foray into vaudeville, accompanying both Nora Bayes and Louise Dresser on the piano. George Gershwin_sentence_49

His 1917 novelty ragtime, "Rialto Ripples", was a commercial success. George Gershwin_sentence_50

In 1919 he scored his first big national hit with his song "Swanee," with words by Irving Caesar. George Gershwin_sentence_51

Al Jolson, a famous Broadway singer of the day, heard Gershwin perform "Swanee" at a party and decided to sing it in one of his shows. George Gershwin_sentence_52

In the late 1910s, Gershwin met songwriter and music director William Daly. George Gershwin_sentence_53

The two collaborated on the Broadway musicals Piccadilly to Broadway (1920) and For Goodness' Sake (1922), and jointly composed the score for Our Nell (1923). George Gershwin_sentence_54

This was the beginning of a long friendship. George Gershwin_sentence_55

Daly was a frequent arranger, orchestrator and conductor of Gershwin's music, and Gershwin periodically turned to him for musical advice. George Gershwin_sentence_56

Musical, Europe and classical music, 1924–1928 George Gershwin_section_4

In 1924, Gershwin composed his first major classical work, Rhapsody in Blue, for orchestra and piano. George Gershwin_sentence_57

It was orchestrated by Ferde Grofé and premiered by Paul Whiteman's Concert Band, in New York. George Gershwin_sentence_58

It subsequently went on to be his most popular work, and established Gershwin's signature style and genius in blending vastly different musical styles in revolutionary ways. George Gershwin_sentence_59

Since the early 1920s Gershwin had frequently worked with the lyricist Buddy DeSylva. George Gershwin_sentence_60

Together they created the experimental one-act jazz opera Blue Monday, set in Harlem. George Gershwin_sentence_61

It is widely regarded as a forerunner to the groundbreaking Porgy and Bess. George Gershwin_sentence_62

In 1924, George and Ira Gershwin collaborated on a stage musical comedy Lady Be Good, which included such future standards as "Fascinating Rhythm" and "Oh, Lady Be Good!". George Gershwin_sentence_63

They followed this with Oh, Kay! George Gershwin_sentence_64

(1926), Funny Face (1927) and Strike Up the Band (1927 and 1930). George Gershwin_sentence_65

Gershwin allowed the song, with a modified title, to be used as a football fight song, "Strike Up The Band for UCLA". George Gershwin_sentence_66

In the mid-1920s, Gershwin stayed in Paris for a short period of time, during which he applied to study composition with the noted Nadia Boulanger, who, along with several other prospective tutors such as Maurice Ravel, turned him down, afraid that rigorous classical study would ruin his jazz-influenced style. George Gershwin_sentence_67

Maurice Ravel's rejection letter to Gershwin told him, "Why become a second-rate Ravel when you're already a first-rate Gershwin?" George Gershwin_sentence_68

While there, Gershwin wrote An American in Paris. George Gershwin_sentence_69

This work received mixed reviews upon its first performance at Carnegie Hall on December 13, 1928, but it quickly became part of the standard repertoire in Europe and the United States. George Gershwin_sentence_70

New York, 1929–1935 George Gershwin_section_5

In 1929, the Gershwin brothers created Show Girl; The following year brought Girl Crazy, which introduced the standards "Embraceable You", debuted by Ginger Rogers, and "I Got Rhythm". George Gershwin_sentence_71

1931's Of Thee I Sing became the first musical comedy to win the Pulitzer Prize for Drama; the winners were George S. Kaufman, Morrie Ryskind, and Ira Gershwin. George Gershwin_sentence_72

Gershwin spent the summer of 1934 on Folly Island in South Carolina after he was invited to visit by the author of the novel Porgy, DuBose Heyward. George Gershwin_sentence_73

He was inspired to write the music to his opera Porgy and Bess while on this working vacation. George Gershwin_sentence_74

Porgy and Bess was considered another American classic by the composer of Rhapsody in Blue — even if critics could not quite figure out how to evaluate it, or decide whether it was opera or simply an ambitious Broadway musical. George Gershwin_sentence_75

