This article is about the country.
"Federal Republic of Germany" redirects here.
For the country from 1949 to 1990, see West Germany.
|Federal Republic of Germany
Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)
and largest city
and national language
|Government||Federal parliamentary republic|
|Vice Chancellor||Olaf Scholz|
|Unification||18 January 1871|
|Monarchy abolished||9 November 1918|
|Nazi Germany||23 March 1933|
|West-East division||23 May 1949|
|Reunification||3 October 1990|
|Total||357,022 km (137,847 sq mi) (62nd)|
|Water (%)||1.27 (as of 2015)|
|2019 estimate||83,166,711 (18th)|
|Density||232/km (600.9/sq mi) (58th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
|Total||$4.454 trillion (5th)|
|Per capita||$53,571 (15th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
|Total||$3,780 trillion (4th)|
|Per capita||$45,466 (15th)|
very high · 4th
|Currency||Euro (€) (EUR)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||DE|
A region named Germania was documented before AD 100.
Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire.
After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, two new German states were founded: the Federal Republic of Germany, generally known as West Germany, and the German Democratic Republic, East Germany.
The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community and the European Union, while the German Democratic Republic was a communist Eastern Bloc state and member of the Warsaw Pact.
As a highly developed country ranking simultaneously very high in the Human Development Index, it offers social security and a universal health care system, environmental protections, and a tuition-free university education.
The German term Deutschland, originally diutisciu land ("the German lands") is derived from , descended from Old High German diutisc "of the people" (from diot or diota "people"), originally used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants.
This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic * "of the people" (see also the Latinised form Theodiscus), derived from *, descended from Proto-Indo-European * "people", from which the word Teutons also originates.
Main article: History of Germany
Ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago.
Similarly dated evidence of modern humans has been found in the Swabian Jura, including 42,000-year-old flutes which are the oldest musical instruments ever found, the 40,000-year-old Lion Man, and the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels.
Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire
Around 260, Germanic peoples broke into Roman-controlled lands.
After the invasion of the Huns in 375, and with the decline of Rome from 395, Germanic tribes moved farther southwest: the Franks established the Frankish Kingdom and pushed east to subjugate Saxony and Bavaria, and areas of what is today eastern Germany were inhabited by Western Slavic tribes.
East Francia and Holy Roman Empire
Members of the Hanseatic League, mostly north German towns, prospered in the expansion of trade.
In 1517, Martin Luther incited the Protestant Reformation; the 1555 Peace of Augsburg tolerated the "Evangelical" faith (Lutheranism), but also decreed that the faith of the prince was to be the faith of his subjects (cuius regio, eius religio).
The Peace of Westphalia ended religious warfare among the Imperial Estates; their mostly German-speaking rulers were able to choose Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, or the Reformed faith as their official religion.
During the period of the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic era and the subsequent final meeting of the Imperial Diet, most of the Free Imperial Cities were annexed by dynastic territories; the ecclesiastical territories were secularised and annexed.
In 1806 the Imperium was dissolved; France, Russia, Prussia and the Habsburgs (Austria) competed for hegemony in the German states during the Napoleonic Wars.
German Confederation and Empire
The appointment of the Emperor of Austria as the permanent president reflected the Congress's rejection of Prussia's rising influence.
The Zollverein, a tariff union, furthered economic unity.
King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title of Emperor, but with a loss of power; he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution, a temporary setback for the movement.
Bismarck successfully concluded the war with Denmark in 1864; the subsequent decisive Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 enabled him to create the North German Confederation which excluded Austria.
Prussia was the dominant constituent state of the new empire; the King of Prussia ruled as its Kaiser, and Berlin became its capital.
Britain, France and Russia also concluded alliances to protect against Habsburg interference with Russian interests in the Balkans or German interference against France.
Later, Germany further expanded its colonial empire to include holdings in the Pacific and China.
The colonial government in South West Africa (present-day Namibia), from 1904 to 1907, carried out the annihilation of the local Herero and Namaqua peoples as punishment for an uprising; this was the 20th century's first genocide.
After four years of warfare, in which approximately two million German soldiers were killed, a general armistice ended the fighting.
Germans perceived the treaty as humiliating, which was seen by historians as influential in the rise of Adolf Hitler.
