George H. W. Bush

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This article is about the 41st president of the United States. George H. W. Bush_sentence_0

For his son, the 43rd president, see George W. Bush. George H. W. Bush_sentence_1

For other people, see George Bush (disambiguation). George H. W. Bush_sentence_2

"H. W." redirects here. George H. W. Bush_sentence_3

For other uses, see HW (disambiguation). George H. W. Bush_sentence_4

George H. W. Bush_table_infobox_0

George H. W. BushGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_0_0
41st President of the United StatesGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_1_0
Vice PresidentGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_2_0 Dan QuayleGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_2_1
Preceded byGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_3_0 Ronald ReaganGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_3_1
Succeeded byGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_4_0 Bill ClintonGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_4_1
43rd Vice President of the United StatesGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_5_0
PresidentGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_6_0 Ronald ReaganGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_6_1
Preceded byGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_7_0 Walter MondaleGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_7_1
Succeeded byGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_8_0 Dan QuayleGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_8_1
11th Director of Central IntelligenceGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_9_0
PresidentGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_10_0 Gerald FordGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_10_1
DeputyGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_11_0 George H. W. Bush_cell_0_11_1
Preceded byGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_12_0 William ColbyGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_12_1
Succeeded byGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_13_0 Stansfield TurnerGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_13_1
2nd Chief of the U.S. Liaison Office to the People's Republic of ChinaGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_14_0
PresidentGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_15_0 Gerald FordGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_15_1
Preceded byGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_16_0 David K. E. BruceGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_16_1
Succeeded byGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_17_0 Thomas S. Gates Jr.George H. W. Bush_cell_0_17_1
Chair of the Republican National CommitteeGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_18_0
Preceded byGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_19_0 Bob DoleGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_19_1
Succeeded byGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_20_0 Mary SmithGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_20_1
10th United States Ambassador to the United NationsGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_21_0
PresidentGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_22_0 Richard NixonGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_22_1
Preceded byGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_23_0 Charles YostGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_23_1
Succeeded byGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_24_0 John A. ScaliGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_24_1
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives

from Texas's 7th districtGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_25_0

Preceded byGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_26_0 John DowdyGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_26_1
Succeeded byGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_27_0 Bill ArcherGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_27_1
Personal detailsGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_28_0
BornGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_29_0 George Herbert Walker Bush

(1924-06-12)June 12, 1924 Milton, Massachusetts, U.S.George H. W. Bush_cell_0_29_1

DiedGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_30_0 November 30, 2018(2018-11-30) (aged 94)

Houston, Texas, U.S.George H. W. Bush_cell_0_30_1

Resting placeGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_31_0 George H.W. Bush Presidential Library and MuseumGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_31_1
Political partyGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_32_0 RepublicanGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_32_1
Spouse(s)George H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_33_0 Barbara Pierce

​ ​(m. 1945; died 2018)​George H. W. Bush_cell_0_33_1

ChildrenGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_34_0 George H. W. Bush_cell_0_34_1
ParentsGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_35_0 George H. W. Bush_cell_0_35_1
RelativesGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_36_0 Bush familyGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_36_1
EducationGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_37_0 Yale University (BA)George H. W. Bush_cell_0_37_1
SignatureGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_38_0 George H. W. Bush_cell_0_38_1
WebsiteGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_39_0 George H. W. Bush_cell_0_39_1
Military serviceGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_40_0
Nickname(s)George H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_41_0 "Skin"George H. W. Bush_cell_0_41_1
AllegianceGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_42_0 United StatesGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_42_1
Branch/serviceGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_43_0 United States NavyGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_43_1
Years of serviceGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_44_0 1942–1945George H. W. Bush_cell_0_44_1
RankGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_45_0 LieutenantGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_45_1
UnitGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_46_0 Fast Carrier Task ForceGeorge H. W. Bush_cell_0_46_1
Battles/warsGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_47_0 George H. W. Bush_cell_0_47_1
AwardsGeorge H. W. Bush_header_cell_0_48_0 George H. W. Bush_cell_0_48_1

George Herbert Walker Bush (June 12, 1924 – November 30, 2018) was an American politician and businessman who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993. George H. W. Bush_sentence_5

A member of the Republican Party, Bush also served as the 43rd vice president from 1981 to 1989, in the U.S. George H. W. Bush_sentence_6 House of Representatives, as U.S. George H. W. Bush_sentence_7 Ambassador to the United Nations, and as Director of Central Intelligence. George H. W. Bush_sentence_8

Bush was raised in Greenwich, Connecticut and attended Phillips Academy before serving in the navy during World War II. George H. W. Bush_sentence_9

After the war, he graduated from Yale and moved to West Texas, where he established a successful oil company. George H. W. Bush_sentence_10

After an unsuccessful run for the United States Senate, he won election to the 7th congressional district of Texas in 1966. George H. W. Bush_sentence_11

President Richard Nixon appointed Bush to the position of Ambassador to the United Nations in 1971 and to the position of chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1973. George H. W. Bush_sentence_12

In 1974, President Gerald Ford appointed him as the Chief of the Liaison Office to the People's Republic of China, and in 1976 Bush became the Director of Central Intelligence. George H. W. Bush_sentence_13

Bush ran for president in 1980, but was defeated in the Republican presidential primaries by Ronald Reagan. George H. W. Bush_sentence_14

He was then elected vice president in 1980 and 1984 as Reagan's running mate. George H. W. Bush_sentence_15

In the 1988 presidential election, Bush defeated Democrat Michael Dukakis, becoming the first incumbent vice president to be elected president since Martin Van Buren in 1836. George H. W. Bush_sentence_16

Foreign policy drove the Bush presidency, as he navigated the final years of the Cold War and played a key role in the reunification of Germany. George H. W. Bush_sentence_17

Bush presided over the invasion of Panama and the Gulf War, ending the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait in the latter conflict. George H. W. Bush_sentence_18

Though the agreement was not ratified until after he left office, Bush negotiated and signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which created a trade bloc consisting of the United States, Canada, and Mexico. George H. W. Bush_sentence_19

Domestically, Bush reneged on a 1988 campaign promise by signing a bill that increased taxes and helped reduce the federal budget deficit. George H. W. Bush_sentence_20

He also signed the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and appointed David Souter and Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court. George H. W. Bush_sentence_21

Bush lost the 1992 presidential election to Democrat Bill Clinton following an economic recession and the decreased emphasis of foreign policy in a post–Cold War political climate. George H. W. Bush_sentence_22

After leaving office in 1993, Bush was active in humanitarian activities, often working alongside Clinton, his former opponent. George H. W. Bush_sentence_23

With the victory of his son, George W. Bush, in the 2000 presidential election, the two became the second father–son pair to serve as the nation's president, following John Adams and John Quincy Adams. George H. W. Bush_sentence_24

Another son, Jeb Bush, unsuccessfully sought the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 Republican primaries. George H. W. Bush_sentence_25

After a long battle with vascular Parkinson's disease, Bush died at his home on November 30, 2018. George H. W. Bush_sentence_26

Historians generally rank Bush as an above average president. George H. W. Bush_sentence_27

Early life and education (1924–1948) George H. W. Bush_section_0

See also: Bush family George H. W. Bush_sentence_28

George Herbert Walker Bush was born in Milton, Massachusetts on June 12, 1924. George H. W. Bush_sentence_29

He was the second son of Prescott Bush and Dorothy (Walker) Bush. George H. W. Bush_sentence_30

His paternal grandfather, Samuel P. Bush, worked as an executive for a railroad parts company in Columbus, Ohio, and his maternal grandfather, George Herbert Walker, led Wall Street investment bank W. George H. W. Bush_sentence_31 A. Harriman & Co. Bush was named after his maternal grandfather, who was known as "Pop", and young Bush was called "Poppy" as a tribute to his namesake. George H. W. Bush_sentence_32

The Bush family moved to Greenwich, Connecticut in 1925, and Prescott took a position with W. A. Harriman & Co. (which later merged into Brown Brothers Harriman & Co.) the following year. George H. W. Bush_sentence_33

Bush spent most of his childhood in Greenwich, at the family vacation home in Kennebunkport, Maine, or at his maternal grandparents' plantation in South Carolina. George H. W. Bush_sentence_34

Because of the family's wealth, Bush was largely unaffected by the Great Depression. George H. W. Bush_sentence_35

He attended Greenwich Country Day School from 1929 to 1937 and Phillips Academy, an elite private academy in Massachusetts, from 1937 to 1942. George H. W. Bush_sentence_36

While at Phillips Academy, he served as president of the senior class, secretary of the student council, president of the community fund-raising group, a member of the editorial board of the school newspaper, and captain of the varsity baseball and soccer teams. George H. W. Bush_sentence_37

World War II George H. W. Bush_section_1

On his 18th birthday, immediately after graduating from Phillips Academy, he enlisted in the United States Navy as a naval aviator. George H. W. Bush_sentence_38

After a period of training, he was commissioned as an ensign in the Naval Reserve at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi on June 9, 1943, becoming one of the youngest aviators in the Navy. George H. W. Bush_sentence_39

Beginning in 1944, Bush served in the Pacific theater, where he flew a Grumman TBF Avenger, a torpedo bomber capable of taking off from aircraft carriers. George H. W. Bush_sentence_40

His squadron was assigned to the USS San Jacinto as a member of Air Group 51, where his lanky physique earned him the nickname "Skin". George H. W. Bush_sentence_41

Bush flew his first combat mission in May 1944, bombing Japanese-held Wake Island, and was promoted to lieutenant (junior grade) on August 1, 1944. George H. W. Bush_sentence_42

During an attack on a Japanese installation in Chichijima, Bush's aircraft successfully attacked several targets, but was downed by enemy fire. George H. W. Bush_sentence_43

Though both of Bush's fellow crew members died, Bush successfully bailed out from the aircraft and was rescued by the USS Finback. George H. W. Bush_sentence_44

