George W. Bush

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This article is about the 43rd president of the United States. George W. Bush_sentence_0

For his father, the 41st president, see George H. W. Bush. George W. Bush_sentence_1

For other people, see George Bush (disambiguation). George W. Bush_sentence_2

George W. Bush_table_infobox_0

George W. BushGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_0_0
43rd President of the United StatesGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_1_0
Vice PresidentGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_2_0 Dick CheneyGeorge W. Bush_cell_0_2_1
Preceded byGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_3_0 Bill ClintonGeorge W. Bush_cell_0_3_1
Succeeded byGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_4_0 Barack ObamaGeorge W. Bush_cell_0_4_1
46th Governor of TexasGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_5_0
LieutenantGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_6_0 George W. Bush_cell_0_6_1
Preceded byGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_7_0 Ann RichardsGeorge W. Bush_cell_0_7_1
Succeeded byGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_8_0 Rick PerryGeorge W. Bush_cell_0_8_1
Personal detailsGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_9_0
BornGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_10_0 George Walker Bush
(1946-07-06) July 6, 1946 (age 74)

New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.George W. Bush_cell_0_10_1

Political partyGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_11_0 RepublicanGeorge W. Bush_cell_0_11_1
Spouse(s)George W. Bush_header_cell_0_12_0 Laura Welch ​(m. 1977)​George W. Bush_cell_0_12_1
ChildrenGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_13_0 George W. Bush_cell_0_13_1
ParentsGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_14_0 George W. Bush_cell_0_14_1
RelativesGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_15_0 Bush familyGeorge W. Bush_cell_0_15_1
ResidenceGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_16_0 Crawford, Texas, U.S.George W. Bush_cell_0_16_1
Alma materGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_17_0 George W. Bush_cell_0_17_1
OccupationGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_18_0 George W. Bush_cell_0_18_1
Civilian awardsGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_19_0 List of awards and honorsGeorge W. Bush_cell_0_19_1
SignatureGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_20_0 George W. Bush_cell_0_20_1
WebsiteGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_21_0 George W. Bush_cell_0_21_1
Military serviceGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_22_0
Nickname(s)George W. Bush_header_cell_0_23_0 George W. Bush_cell_0_23_1
AllegianceGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_24_0 United StatesGeorge W. Bush_cell_0_24_1
Branch/serviceGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_25_0 George W. Bush_cell_0_25_1
Years of serviceGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_26_0 1968–1974George W. Bush_cell_0_26_1
RankGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_27_0 First lieutenantGeorge W. Bush_cell_0_27_1
UnitGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_28_0 George W. Bush_cell_0_28_1
Military awardsGeorge W. Bush_header_cell_0_29_0 George W. Bush_cell_0_29_1

George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. George W. Bush_sentence_3

A member of the Republican Party, he had previously served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. George W. Bush_sentence_4

Born into the Bush family, his father, George H. W. Bush, served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993. George W. Bush_sentence_5

Bush is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush. George W. Bush_sentence_6

As such he is the second son of a former United States president to himself become the American president, with the first being John Quincy Adams. George W. Bush_sentence_7

He flew warplanes in the Texas and Alabama Air National Guard. George W. Bush_sentence_8

After graduating from Yale College in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. George W. Bush_sentence_9

Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U.S. George W. Bush_sentence_10 House of Representatives shortly thereafter. George W. Bush_sentence_11

He later co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating incumbent Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. George W. Bush_sentence_12

As governor, Bush successfully sponsored legislation for tort reform, increased education funding, set higher standards for schools, and reformed the criminal justice system. George W. Bush_sentence_13

Bush also helped make Texas the leading producer of wind powered electricity in the U.S. Bush was elected president in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a narrow and contested win that involved a Supreme Court decision to stop a recount in Florida. George W. Bush_sentence_14

He became the fourth person to be elected president without a popular vote victory. George W. Bush_sentence_15

Upon taking office, Bush pushed through a $1.3 trillion tax cut program and the No Child Left Behind Act, a major education bill. George W. Bush_sentence_16

He also pushed for socially conservative efforts, such as the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act and faith-based welfare initiatives. George W. Bush_sentence_17

In response to the September 11 terrorist attacks, Bush created the Department of Homeland Security and launched a "War on Terror" that began with the war in Afghanistan in 2001. George W. Bush_sentence_18

He also signed into law the controversial Patriot Act in order to authorize surveillance of suspected terrorists. George W. Bush_sentence_19

In 2003, Bush ordered an invasion of Iraq, with the administration arguing that the Saddam Hussein regime possessed an active weapons of mass destruction (WMD) program, and that the Iraqi government posed a threat to the U.S. George W. Bush_sentence_20

Some administration officials falsely claimed that Hussein had an operational relationship with Al-Qaeda, the perpetrators of the 9/11 attack. George W. Bush_sentence_21

No stockpiles of WMDs or an active WMD program were ever found in Iraq. George W. Bush_sentence_22

Bush also signed into law the Medicare Modernization Act, which created Medicare Part D, and funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. George W. Bush_sentence_23

In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in a close election. George W. Bush_sentence_24

During his second term, Bush reached multiple free trade agreements and successfully nominated John G. Roberts and Samuel Alito to the Supreme Court. George W. Bush_sentence_25

He sought major changes to Social Security and immigration laws, but both efforts failed. George W. Bush_sentence_26

The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq continued, and in 2007 he launched a surge of troops in Iraq. George W. Bush_sentence_27

Bush received criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of Hurricane Katrina, and the midterm dismissal of U.S. attorneys. George W. Bush_sentence_28

Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. George W. Bush_sentence_29

In December 2007, the U.S. entered the Great Recession, prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional approval for multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system, including the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) to buy toxic assets from financial institutions. George W. Bush_sentence_30

Bush was among the most popular, as well as unpopular, U.S. presidents in history; he received the highest recorded approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, but one of the lowest such ratings during the 2008 financial crisis. George W. Bush_sentence_31

Bush finished his second term in office in 2009 and returned to Texas. George W. Bush_sentence_32

In 2010, he published his memoir, Decision Points. George W. Bush_sentence_33

His presidential library opened in 2013. George W. Bush_sentence_34

His presidency has been rated as below-average in historical rankings of U.S. presidents, although his public favorability ratings have improved since leaving office. George W. Bush_sentence_35

Early life and career George W. Bush_section_0

Main article: Early life of George W. Bush George W. Bush_sentence_36

George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Grace-New Haven Hospital (now Yale New Haven Hospital) in New Haven, Connecticut, while his father was a student at Yale. George W. Bush_sentence_37

He was the first child of George Herbert Walker Bush and Barbara Pierce. George W. Bush_sentence_38

He was raised in Midland and Houston, Texas, with four siblings, John, Neil, Marvin and Dorothy. George W. Bush_sentence_39

Another younger sister, Robin, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953. George W. Bush_sentence_40

His grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U.S. George W. Bush_sentence_41

Senator from Connecticut. George W. Bush_sentence_42

His father was Ronald Reagan's vice president from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U.S. president from 1989 to 1993. George W. Bush_sentence_43

Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Welsh, Irish, French, and Scottish roots. George W. Bush_sentence_44

Education George W. Bush_section_1

Bush attended public schools in Midland, Texas until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade. George W. Bush_sentence_45

He then spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Piney Point Village, Texas in the Houston area. George W. Bush_sentence_46

Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school in Andover, Massachusetts, where he played baseball and was the head cheerleader during his senior year. George W. Bush_sentence_47

He attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree in history. George W. Bush_sentence_48

During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year. George W. Bush_sentence_49

Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior. George W. Bush_sentence_50

Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV. George W. Bush_sentence_51

He characterized himself as an average student. George W. Bush_sentence_52

His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, and he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year. George W. Bush_sentence_53

After his application to the University of Texas School of Law was rejected, Bush entered Harvard Business School in the fall of 1973. George W. Bush_sentence_54

He graduated in 1975 with an MBA degree. George W. Bush_sentence_55

He is the only U.S. president to have earned an MBA. George W. Bush_sentence_56

Family and personal life George W. Bush_section_2

See also: Bush family George W. Bush_sentence_57

Bush was engaged to Cathryn Lee Wolfman in 1967, but the engagement did not last. George W. Bush_sentence_58

Bush and Wolfman remained on good terms after the end of the relationship. George W. Bush_sentence_59

While Bush was at a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. George W. Bush_sentence_60

After a three-month courtship, she accepted his marriage proposal and they wed on November 5 of that year. George W. Bush_sentence_61

The couple settled in Midland, Texas. George W. Bush_sentence_62

Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. George W. Bush_sentence_63

On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters, Barbara and Jenna. George W. Bush_sentence_64

Alcohol abuse George W. Bush_section_3

Prior to getting married, Bush struggled with multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. George W. Bush_sentence_65

In one instance on September 4, 1976, he was pulled over near his family's summer home in Kennebunkport, Maine, for driving under the influence of alcohol. George W. Bush_sentence_66

He was cited for DUI, fined $150 (equivalent to $674 in 2019), and got his Maine driver's license briefly suspended. George W. Bush_sentence_67

Bush said his wife has had a stabilizing effect on his life, and he attributes her influence to his 1986 decision to give up alcohol. George W. Bush_sentence_68

While Governor of Texas, Bush said of his wife, "I saw an elegant, beautiful woman who turned out not only to be elegant and beautiful, but very smart and willing to put up with my rough edges, and I must confess has smoothed them off over time." George W. Bush_sentence_69

Hobbies George W. Bush_section_4

Bush has been an avid reader throughout his adult life, preferring biographies and histories. George W. Bush_sentence_70

He read 14 Lincoln biographies, and during the last three years of his presidency, read 186 books. George W. Bush_sentence_71

During his presidency, Bush read the Bible daily, though at the end of his second term he said on television that he is "not a literalist" about Bible interpretation. George W. Bush_sentence_72

Walt Harrington, a journalist, recalled seeing "books by John Fowles, F. George W. Bush_sentence_73 Scott Fitzgerald, James Joyce, and Gore Vidal lying about, as well as biographies of Willa Cather and Queen Victoria" in his home when Bush was a Texas oilman. George W. Bush_sentence_74

Other activities include cigar smoking and golf. George W. Bush_sentence_75

After leaving the White House, Bush took up oil painting. George W. Bush_sentence_76

Military career George W. Bush_section_5

Main article: George W. Bush military service controversy George W. Bush_sentence_77

See also: Killian documents controversy and Killian documents authenticity issues George W. Bush_sentence_78

In May 1968, Bush was commissioned into the Texas Air National Guard. George W. Bush_sentence_79

After two years of training in active-duty service, he was assigned to Houston, flying Convair F-102s with the 147th Reconnaissance Wing out of the Ellington Field Joint Reserve Base. George W. Bush_sentence_80

Critics, including former Democratic National Committee Chairman Terry McAuliffe, have alleged that Bush was favorably treated due to his father's political standing as a member of the House of Representatives, citing his selection as a pilot despite his low pilot aptitude test scores and his irregular attendance. George W. Bush_sentence_81

In June 2005, the United States Department of Defense released all the records of Bush's Texas Air National Guard service, which remain in its official archives. George W. Bush_sentence_82

In late 1972 and early 1973, he drilled with the 187th Fighter Wing of the Alabama Air National Guard. George W. Bush_sentence_83

He had moved to Montgomery, Alabama, to work on the unsuccessful U.S. Senate campaign of Republican Winton M. Blount. George W. Bush_sentence_84

In 1972, Bush was suspended from flying for failure to take a scheduled physical exam. George W. Bush_sentence_85

He was honorably discharged from the Air Force Reserve on November 21, 1974. George W. Bush_sentence_86

As of 2020, he remains the most recent President to serve in the United States Military. George W. Bush_sentence_87

Business career George W. Bush_section_6

Main article: Professional life of George W. Bush George W. Bush_sentence_88

In 1977, Bush established Arbusto Energy, a small oil exploration company, although it did not begin operations until the following year. George W. Bush_sentence_89