Germany lost around 13% of its European territory and ceded all of its colonial possessions in Africa and the South Sea.
Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany
The worldwide Great Depression hit Germany in 1929.
The Enabling Act gave Hitler unrestricted legislative power, overriding the constitution; his government established a centralised totalitarian state, withdrew from the League of Nations, and dramatically increased the country's rearmament.
A government-sponsored programme for economic renewal focused on public works, the most famous of which was the autobahn.
Germany also reacquired control of the Saarland in 1935, remilitarised the Rhineland in 1936, annexed Austria in 1938, annexed the Sudetenland in 1938 with the Munich Agreement, and in violation of the agreement occupied Czechoslovakia in March 1939.
Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) saw the burning of synagogues, the destruction of Jewish businesses, and mass arrests of Jewish people.
The British repelled German air attacks in the Battle of Britain in the same year.
By 1942, Germany and her allies controlled most of continental Europe and North Africa, but following the Soviet victory at the Battle of Stalingrad, the allies' reconquest of North Africa and invasion of Italy in 1943, German forces suffered repeated military defeats.
In total 17 million people were systematically murdered, including 6 million Jews, at least 130,000 Romani, 275,000 persons with disabilities, thousands of Jehovah's Witnesses, thousands of homosexuals, and hundreds of thousands of political and religious opponents.
German military casualties have been estimated at 5.3 million, and around 900,000 German civilians died.
East and West Germany
Main article: History of Germany (1945–1990)
The western sectors, controlled by France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, were merged on 23 May 1949 to form the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland); on 7 October 1949, the Soviet Zone became the German Democratic Republic (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik; DDR).
They were informally known as West Germany and East Germany.
West Germany was established as a federal parliamentary republic with a "social market economy".
Starting in 1948 West Germany became a major recipient of reconstruction aid under the Marshall Plan.
The country enjoyed prolonged economic growth (Wirtschaftswunder) beginning in the early 1950s.
Although East Germany claimed to be a democracy, political power was exercised solely by leading members (Politbüro) of the communist-controlled Socialist Unity Party of Germany, supported by the Stasi, an immense secret service.
While East German propaganda was based on the benefits of the GDR's social programmes and the alleged threat of a West German invasion, many of its citizens looked to the West for freedom and prosperity.
This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support.
In an effort to help retain East Germany as a state, the East German authorities eased border restrictions, but this actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process culminating in the Two Plus Four Treaty under which Germany regained full sovereignty.
Reunified Germany and the European Union
United Germany was considered the enlarged continuation of West Germany so it retained its memberships in international organisations.
Based on the Berlin/Bonn Act (1994), Berlin again became the capital of Germany, while Bonn obtained the unique status of a Bundesstadt (federal city) retaining some federal ministries.
The relocation of the government was completed in 1999, and modernisation of the east German economy was scheduled to last until 2019.
Germany sent a peacekeeping force to secure stability in the Balkans and sent German troops to Afghanistan as part of a NATO effort to provide security in that country after the ousting of the Taliban.
In 2009 the German government approved a €50 billion stimulus plan.
Among the major German political projects of the early 21st century are the advancement of European integration, the energy transition (Energiewende) for a sustainable energy supply, the "Debt Brake" for balanced budgets, measures to increase the fertility rate (pronatalism), and high-tech strategies for the transition of the German economy, summarised as Industry 4.0.
Germany was affected by the European migrant crisis in 2015: the country took in over a million migrants and developed a quota system which redistributed migrants around its federal states.
Main article: Geography of Germany
Germany is also bordered by the North Sea and, at the north-northeast, by the Baltic Sea.
German territory covers 357,022 km (137,847 sq mi), consisting of 348,672 km (134,623 sq mi) of land and 8,350 km (3,224 sq mi) of water.
It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and the 62nd largest in the world.
Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps (highest point: the Zugspitze at 2,963 metres or 9,721 feet) in the south to the shores of the North Sea (Nordsee) in the northwest and the Baltic Sea (Ostsee) in the northeast.
The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of northern Germany (lowest point: in the municipality Neuendorf-Sachsenbande, Wilstermarsch at 3.54 metres or 11.6 feet below sea level) are traversed by such major rivers as the Rhine, Danube and Elbe.