"It crossed the barriers," per theater historian Robert Kimball. George Gershwin_sentence_76

"It wasn't a musical work per se, and it wasn't a drama per se – it elicited response from both music and drama critics. George Gershwin_sentence_77

But the work has sort of always been outside category." George Gershwin_sentence_78

Last years, 1936–37 George Gershwin_section_6

After the commercial failure of Porgy and Bess, Gershwin moved to Hollywood, California. George Gershwin_sentence_79

In 1936, he was commissioned by RKO Pictures to write the music for the film Shall We Dance, starring Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers. George Gershwin_sentence_80

Gershwin's extended score, which would marry ballet with jazz in a new way, runs over an hour in length. George Gershwin_sentence_81

It took Gershwin several months to compose and orchestrate. George Gershwin_sentence_82

Gershwin had a ten-year affair with composer Kay Swift, whom he frequently consulted about his music. George Gershwin_sentence_83

The two never married, although she eventually divorced her husband James Warburg in order to commit to the relationship. George Gershwin_sentence_84

Swift's granddaughter, Katharine Weber, has suggested that the pair were not married because George's mother Rose was "unhappy that Kay Swift wasn't Jewish". George Gershwin_sentence_85

The Gershwins' 1926 musical Oh, Kay was named for her. George Gershwin_sentence_86

After Gershwin's death, Swift arranged some of his music, transcribed several of his recordings, and collaborated with his brother Ira on several projects. George Gershwin_sentence_87

Illness and death George Gershwin_section_7

Early in 1937, Gershwin began to complain of blinding headaches and a recurring impression that he smelled burning rubber. George Gershwin_sentence_88

On February 11, 1937, he performed his Piano Concerto in F in a special concert of his music with the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra under the direction of French maestro Pierre Monteux. George Gershwin_sentence_89

Gershwin, normally a superb pianist in his own compositions, suffered coordination problems and blackouts during the performance. George Gershwin_sentence_90

He was at the time working on other Hollywood film projects while living with Ira and his wife Leonore in their rented house in Beverly Hills. George Gershwin_sentence_91

Leonore Gershwin began to be disturbed by George's mood swings and his seeming inability to eat without spilling food at the dinner table. George Gershwin_sentence_92

She suspected mental illness and insisted he be moved out of their house to lyricist Yip Harburg's empty quarters nearby, where he was placed in the care of his valet, Paul Mueller. George Gershwin_sentence_93

The headaches and olfactory hallucinations continued. George Gershwin_sentence_94

On the night of July 9, 1937 Gershwin collapsed in Harburg's house, where he had been working on the score of The Goldwyn Follies. George Gershwin_sentence_95

He was rushed back to Cedars of Lebanon, and fell into a coma. George Gershwin_sentence_96

Only then did his doctors come to believe that he was suffering from a brain tumor. George Gershwin_sentence_97

Leonore called George's close friend Emil Mosbacher and explained the dire need to find a neurosurgeon. George Gershwin_sentence_98

Mosbacher immediately called pioneering neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing in Boston, who, retired for several years by then, recommended Dr. Walter Dandy, who was on a boat fishing in Chesapeake Bay with the governor of Maryland. George Gershwin_sentence_99

Mosbacher called the White House and had a Coast Guard cutter sent to find the governor's yacht and bring Dandy quickly to shore. George Gershwin_sentence_100

Mosbacher then chartered a plane and flew Dandy to Newark Airport, where he was to catch a plane to Los Angeles; however, by that time, Gershwin's condition was critical and the need for surgery was immediate. George Gershwin_sentence_101

In the early hours of July 11, doctors at Cedars removed a large brain tumor, believed to have been a glioblastoma, but Gershwin died on the morning of Sunday, July 11, 1937, at the age of 38. George Gershwin_sentence_102

The fact that he had suddenly collapsed and become comatose after he stood up on July 9, has been interpreted as brain herniation with Duret haemorrhages. George Gershwin_sentence_103

Gershwin's friends and fans were shocked and devastated. George Gershwin_sentence_104

John O'Hara remarked: "George Gershwin died on July 11, 1937, but I don't have to believe it if I don't want to." George Gershwin_sentence_105

He was interred at Westchester Hills Cemetery in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York. George Gershwin_sentence_106

A memorial concert was held at the Hollywood Bowl on September 8, 1937, at which Otto Klemperer conducted his own orchestration of the second of Gershwin's Three Preludes. George Gershwin_sentence_107

Musical style and influence George Gershwin_section_8

Gershwin was influenced by French composers of the early twentieth century. George Gershwin_sentence_108

In turn Maurice Ravel was impressed with Gershwin's abilities, commenting, "Personally I find jazz most interesting: the rhythms, the way the melodies are handled, the melodies themselves. George Gershwin_sentence_109

I have heard of George Gershwin's works and I find them intriguing." George Gershwin_sentence_110

The orchestrations in Gershwin's symphonic works often seem similar to those of Ravel; likewise, Ravel's two piano concertos evince an influence of Gershwin. George Gershwin_sentence_111

George Gershwin asked to study with Ravel. George Gershwin_sentence_112

When Ravel heard how much Gershwin earned, Ravel replied with words to the effect of, "You should give me lessons." George Gershwin_sentence_113

(Some versions of this story feature Igor Stravinsky rather than Ravel as the composer; however Stravinsky confirmed that he originally heard the story from Ravel.) George Gershwin_sentence_114

Gershwin's own Concerto in F was criticized for being related to the work of Claude Debussy, more so than to the expected jazz style. George Gershwin_sentence_115

The comparison did not deter him from continuing to explore French styles. George Gershwin_sentence_116

The title of An American in Paris reflects the very journey that he had consciously taken as a composer: "The opening part will be developed in typical French style, in the manner of Debussy and Les Six, though the tunes are original." George Gershwin_sentence_117

Gershwin was intrigued by the works of Alban Berg, Dmitri Shostakovich, Igor Stravinsky, Darius Milhaud, and Arnold Schoenberg. George Gershwin_sentence_118

He also asked Schoenberg for composition lessons. George Gershwin_sentence_119

Schoenberg refused, saying "I would only make you a bad Schoenberg, and you're such a good Gershwin already." George Gershwin_sentence_120

(This quote is similar to one credited to Maurice Ravel during Gershwin's 1928 visit to France – "Why be a second-rate Ravel, when you are a first-rate Gershwin?") George Gershwin_sentence_121

Gershwin was particularly impressed by the music of Berg, who gave him a score of the Lyric Suite. George Gershwin_sentence_122

He attended the American premiere of Wozzeck, conducted by Leopold Stokowski in 1931, and was "thrilled and deeply impressed". George Gershwin_sentence_123

Russian Joseph Schillinger's influence as Gershwin's teacher of composition (1932–1936) was substantial in providing him with a method of composition. George Gershwin_sentence_124

There has been some disagreement about the nature of Schillinger's influence on Gershwin. George Gershwin_sentence_125

After the posthumous success of Porgy and Bess, Schillinger claimed he had a large and direct influence in overseeing the creation of the opera; Ira completely denied that his brother had any such assistance for this work. George Gershwin_sentence_126

A third account of Gershwin's musical relationship with his teacher was written by Gershwin's close friend Vernon Duke, also a Schillinger student, in an article for the Musical Quarterly in 1947. George Gershwin_sentence_127

What set Gershwin apart was his ability to manipulate forms of music into his own unique voice. George Gershwin_sentence_128

He took the jazz he discovered on Tin Pan Alley into the mainstream by splicing its rhythms and tonality with that of the popular songs of his era. George Gershwin_sentence_129

Although George Gershwin would seldom make grand statements about his music, he believed that "true music must reflect the thought and aspirations of the people and time. George Gershwin_sentence_130

My people are Americans. George Gershwin_sentence_131

My time is today." George Gershwin_sentence_132

In 2007, the Library of Congress named its Prize for Popular Song after George and Ira Gershwin. George Gershwin_sentence_133