He later changed the name to Bush Exploration. George W. Bush_sentence_90

In 1984, his company merged with the larger Spectrum 7, and Bush became chairman. George W. Bush_sentence_91

The company was hurt by decreased oil prices, and it folded into HKN, Inc., with Bush becoming a member of HKN's board of directors. George W. Bush_sentence_92

Questions of possible insider trading involving HKN arose, but a Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) investigation concluded that the information Bush had at the time of his stock sale was not sufficient to constitute insider trading. George W. Bush_sentence_93

In April 1989, Bush arranged for a group of investors to purchase a controlling interest in the Texas Rangers baseball franchise for $89 million and invested $500,000 himself to start. George W. Bush_sentence_94

He then served as managing general partner for five years. George W. Bush_sentence_95

He actively led the team's projects and regularly attended its games, often choosing to sit in the open stands with fans. George W. Bush_sentence_96

Bush's sale of his shares in the Rangers in 1998 brought him over $15 million from his initial $800,000 investment. George W. Bush_sentence_97

Early political involvement George W. Bush_section_7

In 1978, Bush ran for the House of Representatives from Texas's 19th congressional district. George W. Bush_sentence_98

The retiring member, George H. Mahon, had held the district for the Democratic Party since 1935. George W. Bush_sentence_99

Bush's opponent, Kent Hance, portrayed him as out of touch with rural Texans, and Bush lost the election with 46.8 percent of the vote to Hance's 53.2 percent. George W. Bush_sentence_100

Bush and his family moved to Washington, D.C., in 1988 to work on his father's campaign for the U.S. presidency. George W. Bush_sentence_101

He served as a campaign advisor and liaison to the media, and assisted his father by campaigning across the country. George W. Bush_sentence_102

In December 1991, Bush was one of seven people named by his father to run his father's 1992 presidential re-election campaign, as a "campaign advisor". George W. Bush_sentence_103

The previous month, his father had asked him to tell White House chief of staff John H. Sununu to resign. George W. Bush_sentence_104

Governor of Texas (1995–2000) George W. Bush_section_8

Main article: Governorship of George W. Bush George W. Bush_sentence_105

Bush declared his candidacy for the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election at the same time his brother Jeb sought the governorship of Florida. George W. Bush_sentence_106

His campaign focused on four themes: welfare reform, tort reform, crime reduction, and education improvement. George W. Bush_sentence_107

Bush's campaign advisers were Karen Hughes, Joe Allbaugh, and Karl Rove. George W. Bush_sentence_108

After easily winning the Republican primary, Bush faced popular Democratic incumbent Governor Ann Richards. George W. Bush_sentence_109

In the course of the campaign, Bush pledged to sign a bill allowing Texans to obtain permits to carry concealed weapons. George W. Bush_sentence_110

Richards had vetoed the bill, but Bush signed it into law after he became governor. George W. Bush_sentence_111

According to The Atlantic, the race "featured a rumor that she was a lesbian, along with a rare instance of such a tactic's making it into the public record – when a regional chairman of the Bush campaign allowed himself, perhaps inadvertently, to be quoted criticizing Richards for 'appointing avowed homosexual activists' to state jobs". George W. Bush_sentence_112

The Atlantic, and others, connected the lesbian rumor to Karl Rove, but Rove denied being involved. George W. Bush_sentence_113

Bush won the general election with 53.5 percent against Richards' 45.9 percent. George W. Bush_sentence_114

Bush used a budget surplus to push through Texas's largest tax-cut, $2 billion. George W. Bush_sentence_115

He extended government funding for organizations providing education of the dangers of alcohol and drug use and abuse, and helping to reduce domestic violence. George W. Bush_sentence_116

Critics contended that during his tenure, Texas ranked near the bottom in environmental evaluations. George W. Bush_sentence_117

Supporters pointed to his efforts to raise the salaries of teachers and improve educational test scores. George W. Bush_sentence_118

In 1999, Bush signed a law that required electric retailers to buy a certain amount of energy from renewable sources (RPS), which helped Texas eventually become the leading producer of wind powered electricity in the U.S. George W. Bush_sentence_119

In 1998, Bush won re-election with a record 69 percent of the vote. George W. Bush_sentence_120

He became the first governor in Texas history to be elected to two consecutive four-year terms. George W. Bush_sentence_121

In his second term, Bush promoted faith-based organizations and enjoyed high approval ratings. George W. Bush_sentence_122

He proclaimed June 10, 2000, to be Jesus Day in Texas, a day on which he urged all Texans to "answer the call to serve those in need". George W. Bush_sentence_123

Throughout Bush's first term, he was the focus of national attention as a potential future presidential candidate. George W. Bush_sentence_124

Following his re-election, speculation soared, and within a year he decided to seek the 2000 Republican presidential nomination. George W. Bush_sentence_125

Presidential campaigns George W. Bush_section_9

2000 presidential candidacy George W. Bush_section_10

Main articles: 2000 Republican Party presidential primaries, 2000 United States presidential election, and George W. Bush 2000 presidential campaign George W. Bush_sentence_126

Primary George W. Bush_section_11

Incumbent Democratic president Bill Clinton was in his second and final term, and the field for nomination in both parties was wide open. George W. Bush_sentence_127

Bush was the Governor of Texas in June 1999 when he announced his candidacy for president, joining John McCain, Alan Keyes, Steve Forbes, Gary Bauer, Orrin Hatch, Elizabeth Dole, Dan Quayle, Pat Buchanan, Lamar Alexander, John Kasich, and Bob Smith. George W. Bush_sentence_128

Bush portrayed himself as a compassionate conservative, implying he was more centrist than other Republicans. George W. Bush_sentence_129

He campaigned on a platform that included bringing integrity and honor back to the White House, increasing the size of the military, cutting taxes, improving education, and aiding minorities. George W. Bush_sentence_130

By early 2000, the race had centered on Bush and McCain. George W. Bush_sentence_131

Bush won the Iowa caucuses, and although he was heavily favored to win the New Hampshire primary, he trailed McCain by 19 percent and lost that primary. George W. Bush_sentence_132

Despite this, Bush regained momentum effectively became the front runner after the South Carolina primary, which—according to The Boston Globe—made history for his campaign's negativity. George W. Bush_sentence_133

The New York Times described it as a smear campaign. George W. Bush_sentence_134

General election George W. Bush_section_12

On July 25, 2000, Bush surprised some observers when he selected Dick Cheney—a former White House Chief of Staff, Congressman and Secretary of Defense—to be his running mate. George W. Bush_sentence_135

At the time, Cheney was serving as head of Bush's vice presidential search committee. George W. Bush_sentence_136

Soon after at the 2000 Republican National Convention, Bush and Cheney were officially nominated by the Republican Party. George W. Bush_sentence_137

Bush continued to campaign across the country and touted his record as Governor of Texas. George W. Bush_sentence_138

During his campaign, Bush criticized his Democratic opponent, incumbent Vice President Al Gore, over gun control and taxation. George W. Bush_sentence_139

When the election returns were tallied on November 7, Bush had won 29 states, including Florida. George W. Bush_sentence_140

The closeness of the Florida outcome led to a recount. George W. Bush_sentence_141

The initial recount also went to Bush, but the outcome was tied up in lower courts for a month until eventually reaching the U.S. George W. Bush_sentence_142 Supreme Court. George W. Bush_sentence_143

On December 9, in the controversial Bush v. Gore ruling, the Court reversed a Florida Supreme Court decision that had ordered a third count, and stopped an ordered statewide hand recount based on the argument that the use of different standards among Florida's counties violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. George W. Bush_sentence_144

The machine recount showed that Bush had won the Florida vote by a margin of 537 votes out of six million casts. George W. Bush_sentence_145

Although he had received 543,895 fewer individual nationwide votes than Gore, Bush won the election, receiving 271 electoral votes to Gore's 266 (Gore had actually been awarded a total of 267 votes by the states pledged to him plus the District of Columbia, but one D.C. elector abstained). George W. Bush_sentence_146

Bush was the first person to win an American presidential election with fewer popular votes than another candidate since Benjamin Harrison in 1888. George W. Bush_sentence_147

2004 presidential candidacy George W. Bush_section_13

Main articles: 2004 United States presidential election and George W. Bush 2004 presidential campaign George W. Bush_sentence_148

In his 2004 bid for re-election, Bush commanded broad support in the Republican Party and did not encounter a primary challenge. George W. Bush_sentence_149

He appointed Ken Mehlman as campaign manager, and Karl Rove devised a political strategy. George W. Bush_sentence_150

Bush and the Republican platform emphasized a strong commitment to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, support for the USA PATRIOT Act, a renewed shift in policy for constitutional amendments banning abortion and same-sex marriage, reforming Social Security to create private investment accounts, creation of an ownership society, and opposing mandatory carbon emissions controls. George W. Bush_sentence_151

Bush also called for the implementation of a guest worker program for immigrants, which was criticized by conservatives. George W. Bush_sentence_152

The Bush campaign advertised across the U.S. against Democratic candidates, including Bush's emerging opponent, Massachusetts Senator John Kerry. George W. Bush_sentence_153

Kerry and other Democrats attacked Bush on the Iraq War, and accused him of failing to stimulate the economy and job growth. George W. Bush_sentence_154

The Bush campaign portrayed Kerry as a staunch liberal who would raise taxes and increase the size of government. George W. Bush_sentence_155

The Bush campaign continuously criticized Kerry's seemingly contradictory statements on the war in Iraq, and argued that Kerry lacked the decisiveness and vision necessary for success in the War on Terror. George W. Bush_sentence_156

Following the resignation of CIA director George Tenet in 2004, Bush nominated Porter Goss to head the agency. George W. Bush_sentence_157

The White House ordered Goss to purge agency officers who were disloyal to the administration. George W. Bush_sentence_158

After Goss' appointment, many of the CIA's senior agents were fired or quit. George W. Bush_sentence_159

The CIA has been accused of deliberately leaking classified information to undermine the 2004 election. George W. Bush_sentence_160

In the election, Bush carried 31 of 50 states, receiving a total of 286 electoral votes. George W. Bush_sentence_161

He won an absolute majority of the popular vote (50.7 percent to his opponent's 48.3 percent). George W. Bush_sentence_162

Bush's father George H.W. George W. Bush_sentence_163

Bush was the previous president who won an absolute majority of the popular vote; he accomplished that feat in the 1988 election. George W. Bush_sentence_164

Additionally, it was the first time since Herbert Hoover's election in 1928 that a Republican president was elected alongside re-elected Republican majorities in both Houses of Congress. George W. Bush_sentence_165

President (2001–2009) George W. Bush_section_14

Main article: Presidency of George W. Bush George W. Bush_sentence_166

For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the George W. Bush presidency. George W. Bush_sentence_167

Bush had originally outlined an ambitious domestic agenda, but his priorities were significantly altered following the September 11 attacks. George W. Bush_sentence_168

Wars were waged in Afghanistan and Iraq, and there were significant domestic debates regarding immigration, healthcare, Social Security, economic policy, and treatment of terrorist detainees. George W. Bush_sentence_169

Over an eight-year period, Bush's once-high approval ratings steadily declined, while his disapproval numbers increased significantly. George W. Bush_sentence_170

In 2007, the United States entered the longest post-World War II recession. George W. Bush_sentence_171

Domestic policy George W. Bush_section_15

Main article: Domestic policy of the George W. Bush administration George W. Bush_sentence_172

Economic policy George W. Bush_section_16

Main article: Economic policy of the George W. Bush administration George W. Bush_sentence_173

Bush took office during a period of economic recession in the wake of the bursting of the dot-com bubble. George W. Bush_sentence_174

The terrorist attacks also impacted the economy. George W. Bush_sentence_175

His administration increased federal government spending from $1.789 trillion to $2.983 trillion (60 percent), while revenues increased from $2.025 trillion to $2.524 trillion (from 2000 to 2008). George W. Bush_sentence_176