Several of the aviators shot down during the attack were captured and executed, and their livers were eaten by their captors. George H. W. Bush_sentence_45

Bush's survival after such a close brush with death shaped him profoundly, leading him to ask, "Why had I been spared and what did God have for me?" George H. W. Bush_sentence_46

He was later awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for his role in the mission. George H. W. Bush_sentence_47

Bush returned to San Jacinto in November 1944, participating in operations in the Philippines. George H. W. Bush_sentence_48

In early 1945, he was assigned to a new combat squadron, VT-153, where he trained to take part in an invasion of mainland Japan. George H. W. Bush_sentence_49

On September 2, 1945, before any invasion took place, Japan formally surrendered following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. George H. W. Bush_sentence_50

Bush was released from active duty that same month, but was not formally discharged from the Navy until October 1955, at which point he had reached the rank of lieutenant. George H. W. Bush_sentence_51

By the end of his period of active service, Bush had flown 58 missions, completed 128 carrier landings, and recorded 1228 hours of flight time. George H. W. Bush_sentence_52

Marriage and college years George H. W. Bush_section_2

Bush met Barbara Pierce at a Christmas dance in Greenwich in December 1941, and, after a period of courtship, they became engaged in December 1943. George H. W. Bush_sentence_53

While Bush was on leave from the navy, they married in Rye, New York, on January 6, 1945. George H. W. Bush_sentence_54

The Bushes enjoyed a strong marriage, and Barbara would later be a popular First Lady, seen by many as "a kind of national grandmother". George H. W. Bush_sentence_55

The marriage produced six children: George W. (b. George H. W. Bush_sentence_56

1946), Robin (b. George H. W. Bush_sentence_57

1949), Jeb (b. George H. W. Bush_sentence_58

1953), Neil (b. George H. W. Bush_sentence_59

1955), Marvin (b. George H. W. Bush_sentence_60

1956), and Doro (b. George H. W. Bush_sentence_61

1959). George H. W. Bush_sentence_62

Their oldest daughter, Robin, died of leukemia in 1953. George H. W. Bush_sentence_63

Bush enrolled at Yale College, where he took part in an accelerated program that enabled him to graduate in two and a half years rather than the usual four. George H. W. Bush_sentence_64

He was a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity and was elected its president. George H. W. Bush_sentence_65

He also captained the Yale baseball team and played in the first two College World Series as a left-handed first baseman. George H. W. Bush_sentence_66

Like his father, he was a member of the Yale cheerleading squad and was initiated into the Skull and Bones secret society. George H. W. Bush_sentence_67

He graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1948 with a Bachelor of Arts degree, majoring in economics and minoring in sociology. George H. W. Bush_sentence_68

Business career (1948–1963) George H. W. Bush_section_3

After graduating from Yale, Bush moved his young family to West Texas. George H. W. Bush_sentence_69

Biographer Jon Meacham writes that Bush's relocation to Texas allowed him to move out of the "daily shadow of his Wall Street father and Grandfather Walker, two dominant figures in the financial world", but would still allow Bush to "call on their connections if he needed to raise capital." George H. W. Bush_sentence_70

His first position in Texas was an oil field equipment salesman for Dresser Industries, which was led by family friend Neil Mallon. George H. W. Bush_sentence_71

While working for Dresser, Bush lived in various places with his family: Odessa, Texas; Ventura, Bakersfield and Compton, California; and Midland, Texas. George H. W. Bush_sentence_72

In 1952, he volunteered for the successful presidential campaign of Republican candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower. George H. W. Bush_sentence_73

That same year, his father won election to represent Connecticut in the United States Senate as a member of the Republican Party. George H. W. Bush_sentence_74

With support from Mallon and Bush's uncle, George Herbert Walker Jr., Bush and John Overbey launched the Bush-Overbey Oil Development Company in 1951. George H. W. Bush_sentence_75

In 1953 he co-founded the Zapata Petroleum Corporation, an oil company that drilled in the Permian Basin in Texas. George H. W. Bush_sentence_76

In 1954, he was named president of the Zapata Offshore Company, a subsidiary which specialized in offshore drilling. George H. W. Bush_sentence_77

Shortly after the subsidiary became independent in 1959, Bush moved the company and his family from Midland to Houston. George H. W. Bush_sentence_78

In Houston, he befriended James Baker, a prominent attorney who later became an important political ally. George H. W. Bush_sentence_79

Bush remained involved with Zapata until the mid-1960s, when he sold his stock in the company for approximately $1 million. George H. W. Bush_sentence_80

In 1988, The Nation published an article alleging that Bush worked as an operative of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) during the 1960s; Bush denied this allegation. George H. W. Bush_sentence_81

Early political career (1963–1971) George H. W. Bush_section_4

Entry into politics George H. W. Bush_section_5

By the early 1960s, Bush was widely regarded as an appealing political candidate, and some leading Democrats attempted to convince Bush to become a Democrat. George H. W. Bush_sentence_82

He declined to leave the Republican Party, later citing his belief that the national Democratic Party favored "big, centralized government". George H. W. Bush_sentence_83

The Democratic Party had historically dominated Texas, but Republicans scored their first major victory in the state with John G. Tower's victory in a 1961 special election to the United States Senate. George H. W. Bush_sentence_84

Motivated by Tower's victory, and hoping to prevent the far-right John Birch Society from coming to power, Bush ran for the chairmanship of the Harris County, Texas Republican Party, winning election in February 1963. George H. W. Bush_sentence_85

Like most other Texas Republicans, Bush supported conservative Senator Barry Goldwater over the more centrist Nelson Rockefeller in the 1964 Republican Party presidential primaries. George H. W. Bush_sentence_86

In 1964, Bush sought to unseat liberal Democrat Ralph W. Yarborough in Texas's U.S. George H. W. Bush_sentence_87 Senate election. George H. W. Bush_sentence_88

Bolstered by superior fundraising, Bush won the Republican primary by defeating former gubernatorial nominee Jack Cox in a run-off election. George H. W. Bush_sentence_89

In the general election, Bush attacked Yarborough's vote for the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which banned racial and gender discrimination in public institutions and in many privately owned businesses. George H. W. Bush_sentence_90

Bush argued that the act unconstitutionally expanded the powers of the federal government, but he was privately uncomfortable with the racial politics of opposing the act. George H. W. Bush_sentence_91

He lost the election 56 percent to 44 percent, though he did run well ahead of Goldwater, the Republican presidential nominee. George H. W. Bush_sentence_92

Despite the loss, the New York Times reported that Bush was "rated by political friend and foe alike as the Republicans' best prospect in Texas because of his attractive personal qualities and the strong campaign he put up for the Senate". George H. W. Bush_sentence_93

U.S. Representative from Texas George H. W. Bush_section_6

Further information: Presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson George H. W. Bush_sentence_94

In 1966, Bush ran for the United States House of Representatives in Texas's 7th congressional district, a newly redistricted seat in the Greater Houston area. George H. W. Bush_sentence_95

Initial polling showed him trailing his Democratic opponent, Harris County District Attorney Frank Briscoe, but he ultimately won the race with 57 percent of the vote. George H. W. Bush_sentence_96

In an effort to woo potential candidates in the South and Southwest, House Republicans secured Bush an appointment to the powerful United States House Committee on Ways and Means, making Bush the first freshman to serve on the committee since 1904. George H. W. Bush_sentence_97

His voting record in the House was generally conservative. George H. W. Bush_sentence_98

He supported the Nixon administration's Vietnam policies, but broke with Republicans on the issue of birth control, which he supported. George H. W. Bush_sentence_99

He also voted for the Civil Rights Act of 1968, although it was generally unpopular in his district. George H. W. Bush_sentence_100

In 1968, Bush joined several other Republicans in issuing the party's Response to the State of the Union address; Bush's part of the address focused on a call for fiscal responsibility. George H. W. Bush_sentence_101

Though most other Texas Republicans supported Ronald Reagan in the 1968 Republican Party presidential primaries, Bush endorsed Richard Nixon, who went on to win the party's nomination. George H. W. Bush_sentence_102

Nixon considered selecting Bush as his running mate in the 1968 presidential election, but he ultimately chose Spiro Agnew instead. George H. W. Bush_sentence_103

Bush won re-election to the House unopposed, while Nixon defeated Hubert Humphrey in the presidential election. George H. W. Bush_sentence_104

In 1970, with President Nixon's support, Bush gave up his seat in the House to run for the Senate against Yarborough. George H. W. Bush_sentence_105

Bush easily won the Republican primary, but Yarborough was defeated by the more centrist Lloyd Bentsen in the Democratic primary. George H. W. Bush_sentence_106

Ultimately, Bentsen defeated Bush, taking 53.5 percent of the vote. George H. W. Bush_sentence_107

Nixon and Ford administrations (1971–1977) George H. W. Bush_section_7

Further information: Presidency of Richard Nixon and Presidency of Gerald Ford George H. W. Bush_sentence_108

Ambassador to the United Nations George H. W. Bush_section_8

After the 1970 Senate election, Bush accepted a position as a senior adviser to the president, but he convinced Nixon to instead appoint him as the U.S. George H. W. Bush_sentence_109 Ambassador to the United Nations. George H. W. Bush_sentence_110

The position represented Bush's first foray into foreign policy, as well as his first major experiences with the Soviet Union and China, the two major U.S. rivals in the Cold War. George H. W. Bush_sentence_111

During Bush's tenure, the Nixon administration pursued a policy of détente, seeking to ease tensions with both the Soviet Union and China. George H. W. Bush_sentence_112

Bush's ambassadorship was marked by a defeat on the China question, as the United Nations General Assembly voted to expel the Republic of China and replace it with the People's Republic of China in October 1971. George H. W. Bush_sentence_113