Winters range from cold in the southern Alps to mild and are generally overcast with limited precipitation, while summers can vary from hot and dry to cool and rainy.
The northern regions have prevailing westerly winds that bring in moist air from the North Sea, moderating the temperature and increasing precipitation.
Conversely, the southeast regions have more extreme temperatures.
From February 2019–2020, average monthly temperatures in Germany ranged from a low of 3.3 °C (37.9 °F) in January 2020 to a high of 19.8 °C (67.6 °F) in June 2019.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 30 litres per square metre in February and April 2019 to 125 litres per square metre in February 2020.
Average monthly hours of sunshine ranged from 45 in November 2019 to 300 in June 2019.
The highest temperature ever recorded in Germany was 42.6 °C on 25 July 2019 in Lingen and the lowest was -37.8 °C on 12 February 1929 in Wolznach.
As of 2016 51% of Germany's land area is devoted to agriculture, while 30% is forested and 14% is covered by settlements or infrastructure.
Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe.
The 16 national parks in Germany include the Jasmund National Park, the Vorpommern Lagoon Area National Park, the Müritz National Park, the Wadden Sea National Parks, the Harz National Park, the Hainich National Park, the Black Forest National Park, the Saxon Switzerland National Park, the Bavarian Forest National Park and the Berchtesgaden National Park.
More than 400 zoos and animal parks operate in Germany.
The Berlin Zoo, which opened in 1844, is the oldest in Germany, and claims the most comprehensive collection of species in the world.
|Frank-Walter Steinmeier||Angela Merkel|
The members of the Bundesrat represent and are appointed by the governments of the sixteen federated states.
The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the 1949 constitution known as the Grundgesetz (Basic Law).
Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both the Bundestag and the Bundesrat; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law, are valid in perpetuity.
He is elected by the Bundesversammlung (federal convention), an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates.
The second-highest official in the German order of precedence is the Bundestagspräsident (president of the Bundestag), who is elected by the Bundestag and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body.
The third-highest official and the head of government is the chancellor, who is appointed by the Bundespräsident after being elected by the party or coalition with the most seats in the Bundestag.
So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties.
Since 2007, the left-wing populist party The Left has been a staple in the German Bundestag, though they have never been part of the federal government.
Germany comprises sixteen federal states which are collectively referred to as Bundesländer.
Each state has its own state constitution, and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organisation.
Germany's supreme court system is specialised: for civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Federal Court of Justice, and for other affairs the courts are the Federal Labour Court, the Federal Social Court, the Federal Finance Court and the Federal Administrative Court.
The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public.
Except for petty crimes, which are tried before a single professional judge, and serious political crimes, all charges are tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges (Schöffen) sit side by side with professional judges.
Germany has a low murder rate with 1.18 murders per 100,000 as of 2016.
In 2018, the overall crime rate fell to its lowest since 1992.
Main article: Foreign relations of Germany
Germany has a network of 227 diplomatic missions abroad and maintains relations with more than 190 countries.
It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since 1990.
Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus.
The governments of Germany and the United States are close political allies.
Cultural ties and economic interests have crafted a bond between the two countries resulting in Atlanticism.
The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy.
It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations.
The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community.
It was the world's second biggest aid donor in 2019 after the United States.
Main article: Bundeswehr
Germany's military, the Bundeswehr, is organised into the Heer (Army and special forces KSK), Marine (Navy), Luftwaffe (Air Force), Zentraler Sanitätsdienst der Bundeswehr (Joint Medical Service) and Streitkräftebasis (Joint Support Service) branches.
In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 8th highest in the world.
In 2018, military spending was at $49.5 billion, about 1.2% of the country's GDP, well below the NATO target of 2%.
As of January 2020, the Bundeswehr has a strength of 184,001 active soldiers and 80,947 civilians.
Reservists are available to the armed forces and participate in defence exercises and deployments abroad.
Until 2011, military service was compulsory for men at age 18, but this has been officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service.
Since 2001 women may serve in all functions of service without restriction.
According to SIPRI, Germany was the fourth largest exporter of major arms in the world from 2014 to 2018.
In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence.
In state of defence, the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr.
The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany as defensive only.
But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in 1994 the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world.
As of 2017, the German military has about 3,600 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1,200 supporting operations against Daesh, 980 in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and 800 in Kosovo.