Individual income tax revenues increased by 14 percent, corporate tax revenues by 50 percent, and customs and duties by 40 percent. George W. Bush_sentence_177

Discretionary defense spending was increased by 107 percent, discretionary domestic spending by 62 percent, Medicare spending by 131 percent, social security by 51 percent, and income security spending by 130 percent. George W. Bush_sentence_178

Cyclically adjusted, revenues rose by 35 percent and spending by 65 percent. George W. Bush_sentence_179

The increase in spending was more than under any predecessor since Lyndon B. Johnson. George W. Bush_sentence_180

The number of economic regulation governmental workers increased by 91,196. George W. Bush_sentence_181

The surplus in fiscal year 2000 was $237 billion—the third consecutive surplus and the largest surplus ever. George W. Bush_sentence_182

In 2001, Bush's budget estimated that there would be a $5.6 trillion surplus over the next ten years. George W. Bush_sentence_183

Facing congressional opposition, Bush held townhall style meetings across the U.S. in order to increase public support for his plan for a $1.35 trillion tax cut program—one of the largest tax cuts in U.S. history. George W. Bush_sentence_184

Bush argued that unspent government funds should be returned to taxpayers, saying "the surplus is not the government's money. George W. Bush_sentence_185

The surplus is the people's money." George W. Bush_sentence_186

Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan warned of a recession and Bush stated that a tax cut would stimulate the economy and create jobs. George W. Bush_sentence_187

Treasury Secretary Paul H. O'Neill, opposed some of the tax cuts on the basis that they would contribute to budget deficits and undermine Social Security. George W. Bush_sentence_188

O'Neill disputes the claim, made in Bush's book Decision Points, that he never openly disagreed with him on planned tax cuts. George W. Bush_sentence_189

By 2003, the economy showed signs of improvement, though job growth remained stagnant. George W. Bush_sentence_190

Another tax cut was passed that year. George W. Bush_sentence_191

Between 2001 and 2008, GDP grew at an average annual rate of 2.125 percent, less than for past business cycles. George W. Bush_sentence_192

Bush entered office with the Dow Jones Industrial Average at 10,587, and the average peaked in October 2007 at over 14,000. George W. Bush_sentence_193

When Bush left office, the average was at 7,949, one of the lowest levels of his presidency. George W. Bush_sentence_194

Only four other U.S. presidents have left office with the stock market lower than when they began. George W. Bush_sentence_195

Unemployment originally rose from 4.2 percent in January 2001 to 6.3 percent in June 2003, but subsequently dropped to 4.5 percent in July 2007. George W. Bush_sentence_196

Adjusted for inflation, median household income dropped by $1,175 between 2000 and 2007, while Professor Ken Homa of Georgetown University has noted that "Median real after-tax household income went up two percent". George W. Bush_sentence_197

The poverty rate increased from 11.3 percent in 2000 to 12.3 percent in 2006 after peaking at 12.7 percent in 2004. George W. Bush_sentence_198

By October 2008, due to increases in spending, the national debt had risen to $11.3 trillion, an increase of over 100 percent from 2000 when the debt was only $5.6 trillion. George W. Bush_sentence_199

Most debt was accumulated as a result of what became known as the "Bush tax cuts" and increased national security spending. George W. Bush_sentence_200

In March 2006, then-Senator Barack Obama said when he voted against raising the debt ceiling: "The fact that we are here today to debate raising America's debt limit is a sign of leadership failure." George W. Bush_sentence_201

By the end of Bush's presidency, unemployment climbed to 7.2 percent. George W. Bush_sentence_202

In December 2007, the United States entered the longest post–World War II recession, caused by a housing market correction, a subprime mortgage crisis, soaring oil prices, and other factors. George W. Bush_sentence_203

In February 2008, 63,000 jobs were lost, a five-year record, and in November, over 500,000 jobs were lost, which marked the largest loss of jobs in the United States in 34 years. George W. Bush_sentence_204

The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that in the last four months of 2008, 1.9 million jobs were lost. George W. Bush_sentence_205

By the end of 2008, the U.S. had lost a total of 2.6 million jobs. George W. Bush_sentence_206

To aid with the situation, Bush signed a $170 billion economic stimulus package which was intended to improve the economic situation by sending tax rebate checks to many Americans and providing tax breaks for struggling businesses. George W. Bush_sentence_207

The Bush administration pushed for significantly increased regulation of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in 2003, and after two years, the regulations passed the House but died in the Senate. George W. Bush_sentence_208

Many Republican senators, as well as influential members of the Bush Administration, feared that the agency created by these regulations would merely be mimicking the private sector's risky practices. George W. Bush_sentence_209

In September 2008, the crisis became much more serious beginning with the government takeover of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac followed by the collapse of Lehman Brothers and a federal bailout of American International Group for $85 billion. George W. Bush_sentence_210

Many economists and world governments determined that the situation had become the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. George W. Bush_sentence_211

Additional regulation over the housing market would have been beneficial, according to former Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan. George W. Bush_sentence_212

Bush, meanwhile, proposed a financial rescue plan to buy back a large portion of the U.S. mortgage market. George W. Bush_sentence_213

Vince Reinhardt, a former Federal Reserve economist now at the American Enterprise Institute, said "it would have helped for the Bush administration to empower the folks at Treasury and the Federal Reserve and the comptroller of the currency and the FDIC to look at these issues more closely", and additionally, that it would have helped "for Congress to have held hearings". George W. Bush_sentence_214

Education and public health George W. Bush_section_17

Bush undertook a number of educational agendas, such as increasing the funding for the National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health in his first years of office and creating education programs to strengthen the grounding in science and mathematics for American high school students. George W. Bush_sentence_215

Funding for the NIH was cut in 2006, the first such cut in 36 years, due to rising inflation. George W. Bush_sentence_216

One of the administration's early major initiatives was the No Child Left Behind Act, which aimed to measure and close the gap between rich and poor student performance, provide options to parents with students in low-performing schools, and target more federal funding to low-income schools. George W. Bush_sentence_217

This landmark education initiative passed with broad bipartisan support, including that of Senator Ted Kennedy of Massachusetts. George W. Bush_sentence_218

It was signed into law by Bush in early 2002. George W. Bush_sentence_219

Many contend that the initiative has been successful, as cited by the fact that students in the U.S. have performed significantly better on state reading and math tests since Bush signed "No Child Left Behind" into law. George W. Bush_sentence_220

Critics argue that it is underfunded and that NCLBA's focus on "high-stakes testing" and quantitative outcomes is counterproductive. George W. Bush_sentence_221

In 2005, he announced a National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza to prepare the United States for a flu pandemic, which culminated in an implementation plan published by the Homeland Security Council in 2006. George W. Bush_sentence_222

After being re-elected, Bush signed into law a Medicare drug benefit program that, according to Jan Crawford, resulted in "the greatest expansion in America's welfare state in forty years" – the bill's costs approached $7 trillion. George W. Bush_sentence_223

In 2007, Bush opposed and vetoed State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) legislation, which was added by the Democrats onto a war funding bill and passed by Congress. George W. Bush_sentence_224

The SCHIP legislation would have significantly expanded federally funded health care benefits and plans to children of some low-income families from about six million to ten million children. George W. Bush_sentence_225

It was to be funded by an increase in the cigarette tax. George W. Bush_sentence_226

Bush viewed the legislation as a move toward socialized health care, and asserted that the program could benefit families making as much as $83,000 per year who did not need the help. George W. Bush_sentence_227

On May 21, 2008, Bush signed into law the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA). George W. Bush_sentence_228

The bill aimed to protect Americans against health insurance and employment discrimination based on a person's genetic information. George W. Bush_sentence_229

The issue had been debated for 13 years before it finally became law. George W. Bush_sentence_230

The measure is designed to protect citizens without hindering genetic research. George W. Bush_sentence_231

Social services and Social Security George W. Bush_section_18

Following Republican efforts to pass the Medicare Act of 2003, Bush signed the bill, which included major changes to the Medicare program by providing beneficiaries with some assistance in paying for prescription drugs, while relying on private insurance for the delivery of benefits. George W. Bush_sentence_232

The retired persons lobby group AARP worked with the Bush Administration on the program and gave their endorsement. George W. Bush_sentence_233

Bush said the law, estimated to cost $400 billion over the first ten years, would give the elderly "better choices and more control over their health care". George W. Bush_sentence_234

Bush began his second term by outlining a major initiative to "reform" Social Security, which was facing record deficit projections beginning in 2005. George W. Bush_sentence_235

Bush made it the centerpiece of his domestic agenda despite opposition from some in the U.S. Congress. George W. Bush_sentence_236

In his 2005 State of the Union Address, Bush discussed the potential impending bankruptcy of the program and outlined his new program, which included partial privatization of the system, personal Social Security accounts, and options to permit Americans to divert a portion of their Social Security tax (FICA) into secured investments. George W. Bush_sentence_237

Democrats opposed the proposal to partially privatize the system. George W. Bush_sentence_238

Bush embarked on a 60-day national tour, campaigning for his initiative in media events known as "Conversations on Social Security" in an attempt to gain public support. George W. Bush_sentence_239

Nevertheless, public support for the proposal declined, and the House Republican leadership decided not to put Social Security reform on the priority list for the remainder of their 2005 legislative agenda. George W. Bush_sentence_240

The proposal's legislative prospects were further diminished by autumn 2005 due to political fallout from the response to Hurricane Katrina. George W. Bush_sentence_241

After the Democrats gained control of both houses of Congress in the 2006 midterm elections, there was no prospect of further congressional action on the Bush proposal for the remainder of his term in office. George W. Bush_sentence_242

Environmental policies George W. Bush_section_19

Main article: Domestic policy of the George W. Bush administration § Environment George W. Bush_sentence_243

Upon taking office in 2001, Bush stated his opposition to the Kyoto Protocol, an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change which seeks to impose mandatory targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, citing that the treaty exempted 80 percent of the world's population and would have cost tens of billions of dollars per year. George W. Bush_sentence_244

He also cited that the Senate had voted 95–0 in 1997 on a resolution expressing its disapproval of the protocol. George W. Bush_sentence_245

In May 2001, Bush signed an executive order to create an interagency task force to streamline energy projects, and later signed two other executive orders to tackle environmental issues. George W. Bush_sentence_246

In 2002, Bush announced the Clear Skies Act of 2003, which aimed at amending the Clean Air Act to reduce air pollution through the use of emissions trading programs. George W. Bush_sentence_247

Many experts argued that this legislation would have weakened the original legislation by allowing higher emission rates of pollutants than were previously legal. George W. Bush_sentence_248

The initiative was introduced to Congress, but failed to make it out of committee. George W. Bush_sentence_249

Later in 2006, Bush declared the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands a national monument, creating the largest marine reserve to date. George W. Bush_sentence_250

The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument comprises 84 million acres (340,000 km) and is home to 7,000 species of fish, birds, and other marine animals, many of which are specific to only those islands. George W. Bush_sentence_251

The move was hailed by conservationists for "its foresight and leadership in protecting this incredible area". George W. Bush_sentence_252

Bush has said he believes that global warming is real and has noted that it is a serious problem, but he asserted there is a "debate over whether it's man-made or naturally caused". George W. Bush_sentence_253

The Bush Administration's stance on global warming remained controversial in the scientific and environmental communities. George W. Bush_sentence_254

Critics have alleged that the administration misinformed the public and did not do enough to reduce carbon emissions and deter global warming. George W. Bush_sentence_255

Energy policies George W. Bush_section_20

In his 2006 State of the Union Address, Bush declared, "America is addicted to oil" and announced his Advanced Energy Initiative to increase energy development research. George W. Bush_sentence_256

In his 2007 State of the Union Address, Bush renewed his pledge to work toward diminished reliance on foreign oil by reducing fossil fuel consumption and increasing alternative fuel production. George W. Bush_sentence_257

Amid high gasoline prices in 2008, Bush lifted a ban on offshore drilling. George W. Bush_sentence_258