In the 1971 crisis in Pakistan, Bush supported an Indian motion at the UN General Assembly to condemn the Pakistani government of Yahya Khan for waging genocide in East Pakistan (modern Bangladesh), referring to the "tradition which we have supported that the human rights question transcended domestic jurisdiction and should be freely debated". George H. W. Bush_sentence_114

Bush's support for India at the UN put him into conflict with Nixon who was supporting Pakistan, partly because Yahya Khan was a useful intermediary in his attempts to reach out to China and partly because the president was fond of Yahya Khan. George H. W. Bush_sentence_115

Chairman of the Republican National Committee George H. W. Bush_section_9

After Nixon won a landslide victory in the 1972 presidential election, he appointed Bush as chair of the Republican National Committee (RNC). George H. W. Bush_sentence_116

In that position, he was charged with fundraising, candidate recruitment, and making appearances on behalf of the party in the media. George H. W. Bush_sentence_117

When Agnew was being investigated for corruption, Bush assisted, at the request of Nixon and Agnew, in pressuring John Glenn Beall Jr., the U.S. George H. W. Bush_sentence_118

Senator from Maryland to force his brother, George Beall the U.S. George H. W. Bush_sentence_119 Attorney in Maryland, who was supervising the investigation into Agnew. George H. W. Bush_sentence_120

Attorney Beall ignored the pressure. George H. W. Bush_sentence_121

During Bush's tenure at the RNC, the Watergate scandal emerged into public view; the scandal originated from the June 1972 break-in of the Democratic National Committee, but also involved later efforts to cover up the break-in by Nixon and other members of the White House. George H. W. Bush_sentence_122

Bush initially defended Nixon steadfastly, but as Nixon's complicity became clear he focused more on defending the Republican Party. George H. W. Bush_sentence_123

Following the resignation of Vice President Agnew in 1973 for a scandal unrelated to Watergate, Bush was considered for the position of vice president, but the appointment instead went to Gerald Ford. George H. W. Bush_sentence_124

After the public release of an audio recording that confirmed that Nixon had plotted to use the CIA to cover up the Watergate break-in, Bush joined other party leaders in urging Nixon to resign. George H. W. Bush_sentence_125

When Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974, Bush noted in his diary that "There was an aura of sadness, like somebody died... George H. W. Bush_sentence_126

The [resignation] speech was vintage Nixon—a kick or two at the press—enormous strains. George H. W. Bush_sentence_127

One couldn't help but look at the family and the whole thing and think of his accomplishments and then think of the shame... [President Gerald Ford's swearing-in offered] indeed a new spirit, a new lift." George H. W. Bush_sentence_128

Head of U.S. Liaison Office in China George H. W. Bush_section_10

Upon his ascension to the presidency, Ford strongly considered Bush, Donald Rumsfeld, and Nelson Rockefeller for the vacant position of vice president. George H. W. Bush_sentence_129

Ford ultimately chose Nelson Rockefeller, partly because of the publication of a news report claiming that Bush's 1970 campaign had benefited from a secret fund set up by Nixon; Bush was later cleared of any suspicion by a special prosecutor. George H. W. Bush_sentence_130

Bush accepted appointment as Chief of the U.S. George H. W. Bush_sentence_131 Liaison Office in the People's Republic of China, making him the de facto ambassador to China. George H. W. Bush_sentence_132

According to biographer Jon Meacham, Bush's time in China convinced him that American engagement abroad was needed to ensure global stability, and that the United States "needed to be visible but not pushy, muscular but not domineering." George H. W. Bush_sentence_133

Director of Central Intelligence George H. W. Bush_section_11

In January 1976, Ford brought Bush back to Washington to become the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), placing him in charge of the CIA. George H. W. Bush_sentence_134

In the aftermath of the Watergate scandal and the Vietnam War, the CIA's reputation had been damaged for its role in various covert operations, and Bush was tasked with restoring the agency's morale and public reputation. George H. W. Bush_sentence_135

During Bush's year in charge of the CIA, the U.S. national security apparatus actively supported Operation Condor operations and right-wing military dictatorships in Latin America. George H. W. Bush_sentence_136

Meanwhile, Ford decided to drop Rockefeller from the ticket for the 1976 presidential election; he considered Bush as his running mate, but ultimately chose Bob Dole. George H. W. Bush_sentence_137

In his capacity as DCI, Bush gave national security briefings to Jimmy Carter both as a presidential candidate and as president-elect. George H. W. Bush_sentence_138

1980 presidential election George H. W. Bush_section_12

Further information: Presidency of Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan 1980 presidential campaign George H. W. Bush_sentence_139

Bush's tenure at the CIA ended after Carter narrowly defeated Ford in the 1976 presidential election. George H. W. Bush_sentence_140

Out of public office for the first time since the 1960s, Bush became chairman on the Executive Committee of the First International Bank in Houston. George H. W. Bush_sentence_141

He also spent a year as a part-time professor of Administrative Science at Rice University's Jones School of Business, continued his membership in the Council on Foreign Relations, and joined the Trilateral Commission. George H. W. Bush_sentence_142

Meanwhile, he began to lay the groundwork for his candidacy in the 1980 Republican Party presidential primaries. George H. W. Bush_sentence_143

In the 1980 Republican primary campaign, Bush faced Ronald Reagan, who was widely regarded as the front-runner, as well as other contenders like Senator Bob Dole, Senator Howard Baker, Texas Governor John Connally, Congressman Phil Crane, and Congressman John B. Anderson. George H. W. Bush_sentence_144

Bush's campaign cast him as a youthful, "thinking man's candidate" who would emulate the pragmatic conservatism of President Eisenhower. George H. W. Bush_sentence_145

In the midst of the Soviet–Afghan War, which brought an end to a period of détente, and the Iran hostage crisis, in which 52 Americans were taken hostage, the campaign highlighted Bush's foreign policy experience. George H. W. Bush_sentence_146

At the outset of the race, Bush focused heavily on winning the January 21 Iowa caucuses, making 31 visits to the state. George H. W. Bush_sentence_147

He won a close victory Iowa with 31.5% to Reagan's 29.4%. George H. W. Bush_sentence_148

After the win, Bush stated that his campaign was full of momentum, or "the Big Mo", and Reagan reorganized his campaign. George H. W. Bush_sentence_149

Partly in response to the Bush campaign's frequent questioning of Reagan's age (Reagan turned 69 in 1980), the Reagan campaign stepped up attacks on Bush, painting him as an elitist who was not truly committed to conservatism. George H. W. Bush_sentence_150

Prior to the New Hampshire primary, Bush and Reagan agreed to a two-person debate, organized by The Nashua Telegraph but paid for by the Reagan campaign. George H. W. Bush_sentence_151

Days before the debate, Reagan announced that he would invite four other candidates to the debate; Bush, who had hoped that the one-on-one debate would allow him to emerge as the main alternative to Reagan in the primaries, refused to debate the other candidate. George H. W. Bush_sentence_152

All six candidates took the stage, but Bush refused to speak in the presence of the other candidates. George H. W. Bush_sentence_153

Ultimately, the other four candidates left the stage and the debate continued, but Bush's refusal to debate anyone other than Reagan badly damaged his campaign in New Hampshire. George H. W. Bush_sentence_154

He ended up decisively losing New Hampshire's primary to Reagan, winning just 23 percent of the vote. George H. W. Bush_sentence_155

Bush revitalized his campaign with a victory in Massachusetts, but lost the next several primaries. George H. W. Bush_sentence_156

As Reagan built up a commanding delegate lead, Bush refused to end his campaign, but the other candidates dropped out of the race. George H. W. Bush_sentence_157

Criticizing his more conservative rival's policy proposals, Bush famously labeled Reagan's supply side-influenced plans for massive tax cuts as "voodoo economics". George H. W. Bush_sentence_158

Though he favored lower taxes, Bush feared that dramatic reductions in taxation would lead to deficits and, in turn, cause inflation. George H. W. Bush_sentence_159

After Reagan clinched a majority of delegates in late May, Bush reluctantly dropped out of the race. George H. W. Bush_sentence_160

At the 1980 Republican National Convention, Reagan made the last-minute decision to select Bush as his vice presidential nominee after negotiations with Ford regarding a Reagan-Ford ticket collapsed. George H. W. Bush_sentence_161

Though Reagan had resented many of the Bush campaign's attacks during the primary campaign, and several conservative leaders had actively opposed Bush's nomination, Reagan ultimately decided that Bush's popularity with moderate Republicans made him the best and safest pick. George H. W. Bush_sentence_162

Bush, who had believed his political career might be over following the primaries, eagerly accepted the position and threw himself into campaigning for the Reagan-Bush ticket. George H. W. Bush_sentence_163

The 1980 general election campaign between Reagan and Carter was conducted amid a multitude of domestic concerns and the ongoing Iran hostage crisis, and Reagan sought to focus the race on Carter's handling of the economy. George H. W. Bush_sentence_164

Though the race was widely regarded as a close contest for most of the campaign, Reagan ultimately won over the large majority of undecided voters. George H. W. Bush_sentence_165

Reagan took 50.7 percent of the popular vote and 489 of the 538 electoral votes, while Carter won 41% of the popular vote and John Anderson, running as an independent candidate, won 6.6% of the popular vote. George H. W. Bush_sentence_166

Vice President (1981–1989) George H. W. Bush_section_13

Further information: Presidency of Ronald Reagan and Reagan Era George H. W. Bush_sentence_167

As vice president, Bush generally maintained a low profile, recognizing the constitutional limits of the office; he avoided decision-making or criticizing Reagan in any way. George H. W. Bush_sentence_168

This approach helped him earn Reagan's trust, easing tensions left over from their earlier rivalry. George H. W. Bush_sentence_169

Bush also generally enjoyed a good relationship with Reagan staffers, including his close friend Jim Baker, who served as Reagan's initial chief of staff. George H. W. Bush_sentence_170