Its GDP per capita measured in purchasing power standards amounts to 121% of the EU27 average (100%).
The service sector contributes approximately 69% of the total GDP, industry 31%, and agriculture 1% as of 2017.
The unemployment rate published by Eurostat amounts to 3.2% as of January 2020, which is the fourth-lowest in the EU.
Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than 450 million consumers.
Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro, in 2002.
The top 10 exports of Germany are vehicles, machinery, chemical goods, electronic products, electrical equipments, pharmaceuticals, transport equipments, basic metals, food products, and rubber and plastics.
Germany is one of the largest exporters globally.
Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in 2019, the Fortune Global 500, 29 are headquartered in Germany.
These companies represent 48% global market leaders in their segments, labelled Hidden Champions.
In 2018 Germany ranked fourth globally in terms of number of science and engineering research papers published.
Germany is the largest contributor to the European Space Agency.
With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent.
Its road network is among the densest in Europe.
The InterCityExpress or ICE train network serves major German cities as well as destinations in neighbouring countries with speeds up to 300 km/h (190 mph).
In 2015, Germany was the world's seventh-largest consumer of energy.
It meets the country's power demands using 40% renewable sources.
The country's household recycling rate is among the highest in the world—at around 65%.
Nevertheless, the country's total greenhouse gas emissions were the highest in the EU in 2017.
The German energy transition (Energiewende) is the recognised move to a sustainable economy by means of energy efficiency and renewable energy.
Main article: Tourism in Germany
Germany is the ninth most visited country in the world as of 2017, with 37.4 million visits.
Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe.
Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over €105.3 billion to German GDP.
Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry supports 4.2 million jobs.
Germany's most visited and popular landmarks include Cologne Cathedral, the Brandenburg Gate, the Reichstag, the Dresden Frauenkirche, Neuschwanstein Castle, Heidelberg Castle, the Wartburg, and Sanssouci Palace.
With a population of 80.2 million according to the 2011 census, rising to 83.1 million as of 2019, Germany is the most populous country in the European Union, the second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the 19th most populous country in the world.
Its population density stands at 227 inhabitants per square kilometre (588 per square mile).
The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is 80.19 years (77.93 years for males and 82.58 years for females).
However, Germany is witnessing increased birth rates and migration rates since the beginning of the 2010s, particularly a rise in the number of well-educated migrants.
Germany has the third oldest population in the world, with the average age of 47.4 years.
Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries: There is a Danish minority in the northernmost state of Schleswig-Holstein; the Sorbs, a Slavic population, are in the Lusatia region of Saxony and Brandenburg.
- the Roma and Sinti live throughout the country; and the Frisians are concentrated in Schleswig-Holstein's western coast and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony.
After the United States, Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world.
The majority of migrants live in western Germany, in particular in urban areas.
Of the country's residents, 18.6 million people (22.5%) were of immigrant or partially immigrant descent in 2016 (including persons descending or partially descending from ethnic German repatriates).
In 2015, the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs listed Germany as host to the second-highest number of international migrants worldwide, about 5% or 12 million of all 244 million migrants.
As of 2018, Germany ranks fifth amongst EU countries in terms of the percentage of migrants in the country's population, at 12.9%.
Germany has a number of large cities.
There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions.
Main article: Religion in Germany
31.7% declared themselves as Protestants, including members of the Evangelical Church in Germany (which encompasses Lutheran, Reformed and administrative or confessional unions of both traditions) and the free churches (German: Evangelische Freikirchen); 31.2% declared themselves as Roman Catholics, and Orthodox believers constituted 1.3%.
According to data from 2016, the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed 28.5% and 27.5%, respectively, of the population.
Islam is the second largest religion in the country.
In the 2011 census, 1.9% of the census population (1.52 million people) gave their religion as Islam, but this figure is deemed unreliable because a disproportionate number of adherents of this religion (and other religions, such as Judaism) are likely to have made use of their right not to answer the question.
Other religions comprise less than one percent of Germany's population.
A study in 2018 estimated that 38% of the population are not members of any religious organization or denomination, though up to a third may still consider themselves religious.
Irreligion in Germany is strongest in the former East Germany, which used to be predominantly Protestant before the enforcement of state atheism, and in major metropolitan areas.
German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.