However, the move was largely symbolic because there was still a federal law banning offshore drilling. George W. Bush_sentence_259

Bush said, "This means that the only thing standing between the American people and these vast oil reserves is action from the U.S. George W. Bush_sentence_260

Congress." George W. Bush_sentence_261

Bush had said in June 2008, "In the long run, the solution is to reduce demand for oil by promoting alternative energy technologies. George W. Bush_sentence_262

My administration has worked with Congress to invest in gas-saving technologies like advanced batteries and hydrogen fuel cells ... George W. Bush_sentence_263

In the short run, the American economy will continue to rely largely on oil. George W. Bush_sentence_264

And that means we need to increase supply, especially here at home. George W. Bush_sentence_265

So my administration has repeatedly called on Congress to expand domestic oil production." George W. Bush_sentence_266

In his 2008 State of the Union Address, Bush announced that the U.S. would commit $2 billion over the next three years to a new international fund to promote clean energy technologies and fight climate change, saying, "Along with contributions from other countries, this fund will increase and accelerate the deployment of all forms of cleaner, more efficient technologies in developing nations like India and China, and help leverage substantial private-sector capital by making clean energy projects more financially attractive." George W. Bush_sentence_267

He also announced plans to reaffirm the United States' commitment to work with major economies, and, through the UN, to complete an international agreement that will slow, stop, and eventually reverse the growth of greenhouse gases; he stated, "This agreement will be effective only if it includes commitments by every major economy and gives none a free ride." George W. Bush_sentence_268

Stem cell research and first veto George W. Bush_section_21

Federal funding for medical research involving the creation or destruction of human embryos through the Department of Health and Human Services and the National Institutes of Health has been forbidden by law since the passage of the Dickey-Wicker Amendment in 1995. George W. Bush_sentence_269

Bush has said he supports adult stem cell research and has supported federal legislation that finances adult stem cell research. George W. Bush_sentence_270

However, Bush did not support embryonic stem cell research. George W. Bush_sentence_271

On August 9, 2001, Bush signed an executive order lifting the ban on federal funding for the 71 existing "lines" of stem cells, but the ability of these existing lines to provide an adequate medium for testing has been questioned. George W. Bush_sentence_272

Testing can be done on only 12 of the original lines, and all approved lines have been cultured in contact with mouse cells, which creates safety issues that complicate development and approval of therapies from these lines. George W. Bush_sentence_273

On July 19, 2006, Bush used his veto power for the first time in his presidency to veto the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act. George W. Bush_sentence_274

The bill would have repealed the Dickey-Wicker Amendment, thereby permitting federal money to be used for research where stem cells are derived from the destruction of an embryo. George W. Bush_sentence_275

Immigration George W. Bush_section_22

Nearly eight million immigrants came to the United States from 2000 to 2005, more than in any other five-year period in the nation's history. George W. Bush_sentence_276

Almost half entered illegally. George W. Bush_sentence_277

In 2006, Bush urged Congress to allow more than 12 million illegal immigrants to work in the United States with the creation of a "temporary guest-worker program". George W. Bush_sentence_278

Bush also urged Congress to provide additional funds for border security and committed to deploying 6,000 National Guard troops to the Mexico–United States border. George W. Bush_sentence_279

From May to June 2007, Bush strongly supported the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007, which was written by a bipartisan group of Senators with the active participation of the Bush administration. George W. Bush_sentence_280

The bill envisioned a legalization program for illegal immigrants, with an eventual path to citizenship; establishing a guest worker program; a series of border and work site enforcement measures; a reform of the green card application process and the introduction of a point-based "merit" system for green cards; elimination of "chain migration" and of the Diversity Immigrant Visa; and other measures. George W. Bush_sentence_281

Bush argued that the lack of legal status denies the protections of U.S. laws to millions of people who face dangers of poverty and exploitation, and penalizes employers despite a demand for immigrant labor. George W. Bush_sentence_282

Bush contended that the proposed bill did not amount to amnesty. George W. Bush_sentence_283

A heated public debate followed, which resulted in a substantial rift within the Republican Party, most conservatives opposed it because of its legalization or amnesty provisions. George W. Bush_sentence_284

The bill was eventually defeated in the Senate on June 28, 2007, when a cloture motion failed on a 46–53 vote. George W. Bush_sentence_285

Bush expressed disappointment upon the defeat of one of his signature domestic initiatives. George W. Bush_sentence_286

The Bush administration later proposed a series of immigration enforcement measures that do not require a change in law. George W. Bush_sentence_287

On September 19, 2010, former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert said that Bush offered to accept 100,000 Palestinian refugees as American citizens if a permanent settlement had been reached between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. George W. Bush_sentence_288

Hurricane Katrina George W. Bush_section_23

Main article: Political effects of Hurricane Katrina George W. Bush_sentence_289

Hurricane Katrina struck early in Bush's second term and was one of the most damaging natural disasters in U.S. history. George W. Bush_sentence_290

Katrina formed in late August during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season and devastated much of the north-central Gulf Coast of the United States, particularly New Orleans. George W. Bush_sentence_291

Bush declared a state of emergency in Louisiana on August 27 and in Mississippi and Alabama the following day. George W. Bush_sentence_292

He authorized the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to manage the disaster, but his announcement failed to spur these agencies to action. George W. Bush_sentence_293

The eye of the hurricane made landfall on August 29, and New Orleans began to flood due to levee breaches; later that day, Bush declared a major disaster in Louisiana, officially authorizing FEMA to start using federal funds to assist in the recovery effort. George W. Bush_sentence_294

On August 30, DHS Secretary Michael Chertoff declared it "an incident of national significance", triggering the first use of the newly created National Response Plan. George W. Bush_sentence_295

Three days later, on September 2, National Guard troops first entered the city of New Orleans. George W. Bush_sentence_296

The same day, Bush toured parts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama and declared that the success of the recovery effort up to that point was "not enough". George W. Bush_sentence_297

As the disaster in New Orleans intensified, critics charged that Bush was misrepresenting his administration's role in what they saw as a flawed response. George W. Bush_sentence_298

Leaders attacked Bush for having appointed apparently incompetent leaders to positions of power at FEMA, notably Michael D. Brown; it was also argued that the federal response was limited as a result of the Iraq War and Bush himself did not act upon warnings of floods. George W. Bush_sentence_299

Bush responded to mounting criticism by accepting full responsibility for the federal government's failures in its handling of the emergency. George W. Bush_sentence_300

It has been argued that with Katrina, Bush passed a political tipping point from which he would not recover. George W. Bush_sentence_301

Midterm dismissal of U.S. attorneys George W. Bush_section_24

Main article: Dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy George W. Bush_sentence_302

During Bush's second term, a controversy arose over the Justice Department's midterm dismissal of seven United States Attorneys. George W. Bush_sentence_303

The White House maintained that they were fired for poor performance. George W. Bush_sentence_304

Attorney General Alberto Gonzales later resigned over the issue, along with other senior members of the Justice Department. George W. Bush_sentence_305

The House Judiciary Committee issued subpoenas for advisers Harriet Miers and Josh Bolten to testify regarding this matter, but Bush directed Miers and Bolten to not comply with those subpoenas, invoking his right of executive privilege. George W. Bush_sentence_306

Bush maintained that all his advisers were protected under a broad executive privilege protection to receive candid advice. George W. Bush_sentence_307

The Justice Department determined that the President's order was legal. George W. Bush_sentence_308

Although Congressional investigations focused on whether the Justice Department and the White House were using the U.S. Attorney positions for political advantage, no official findings have been released. George W. Bush_sentence_309

On March 10, 2008, the Congress filed a federal lawsuit to enforce their issued subpoenas. George W. Bush_sentence_310

On July 31, 2008, a United States district court judge ruled that Bush's top advisers were not immune from Congressional subpoenas. George W. Bush_sentence_311

In all, twelve Justice Department officials resigned rather than testify under oath before Congress. George W. Bush_sentence_312

They included Attorney General Alberto Gonzales and his chief of staff Kyle Sampson, Gonzales' liaison to the White House Monica Goodling, aide to the president Karl Rove and his senior aide Sara Taylor. George W. Bush_sentence_313

In addition, legal counsel to the president Harriet Miers and deputy chief of staff to the president Joshua Bolten were both found in contempt of Congress. George W. Bush_sentence_314

In 2010, the Justice Department investigator concluded that though political considerations did play a part in as many as four of the attorney firings, the firings were "inappropriately political", but not criminal. George W. Bush_sentence_315

According to the prosecutors, there was insufficient evidence to pursue prosecution for any criminal offense. George W. Bush_sentence_316

Foreign policy George W. Bush_section_25

Main article: Foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration George W. Bush_sentence_317

During his presidential campaign, Bush's foreign policy platform included support for stronger economic and political relationship with Latin America, especially Mexico, and a reduction of involvement in "nation-building" and other small-scale military engagements. George W. Bush_sentence_318

The administration pursued a national missile defense. George W. Bush_sentence_319

Bush was an advocate of China's entry into the World Trade Organization. George W. Bush_sentence_320

After the September 11 attacks, Bush launched the War on Terror, in which the United States military and a small international coalition invaded Afghanistan. George W. Bush_sentence_321

In his 2002 State of the Union Address, Bush referred to an "axis of evil" consisting of Iraq, Iran and North Korea. George W. Bush_sentence_322

In 2003, Bush then launched the invasion of Iraq, searching for weapons of mass destruction, which he described as being part of the War on Terrorism. George W. Bush_sentence_323

Those invasions led to the toppling of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and the removal of Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq. George W. Bush_sentence_324

Bush began his second term with an emphasis on improving strained relations with European nations. George W. Bush_sentence_325

He appointed long-time adviser Karen Hughes to oversee a global public relations campaign. George W. Bush_sentence_326

Bush lauded the pro-democracy struggles in Georgia and Ukraine. George W. Bush_sentence_327

In March 2006, Bush reversed decades of U.S. policy when he visited India in a trip focused particularly on areas of nuclear energy, counter-terrorism co-operation; and discussions that would eventually lead to the India–United States Civil Nuclear Agreement. George W. Bush_sentence_328

This was in stark contrast to the stance taken by his predecessor, Bill Clinton, whose approach and response to India after the 1998 nuclear tests has been characterized as "sanctions and hectoring". George W. Bush_sentence_329

Midway through Bush's second term, questions arose whether Bush was retreating from his freedom and democracy agenda, which was highlighted in policy changes toward some oil-rich former Soviet republics in central Asia. George W. Bush_sentence_330

In an address before both Houses of Congress on September 20, 2001, Bush thanked the nations of the world for their support following the September 11 attacks. George W. Bush_sentence_331

He specifically thanked UK Prime Minister Tony Blair for traveling to Washington to show "unity of purpose with America", and said "America has no truer friend than Great Britain." George W. Bush_sentence_332

September 11 attacks George W. Bush_section_26

Main article: September 11 attacks George W. Bush_sentence_333

The September 11 terrorist attacks were a major turning point in Bush's presidency. George W. Bush_sentence_334

That evening, he addressed the nation from the Oval Office, promising a strong response to the attacks. George W. Bush_sentence_335

He also emphasized the need for the nation to come together and comfort the families of the victims. George W. Bush_sentence_336

Three days after the attacks, Bush visited Ground Zero and met with Mayor Rudy Giuliani, firefighters, police officers, and volunteers. George W. Bush_sentence_337

To much applause, Bush addressed the gathering via a megaphone while standing in a heap of rubble: "I can hear you. George W. Bush_sentence_338

The rest of the world hears you. George W. Bush_sentence_339

And the people who knocked these buildings down will hear all of us soon." George W. Bush_sentence_340

In a September 20 speech, Bush condemned Osama bin Laden and his organization Al-Qaeda, and issued an ultimatum to the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, where bin Laden was operating, to "hand over the terrorists, or ... share in their fate". George W. Bush_sentence_341