Recognizing the profound and positive effect of popular music on culture, the prize is given annually to a composer or performer whose lifetime contributions exemplify the standard of excellence associated with the Gershwins. George Gershwin_sentence_134

On March 1, 2007, the first Gershwin Prize was awarded to Paul Simon. George Gershwin_sentence_135

Recordings and film George Gershwin_section_9

Early in his career, under both his own name and pseudonyms, Gershwin recorded more than one hundred and forty player piano rolls which were a main source of his income. George Gershwin_sentence_136

The majority were popular music of the period and a smaller proportion were of his own works. George Gershwin_sentence_137

Once his musical theatre-writing income became substantial, his regular roll-recording career became superfluous. George Gershwin_sentence_138

He did record additional rolls throughout the 1920s of his main hits for the Aeolian Company's reproducing piano, including a complete version of his Rhapsody in Blue. George Gershwin_sentence_139

Compared to the piano rolls, there are few accessible audio recordings of Gershwin's playing. George Gershwin_sentence_140

His first recording was his own "Swanee" with the Fred Van Eps Trio in 1919. George Gershwin_sentence_141

The recorded balance highlights the banjo playing of Van Eps, and the piano is overshadowed. George Gershwin_sentence_142

The recording took place before "Swanee" became famous as an Al Jolson specialty in early 1920. George Gershwin_sentence_143

Gershwin recorded an abridged version of Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and his orchestra for the Victor Talking Machine Company in 1924, soon after the world premiere. George Gershwin_sentence_144

Gershwin and the same orchestra made an electrical recording of the abridged version for Victor in 1927. George Gershwin_sentence_145

However, a dispute in the studio over interpretation angered Whiteman and he left. George Gershwin_sentence_146

The conductor's baton was taken over by Victor's staff conductor Nathaniel Shilkret. George Gershwin_sentence_147

Gershwin made a number of solo piano recordings of tunes from his musicals, some including the vocals of Fred and Adele Astaire, as well as his Three Preludes for piano. George Gershwin_sentence_148

In 1929, Gershwin "supervised" the world premiere recording of An American in Paris with Nathaniel Shilkret and the Victor Symphony Orchestra. George Gershwin_sentence_149

Gershwin's role in the recording was rather limited, particularly because Shilkret was conducting and had his own ideas about the music. George Gershwin_sentence_150

When it was realized that no one had been hired to play the brief celeste solo, Gershwin was asked if he could and would play the instrument, and he agreed. George Gershwin_sentence_151

Gershwin can be heard, rather briefly, on the recording during the slow section. George Gershwin_sentence_152

Gershwin appeared on several radio programs, including Rudy Vallee's, and played some of his compositions. George Gershwin_sentence_153

This included the third movement of the Concerto in F with Vallee conducting the studio orchestra. George Gershwin_sentence_154

Some of these performances were preserved on transcription discs and have been released on LP and CD. George Gershwin_sentence_155

In 1934, in an effort to earn money to finance his planned folk opera, Gershwin hosted his own radio program titled Music by Gershwin. George Gershwin_sentence_156

The show was broadcast on the NBC Blue Network from February to May and again in September through the final show on December 23, 1934. George Gershwin_sentence_157

He presented his own work as well as the work of other composers. George Gershwin_sentence_158

Recordings from this and other radio broadcasts include his Variations on I Got Rhythm, portions of the Concerto in F, and numerous songs from his musical comedies. George Gershwin_sentence_159

He also recorded a run-through of his Second Rhapsody, conducting the orchestra and playing the piano solos. George Gershwin_sentence_160

Gershwin recorded excerpts from Porgy and Bess with members of the original cast, conducting the orchestra from the keyboard; he even announced the selections and the names of the performers. George Gershwin_sentence_161

In 1935 RCA Victor asked him to supervise recordings of highlights from Porgy and Bess; these were his last recordings. George Gershwin_sentence_162

A 74-second newsreel film clip of Gershwin playing I Got Rhythm has survived, filmed at the opening of the Manhattan Theater (now The Ed Sullivan Theater) in August 1931. George Gershwin_sentence_163