It is one of 24 official and working languages of the European Union, and one of the three procedural languages of the European Commission.
German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union, with around 100 million native speakers.
Recognised native minority languages in Germany are Danish, Low German, Low Rhenish, Sorbian, Romany, North Frisian and Saterland Frisian; they are officially protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.
Germans are typically multilingual: 67% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language and 27% in at least two.
Main article: Education in Germany
Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states.
Primary education usually lasts for four to six years.
A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree.
It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school.
This model is well regarded and reproduced all around the world.
Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.
The general requirement for university is the Abitur.
According to an OECD report in 2014, Germany is the world's third leading destination for international study.
In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence.
Main article: Healthcare in Germany
Germany's system of hospitals, called Krankenhäuser, dates from medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the 1880s.
Since the 1880s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system.
The population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract.
In 2014, Germany spent 11.3% of its GDP on health care.
In 2019, the principal cause of death was cardiovascular disease, at 37%.
Obesity in Germany has been increasingly cited as a major health issue.
A 2014 study showed that 52 percent of the adult German population was overweight or obese.
Main article: Culture of Germany
Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular.
Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker ("the land of poets and thinkers"), because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.
A global opinion poll for the BBC revealed that Germany is recognised for having the most positive influence in the world in 2013 and 2014.
As of 2016 UNESCO inscribed 41 properties in Germany on the World Heritage List.
Main article: Music of Germany
German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers.
Richard Wagner was known for his operas.
As of 2013, Germany was the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.
Art and design
German painters have influenced western art.
Albrecht Dürer, Hans Holbein the Younger, Matthias Grünewald and Lucas Cranach the Elder were important German artists of the Renaissance, Johann Baptist Zimmermann of the Baroque, Caspar David Friedrich and Carl Spitzweg of Romanticism, Max Liebermann of Impressionism and Max Ernst of Surrealism.
The New Objectivity arose in response to expressionism during the Weimar Republic.
Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany.
German designers became early leaders of modern product design.
Literature and philosophy
The Grimms also gathered and codified regional variants of the German language, grounding their work in historical principles; their Deutsches Wörterbuch, or German Dictionary, sometimes called the Grimm dictionary, was begun in 1838 and the first volumes published in 1854.
The German book market is the third largest in the world, after the United States and China.
The Frankfurt Book Fair is the most important in the world for international deals and trading, with a tradition spanning over 500 years.
The Leipzig Book Fair also retains a major position in Europe.
German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz's contributions to rationalism; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant; the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling; Arthur Schopenhauer's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; Friedrich Nietzsche's development of perspectivism; Gottlob Frege's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy; Martin Heidegger's works on Being; Oswald Spengler's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt School has been particularly influential.
Germany's television market is the largest in Europe, with some 38 million TV households.
There are more than 300 public and private radio stations in Germany; Germany's national radio network is the Deutschlandradio and the public Deutsche Welle is the main German radio and television broadcaster in foreign languages.
The largest magazines include ADAC Motorwelt and Der Spiegel.
Germany has a large video gaming market, with over 34 million players nationwide.
German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film.
The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in 1895.
After 1945, many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm (rubble film).
The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film ("Oscar") went to the German production Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum) in 1979, to Nirgendwo in Afrika (Nowhere in Africa) in 2002, and to Das Leben der Anderen (The Lives of Others) in 2007.
Various Germans won an Oscar for their performances in other films.
The "Lolas" are annually awarded in Berlin, at the German Film Awards.
Main article: German cuisine
German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities (e.g. the southern regions of Bavaria and Swabia share some traditions with Switzerland and Austria).
Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about 600 main types of bread and 1,200 types of pastries and rolls (Brötchen).
German cheeses account for about 22% of all cheese produced in Europe.
In 2012 over 99% of all meat produced in Germany was either pork, chicken or beef.
German beer consumption per person stands at 110 litres (24 imp gal; 29 US gal) in 2013 and remains among the highest in the world.
German beer purity regulations date back to the 16th century.
Main article: Sport in Germany
Football is the most popular sport in Germany.
With more than 7 million official members, the German Football Association (Deutscher Fußball-Bund) is the largest single-sport organisation worldwide, and the German top league, the Bundesliga, attracts the second highest average attendance of all professional sports leagues in the world.
Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world.
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany.