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This article is about the country. Germany_sentence_0

For other uses, see Germany (disambiguation) and Deutschland (disambiguation). Germany_sentence_1

"Federal Republic of Germany" redirects here. Germany_sentence_2

For the country from 1949 to 1990, see West Germany. Germany_sentence_3


Federal Republic of Germany

Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)Germany_header_cell_0_0_0


and largest cityGermany_header_cell_0_1_0

Official language

and national languageGermany_header_cell_0_2_0

Demonym(s)Germany_header_cell_0_3_0 GermanGermany_cell_0_3_1
GovernmentGermany_header_cell_0_4_0 Federal parliamentary republicGermany_cell_0_4_1
PresidentGermany_header_cell_0_5_0 Frank-Walter SteinmeierGermany_cell_0_5_1
ChancellorGermany_header_cell_0_6_0 Angela MerkelGermany_cell_0_6_1
Vice ChancellorGermany_header_cell_0_7_0 Olaf ScholzGermany_cell_0_7_1
LegislatureGermany_header_cell_0_8_0 Germany_cell_0_8_1
Upper houseGermany_header_cell_0_9_0 BundesratGermany_cell_0_9_1
Lower houseGermany_header_cell_0_10_0 BundestagGermany_cell_0_10_1
UnificationGermany_header_cell_0_12_0 18 January 1871Germany_cell_0_12_1
Monarchy abolishedGermany_header_cell_0_13_0 9 November 1918Germany_cell_0_13_1
Nazi GermanyGermany_header_cell_0_14_0 23 March 1933Germany_cell_0_14_1
West-East divisionGermany_header_cell_0_15_0 23 May 1949Germany_cell_0_15_1
ReunificationGermany_header_cell_0_16_0 3 October 1990Germany_cell_0_16_1
Area Germany_header_cell_0_17_0
TotalGermany_header_cell_0_18_0 357,022 km (137,847 sq mi) (62nd)Germany_cell_0_18_1
Water (%)Germany_header_cell_0_19_0 1.27 (as of 2015)Germany_cell_0_19_1
2019 estimateGermany_header_cell_0_21_0 83,166,711 (18th)Germany_cell_0_21_1
DensityGermany_header_cell_0_22_0 232/km (600.9/sq mi) (58th)Germany_cell_0_22_1
GDP (PPP)Germany_header_cell_0_23_0 2020 estimateGermany_cell_0_23_1
TotalGermany_header_cell_0_24_0 $4.454 trillion (5th)Germany_cell_0_24_1
Per capitaGermany_header_cell_0_25_0 $53,571 (15th)Germany_cell_0_25_1
GDP (nominal)Germany_header_cell_0_26_0 2020 estimateGermany_cell_0_26_1
TotalGermany_header_cell_0_27_0 $3,780 trillion (4th)Germany_cell_0_27_1
Per capitaGermany_header_cell_0_28_0 $45,466 (15th)Germany_cell_0_28_1
Gini (2018)Germany_header_cell_0_29_0 31.1


HDI (2018)Germany_header_cell_0_30_0 0.939

very high · 4thGermany_cell_0_30_1

CurrencyGermany_header_cell_0_31_0 Euro () (EUR)Germany_cell_0_31_1
Time zoneGermany_header_cell_0_32_0 UTC+1 (CET)Germany_cell_0_32_1
Summer (DST)Germany_header_cell_0_33_0 UTC+2 (CEST)Germany_cell_0_33_1
Driving sideGermany_header_cell_0_34_0 rightGermany_cell_0_34_1
ISO 3166 codeGermany_header_cell_0_35_0 DEGermany_cell_0_35_1
Internet TLDGermany_header_cell_0_36_0 .deGermany_cell_0_36_1

Germany (German: Deutschland, German pronunciation: [ˈdɔʏtʃlant), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, listen), is a country in Central and Western Europe. Germany_sentence_4

Covering an area of 357,022 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi), it lies between the Baltic and North seas to the north, and the Alps to the south. Germany_sentence_5

It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, and France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west. Germany_sentence_6

Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. Germany_sentence_7

A region named Germania was documented before AD 100. Germany_sentence_8

Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. Germany_sentence_9

During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. Germany_sentence_10

Following the Napoleonic Wars and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the German Confederation was formed in 1815. Germany_sentence_11