War on Terrorism George W. Bush_section_27

Main article: War on Terror George W. Bush_sentence_342

After September 11, Bush announced a global War on Terror. George W. Bush_sentence_343

The Afghan Taliban regime was not forthcoming with Osama bin Laden, so Bush ordered the invasion of Afghanistan to overthrow the Taliban regime. George W. Bush_sentence_344

In his January 29, 2002 State of the Union Address, he asserted that an "axis of evil" consisting of North Korea, Iran, and Iraq was "arming to threaten the peace of the world" and "pose[d] a grave and growing danger". George W. Bush_sentence_345

The Bush Administration asserted both a right and the intention to wage preemptive war, or preventive war. George W. Bush_sentence_346

This became the basis for the Bush Doctrine which weakened the unprecedented levels of international and domestic support for the United States which had followed the September 11 attacks. George W. Bush_sentence_347

Dissent and criticism of Bush's leadership in the War on Terror increased as the war in Iraq continued. George W. Bush_sentence_348

In 2006, a National Intelligence Estimate concluded that the Iraq War had become the "cause célèbre for jihadists". George W. Bush_sentence_349

Afghanistan invasion George W. Bush_section_28

Main article: War in Afghanistan (2001–present) George W. Bush_sentence_350

On October 7, 2001, U.S. and British forces initiated bombing campaigns that led to the arrival of Northern Alliance troops in Kabul on November 13. George W. Bush_sentence_351

The main goals of the war were to defeat the Taliban, drive al-Qaeda out of Afghanistan, and capture key al-Qaeda leaders. George W. Bush_sentence_352

In December 2001, the Pentagon reported that the Taliban had been defeated, but cautioned that the war would go on to continue weakening Taliban and al-Qaeda leaders. George W. Bush_sentence_353

Later that month the UN had installed the Afghan Transitional Administration chaired by Hamid Karzai. George W. Bush_sentence_354

Efforts to kill or capture al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden failed as he escaped a battle in December 2001 in the mountainous region of Tora Bora, which the Bush Administration later acknowledged to have resulted from a failure to commit enough U.S. ground troops. George W. Bush_sentence_355

It was not until May 2011, two years after Bush left office, that bin Laden was killed by U.S. forces under the Obama administration. George W. Bush_sentence_356

Bin Laden's successor, Ayman al-Zawahiri, remains at large. George W. Bush_sentence_357

Despite the initial success in driving the Taliban from power in Kabul, by early 2003 the Taliban was regrouping, amassing new funds and recruits. George W. Bush_sentence_358

The 2005 failure of Operation Red Wings showed that the Taliban had returned. George W. Bush_sentence_359

In 2006, the Taliban insurgency appeared larger, fiercer and better organized than expected, with large-scale allied offensives such as Operation Mountain Thrust attaining limited success. George W. Bush_sentence_360

As a result, Bush commissioned 3,500 additional troops to the country in March 2007. George W. Bush_sentence_361

Iraq invasion George W. Bush_section_29

Main article: Iraq War George W. Bush_sentence_362

Beginning with his January 29, 2002 State of the Union address, Bush began publicly focusing attention on Iraq, which he labeled as part of an "axis of evil" allied with terrorists and posing "a grave and growing danger" to U.S. interests through possession of weapons of mass destruction. George W. Bush_sentence_363

In the latter half of 2002, CIA reports contained assertions of Saddam Hussein's intent of reconstituting nuclear weapons programs, not properly accounting for Iraqi biological and chemical weapons, and that some Iraqi missiles had a range greater than allowed by the UN sanctions. George W. Bush_sentence_364

Contentions that the Bush Administration manipulated or exaggerated the threat and evidence of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction capabilities would eventually become a major point of criticism for the president. George W. Bush_sentence_365

In late 2002 and early 2003, Bush urged the United Nations to enforce Iraqi disarmament mandates, precipitating a diplomatic crisis. George W. Bush_sentence_366

In November 2002, Hans Blix and Mohamed ElBaradei led UN weapons inspectors in Iraq, but were advised by the U.S. to depart the country four days prior to the U.S. invasion, despite their requests for more time to complete their tasks. George W. Bush_sentence_367

The U.S. initially sought a UN Security Council resolution authorizing the use of military force but dropped the bid for UN approval due to vigorous opposition from several countries. George W. Bush_sentence_368

The Bush administration's claim that the Iraq War was part of the War on Terror had been questioned and contested by political analysts. George W. Bush_sentence_369

More than 20 nations (most notably the United Kingdom), designated the "coalition of the willing" joined the United States in invading Iraq. George W. Bush_sentence_370

They launched the invasion on March 20, 2003. George W. Bush_sentence_371

The Iraqi military was quickly defeated. George W. Bush_sentence_372

The capital, Baghdad, fell on April 9, 2003. George W. Bush_sentence_373

On May 1, Bush declared the end of major combat operations in Iraq. George W. Bush_sentence_374

The initial success of U.S. operations increased his popularity, but the U.S. and allied forces faced a growing insurgency led by sectarian groups; Bush's "Mission Accomplished" speech was later criticized as premature. George W. Bush_sentence_375

From 2004 until 2007, the situation in Iraq deteriorated further, with some observers arguing that there was a full-scale civil war in Iraq. George W. Bush_sentence_376

Bush's policies met with criticism, including demands domestically to set a timetable to withdraw troops from Iraq. George W. Bush_sentence_377

The 2006 report of the bipartisan Iraq Study Group, led by James Baker, concluded that the situation in Iraq was "grave and deteriorating". George W. Bush_sentence_378

While Bush admitted there were strategic mistakes made in regards to the stability of Iraq, he maintained he would not change the overall Iraq strategy. George W. Bush_sentence_379

According to Iraq Body Count, some 251,000 Iraqis have been killed in the civil war following the U.S.-led invasion, including at least 163,841 civilians. George W. Bush_sentence_380

In January 2005, free, democratic elections were held in Iraq for the first time in 50 years. George W. Bush_sentence_381

According to Iraqi National Security Advisor Mowaffak al-Rubaie, "This is the greatest day in the history of this country." George W. Bush_sentence_382

Bush praised the event as well, saying that the Iraqis "have taken rightful control of their country's destiny". George W. Bush_sentence_383

This led to the election of Jalal Talabani as president and Nouri al-Maliki as Prime Minister of Iraq. George W. Bush_sentence_384

A referendum to approve a constitution in Iraq was held in October 2005, supported by most Shiites and many Kurds. George W. Bush_sentence_385

On January 10, 2007, Bush announced a surge of 21,500 more troops for Iraq, as well as a job program for Iraqis, more reconstruction proposals, and $1.2 billion (equivalent to $1.5 billion in 2019) for these programs. George W. Bush_sentence_386

On May 1, 2007, Bush used his second-ever veto to reject a bill setting a deadline for the withdrawal of U.S. troops, saying the debate over the conflict was "understandable" but insisting that a continued U.S. presence there was crucial. George W. Bush_sentence_387

In March 2008, Bush praised the Iraqi government's "bold decision" to launch the Battle of Basra against the Mahdi Army, calling it "a defining moment in the history of a free Iraq". George W. Bush_sentence_388

He said he would carefully weigh recommendations from his commanding General David Petraeus and Ambassador Ryan Crocker about how to proceed after the end of the military buildup in the summer of 2008. George W. Bush_sentence_389

He also praised the Iraqis' legislative achievements, including a pension law, a revised de-Baathification law, a new budget, an amnesty law, and a provincial powers measure that, he said, set the stage for the Iraqi elections. George W. Bush_sentence_390

By July 2008, American troop deaths had reached their lowest number since the war began, and due to increased stability in Iraq, Bush announced the withdrawal of additional American forces. George W. Bush_sentence_391

During his last visit in Iraq in December 2008, Iraqi journalist Muntadhar al-Zaidi threw both of his shoes to Bush amid official press conference with Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki. George W. Bush_sentence_392

Al-Zaidi yelled the strikes on Bush as "farewell kiss" and "for the widows and orphans and all those killed in Iraq." George W. Bush_sentence_393

In March 2010, Center for Public Integrity released a report that President Bush's administration had made more than 900 false pretenses in a two-year period about alleged threat of Iraq against the United States, as his rationale to engage war in Iraq. George W. Bush_sentence_394

Senior war crimes prosecutor Benjamin B. Ferencz has suggested that Bush should be tried in the International Criminal Court for '269 war crime charges' related to the Iraq War. George W. Bush_sentence_395

Surveillance George W. Bush_section_30

Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, Bush issued an executive order that authorized the President's Surveillance Program. George W. Bush_sentence_396

The new directive allowed the National Security Agency to monitor communications between suspected terrorists outside the U.S. and parties within the U.S. without obtaining a warrant, which previously had been required by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. George W. Bush_sentence_397

As of 2009, the other provisions of the program remained highly classified. George W. Bush_sentence_398

Once the Department of Justice Office of Legal Counsel questioned its original legal opinion that FISA did not apply in a time of war, the program was subsequently re-authorized by the President on the basis that the warrant requirements of FISA were implicitly superseded by the subsequent passage of the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists. George W. Bush_sentence_399

The program proved to be controversial; critics of the administration and organizations such as the American Bar Association argued that it was illegal. George W. Bush_sentence_400

In August 2006, a U.S. district court judge ruled that the NSA electronic surveillance program was unconstitutional, but on July 6, 2007, that ruling was vacated by the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit on the grounds that the plaintiffs lacked standing. George W. Bush_sentence_401

On January 17, 2007, Attorney General Alberto Gonzales informed U.S. Senate leaders that the program would not be reauthorized by the President, but would be subjected to judicial oversight. George W. Bush_sentence_402

Later in 2007, the NSA launched a replacement for the program, referred to as PRISM, which was subject to the oversight of the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. George W. Bush_sentence_403

This program was not publicly revealed until reports by The Washington Post and The Guardian emerged in June 2013. George W. Bush_sentence_404

Interrogation policies George W. Bush_section_31

See also: Senate Intelligence Committee report on CIA torture and Torture Memos George W. Bush_sentence_405

Bush authorized the CIA to use waterboarding and several other "enhanced interrogation techniques" that several critics, including Barack Obama, would label as torture. George W. Bush_sentence_406

Between 2002 and 2003, the CIA considered certain enhanced interrogation techniques, such as waterboarding, to be legal based on secret Justice Department legal opinions arguing that terror detainees were not protected by the Geneva Conventions' ban on torture, which was described as "an unconstitutional infringement of the President's authority to conduct war". George W. Bush_sentence_407

The CIA had exercised the technique on certain key terrorist suspects under authority given to it in the Bybee Memo from the Attorney General, though that memo was later withdrawn. George W. Bush_sentence_408

While not permitted by the U.S. George W. Bush_sentence_409 Army Field Manuals which assert "that harsh interrogation tactics elicit unreliable information", the Bush administration believed these enhanced interrogations "provided critical information" to preserve American lives. George W. Bush_sentence_410

Critics, such as former CIA officer Bob Baer, have stated that information was suspect, "you can get anyone to confess to anything if the torture's bad enough." George W. Bush_sentence_411

On October 17, 2006, Bush signed the Military Commissions Act of 2006 into law. George W. Bush_sentence_412

The new rule was enacted in the wake of the Supreme Court's decision in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, 548 U.S. George W. Bush_sentence_413

(2006), which allowed the U.S. government to prosecute unlawful enemy combatants by military commission rather than a standard trial. George W. Bush_sentence_414

The law also denied the detainees access to habeas corpus and barred the torture of prisoners. George W. Bush_sentence_415

The provision of the law allowed the president to determine what constitutes "torture". George W. Bush_sentence_416

On March 8, 2008, Bush vetoed H.R. 2082, a bill that would have expanded congressional oversight over the intelligence community and banned the use of waterboarding as well as other forms of interrogation not permitted under the United States Army Field Manual on Human Intelligence Collector Operations, saying that "the bill Congress sent me would take away one of the most valuable tools in the War on Terror". George W. Bush_sentence_417