His understanding of the vice presidency was heavily influenced by Vice President Walter Mondale, who enjoyed a strong relationship with President Carter in part because of his ability to avoid confrontations with senior staff and Cabinet members, and by Vice President Nelson Rockefeller's difficult relationship with some members of the White House staff during the Ford administration. George H. W. Bush_sentence_171

The Bushes attended a large number of public and ceremonial events in their positions, including many state funerals, which became a common joke for comedians. George H. W. Bush_sentence_172

As the President of the Senate, Bush also stayed in contact with members of Congress and kept the president informed on occurrences on Capitol Hill. George H. W. Bush_sentence_173

First term George H. W. Bush_section_14

On March 30, 1981, while Bush was in Texas, Reagan was shot and seriously wounded by John Hinckley Jr. Bush immediately flew back from Washington D.C.; when his plane landed, his aides advised him to proceed directly to the White House by helicopter in order to show that the government was still functioning. George H. W. Bush_sentence_174

Bush rejected the idea, as he feared that such a dramatic scene risked giving the impression that he sought to usurp Reagan's powers and prerogatives. George H. W. Bush_sentence_175

During Reagan's short period of incapacity, Bush presided over Cabinet meetings, met with congressional leaders and foreign leaders, and briefed reporters, but he consistently rejected the possibility of invoking the Twenty-fifth Amendment. George H. W. Bush_sentence_176

Bush's handling of the attempted assassination and its aftermath made a positive impression on Reagan, who recovered and returned to work within two weeks of the shooting. George H. W. Bush_sentence_177

From then on, the two men would have regular Thursday lunches in the Oval Office. George H. W. Bush_sentence_178

Bush was assigned by Reagan to chair two special task forces, one on deregulation and one on international drug smuggling. George H. W. Bush_sentence_179

Both were popular issues with conservatives, and Bush, largely a moderate, began courting them through his work. George H. W. Bush_sentence_180

The deregulation task force reviewed hundreds of rules, making specific recommendations on which ones to amend or revise, in order to curb the size of the federal government. George H. W. Bush_sentence_181

The Reagan administration's deregulation push had a strong impact on broadcasting, finance, resource extraction, and other economic activities, and the administration eliminated numerous government positions. George H. W. Bush_sentence_182

Bush also oversaw the administration's national security crisis management organization, which had traditionally been the responsibility of the National Security Advisor. George H. W. Bush_sentence_183

In 1983, Bush toured Western Europe as part of the Reagan administration's ultimately successful efforts to convince skeptical NATO allies to support the deployment of Pershing II missiles. George H. W. Bush_sentence_184

Reagan's approval ratings fell after his first year in office, but they bounced back when the United States began to emerge from recession in 1983. George H. W. Bush_sentence_185

Former Vice President Walter Mondale was nominated by the Democratic Party in the 1984 presidential election. George H. W. Bush_sentence_186

Down in the polls, Mondale selected Congresswoman Geraldine Ferraro as his running mate in hopes of galvanizing support for his campaign, thus making Ferraro the first female major party vice presidential nominee in U.S. history. George H. W. Bush_sentence_187

She and Bush squared off in a single televised vice presidential debate. George H. W. Bush_sentence_188

Public opinion polling consistently showed a Reagan lead in the 1984 campaign, and Mondale was unable to shake up the race. George H. W. Bush_sentence_189

In the end, Reagan won re-election, winning 49 of 50 states and receiving 59% of the popular vote to Mondale's 41%. George H. W. Bush_sentence_190

Second term George H. W. Bush_section_15

Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union in 1985; less ideologically rigid than his predecessors, Gorbachev believed that the Soviet Union urgently needed economic and political reforms. George H. W. Bush_sentence_191

At the 1987 Washington Summit, Gorbachev and Reagan signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, which committed both signatories to the total abolition of their respective short-range and medium-range missile stockpiles. George H. W. Bush_sentence_192

The treaty marked the beginning of a new era of trade, openness, and cooperation between the two powers. George H. W. Bush_sentence_193

Though President Reagan and Secretary of State George Shultz took the lead in these negotiations, Bush sat in on many meetings and promised Gorbachev that he would seek to continue improving Soviet-U.S. relations if he succeeded Reagan. George H. W. Bush_sentence_194

On July 13, 1985, Bush became the first vice president to serve as acting president when Reagan underwent surgery to remove polyps from his colon; Bush served as the acting president for approximately eight hours. George H. W. Bush_sentence_195

In 1986, the Reagan administration was shaken by a scandal when it was revealed that administration officials had secretly arranged weapon sales to Iran during the Iran–Iraq War. George H. W. Bush_sentence_196

The officials had used the proceeds to fund the anti-communist Contras in Nicaragua, which was a direct violation of law. George H. W. Bush_sentence_197

When news of affair broke to the media, Bush, like Reagan, stated that he had been "out of the loop" and unaware of the diversion of funds, although this assertion has since been challenged. George H. W. Bush_sentence_198

Biographer Jon Meacham writes that "no evidence was ever produced proving Bush was aware of the diversion to the contras," but he criticizes Bush's "out of the loop" characterization, writing that the "record is clear that Bush was aware that the United States, in contravention of its own stated policy, was trading arms for hostages". George H. W. Bush_sentence_199

The Iran–Contra scandal, as it became known, did serious damage to the Reagan presidency, raising questions about Reagan's competency. George H. W. Bush_sentence_200

Congress established the Tower Commission to investigate the scandal, and, at Reagan's request, a panel of federal judges appointed Lawrence Walsh as a special prosecutor charged with investigating the Iran–Contra scandal. George H. W. Bush_sentence_201

The investigations continued after Reagan left office and, though Bush was never charged with a crime, the Iran–Contra scandal would remain a political liability for him. George H. W. Bush_sentence_202

1988 presidential election George H. W. Bush_section_16

Main articles: George H. W. Bush 1988 presidential campaign and 1988 Republican Party presidential primaries George H. W. Bush_sentence_203

Bush began planning for a presidential run after the 1984 election, and he officially entered the 1988 Republican Party presidential primaries in October 1987. George H. W. Bush_sentence_204

He put together a campaign led by Reagan staffer Lee Atwater, and which also included his son, George W. Bush, and media consultant Roger Ailes. George H. W. Bush_sentence_205

Though he had moved to the right during his time as vice president, endorsing a Human Life Amendment and repudiating his earlier comments on "voodoo economics," Bush still faced opposition from many conservatives in the Republican Party. George H. W. Bush_sentence_206

His major rivals for the Republican nomination were Senate Minority Leader Bob Dole of Kansas, Congressman Jack Kemp of New York, and Christian televangelist Pat Robertson. George H. W. Bush_sentence_207

Reagan did not publicly endorse any candidate, but he privately expressed support for Bush. George H. W. Bush_sentence_208

Though considered the early front-runner for the nomination, Bush came in third in the Iowa caucus, behind Dole and Robertson. George H. W. Bush_sentence_209

Much as Reagan had done in 1980, Bush reorganized his staff and concentrated on the New Hampshire primary. George H. W. Bush_sentence_210

With help from Governor John H. Sununu and an effective campaign attacking Dole for raising taxes, Bush overcame an initial polling deficit and won New Hampshire with 39 percent of the vote. George H. W. Bush_sentence_211

After Bush won South Carolina and 16 of the 17 states holding a primary on Super Tuesday, his competitors dropped out of the race. George H. W. Bush_sentence_212

Bush, occasionally criticized for his lack of eloquence when compared to Reagan, delivered a well-received speech at the Republican convention. George H. W. Bush_sentence_213

Known as the "thousand points of light" speech, it described Bush's vision of America: he endorsed the Pledge of Allegiance, prayer in schools, capital punishment, and gun rights. George H. W. Bush_sentence_214

Bush also pledged that he would not raise taxes, stating: "Congress will push me to raise taxes, and I'll say no, and they'll push, and I'll say no, and they'll push again. George H. W. Bush_sentence_215

And all I can say to them is: read my lips. George H. W. Bush_sentence_216

No new taxes." George H. W. Bush_sentence_217

Bush selected little-known Senator Dan Quayle of Indiana as his running mate. George H. W. Bush_sentence_218

Though Quayle had compiled an unremarkable record in Congress, he was popular among many conservatives, and the campaign hoped that Quayle's youth would appeal to younger voters. George H. W. Bush_sentence_219

Meanwhile, the Democratic Party nominated Governor Michael Dukakis, who was known for presiding over an economic turnaround in Massachusetts. George H. W. Bush_sentence_220

Leading in the general election polls against Bush, Dukakis ran an ineffective, low-risk campaign. George H. W. Bush_sentence_221

The Bush campaign attacked Dukakis as an unpatriotic liberal extremist and seized on the Willie Horton case, in which a convicted felon from Massachusetts raped a woman while on a prison furlough, a program Dukakis supported as governor. George H. W. Bush_sentence_222

The Bush campaign charged that Dukakis presided over a "revolving door" that allowed dangerous convicted felons to leave prison. George H. W. Bush_sentence_223

Dukakis damaged his own campaign with a widely mocked ride in an M1 Abrams tank and a poor performance at the second presidential debate. George H. W. Bush_sentence_224

Bush also attacked Dukakis for opposing a law that would require all students to recite the Pledge of Allegiance. George H. W. Bush_sentence_225

The election is widely considered to have had a high level of negative campaigning, though political scientist John Geer has argued that the share of negative ads was in line with previous presidential elections. George H. W. Bush_sentence_226

Bush defeated Dukakis by a margin of 426 to 111 in the Electoral College, and he took 53.4 percent of the national popular vote. George H. W. Bush_sentence_227

Bush ran well in all the major regions of the country, but especially in the South. George H. W. Bush_sentence_228

He became the first sitting vice president to be elected president since Martin Van Buren in 1836 and the first person to succeed a president from his own party via election since Herbert Hoover in 1929. George H. W. Bush_sentence_229