There are also silent home movies of Gershwin, some of them shot on Kodachrome color film stock, which have been featured in tributes to the composer. George Gershwin_sentence_164

In addition, there is newsreel footage of Gershwin playing "Mademoiselle from New Rochelle" and "Strike Up the Band" on the piano during a Broadway rehearsal of the 1930 production of Strike Up the Band. George Gershwin_sentence_165

In the mid-30s, "Strike Up The Band" was given to UCLA to be used as a football fight song, "Strike Up The Band for UCLA". George Gershwin_sentence_166

The comedy team of Clark and McCullough are seen conversing with Gershwin, then singing as he plays. George Gershwin_sentence_167

In 1945, the film biography Rhapsody in Blue was made, starring Robert Alda as George Gershwin. George Gershwin_sentence_168

The film contains many factual errors about Gershwin's life, but also features many examples of his music, including an almost complete performance of Rhapsody in Blue. George Gershwin_sentence_169

In 1965, Movietone Records released an album MTM 1009 featuring Gershwin's piano rolls of the titled George Gershwin plays RHAPSODY IN BLUE and his other favorite compositions. George Gershwin_sentence_170

The B-side of the LP featured nine other recordings. George Gershwin_sentence_171

In 1975, Columbia Records released an album featuring Gershwin's piano rolls of Rhapsody In Blue, accompanied by the Columbia Jazz Band playing the original jazz band accompaniment, conducted by Michael Tilson Thomas. George Gershwin_sentence_172

The B-side of the Columbia Masterworks release features Tilson Thomas leading the New York Philharmonic in An American In Paris. George Gershwin_sentence_173

In 1976, RCA Records, as part of its "Victrola Americana" line, released a collection of Gershwin recordings taken from 78s recorded in the 1920s and called the LP "Gershwin plays Gershwin, Historic First Recordings" (RCA Victrola AVM1-1740). George Gershwin_sentence_174

Included were recordings of "Rhapsody in Blue" with the Paul Whiteman Orchestra and Gershwin on piano; "An American in Paris", from 1927 with Gershwin on celesta; and "Three Preludes", "Clap Yo' Hands" and Someone to Watch Over Me", among others. George Gershwin_sentence_175

There are a total of ten recordings on the album. George Gershwin_sentence_176

At the opening ceremony of the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles, "Rhapsody in Blue" was performed in spectacular fashion by many pianists. George Gershwin_sentence_177

The soundtrack to Woody Allen's 1979 film Manhattan is composed entirely of Gershwin's compositions, including Rhapsody in Blue, "Love is Sweeping the Country", and "But Not for Me", performed by both the New York Philharmonic under Zubin Mehta and the Buffalo Philharmonic under Michael Tilson Thomas. George Gershwin_sentence_178

The film begins with a monologue by Allen: "He adored New York City ... To him, no matter what the season was, this was still a town that existed in black and white and pulsated to the great tunes of George Gershwin." George Gershwin_sentence_179

In 1993, two audio CDs featuring piano rolls recorded by Gershwin were issued by Nonesuch Records through the efforts of Artis Wodehouse, and entitled Gershwin Plays Gershwin: The Piano Rolls. George Gershwin_sentence_180

In October 2009, it was reported by Rolling Stone that Brian Wilson was completing two unfinished compositions by George Gershwin, released as Brian Wilson Reimagines Gershwin on August 17, 2010, consisting of ten George and Ira Gershwin songs, bookended by passages from "Rhapsody in Blue", with two new songs completed from unfinished Gershwin fragments by Wilson and band member Scott Bennett. George Gershwin_sentence_181

Compositions George Gershwin_section_10

Main article: List of compositions by George Gershwin George Gershwin_sentence_182

Orchestral George Gershwin_sentence_183

George Gershwin_unordered_list_0

Solo piano George Gershwin_sentence_184

George Gershwin_unordered_list_1

  • Three Preludes (1926)George Gershwin_item_1_10
  • George Gershwin's Song-book (1932), solo piano arrangements of 18 songsGeorge Gershwin_item_1_11