In April 2009, the ACLU sued and won release of the secret memos that had authorized the Bush administration's interrogation tactics. George W. Bush_sentence_418

One memo detailed specific interrogation tactics including a footnote that described waterboarding as torture as well as that the form of waterboarding used by the CIA was far more intense than authorized by the Justice Department. George W. Bush_sentence_419

North Korea condemnation George W. Bush_section_32

Main article: North Korea–United States relations George W. Bush_sentence_420

Bush publicly condemned Kim Jong-il of North Korea and identified North Korea as one of three states in an "axis of evil". George W. Bush_sentence_421

He said that "the United States of America will not permit the world's most dangerous regimes to threaten us with the world's most destructive weapons." George W. Bush_sentence_422

Within months, "both countries had walked away from their respective commitments under the U.S.–DPRK Agreed Framework of October 1994." George W. Bush_sentence_423

North Korea's October 9, 2006, detonation of a nuclear device further complicated Bush's foreign policy, which centered for both terms of his presidency on "[preventing] the terrorists and regimes who seek chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons from threatening the United States and the world". George W. Bush_sentence_424

Bush condemned North Korea's position, reaffirmed his commitment to "a nuclear-free Korean Peninsula", and said that "transfer of nuclear weapons or material by North Korea to states or non-state entities would be considered a grave threat to the United States", for which North Korea would be held accountable. George W. Bush_sentence_425

On May 7, 2007, North Korea agreed to shut down its nuclear reactors immediately pending the release of frozen funds held in a foreign bank account. George W. Bush_sentence_426

This was a result of a series of three-way talks initiated by the United States and including China. George W. Bush_sentence_427

On September 2, 2007, North Korea agreed to disclose and dismantle all its nuclear programs by the end of 2007. George W. Bush_sentence_428

By May 2009, North Korea had restarted its nuclear program and threatened to attack South Korea. George W. Bush_sentence_429

On June 22, 2010, "While South Korea prospers, the people of North Korea have suffered profoundly," he said, adding that communism had resulted in dire poverty, mass starvation and brutal suppression. George W. Bush_sentence_430

"In recent years," he went on to say, "the suffering has been compounded by the leader who wasted North Korea's precious few resources on personal luxuries and nuclear weapons programs." George W. Bush_sentence_431

Syria sanctions George W. Bush_section_33

Bush expanded economic sanctions on Syria. George W. Bush_sentence_432

In 2003, Bush signed the Syria Accountability Act, which expanded sanctions on Syria. George W. Bush_sentence_433

In early 2007, the Treasury Department, acting on a June 2005 executive order, froze American bank accounts of Syria's Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology, Electronics Institute, and National Standards and Calibration Laboratory. George W. Bush_sentence_434

Bush's order prohibits Americans from doing business with these institutions suspected of helping spread weapons of mass destruction and being supportive of terrorism. George W. Bush_sentence_435

Under separate executive orders signed by Bush in 2004 and later 2007, the Treasury Department froze the assets of two Lebanese and two Syrians, accusing them of activities to "undermine the legitimate political process in Lebanon" in November 2007. George W. Bush_sentence_436

Those designated included: Assaad Halim Hardan, a member of Lebanon's parliament and current leader of the Syrian Socialist National Party; Wi'am Wahhab, a former member of Lebanon's government (Minister of the Environment) under Prime Minister Omar Karami (2004–2005); Hafiz Makhluf, a colonel and senior official in the Syrian General Intelligence Directorate and a cousin of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad; and Muhammad Nasif Khayrbik, identified as a close adviser to Assad. George W. Bush_sentence_437

PEPFAR George W. Bush_section_34

In the State of the Union address in January 2003, Bush outlined a five-year strategy for global emergency AIDS relief, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). George W. Bush_sentence_438

Bush announced $15 billion for this effort which directly supported life-saving antiretroviral treatment for more than 3.2 million men, women and children worldwide. George W. Bush_sentence_439

The U.S. government had spent some $44 billion on the project since 2003 (a figure that includes $7 billion contributed to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, a multilateral organization), which saved an estimated five million lives. George W. Bush_sentence_440

According to The New York Times correspondent Peter Baker, "Bush did more to stop AIDS and more to help Africa than any president before or since." George W. Bush_sentence_441

Assassination attempt George W. Bush_section_35

Main article: Assassination attempts against George W. Bush George W. Bush_sentence_442

On May 10, 2005, Vladimir Arutyunian, a native Georgian who was born to a family of ethnic Armenians, threw a live hand grenade toward a podium where Bush was speaking at Freedom Square in Tbilisi, Georgia. George W. Bush_sentence_443

Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili was seated nearby. George W. Bush_sentence_444

It landed in the crowd about 65 feet (20 m) from the podium after hitting a girl, but it did not detonate. George W. Bush_sentence_445

Arutyunian was arrested in July 2005, confessed, was convicted and was given a life sentence in January 2006. George W. Bush_sentence_446

Other issues George W. Bush_section_36

Bush signed the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty with Russia. George W. Bush_sentence_447

He withdrew U.S. support for several international agreements, including the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM) with Russia. George W. Bush_sentence_448

Bush emphasized a careful approach to the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians; he denounced Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat for his support of violence, but sponsored dialogues between Prime Minister Ariel Sharon and Palestinian National Authority President Mahmoud Abbas. George W. Bush_sentence_449

Bush supported Sharon's unilateral disengagement plan, and lauded the democratic elections held in Palestine after Arafat's death. George W. Bush_sentence_450

In July 2001, Bush visited Pope John Paul II at Castel Gandolfo. George W. Bush_sentence_451

Bush also expressed U.S. support for the defense of Taiwan following the stand-off in April 2001 with China over the Hainan Island incident, when an EP-3E Aries II surveillance aircraft collided with a People's Liberation Army Air Force jet, leading to the detention of U.S. personnel. George W. Bush_sentence_452

From 2003 to 2004, Bush authorized U.S. military intervention in Haiti and Liberia to protect U.S. interests. George W. Bush_sentence_453

Bush condemned the militia attacks Darfur and denounced the killings in Sudan as genocide. George W. Bush_sentence_454

Bush said an international peacekeeping presence was critical in Darfur, but he opposed referring the situation to the International Criminal Court. George W. Bush_sentence_455

On June 10, 2007, Bush met with Albanian Prime Minister Sali Berisha and became the first president to visit Albania. George W. Bush_sentence_456

Bush has voiced his support for the independence of Kosovo. George W. Bush_sentence_457

Bush opposed South Ossetia's independence. George W. Bush_sentence_458

On August 15, 2008, Bush said of Russia's invasion of the country of Georgia: "Bullying and intimidation are not acceptable ways to conduct foreign policy in the 21st century." George W. Bush_sentence_459

Bush opened the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah. George W. Bush_sentence_460

Departing from previous practice, he stood among a group of U.S. athletes rather than from a ceremonial stand or box, saying: "On behalf of a proud, determined, and grateful nation, I declare open the Games of Salt Lake City, celebrating the Olympic Winter Games." George W. Bush_sentence_461

In 2008, in the course of a good-will trip to Asia, he attended the Summer Olympics in Beijing. George W. Bush_sentence_462

Bush twice invoked Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, which allows a president to temporarily transfer the powers and duties of his office to the vice president, who then becomes acting president. George W. Bush_sentence_463

On June 29, 2002, Bush underwent a colonoscopy and invoked the provision, making Vice President Cheney the acting president. George W. Bush_sentence_464

Bush was awake and resumed his presidential powers after two hours. George W. Bush_sentence_465

On July 21, 2007, Bush again invoked the provision in preparation for another colonoscopy. George W. Bush_sentence_466

Again, Bush resumed his presidential powers after two hours. George W. Bush_sentence_467

Judicial appointments George W. Bush_section_37

Supreme Court George W. Bush_section_38

Main article: George W. Bush Supreme Court candidates George W. Bush_sentence_468

On September 5, 2005, following the death of Chief Justice William Rehnquist, Bush nominated John Roberts for Chief Justice. George W. Bush_sentence_469

He was confirmed by the Senate on September 29, 2005. George W. Bush_sentence_470

On October 3, 2005, Bush nominated long time White House Counsel Harriet Miers to replace retiring Sandra Day O'Connor. George W. Bush_sentence_471

She encountered strong opposition from both parties, who found her to be ill-prepared and uninformed on the law, Miers withdrew on October 27. George W. Bush_sentence_472

On October 31, Bush nominated federal appellate judge Samuel Alito. George W. Bush_sentence_473

He was confirmed on January 31, 2006. George W. Bush_sentence_474

Other courts George W. Bush_section_39

Main article: List of federal judges appointed by George W. Bush George W. Bush_sentence_475

In addition to his two Supreme Court appointments, Bush appointed 61 judges to the United States courts of appeals and 261 judges to the United States district courts. George W. Bush_sentence_476

Each of these numbers, along with his total of 324 judicial appointments. George W. Bush_sentence_477

Cultural and political image George W. Bush_section_40

Domestic George W. Bush_section_41

Main article: Public image of George W. Bush George W. Bush_sentence_478

See also: Efforts to impeach George W. Bush George W. Bush_sentence_479

Image George W. Bush_section_42

Bush's upbringing in West Texas, his accent, his vacations on his Texas ranch, and his penchant for country metaphors contribute to his folksy, American cowboy image. George W. Bush_sentence_480

"I think people look at him and think John Wayne", said Piers Morgan, editor of the British Daily Mirror. George W. Bush_sentence_481

Bush has been parodied by the media, comedians, and other politicians. George W. Bush_sentence_482

Detractors tended to cite linguistic errors made by Bush during his public speeches, which are colloquially referred to as Bushisms. George W. Bush_sentence_483

In contrast to his father—who was perceived as having troubles with an overarching unifying theme—Bush embraced larger visions and was seen as a man of larger ideas and associated huge risks. George W. Bush_sentence_484

Tony Blair wrote in 2010 that the caricature of Bush as being dumb is "ludicrous" and that Bush is "very smart". George W. Bush_sentence_485

In an interview with Playboy, The New York Times columnist David Brooks said Bush "was 60 IQ points smarter in private than he was in public. George W. Bush_sentence_486

He doesn't want anybody to think he's smarter than they are, so puts on a Texas act." George W. Bush_sentence_487

Job approval George W. Bush_section_43

Bush began his presidency with approval ratings near 50 percent. George W. Bush_sentence_488

After the September 11 attacks, Bush gained an approval rating of 90 percent, maintaining 80 to 90 percent approval for four months after the attacks. George W. Bush_sentence_489

It remained over 50 percent during most of his first term and then fell to as low as 19 percent in his second term. George W. Bush_sentence_490

In 2000 and again in 2004, Time magazine named George W. Bush as its Person of the Year, a title awarded to someone who the editors believe "has done the most to influence the events of the year". George W. Bush_sentence_491

In May 2004, Gallup reported that 89 percent of the Republican electorate approved of Bush. George W. Bush_sentence_492

However, the support waned due mostly to a minority of Republicans' frustration with him on issues of spending, illegal immigration, and Middle Eastern affairs. George W. Bush_sentence_493

Within the United States armed forces, according to an unscientific survey, the president was strongly supported in the 2004 presidential elections. George W. Bush_sentence_494

While 73 percent of military personnel said they would vote for Bush, 18 percent preferred his Democratic rival, John Kerry. George W. Bush_sentence_495

According to Peter Feaver, a Duke University political scientist who has studied the political leanings of the U.S. military, members of the armed services supported Bush because they found him more likely than Kerry to complete the War in Iraq. George W. Bush_sentence_496

Bush's approval rating went below the 50 percent mark in AP-Ipsos polling in December 2004. George W. Bush_sentence_497

Thereafter, his approval ratings and approval of his handling of domestic and foreign policy issues steadily dropped. George W. Bush_sentence_498