In the concurrent congressional elections, Democrats retained control of both houses of Congress. George H. W. Bush_sentence_230

President (1989–1993) George H. W. Bush_section_17

Main article: Presidency of George H. W. Bush George H. W. Bush_sentence_231

For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the George H. W. Bush presidency. George H. W. Bush_sentence_232

Bush was inaugurated on January 20, 1989, succeeding Ronald Reagan. George H. W. Bush_sentence_233

In his inaugural address, Bush said: George H. W. Bush_sentence_234

Bush's first major appointment was that of James Baker as Secretary of State. George H. W. Bush_sentence_235

Leadership of the Department of Defense went to Dick Cheney, who had previously served as Gerald Ford's chief of staff and would later serve as vice president under his son George W. Bush. George H. W. Bush_sentence_236

Jack Kemp joined the administration as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, while Elizabeth Dole, the wife of Bob Dole and a former Secretary of Transportation, became the Secretary of Labor under Bush. George H. W. Bush_sentence_237

Bush retained several Reagan officials, including Secretary of the Treasury Nicholas F. Brady, Attorney General Dick Thornburgh, and Secretary of Education Lauro Cavazos. George H. W. Bush_sentence_238

New Hampshire Governor John Sununu, a strong supporter of Bush during the 1988 campaign, became chief of staff. George H. W. Bush_sentence_239

Brent Scowcroft was appointed as the National Security Advisor, a role he had also held under Ford. George H. W. Bush_sentence_240

Foreign affairs George H. W. Bush_section_18

Main article: Foreign policy of the George H. W. Bush administration George H. W. Bush_sentence_241

End of the Cold War George H. W. Bush_section_19

Further information: Revolutions of 1989 and Dissolution of the Soviet Union George H. W. Bush_sentence_242

During the first year of his tenure, Bush put a pause on Reagan's détente policy toward the USSR. George H. W. Bush_sentence_243

Bush and his advisers were initially divided on Gorbachev; some administration officials saw him as a democratic reformer, but others suspected him of trying to make the minimum changes necessary to restore the Soviet Union to a competitive position with the United States. George H. W. Bush_sentence_244

In 1989, all the Communist governments collapsed in Eastern Europe. George H. W. Bush_sentence_245

Gorbachev declined to send in the Soviet military, effectively abandoning the Brezhnev Doctrine. George H. W. Bush_sentence_246

The U.S. was not directly involved in these upheavals, but the Bush administration avoided gloating over the demise of the Eastern Bloc to avoid undermining further democratic reforms. George H. W. Bush_sentence_247

Bush and Gorbachev met at the Malta Summit in December 1989. George H. W. Bush_sentence_248

Though many on the right remained wary of Gorbachev, Bush came away with the belief that Gorbachev would negotiate in good faith. George H. W. Bush_sentence_249

For the remainder of his term, Bush sought cooperative relations with Gorbachev, believing that he was the key to peace. George H. W. Bush_sentence_250

The primary issue at the Malta Summit was the potential reunification of Germany. George H. W. Bush_sentence_251

While Britain and France were wary of a re-unified Germany, Bush joined West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl in pushing for German reunification. George H. W. Bush_sentence_252

Bush believed that a reunified Germany would serve U.S. interests, but he also saw reunification as providing a final symbolic end to World War II. George H. W. Bush_sentence_253

After extensive negotiations, Gorbachev agreed to allow a reunified Germany to be a part of NATO, and Germany officially reunified in October 1990. George H. W. Bush_sentence_254

Though Gorbachev acquiesced to the democratization of Soviet satellite states, he suppressed nationalist movements within the Soviet Union itself. George H. W. Bush_sentence_255

A crisis in Lithuania left Bush in a difficult position, as he needed Gorbachev's cooperation in the reunification of Germany and feared that the collapse of the Soviet Union could leave nuclear arms in dangerous hands. George H. W. Bush_sentence_256

The Bush administration mildly protested Gorbachev's suppression of Lithuania's independence movement, but took no action to directly intervene. George H. W. Bush_sentence_257

Bush warned independence movements of the disorder that could come with secession from the Soviet Union; in a 1991 address that critics labeled the "Chicken Kiev speech", he cautioned against "suicidal nationalism". George H. W. Bush_sentence_258

In July 1991, Bush and Gorbachev signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I) treaty, in which both countries agreed to cut their strategic nuclear weapons by 30 percent. George H. W. Bush_sentence_259

In August 1991, hard-line Communists launched a coup against Gorbachev; while the coup quickly fell apart, it broke the remaining power of Gorbachev and the central Soviet government. George H. W. Bush_sentence_260

Later that month, Gorbachev resigned as general secretary of the Communist party, and Russian president Boris Yeltsin ordered the seizure of Soviet property. George H. W. Bush_sentence_261

Gorbachev clung to power as the President of the Soviet Union until December 1991, when the Soviet Union dissolved. George H. W. Bush_sentence_262

Fifteen states emerged from the Soviet Union, and of those states, Russia was the largest and most populous. George H. W. Bush_sentence_263

Bush and Yeltsin met in February 1992, declaring a new era of "friendship and partnership". George H. W. Bush_sentence_264

In January 1993, Bush and Yeltsin agreed to START II, which provided for further nuclear arms reductions on top of the original START treaty. George H. W. Bush_sentence_265

The collapse of the Soviet Union prompted reflections on the future of the world following the end of the Cold War; one political scientist, Francis Fukuyama, speculated that humanity had reached the "end of history" in that liberal, capitalist democracy had permanently triumphed over Communism and fascism. George H. W. Bush_sentence_266

Meanwhile, the collapse of the Soviet Union and other Communist governments led to post-Soviet conflicts in Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and Africa that would continue long after Bush left office. George H. W. Bush_sentence_267

Invasion of Panama George H. W. Bush_section_20

Main article: United States invasion of Panama George H. W. Bush_sentence_268

During the 1980s, the U.S. had provided aid to Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega, an anti-Communist dictator who engaged in drug trafficking. George H. W. Bush_sentence_269

In May 1989, Noriega annulled the results of a democratic presidential election in which Guillermo Endara had been elected. George H. W. Bush_sentence_270

Bush objected to the annulment of the election and worried about the status of the Panama Canal with Noriega still in office. George H. W. Bush_sentence_271

Bush dispatched 2,000 soldiers to the country, where they began conducting regular military exercises in violation of prior treaties. George H. W. Bush_sentence_272

After a U.S. serviceman was shot by Panamanian forces in December 1989, Bush ordered the United States invasion of Panama, known as "Operation Just Cause". George H. W. Bush_sentence_273

The invasion was the first large-scale American military operation in more than 40 years that was not related to the Cold War. George H. W. Bush_sentence_274

American forces quickly took control of the Panama Canal Zone and Panama City. George H. W. Bush_sentence_275

Noriega surrendered on January 3, 1990, and was quickly transported to a prison in the United States. George H. W. Bush_sentence_276

Twenty-three Americans died in the operation, while another 394 were wounded. George H. W. Bush_sentence_277

Noriega was convicted and imprisoned on racketeering and drug trafficking charges in April 1992. George H. W. Bush_sentence_278

Historian Stewart Brewer argues that the invasion "represented a new era in American foreign policy" because Bush did not justify the invasion under the Monroe Doctrine or the threat of Communism, but rather on the grounds that it was in the best interests of the United States. George H. W. Bush_sentence_279

Gulf War George H. W. Bush_section_21

Main article: Gulf War George H. W. Bush_sentence_280

Faced with massive debts and low oil prices in the aftermath of the Iran–Iraq War, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein decided to conquer the country of Kuwait, a small, oil-rich country situated on Iraq's southern border. George H. W. Bush_sentence_281

After Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990, Bush imposed economic sanctions on Iraq and assembled a multi-national coalition opposed to the invasion. George H. W. Bush_sentence_282

The administration feared that a failure to respond to the invasion would embolden Hussein to attack Saudi Arabia or Israel, and wanted to discourage other countries from similar aggression. George H. W. Bush_sentence_283

Bush also wanted to ensure continued access to oil, as Iraq and Kuwait collectively accounted for 20 percent of the world's oil production, and Saudi Arabia produced another 26 percent of the world's oil supply. George H. W. Bush_sentence_284

At Bush's insistence, in November 1990, the United Nations Security Council approved a resolution authorizing the use of force if Iraq did not withdrawal from Kuwait by January 15, 1991. George H. W. Bush_sentence_285

Gorbachev's support, as well as China's abstention, helped ensure passage of the UN resolution. George H. W. Bush_sentence_286

Bush convinced Britain, France, and other nations to commit soldiers to an operation against Iraq, and he won important financial backing from Germany, Japan, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. George H. W. Bush_sentence_287

In January 1991, Bush asked Congress to approve a joint resolution authorizing a war against Iraq. George H. W. Bush_sentence_288

Bush believed that the UN resolution had already provided him with the necessary authorization to launch a military operation against Iraq, but he wanted to show that the nation was united behind a military action. George H. W. Bush_sentence_289

Despite the opposition of a majority of Democrats in both the House and the Senate, Congress approved the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991. George H. W. Bush_sentence_290

After the January 15 deadline passed without an Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait, U.S. and coalition forces began a conducted a bombing campaign that devastated Iraq's power grid and communications network, and resulted in the desertion of about 100,000 Iraqi soldiers. George H. W. Bush_sentence_291

In retaliation, Iraq launched Scud missiles at Israel and Saudi Arabia, but most of the missiles did little damage. George H. W. Bush_sentence_292

On February 23, coalition forces began a ground invasion into Kuwait, evicting Iraqi forces by the end of February 27. George H. W. Bush_sentence_293

About 300 Americans, as well as approximately 65 soldiers from other coalition nations, died during the military action. George H. W. Bush_sentence_294