Operas George Gershwin_sentence_185

George Gershwin_unordered_list_2

London musicals George Gershwin_sentence_186

George Gershwin_unordered_list_3

  • Primrose (1924)George Gershwin_item_3_14

Broadway musicals George Gershwin_sentence_187

George Gershwin_unordered_list_4

Films for which Gershwin wrote original scores George Gershwin_sentence_188

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  • Delicious (1931), an early version of the Second Rhapsody and one other musical sequence was used in this film, the rest were rejected by the studioGeorge Gershwin_item_5_33
  • Shall We Dance (1937), original orchestral score by Gershwin, no recordings available in modern stereo, some sections have never been recorded (Nominated- Academy Award for Best Original Song: They Can't Take That Away from Me)George Gershwin_item_5_34
  • A Damsel in Distress (1937)George Gershwin_item_5_35
  • The Goldwyn Follies (1938), posthumously releasedGeorge Gershwin_item_5_36
  • The Shocking Miss Pilgrim (1947), uses previously unpublished songsGeorge Gershwin_item_5_37

Legacy George Gershwin_section_11

Estate George Gershwin_section_12

Gershwin died intestate, and his estate passed to his mother. George Gershwin_sentence_189

The estate continues to collect significant royalties from licensing the copyrights on his work. George Gershwin_sentence_190

The estate supported the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act because its 1923 cutoff date was shortly before Gershwin had begun to create his most popular works. George Gershwin_sentence_191

The copyrights on all Gershwin's solo works expired at the end of 2007 in the European Union, based on its life-plus-70-years rule. George Gershwin_sentence_192

In 2005, The Guardian determined using "estimates of earnings accrued in a composer's lifetime" that George Gershwin was the wealthiest composer of all time. George Gershwin_sentence_193

The , much of which was donated by Ira and the Gershwin family estates, resides at the Library of Congress. George Gershwin_sentence_194

In September 2013, a partnership between the estates of Ira and George Gershwin and the University of Michigan was created and will provide the university's School of Music, Theatre, and Dance access to Gershwin's entire body of work, which includes all of Gershwin's papers, compositional drafts, and scores. George Gershwin_sentence_195

This direct access to all of his works will provide opportunities to musicians, composers, and scholars to analyze and reinterpret his work with the goal of accurately reflecting the composers' vision in order to preserve his legacy. George Gershwin_sentence_196

The first fascicles of The Gershwin Critical Edition, edited by Mark Clague, are expected in 2017; they will cover the 1924 jazz band version of Rhapsody in Blue, An American in Paris and Porgy and Bess. George Gershwin_sentence_197

Awards and honors George Gershwin_section_13

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Namesakes George Gershwin_section_14

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  • The Gershwin Theatre on Broadway is named after George and Ira.George Gershwin_item_7_43
  • The Gershwin Hotel in the Flatiron District of Manhattan in New York City was named after George and Ira.George Gershwin_item_7_44
  • In Brooklyn, George Gershwin Junior High School 166 is named after him.George Gershwin_item_7_45
  • One of Holland America Line's ships, MS Koningsdam has a Gershwin Deck (Deck 5)George Gershwin_item_7_46
  • The Library of CongressGeorge Gershwin_item_7_47

Biopics George Gershwin_section_15

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Portrayals in other media George Gershwin_section_16

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  • Since 1999, Hershey Felder has produced a one-man show with him portraying George Gershwin Alone, which has played over 3,000 performances and was winner of two 2007 Ovation Awards. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Felder launched a global live-streaming Hershey Felder Presents: Live from Florence featuring a performance of "Hershey Felder as George Gershwin Alone" in September 2020.George Gershwin_item_10_50
  • Paul Rudd portrays an imaginary friend based on George Gershwin, said to be his creator's favorite composer, in the 2015 series finale of the Irish sitcom Moone Boy, "Gershwin's Bucket List".George Gershwin_item_10_51

See also George Gershwin_section_17

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Gershwin.