After his re-election in 2004, Bush received increasingly heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, his response to Hurricane Katrina, and to the Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse, NSA warrantless surveillance, the Plame affair, and Guantanamo Bay detention camp controversies. George W. Bush_sentence_499

Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. George W. Bush_sentence_500

Polls conducted in 2006 showed an average of 37 percent approval ratings for Bush, the lowest for any second-term president at that point in his term since Harry S. Truman in March 1951 (when Truman's approval rating was 28 percent), which contributed to what Bush called the "thumping" of the Republican Party in the 2006 mid-term elections. George W. Bush_sentence_501

Throughout most of 2007, Bush's approval rating hovered in the mid-thirties; the average for his entire second term was 37 percent, according to Gallup. George W. Bush_sentence_502

By the beginning of 2008, his final year in office, Bush's approval rating had dropped to a low of just 19 percent, largely from the loss of support among Republicans. George W. Bush_sentence_503

Commenting on his low poll numbers and accusations of being "the worst president," Bush would say, "I make decisions on what I think is right for the United States based upon principles. George W. Bush_sentence_504

I frankly don't give a damn about the polls." George W. Bush_sentence_505

There were calls for Bush's impeachment, though most polls showed a plurality of Americans would not support such an action. George W. Bush_sentence_506

The arguments offered for impeachment usually centered on the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy, the Bush administration's justification for the war in Iraq, and alleged violations of the Geneva Conventions. George W. Bush_sentence_507

Representative Dennis Kucinich (D-OH), who had run against Bush during the 2004 presidential campaign, introduced 35 articles of impeachment on the floor of the House of Representatives against Bush on June 9, 2008, but Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) declared that impeachment was "off the table". George W. Bush_sentence_508

In April 2008, Bush's disapproval ratings reached the highest ever recorded for any president in the 70-year history of the Gallup poll, with 69 percent of those polled disapproving of the job Bush was doing as president and 28 percent approving—although the majority (66 percent) of Republicans still approved of his job performance. George W. Bush_sentence_509

In polls conducted in the fall, just before the 2008 election, his approval ratings remained at record lows of 19 to 20 percent, while his disapproval ratings ranged from 67 percent to as high as 75 percent. George W. Bush_sentence_510

In polling conducted January 9–11, 2009, his final job approval rating by Gallup was 34 percent, which placed him on par with Jimmy Carter and Harry S. Truman, the other presidents whose final Gallup ratings measured in the low 30s (Richard Nixon's final Gallup approval rating was even lower, at 24 percent). George W. Bush_sentence_511

According to a CBS News/New York Times poll conducted January 11–15, 2009, Bush's final approval rating in office was 22 percent, the lowest in American history. George W. Bush_sentence_512

Foreign perceptions George W. Bush_section_44

Bush was criticized internationally and targeted by the global anti-war and anti-globalization movements for his administration's foreign policy. George W. Bush_sentence_513

Views of him within the international community—even in France, a close ally of the United States—were more negative than those of most previous American presidents. George W. Bush_sentence_514

Bush was described as having especially close personal relationships with Tony Blair of the United Kingdom and Vicente Fox of Mexico, although formal relations were sometimes strained. George W. Bush_sentence_515

Other leaders, such as Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan, Yoweri Museveni of Uganda, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero of Spain, and Hugo Chávez of Venezuela, openly criticized the president. George W. Bush_sentence_516

Later in Bush's presidency, tensions arose between him and Vladimir Putin, which led to a cooling of their relationship. George W. Bush_sentence_517

In 2006, most respondents in 18 of 21 countries surveyed around the world were found to hold an unfavorable opinion of Bush. George W. Bush_sentence_518

Respondents indicated that they judged his administration as negative for world security. George W. Bush_sentence_519

In 2007, the Pew Global Attitudes Project reported that during the Bush presidency, attitudes towards the United States, and towards Americans, became less favorable around the world. George W. Bush_sentence_520

The Pew Research Center's 2007 Global Attitudes poll found that in only nine countries of 47 did most respondents express "a lot of confidence" or "some confidence" in Bush: Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Israel, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, and Uganda. George W. Bush_sentence_521

A March 2007 survey of Arab opinion conducted by Zogby International and the University of Maryland found that Bush was the most disliked leader in the Arab world. George W. Bush_sentence_522

During a June 2007 visit to the predominantly Muslim Albania, Bush was greeted enthusiastically. George W. Bush_sentence_523

Albania has a population of 2.8 million, has troops in both Iraq and Afghanistan, and the country's government is highly supportive of American foreign policy. George W. Bush_sentence_524

A huge image of the President was hung in the middle of the capital city of Tirana flanked by Albanian and American flags while a local street was named after him. George W. Bush_sentence_525

A shirt-sleeved statue of Bush was unveiled in Fushë-Krujë, a few kilometers northwest of Tirana. George W. Bush_sentence_526

The Bush administration's support for the independence of Albanian-majority Kosovo, while endearing him to the Albanians, has troubled U.S. relations with Serbia, leading to the February 2008 torching of the U.S. embassy in Belgrade. George W. Bush_sentence_527

Acknowledgments and dedications George W. Bush_section_45

On May 7, 2005, during an official state visit to Latvia, Bush was awarded the Order of the Three Stars presented to him by President Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga. George W. Bush_sentence_528

A few places outside the United States bear Bush's name. George W. Bush_sentence_529

In 2005, the Tbilisi City Council voted to rename a street in honor of the U.S. president. George W. Bush_sentence_530

Previously known as Melaani Drive, the street links the Georgian capital's airport with the city center and was used by Bush's motorcade during his visit four months earlier. George W. Bush_sentence_531

A street in Tirana, formerly known as Rruga Punëtorët e Rilindjes, situated directly outside the Albanian Parliament, was renamed after Bush a few days before he made the first-ever visit by an American president to Albania in June 2007. George W. Bush_sentence_532

In Jerusalem, a small plaza with a monument bearing his name is also dedicated to Bush. George W. Bush_sentence_533

In 2012, Estonian President Toomas Hendrik Ilves awarded Bush the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana for his work in expanding NATO. George W. Bush_sentence_534

Two elementary schools are named after him: George W. Bush Elementary School of the Stockton Unified School District in Stockton, California, and George W. Bush Elementary School of the Wylie Independent School District in St. George W. Bush_sentence_535 Paul, Texas, in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. George W. Bush_sentence_536

Post-presidency (2009–present) George W. Bush_section_46

Residence George W. Bush_section_47

Following the inauguration of Barack Obama, Bush and his family flew from Andrews Air Force Base to a homecoming celebration in Midland, Texas, following which they returned to their ranch in Crawford, Texas. George W. Bush_sentence_537

They bought a home in the Preston Hollow neighborhood of Dallas, Texas, where they settled down. George W. Bush_sentence_538

He makes regular appearances at various events throughout the Dallas/Fort Worth area, most notably when he conducted the opening coin toss at the Dallas Cowboys first game in the team's new stadium in Arlington and an April 2009 visit to a Texas Rangers game, where he thanked the people of Dallas for helping him settle in and was met with a standing ovation. George W. Bush_sentence_539

He also attended every home playoff game for the Texas Rangers 2010 season and, accompanied by his father, threw out the ceremonial first pitch at Rangers Ballpark in Arlington for Game 4 of the 2010 World Series on October 31, 2010. George W. Bush_sentence_540

On August 6, 2013, Bush was successfully treated for a coronary artery blockage with a stent. George W. Bush_sentence_541

The blockage had been found during an annual medical examination. George W. Bush_sentence_542

In reaction to the 2016 shooting of Dallas police officers, Bush stated: "Laura and I are heartbroken by the heinous acts of violence in our city last night. George W. Bush_sentence_543

Murdering the innocent is always evil, never more so than when the lives taken belong to those who protect our families and communities." George W. Bush_sentence_544

Publications and appearances George W. Bush_section_48

Since leaving office, Bush has kept a relatively low profile though he has made public appearances, most notably after the release of his memoirs in 2010 and for the 10th anniversary of the September 11 attacks in 2011. George W. Bush_sentence_545

In March 2009, he delivered his first post-presidency speech in Calgary, Alberta, appeared via video on The Colbert Report during which he praised U.S. troops for earning a "special place in American history," and attended the funeral of Senator Ted Kennedy. George W. Bush_sentence_546

Bush made his debut as a motivational speaker on October 26 at the "Get Motivated" seminar in Dallas. George W. Bush_sentence_547

In the aftermath of the Fort Hood shooting on November 5, 2009, the Bushes paid an undisclosed visit to the survivors and the victims' families the day following the shooting, having contacted the base commander requesting that the visit be private and not involve press coverage. George W. Bush_sentence_548

Bush released his memoirs, Decision Points, on November 9, 2010. George W. Bush_sentence_549

During a pre-release appearance promoting the book, Bush said he considered his biggest accomplishment to be keeping "the country safe amid a real danger", and his greatest failure to be his inability to secure the passage of Social Security reform. George W. Bush_sentence_550

He also made news defending his administration's enhanced interrogation techniques, specifically the waterboarding of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, saying, "I'd do it again to save lives." George W. Bush_sentence_551

In 2012, he wrote the foreword of The 4% Solution: Unleashing the Economic Growth America Needs, an economics book published by the George W. Bush Presidential Center. George W. Bush_sentence_552

He also presented the book at the Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas, Texas. George W. Bush_sentence_553

Bush appeared on NBC's The Tonight Show with Jay Leno on November 19, 2013, along with the former First Lady, Laura Bush. George W. Bush_sentence_554

When asked by Leno why he does not comment publicly about the Obama administration, Bush said, "I don't think it's good for the country to have a former president criticize his successor." George W. Bush_sentence_555

Despite this statement, Bush vocally disagreed with Obama's withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq in 2011, calling it a "strategic blunder", borrowing a term that had been used by South Carolina Senator Lindsey Graham. George W. Bush_sentence_556

In 2013, Bush and his wife Laura travelled with then President Obama and Michelle Obama to the memorial service of South African President and civil rights leader Nelson Mandela. George W. Bush_sentence_557

There they joined former Presidents Clinton and Carter. George W. Bush_sentence_558

Alongside the 2014 United States–Africa Leaders Summit, Bush, Michelle Obama, the State Department, and the George W. Bush Institute hosted a daylong forum on education and health with the spouses of the African leaders attending the summit. George W. Bush_sentence_559

Bush urged African leaders to avoid discriminatory laws that make the treatment of HIV/AIDS more difficult. George W. Bush_sentence_560

Bush has spoken in favor of increased global participation of women in politics and societal matters in foreign countries. George W. Bush_sentence_561

On November 2, 2014, Bush spoke at an event to 200 business and civic leaders at the George W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum to raise awareness for the upcoming Museum of the Bible in Washington D.C. George W. Bush_sentence_562

Bush published a biography of his father, George Bush, called 41: A Portrait of My Father. George W. Bush_sentence_563

It was released on November 11, 2014. George W. Bush_sentence_564

In an interview published by Israel Hayom magazine on June 12, 2015, Bush said "boots on the ground" would be needed in order to defeat the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS). George W. Bush_sentence_565

He added that people had said during his presidency that he should withdraw American troops from Iraq, but he chose the opposite, sending 30,000 more troops in order to defeat Al Qaeda in Iraq, and that they indeed were defeated. George W. Bush_sentence_566

Bush was also asked about Iran but declined to answer, stating that any answer he gives would be interpreted as undermining Obama. George W. Bush_sentence_567

In February 2016, George W. Bush spoke and campaigned for his brother Jeb Bush in South Carolina during a rally for the Jeb Bush presidential campaign in the 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries. George W. Bush_sentence_568

While Bush endorsed the Republican Party's 2012 presidential nominee, Mitt Romney, he declined to endorse the 2016 Republican nominee, Donald Trump. George W. Bush_sentence_569

Also, Bush attended neither the 2012, nor the 2016 Republican National Conventions where Romney and Trump, respectively, were formally nominated. George W. Bush_sentence_570