A cease fire was arranged on March 3, and the UN passed a resolution establishing a peacekeeping force in a demilitarized zone between Kuwait and Iraq. George H. W. Bush_sentence_295

A March 1991 Gallup poll showed that Bush had an approval rating of 89 percent, the highest presidential approval rating in the history of Gallup polling. George H. W. Bush_sentence_296

After 1991, the UN maintained economic sanctions against Iraq, and the United Nations Special Commission was assigned to ensure that Iraq did not revive its weapons of mass destruction program. George H. W. Bush_sentence_297

NAFTA George H. W. Bush_section_22

Main article: North American Free Trade Agreement George H. W. Bush_sentence_298

In 1987, the U.S. and Canada had reached a free trade agreement that eliminated many tariffs between the two countries. George H. W. Bush_sentence_299

President Reagan had intended it as the first step towards a larger trade agreement to eliminate most tariffs among the United States, Canada, and Mexico. George H. W. Bush_sentence_300

The Bush administration, along with the Progressive Conservative Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, spearheaded the negotiations of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with Mexico. George H. W. Bush_sentence_301

In addition to lowering tariffs, the proposed treaty would affected patents, copyrights, and trademarks. George H. W. Bush_sentence_302

In 1991, Bush sought fast track authority, which grants the president the power to submit an international trade agreement to Congress without the possibility of amendment. George H. W. Bush_sentence_303

Despite congressional opposition led by House Majority Leader Dick Gephardt, both houses of Congress voted to grant Bush fast track authority. George H. W. Bush_sentence_304

NAFTA was signed in December 1992, after Bush lost re-election, but President Clinton won ratification of NAFTA in 1993. George H. W. Bush_sentence_305

NAFTA remains controversial for its impact on wages, jobs, and overall economic growth. George H. W. Bush_sentence_306

Domestic affairs George H. W. Bush_section_23

Economy and fiscal issues George H. W. Bush_section_24

The U.S. economy had generally performed well since emerging from recession in late 1982, but it slipped into a mild recession in 1990. George H. W. Bush_sentence_307

The unemployment rate rose from 5.9 percent in 1989 to a high of 7.8 percent in mid-1991. George H. W. Bush_sentence_308

Large federal deficits, spawned during the Reagan years, rose from $152.1 billion in 1989 to $220 billion for 1990; the $220 billion deficit represented a threefold increase since 1980. George H. W. Bush_sentence_309

As the public became increasingly concerned about the economy and other domestic affairs, Bush's well-received handling of foreign affairs became less of an issue for most voters. George H. W. Bush_sentence_310

Bush's top domestic priority was to bring an end to federal budget deficits, which he saw as a liability for the country's long-term economic health and standing in the world. George H. W. Bush_sentence_311

As he was opposed to major defense spending cuts and had pledged to not raise taxes, the president had major difficulties in balancing the budget. George H. W. Bush_sentence_312

Bush and congressional leaders agreed to avoid major changes to the budget for fiscal year 1990, which began in October 1989. George H. W. Bush_sentence_313

However, both sides knew that spending cuts or new taxes would be necessary in the following year's budget in order to avoid the draconian automatic domestic spending cuts required by the Gramm–Rudman–Hollings Balanced Budget Act of 1987. George H. W. Bush_sentence_314

Bush and other leaders also wanted to cut deficits because Federal Reserve Chair Alan Greenspan refused to lower interest rates, and thus stimulate economic growth, unless the federal budget deficit was reduced. George H. W. Bush_sentence_315

In a statement released in late June 1990, Bush said that he would be open to a deficit reduction program which included spending cuts, incentives for economic growth, budget process reform, as well as tax increases. George H. W. Bush_sentence_316

To fiscal conservatives in the Republican Party, Bush's statement represented a betrayal, and they heavily criticized him for compromising so early in the negotiations. George H. W. Bush_sentence_317

In September 1990, Bush and Congressional Democrats announced a compromise to cut funding for mandatory and discretionary programs while also raising revenue, partly through a higher gas tax. George H. W. Bush_sentence_318

The compromise additionally included a "pay as you go" provision that required that new programs be paid for at the time of implementation. George H. W. Bush_sentence_319

House Minority Whip Newt Gingrich led the conservative opposition to the bill, strongly opposing any form of tax increase. George H. W. Bush_sentence_320

Some liberals also criticized the budget cuts in the compromise, and in October, the House rejected the deal, resulting in a brief government shutdown. George H. W. Bush_sentence_321

Without the strong backing of the Republican Party, Bush agreed to another compromise bill, this one more favorable to Democrats. George H. W. Bush_sentence_322

The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 (OBRA-90), enacted on October 27, 1990, dropped much of the gasoline tax increase in favor of higher income taxes on top earners. George H. W. Bush_sentence_323

It included cuts to domestic spending, but the cuts were not as deep as those that had been proposed in the original compromise. George H. W. Bush_sentence_324

Bush's decision to sign the bill damaged his standing with conservatives and the general public, but it also laid the groundwork for the budget surpluses of the late 1990s. George H. W. Bush_sentence_325

Discrimination George H. W. Bush_section_25

The disabled had not received legal protections under the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964, and many faced discrimination and segregation by the time Bush took office. George H. W. Bush_sentence_326

In 1988, Lowell P. Weicker Jr. and Tony Coelho had introduced the Americans with Disabilities Act, which barred employment discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities. George H. W. Bush_sentence_327

The bill had passed the Senate but not the House, and it was reintroduced in 1989. George H. W. Bush_sentence_328

Though some conservatives opposed the bill due to its costs and potential burdens on businesses, Bush strongly supported it, partly because his son, Neil, had struggled with dyslexia. George H. W. Bush_sentence_329

After the bill passed both houses of Congress, Bush signed the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 into law in July 1990. George H. W. Bush_sentence_330

The act required employers and public accommodations to make "reasonable accommodations" for the disabled, while providing an exception when such accommodations imposed an "undue hardship". George H. W. Bush_sentence_331

Senator Ted Kennedy later led the congressional passage of a separate civil rights bill designed to facilitate launching employment discrimination lawsuits. George H. W. Bush_sentence_332

In vetoing the bill, Bush argued that it would lead to racial quotas in hiring. George H. W. Bush_sentence_333

In November 1991, Bush signed the Civil Rights Act of 1991, which was largely similar to the bill he had vetoed in the previous year. George H. W. Bush_sentence_334

In August 1990, Bush signed the Ryan White CARE Act, the largest federally funded program dedicated to assisting persons living with HIV/AIDS. George H. W. Bush_sentence_335

Throughout his presidency, the AIDS epidemic grew dramatically in the U.S. and around the world, and Bush often found himself at odds with AIDS activist groups who criticized him for not placing a high priority on HIV/AIDS research and funding. George H. W. Bush_sentence_336

Frustrated by the administration's lack of urgency on the issue, ACT UP, dumped the ashes of HIV/AIDS victims on the White House lawn during a viewing of the AIDS Quilt in 1992. George H. W. Bush_sentence_337

By that time, HIV had become the leading cause of death in the U.S. for men aged 25–44. George H. W. Bush_sentence_338

Environment George H. W. Bush_section_26

In June 1989, the Bush administration proposed a bill to amend the Clean Air Act. George H. W. Bush_sentence_339

Working with Senate Majority Leader George J. Mitchell, the administration won passage of the amendments over the opposition of business-aligned members of Congress who feared the impact of tougher regulations. George H. W. Bush_sentence_340

The legislation sought to curb acid rain and smog by requiring decreased emissions of chemicals such as sulfur dioxide, and was the first major update to the Clean Air Act since 1977. George H. W. Bush_sentence_341

Bush also signed the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 in response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. George H. W. Bush_sentence_342

However, the League of Conservation Voters criticized some of Bush's other environmental actions, including his opposition to stricter auto-mileage standards. George H. W. Bush_sentence_343

Points of Light George H. W. Bush_section_27

Main article: Points of Light George H. W. Bush_sentence_344

President Bush devoted attention to voluntary service as a means of solving some of America's most serious social problems. George H. W. Bush_sentence_345

He often used the "thousand points of light" theme to describe the power of citizens to solve community problems. George H. W. Bush_sentence_346

In his 1989 inaugural address, President Bush said, "I have spoken of a thousand points of light, of all the community organizations that are spread like stars throughout the Nation, doing good." George H. W. Bush_sentence_347

During his presidency, Bush honored numerous volunteers with the Daily Point of Light Award, a tradition that was continued by his presidential successors. George H. W. Bush_sentence_348

In 1990, the Points of Light Foundation was created as a nonprofit organization in Washington to promote this spirit of volunteerism. George H. W. Bush_sentence_349

In 2007, the Points of Light Foundation merged with the Hands On Network to create a new organization, Points of Light. George H. W. Bush_sentence_350

Judicial appointments George H. W. Bush_section_28

Further information: George H. W. Bush Supreme Court candidates, George H. W. Bush judicial appointments, and George H. W. Bush judicial appointment controversies George H. W. Bush_sentence_351

Bush appointed two justices to the Supreme Court of the United States. George H. W. Bush_sentence_352

In 1990, Bush appointed a largely unknown state appellate judge, David Souter, to replace liberal icon William Brennan. George H. W. Bush_sentence_353

Souter was easily confirmed and served until 2009, but joined the liberal bloc of the court, disappointing Bush. George H. W. Bush_sentence_354

In 1991, Bush nominated conservative federal judge Clarence Thomas to succeed Thurgood Marshall, a long-time liberal stalwart. George H. W. Bush_sentence_355

Thomas, the former head of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), faced heavy opposition in the Senate, as well as from pro-choice groups and the NAACP. George H. W. Bush_sentence_356

His nomination faced another difficulty when Anita Hill accused Thomas of having sexually harassed her during his time as the chair of EEOC. George H. W. Bush_sentence_357