On the eve of Trump's nomination, it was reported that Bush had privately expressed concern about the current direction of the Republican Party and told a group of his former aides and advisors, "I'm worried that I will be the last Republican president." George W. Bush_sentence_571

Bush and his wife Laura did not vote for Trump in the 2016 presidential election according to a spokesperson for the Bush family, instead choosing to leave their presidential ballots blank. George W. Bush_sentence_572

After the election, Bush, his father, and his brother Jeb called Trump on the phone to congratulate him on his victory. George W. Bush_sentence_573

Both he and Laura attended Trump's inauguration, and images of Bush struggling to put on a rain poncho during the ceremony became an internet meme. George W. Bush_sentence_574

While leaving the event, Bush allegedly described the ceremony, in particular Trump's inaugural address, as "some weird shit". George W. Bush_sentence_575

In February 2017, Bush released a book of his own portraits of veterans called Portraits of Courage (full title: Portraits of Courage: A Commander in Chief's Tribute to America's Warriors). George W. Bush_sentence_576

Following the white nationalist Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, Bush and his father released a joint statement condemning the violence and ideologies present at the rally; "America must always reject racial bigotry, anti-Semitism, and hatred in all forms. George W. Bush_sentence_577

As we pray for Charlottesville, we are all reminded of the fundamental truths recorded by that city's most prominent citizen in the Declaration of Independence: we are all created equal and endowed by our Creator with unalienable rights. George W. Bush_sentence_578

We know these truths to be everlasting because we have seen the decency and greatness of our country." George W. Bush_sentence_579

Their statement came as President Trump was facing controversy over his statements about the rally. George W. Bush_sentence_580

Subsequently, Bush gave a speech in New York where he noted of the current political climate, "Bigotry seems emboldened. George W. Bush_sentence_581

Our politics seems more vulnerable to conspiracy theories and outright fabrication." George W. Bush_sentence_582

He continued, "Bigotry in any form is blasphemy against the American creed and it means the very identity of our nation depends on the passing of civic ideals to the next generation," while urging citizens to oppose threats to American democracy and be positive role models for young people. George W. Bush_sentence_583

The speech was widely interpreted as a denouncement of Donald Trump and his ideologies, despite Bush not mentioning Trump by name. George W. Bush_sentence_584

In April 2018, Bush and his father met in Texas with Mohammad bin Salman, the crown prince and de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia. George W. Bush_sentence_585

In May 2019, on the 10th anniversary of former South Korean president Roh Moo-hyun's passing, George Bush visited South Korea to pay respects to Roh and gave a short eulogy. George W. Bush_sentence_586

On June 1, 2020 Bush released a statement addressing the police killing of George Floyd and the nationwide reaction and protests following Floyd's death. George W. Bush_sentence_587

In the statement Bush wrote that he and former first lady Laura Bush "are anguished by the brutal suffocation of George Floyd and disturbed by the injustice and fear that suffocate our country". George W. Bush_sentence_588

He also elaborated on the racial injustices perpetrated by the police saying, that "it is time for America to examine our tragic failures", adding "Many doubt the justice of our country, and with good reason. George W. Bush_sentence_589

Black people see the repeated violation of their rights without an urgent and adequate response from American institutions". George W. Bush_sentence_590

On July 30, Both George Bush and his wife Laura Bush, along with former Presidents Bill Clinton and Barack Obama, attended and spoke at the funeral for civil rights leader and congressman John Lewis at Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta. George W. Bush_sentence_591

At the service Bush stated in his remarks, “We live in a better and nobler country today because of John Lewis and his abiding faith in the power of God, the power of democracy and in the power of love to lift us all to a higher ground...The story that began in true isn’t ending today, nor is the work.” George W. Bush_sentence_592

Bush did not give any endorsements during the 2020 presidential election. George W. Bush_sentence_593

He also did not attend the 2020 Republican National Convention where President Trump was re-nominated. George W. Bush_sentence_594

When the election was called for Democratic candidate Joe Biden on November 7, 2020, Bush offered his congratulations to Biden and his running mate Kamala Harris the following day, and congratulated Trump and his supporters "on a hard-fought campaign". George W. Bush_sentence_595

Bush's outreach to Biden was notable since Republican candidate Donald Trump had not yet conceded. George W. Bush_sentence_596

Bush then issued a statement saying that while Trump was within his rights to call for recounts, he believed the election was "fundamentally fair" and that "its outcome is clear", and said he would offer Biden "my prayers for his success, and my pledge to help in any way I can", as he had for Trump and Obama. George W. Bush_sentence_597

Despite not making any presidential endorsements in 2020, he did, however, hold a virtual fundraiser for U.S. George W. Bush_sentence_598

Senators Susan Collins (R-ME), Cory Gardner (R-CO), Martha McSally (R-AZ), and Thom Tillis (R-NC). George W. Bush_sentence_599

All four were up for reelection and were struggling in the polls. George W. Bush_sentence_600

Collins and Tillis were reelected, while Gardner and McSally were not. George W. Bush_sentence_601

Collaborations George W. Bush_section_49

In January 2010, at President Obama's request, Bush and Bill Clinton established the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund to raise contributions for relief and recovery efforts following the 2010 Haiti earthquake earlier that month. George W. Bush_sentence_602

On May 2, 2011, President Obama called Bush, who was at a restaurant with his wife, to inform him that Osama bin Laden had been killed. George W. Bush_sentence_603

The Bushes joined the Obamas in New York City to mark the tenth anniversary of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. George W. Bush_sentence_604

At the Ground Zero memorial, Bush read a letter that President Abraham Lincoln wrote to a widow who had lost five sons during the Civil War. George W. Bush_sentence_605

On September 7, 2017, Bush partnered with former presidents Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and Barack Obama to work with One America Appeal to help the victims of Hurricane Harvey and Hurricane Irma in the Gulf Coast and Texas communities. George W. Bush_sentence_606

Over the years, President Bush has had a good-natured friendship with Michelle Obama. George W. Bush_sentence_607

"President Bush and I, we are forever seatmates because of protocol, and that's how we sit at all the official functions," Mrs. Obama told the Today Show. George W. Bush_sentence_608

"He's my partner in crime at every major thing where all the 'formers' gather. George W. Bush_sentence_609

So we're together all the time." George W. Bush_sentence_610

She later added, "I love him to death. George W. Bush_sentence_611

He's a wonderful man, he's a funny man." George W. Bush_sentence_612

Bush and Obama have sat next to each other at many events including the 50th anniversary of the historic civil rights march in Selma (2015), the interfaith memorial service for the victims in Dallas (2016), the opening at the National Museum of African American History and Culture (2016), and at the funerals for Nancy Reagan (2016), and John McCain (2018). George W. Bush_sentence_613

Bush famously passed mints to Mrs. Obama during the McCain funeral in September 2018 and gave them to her again during the funeral of his father in December 2018. George W. Bush_sentence_614

Art George W. Bush_section_50

After serving as president, Bush began painting as a hobby after reading Winston Churchill's essay "Painting as a Pastime." George W. Bush_sentence_615

Subjects have included people, dogs, and still life. George W. Bush_sentence_616

He has also painted self-portraits and portraits of world leaders, including Vladimir Putin and Tony Blair. George W. Bush_sentence_617

In February 2017, Bush released a book of portraits of veterans, Portraits of Courage. George W. Bush_sentence_618

The net proceeds from his book are donated to the George W. Bush Presidential Center. George W. Bush_sentence_619

In May 2019, on the 10th anniversary of former South Korean president Roh Moo-hyun's passing, George Bush drew a portrait of Roh to give to his family. George W. Bush_sentence_620

Honours George W. Bush_section_51

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In popular culture George W. Bush_section_52

See also: Fictionalized portrayals of George W. Bush George W. Bush_sentence_621

George W. Bush_unordered_list_1

Legacy George W. Bush_section_53

President Bush's legacy continues to develop today. George W. Bush_sentence_622

Supporters credit Bush's counterterrorism policies with preventing another major terrorist attack from occurring in the U.S. after 9/11 and also praise individual policies such as the Medicare prescription drug benefit and the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. George W. Bush_sentence_623

Critics often point to his handling of the Iraq War, specifically the failure to find weapons of mass destruction, that were the main rationale behind the initial invasion—as well as his handling of tax policy, Hurricane Katrina, climate change and the 2008 financial crisis—as proof that George W. Bush was unfit to be president. George W. Bush_sentence_624

Several historians and commentators hold that Bush was one of the most consequential presidents in American history. George W. Bush_sentence_625

Princeton University scholar Julian Zelizer described Bush's presidency as a "transformative" one, and said that "some people hate him, some people love him, but I do think he'll have a much more substantive perception as time goes on". George W. Bush_sentence_626

Bryon Williams of The Huffington Post referred to Bush as "the most noteworthy president since FDR" and said the Patriot Act "increased authority of the executive branch at the expense of judicial opinions about when searches and seizures are reasonable" as evidence. George W. Bush_sentence_627

Bush's administration presided over the largest tax cuts since the presidency of Ronald Reagan, and his homeland security reforms proved to be the most significant expansion of the federal government since the Great Society. George W. Bush_sentence_628

Much of these policies have endured in the administrations of his two immediate successors, Barack Obama and Donald Trump. George W. Bush_sentence_629

Reception George W. Bush_section_54

The George W. Bush presidency has been ranked among the worst in surveys of presidential scholars published in the late 2000s and 2010s. George W. Bush_sentence_630

A 2010 Siena Research Institute survey of the opinions of historians, political scientists, and presidential scholars ranked him 39th out of 43 presidents. George W. Bush_sentence_631

The survey respondents gave President Bush low ratings on his handling of the U.S. economy, communication, ability to compromise, foreign policy accomplishments, and intelligence. George W. Bush_sentence_632

Bush said in 2013, "Ultimately history will judge the decisions I made, and I won't be around because it will take time for the objective historians to show up. George W. Bush_sentence_633

So I am pretty comfortable with it. George W. Bush_sentence_634

I did what I did." George W. Bush_sentence_635

Among the public, his reputation has improved since his presidency ended in 2009. George W. Bush_sentence_636

In February 2012, Gallup reported that "Americans still rate George W. Bush among the worst presidents, though their views have become more positive in the three years since he left office." George W. Bush_sentence_637

Gallup had earlier noted that Bush's favorability ratings in public opinion surveys had begun to rise a year after he had left office, from 40 percent in January 2009 and 35 percent in March 2009, to 45 percent in July 2010, a period during which he had remained largely out of the news. George W. Bush_sentence_638

A poll conducted in June 2013 marked the first time recorded by Gallup where his ratings have been more positive than negative, with 49 percent viewing him favorably compared to 46 percent unfavorably. George W. Bush_sentence_639

Other pollsters have noted similar trends of slight improvement in Bush's personal favorability since the end of his presidency. George W. Bush_sentence_640

In April 2013, Bush's approval rating stood at 47 percent approval and 50 percent disapproval in a poll jointly conducted for The Washington Post and ABC, his highest approval rating since December 2005. George W. Bush_sentence_641

Bush had achieved notable gains among seniors, non-college whites, and moderate and conservative Democrats since leaving office, although majorities disapproved of his handling of the economy (53 percent) and the Iraq War (57 percent). George W. Bush_sentence_642

His 47 percent approval rating was equal to that of President Obama's in the same polling period. George W. Bush_sentence_643

A CNN poll conducted that same month found that 55 percent of Americans said Bush's presidency had been a failure, with opinions divided along party lines, and 43 percent of independents calling it a success. George W. Bush_sentence_644

Bush's public image saw greater improvement in 2017, with a YouGov survey showing 51 percent of favorability from Democrats. George W. Bush_sentence_645

A 2018 CNN poll subsequently found that 61 percent of respondents held of a favorable view of Bush, an increase of 9 points from 2015. George W. Bush_sentence_646

The improvement has been interpreted as Democrats viewing him more favorably in response to Donald Trump's presidency, an assessment that has also been expressed by Bush himself. George W. Bush_sentence_647


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George W. Bush.