Thomas won confirmation in a narrow 52–48 vote; 43 Republicans and 9 Democrats voted to confirm Thomas's nomination, while 46 Democrats and 2 Republicans voted against confirmation. George H. W. Bush_sentence_358

Thomas became one of the most conservative justices of his era. George H. W. Bush_sentence_359

In addition to his two Supreme Court appointments, Bush appointed 42 judges to the United States courts of appeals, and 148 judges to the United States district courts. George H. W. Bush_sentence_360

Among these appointments were future Supreme Court Justice Samuel Alito, as well as Vaughn R. Walker, who was later revealed to be the earliest known gay federal judge. George H. W. Bush_sentence_361

Other issues George H. W. Bush_section_29

Bush's education platform consisted mainly of offering federal support for a variety of innovations, such as open enrollment, incentive pay for outstanding teachers, and rewards for schools that improve performance with underprivileged children. George H. W. Bush_sentence_362

Though Bush did not pass a major educational reform package during his presidency, his ideas influenced later reform efforts, including Goals 2000 and the No Child Left Behind Act. George H. W. Bush_sentence_363

Bush signed the Immigration Act of 1990, which led to a 40 percent increase in legal immigration to the United States. George H. W. Bush_sentence_364

The act more than doubled the number of visas given to immigrants on the basis of job skills. George H. W. Bush_sentence_365

In the wake of the savings and loan crisis, Bush proposed a $50 billion package to rescue the savings and loans industry, and also proposed the creation of the Office of Thrift Supervision to regulate the industry. George H. W. Bush_sentence_366

Congress passed the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989, which incorporated most of Bush's proposals. George H. W. Bush_sentence_367

Public image George H. W. Bush_section_30

Bush was widely seen as a "pragmatic caretaker" president who lacked a unified and compelling long-term theme in his efforts. George H. W. Bush_sentence_368

Indeed, Bush's sound bite where he refers to the issue of overarching purpose as "the vision thing" has become a metonym applied to other political figures accused of similar difficulties. George H. W. Bush_sentence_369

His ability to gain broad international support for the Gulf War and the war's result were seen as both a diplomatic and military triumph, rousing bipartisan approval, though his decision to withdraw without removing Saddam Hussein left mixed feelings, and attention returned to the domestic front and a souring economy. George H. W. Bush_sentence_370

A New York Times article mistakenly depicted Bush as being surprised to see a supermarket barcode reader; the report of his reaction exacerbated the notion that he was "out of touch". George H. W. Bush_sentence_371

Amid the early 1990s recession, his image shifted from "conquering hero" to "politician befuddled by economic matters". George H. W. Bush_sentence_372

1992 presidential campaign George H. W. Bush_section_31

Bush announced his reelection bid in early 1992; with a coalition victory in the Persian Gulf War and high approval ratings, Bush's reelection initially looked likely. George H. W. Bush_sentence_373

As a result, many leading Democrats, including Mario Cuomo, Dick Gephardt, and Al Gore, declined to seek their party's presidential nomination. George H. W. Bush_sentence_374

However, Bush's tax increase had angered many conservatives, who believed that Bush had strayed from the conservative principles of Ronald Reagan. George H. W. Bush_sentence_375

He faced a challenge from conservative political columnist Pat Buchanan in the 1992 Republican primaries. George H. W. Bush_sentence_376

Bush fended off Buchanan's challenge and won his party's nomination at the 1992 Republican National Convention, but the convention adopted a socially conservative platform strongly influenced by the Christian right. George H. W. Bush_sentence_377

Meanwhile, the Democrats nominated Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas. George H. W. Bush_sentence_378

A moderate who was affiliated with the Democratic Leadership Council (DLC), Clinton favored welfare reform, deficit reduction, and a tax cut for the middle class. George H. W. Bush_sentence_379

In early 1992, the race took an unexpected twist when Texas billionaire H. George H. W. Bush_sentence_380 Ross Perot launched a third party bid, claiming that neither Republicans nor Democrats could eliminate the deficit and make government more efficient. George H. W. Bush_sentence_381

His message appealed to voters across the political spectrum disappointed with both parties' perceived fiscal irresponsibility. George H. W. Bush_sentence_382

Perot also attacked NAFTA, which he claimed would lead to major job losses. George H. W. Bush_sentence_383

National polling taken in mid-1992 showed Perot in the lead, but Clinton experienced a surge through effective campaigning and the selection of Senator Al Gore, a popular and relatively young Southerner, as his running mate. George H. W. Bush_sentence_384

Clinton won the election, taking 43 percent of the popular vote and 370 electoral votes, while Bush won 37.5 percent of the popular vote and 168 electoral votes. George H. W. Bush_sentence_385

Perot won 19% of the popular vote, one of the highest totals for a third party candidate in U.S. history, drawing equally from both major candidates, according to exit polls. George H. W. Bush_sentence_386

Clinton performed well in the Northeast, the Midwest, and the West Coast, while also waging the strongest Democratic campaign in the South since the 1976 election. George H. W. Bush_sentence_387

Several factors were important in Bush's defeat. George H. W. Bush_sentence_388

The ailing economy which arose from recession may have been the main factor in Bush's loss, as 7 in 10 voters said on election day that the economy was either "not so good" or "poor". George H. W. Bush_sentence_389

On the eve of the 1992 election, the unemployment rate stood at 7.8%, which was the highest it had been since 1984. George H. W. Bush_sentence_390

The president was also damaged by his alienation of many conservatives in his party. George H. W. Bush_sentence_391

Bush blamed Perot in part for his defeat, though exit polls showed that Perot drew his voters about equally from Clinton and Bush. George H. W. Bush_sentence_392

Despite his defeat, Bush left office with a 56 percent job approval rating in January 1993. George H. W. Bush_sentence_393

Like many of his predecessors, Bush issued a series of pardons during his last days in office. George H. W. Bush_sentence_394

In December 1992, he granted executive clemency to six former senior government officials implicated in the Iran-Contra scandal, most prominently former Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger. George H. W. Bush_sentence_395

The pardons effectively brought an end to special prosecutor Lawrence Walsh's investigation of the Iran-Contra scandal. George H. W. Bush_sentence_396

Post-presidency (1993–2018) George H. W. Bush_section_32

Main article: Post-presidency of George H. W. Bush George H. W. Bush_sentence_397

Appearances George H. W. Bush_section_33

After leaving office, Bush and his wife built a retirement house in the community of West Oaks, Houston. George H. W. Bush_sentence_398

He established a presidential office within the Park Laureate Building on Memorial Drive in Houston. George H. W. Bush_sentence_399

He also frequently spent time at his vacation home in Kennebunkport, took annual cruises in Greece, went on fishing trips in Florida, and visited the Bohemian Club in Northern California. George H. W. Bush_sentence_400

He declined to serve on corporate boards, but delivered numerous paid speeches and served as an adviser to The Carlyle Group, a private equity firm. George H. W. Bush_sentence_401

He never published his memoirs, but he and Brent Scowcroft co-wrote A World Transformed, a 1999 work on foreign policy. George H. W. Bush_sentence_402

Portions of his letters and his diary were later published as The China Diary of George H. W. Bush and All The Best, George Bush. George H. W. Bush_sentence_403

During a 1993 visit to Kuwait, Bush was targeted in an assassination plot directed by the Iraqi Intelligence Service. George H. W. Bush_sentence_404

President Clinton retaliated when he ordered the firing of 23 cruise missiles at Iraqi Intelligence Service headquarters in Baghdad. George H. W. Bush_sentence_405

Bush did not publicly comment on the assassination attempt or the missile strike, but privately spoke with Clinton shortly before the strike took place. George H. W. Bush_sentence_406

In the 1994 gubernatorial elections, his sons George W. and Jeb concurrently ran for Governor of Texas and Governor of Florida. George H. W. Bush_sentence_407

Concerning their political careers, he advised them both that "[a]t some point both of you may want to say 'Well, I don't agree with my Dad on that point' or 'Frankly I think Dad was wrong on that.' George H. W. Bush_sentence_408

Do it. George H. W. Bush_sentence_409

Chart your own course, not just on the issues but on defining yourselves". George H. W. Bush_sentence_410

George W. won his race against Ann Richards while Jeb lost to Lawton Chiles. George H. W. Bush_sentence_411

After the results came in, the elder Bush told ABC, "I have very mixed emotions. George H. W. Bush_sentence_412

Proud father, is the way I would sum it all up." George H. W. Bush_sentence_413

Jeb would again run for governor of Florida in 1998 and win at the same time that his brother George W. won re-election in Texas. George H. W. Bush_sentence_414

It marked the second time in United States history that a pair of brothers served simultaneously as governors. George H. W. Bush_sentence_415

Bush supported his son's candidacy in the 2000 presidential election, but did not actively campaign in the election and did not deliver a speech at the 2000 Republican National Convention. George H. W. Bush_sentence_416

George W. Bush defeated Al Gore in the 2000 election and was re-elected in 2004. George H. W. Bush_sentence_417

Bush and his son thus became the second father–son pair to each serve as President of the United States, following John Adams and John Quincy Adams. George H. W. Bush_sentence_418

Through previous administrations, the elder Bush had ubiquitously been known as "George Bush" or "President Bush", but following his son's election the need to distinguish between them has made retronymic forms such as "George H. W. Bush" and "George Bush Sr." and colloquialisms such as "Bush 41" and "Bush the Elder" more common. George H. W. Bush_sentence_419

Bush advised his son on some personnel choices, approving of the selection of Dick Cheney as running mate and the retention of George Tenet as CIA Director. George H. W. Bush_sentence_420

However, he was not consulted on all appointments, including that of his old rival, Donald Rumsfeld, as Secretary of Defense. George H. W. Bush_sentence_421

Though he avoided giving unsolicited advice to his son, Bush and his son also discussed some matters of policy, especially regarding national security issues. George H. W. Bush_sentence_422

In his retirement, Bush generally avoided publicly expressing his opinion on political issues, instead using the public spotlight to support various charities. George H. W. Bush_sentence_423

Despite earlier political differences with Bill Clinton, the two former presidents eventually became friends. George H. W. Bush_sentence_424

They appeared together in television ads, encouraging aid for victims of Hurricane Katrina and the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. George H. W. Bush_sentence_425

Final years George H. W. Bush_section_34

Bush supported Republican John McCain in the 2008 presidential election, and Republican Mitt Romney in the 2012 presidential election, but both were defeated by Democrat Barack Obama. George H. W. Bush_sentence_426

In 2011, Obama awarded Bush with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor in the United States. George H. W. Bush_sentence_427

Bush supported his son Jeb's bid in the 2016 presidential election. George H. W. Bush_sentence_428

Jeb Bush's campaign struggled however, and he withdrew from the race during the primaries. George H. W. Bush_sentence_429

Neither George H.W. George H. W. Bush_sentence_430

nor George W. Bush endorsed the eventual Republican nominee, Donald Trump; all three Bushes emerged as frequent critics of Trump's policies and speaking style, while Trump frequently criticized George W. Bush's presidency. George H. W. Bush_sentence_431

George H. W. Bush later said that he voted for the Democratic nominee, Hillary Clinton, in the general election. George H. W. Bush_sentence_432

After the election, Bush wrote a letter to president-elect Donald Trump in January 2017 to inform him that because of his poor health, he would not be able to attend Trump's inauguration on January 20; he gave him his best wishes. George H. W. Bush_sentence_433

In August 2017, after the violence at Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, both Presidents Bush released a joint statement saying, "America must always reject racial bigotry, anti-Semitism, and hatred in all forms[. George H. W. Bush_sentence_434

...] As we pray for Charlottesville, we are all reminded of the fundamental truths recorded by that city's most prominent citizen in the Declaration of Independence: we are all created equal and endowed by our Creator with unalienable rights." George H. W. Bush_sentence_435

On April 17, 2018, Bush's wife Former First Lady Barbara Bush died at the age of 92, at her home in Houston, Texas. George H. W. Bush_sentence_436

Her funeral was held at St. Martin's Episcopal Church in Houston four days later. George H. W. Bush_sentence_437

Bush along with former Presidents Barack Obama, George W. Bush (son), Bill Clinton and fellow First Ladies Melania Trump, Michelle Obama, Laura Bush (daughter-in-law) and Hillary Clinton were representatives who attended the funeral and who also took a photo together after the service as a sign of unity which went viral online. George H. W. Bush_sentence_438

On November 1, Bush went to the polls to vote early in the midterm elections. George H. W. Bush_sentence_439

This would be his final public appearance. George H. W. Bush_sentence_440

Death and funeral George H. W. Bush_section_35

Main article: Death and state funeral of George H. W. Bush George H. W. Bush_sentence_441

George H. W. Bush died on November 30, 2018, aged 94 years, 171 days, at his home in Houston. George H. W. Bush_sentence_442

At the time of his death he was the longest-lived U.S. president, a distinction now held by Jimmy Carter. George H. W. Bush_sentence_443

He was also the third-oldest vice president. George H. W. Bush_sentence_444

Bush lay in state in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol from December 3 through December 5; he was the 12th U.S. president to be accorded this honor. George H. W. Bush_sentence_445

Then, on December 5, Bush's casket was transferred from the Capitol rotunda to Washington National Cathedral where a state funeral was held. George H. W. Bush_sentence_446

After the funeral, Bush's body was transported to George H.W. George H. W. Bush_sentence_447

Bush Presidential Library in College Station, Texas, where he was buried next to his wife Barbara and daughter Robin. George H. W. Bush_sentence_448

At the funeral, former president George W. Bush eulogized his father saying, George H. W. Bush_sentence_449

Personal life George H. W. Bush_section_36

In 1991, The New York Times revealed that Bush was suffering from Graves' disease, a non-contagious thyroid condition that his wife Barbara also suffered from. George H. W. Bush_sentence_450

Later in life, Bush suffered from vascular parkinsonism, a form of Parkinson's disease which forced him to use a motorized scooter or wheelchair. George H. W. Bush_sentence_451

Bush was raised in the Episcopal Church, though by the end of his life his apparent religious beliefs are considered to have more in line with Evangelical Christian doctrine and practices. George H. W. Bush_sentence_452

He cited various moments in his life deepening of his faith, including his escape from Japanese forces in 1944, and the death of his three-year-old daughter Robin in 1953. George H. W. Bush_sentence_453

His faith was reflected in his Thousand Points of Light speech, his support for prayer in schools, and his support for the pro-life movement (following his election as vice president). George H. W. Bush_sentence_454

Legacy George H. W. Bush_section_37

Historical reputation George H. W. Bush_section_38

Polls of historians and political scientists have ranked Bush in the top half of presidents. George H. W. Bush_sentence_455

A 2018 poll of the American Political Science Association's Presidents and Executive Politics section ranked Bush as the 17th best president out of 44. George H. W. Bush_sentence_456

A 2017 C-Span poll of historians also ranked Bush as the 20th best president out of 43. George H. W. Bush_sentence_457

Richard Rose described Bush as a "guardian" president, and many other historians and political scientists have similarly described Bush as a passive, hands-off president who was "largely content with things as they were". George H. W. Bush_sentence_458

Professor Steven Knott writes that "[g]enerally the Bush presidency is viewed as successful in foreign affairs but a disappointment in domestic affairs." George H. W. Bush_sentence_459

Biographer Jon Meacham writes that, after he left office, many Americans viewed Bush as "a gracious and underappreciated man who had many virtues but who had failed to project enough of a distinctive identity and vision to overcome the economic challenges of 1991–92 and to win a second term." George H. W. Bush_sentence_460

Bush himself noted that his legacy was "lost between the glory of Reagan ... and the trials and tribulations of my sons." George H. W. Bush_sentence_461

In the 2010s, Bush was fondly remembered for his willingness to compromise, which contrasted with the intensely partisan era that followed his presidency. George H. W. Bush_sentence_462

In 2018, Vox highlighted Bush for his "pragmatism" as a moderate Republican president by working across the aisle. George H. W. Bush_sentence_463

They specifically noted Bush's accomplishments within the domestic policy by making bipartisan deals, including raising with tax budget among the wealthy with the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990. George H. W. Bush_sentence_464

Bush also helped pass the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 which The New York Times described as "the most sweeping anti-discrimination law since the Civil Rights Act of 1964. George H. W. Bush_sentence_465

In response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Bush built another bipartisan coalition to strengthen the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. George H. W. Bush_sentence_466

Bush also championed and signed into a law the Immigration Act of 1990, a sweeping bipartisan immigration reform act that made it easier for immigrants to legally enter the county, while also granting immigrants fleeing violence the temporary protected status visa, as well as lifted the pre-naturalization English testing process, and finally "eliminated the exclusion of homosexuals under what Congress now deemed the medically unsound classification of “sexual deviant” that was included in the 1965 act." George H. W. Bush_sentence_467

Bush stated, "Immigration is not just a link to our past but its also a bridge to America's future". George H. W. Bush_sentence_468

According to USA Today, the legacy of Bush's presidency was defined by his victory over Iraq after the invasion of Kuwait, and for his presiding over the Dissolution of the Soviet Union and the German reunification. George H. W. Bush_sentence_469

Michael Beschloss and Strobe Talbott praise Bush's handling of the USSR, especially how he prodded Gorbachev in terms of releasing control over the satellite states and permitting German unification—and especially a united Germany in NATO. George H. W. Bush_sentence_470

Andrew Bacevich judges the Bush administration as “morally obtuse” in the light of its “business-as-usual” attitude towards China after the massacre in Tiananmen Square and its uncritical support of Gorbachev as the Soviet Union disintegrated. George H. W. Bush_sentence_471

David Rothkopf argues: George H. W. Bush_sentence_472

George H. W. Bush_description_list_0

  • In the recent history of U.S. foreign policy, there has been no president, nor any president’s team, who, when confronted with profound international change and challenges, responded with such a thoughtful and well-managed foreign policy....[the Bush administration was] a bridge over one of the great fault lines of history [that] ushered in a ‘new world order’ it described with great skill and professionalism.”George H. W. Bush_item_0_0

Memorials, awards, and honors George H. W. Bush_section_39

Main article: List of memorials, honors, and awards of George H. W. Bush George H. W. Bush_sentence_473

In 1990, Time magazine named him the Man of the Year. George H. W. Bush_sentence_474

In 1997, the Houston Intercontinental Airport was renamed as the George Bush Intercontinental Airport. George H. W. Bush_sentence_475

In 1999, the CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia, was named the George Bush Center for Intelligence in his honor. George H. W. Bush_sentence_476

In 2011, Bush, an avid golfer, was inducted in the World Golf Hall of Fame. George H. W. Bush_sentence_477

The USS George H.W. George H. W. Bush_sentence_478 Bush (CVN-77), the tenth and last Nimitz-class supercarrier of the United States Navy, was named for Bush. George H. W. Bush_sentence_479

Bush is commemorated on a postage stamp that was issued by the United States Postal Service in 2019. George H. W. Bush_sentence_480

The George H.W. George H. W. Bush_sentence_481 Bush Presidential Library and Museum, the tenth U.S. presidential library, was completed in 1997. George H. W. Bush_sentence_482

It contains the presidential and vice presidential papers of Bush and the vice presidential papers of Dan Quayle. George H. W. Bush_sentence_483

The library is located on a 90-acre (36 ha) site on the west campus of Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas. George H. W. Bush_sentence_484

Texas A&M University also hosts the Bush School of Government and Public Service, a graduate public policy school. George H. W. Bush_sentence_485

See also George H. W. Bush_section_40

George H. W. Bush_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: H. W. Bush.