In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. Germany_sentence_12

After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the semi-presidential Weimar Republic. Germany_sentence_13

The Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, World War II, and the Holocaust. Germany_sentence_14

After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, two new German states were founded: the Federal Republic of Germany, generally known as West Germany, and the German Democratic Republic, East Germany. Germany_sentence_15

The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community and the European Union, while the German Democratic Republic was a communist Eastern Bloc state and member of the Warsaw Pact. Germany_sentence_16

After the fall of communism, German reunification saw the former East German states join the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990. Germany_sentence_17

Today, Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor. Germany_sentence_18

With over 83 million inhabitants of its 16 constituent states, it is the second-most populous country in Europe after Russia, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany_sentence_19

Its capital and largest city is Berlin, and its financial centre is Frankfurt; the largest urban area is the Ruhr. Germany_sentence_20

Germany is a great power with a strong economy; it has the largest economy in Europe, the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the fifth-largest by PPP. Germany_sentence_21

As a global leader in several industrial, scientific and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany_sentence_22

As a highly developed country ranking simultaneously very high in the Human Development Index, it offers social security and a universal health care system, environmental protections, and a tuition-free university education. Germany_sentence_23

Germany is also a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, and the OECD. Germany_sentence_24

Known for its long and rich cultural history, Germany has many World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. Germany_sentence_25

Etymology Germany_section_0

Further information: Names of Germany, Germani, and Germania Germany_sentence_26

The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. Germany_sentence_27

The German term Deutschland, originally diutisciu land ("the German lands") is derived from , descended from Old High German diutisc "of the people" (from diot or diota "people"), originally used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. Germany_sentence_28

This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic * "of the people" (see also the Latinised form Theodiscus), derived from *, descended from Proto-Indo-European * "people", from which the word Teutons also originates. Germany_sentence_29

History Germany_section_1

Main article: History of Germany Germany_sentence_30

Ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. Germany_sentence_31

The first non-modern human fossil (the Neanderthal) was discovered in the Neander Valley. Germany_sentence_32

Similarly dated evidence of modern humans has been found in the Swabian Jura, including 42,000-year-old flutes which are the oldest musical instruments ever found, the 40,000-year-old Lion Man, and the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels. Germany_sentence_33

The Nebra sky disk, created during the European Bronze Age, is attributed to a German site. Germany_sentence_34

Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire Germany_section_2

Main articles: Germania, Migration Period, and Frankish Realm Germany_sentence_35

The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Nordic Bronze Age or the Pre-Roman Iron Age. Germany_sentence_36

From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south, east, and west, coming into contact with the Celtic, Iranian, Baltic, and Slavic tribes. Germany_sentence_37

Under Augustus, Rome began to invade Germania. Germany_sentence_38

In 9 AD, three Roman legions were defeated by Arminius. Germany_sentence_39

By 100 AD, when Tacitus wrote Germania, Germanic tribes had settled along the Rhine and the Danube (the Limes Germanicus), occupying most of modern Germany. Germany_sentence_40

However, Baden Württemberg, southern Bavaria, southern Hesse and the western Rhineland had been incorporated into Roman provinces. Germany_sentence_41

Around 260, Germanic peoples broke into Roman-controlled lands. Germany_sentence_42

After the invasion of the Huns in 375, and with the decline of Rome from 395, Germanic tribes moved farther southwest: the Franks established the Frankish Kingdom and pushed east to subjugate Saxony and Bavaria, and areas of what is today eastern Germany were inhabited by Western Slavic tribes. Germany_sentence_43

East Francia and Holy Roman Empire Germany_section_3

Main articles: East Francia and Holy Roman Empire Germany_sentence_44

Charlemagne founded the Carolingian Empire in 800; it was divided in 843 and the Holy Roman Empire emerged from the eastern portion. Germany_sentence_45

The territory initially known as East Francia stretched from the Rhine in the west to the Elbe River in the east and from the North Sea to the Alps. Germany_sentence_46

The Ottonian rulers (919–1024) consolidated several major duchies. Germany_sentence_47

In 996 Gregory V became the first German Pope, appointed by his cousin Otto III, whom he shortly after crowned Holy Roman Emperor. Germany_sentence_48

The Holy Roman Empire absorbed northern Italy and Burgundy under the Salian emperors (1024–1125), although the emperors lost power through the Investiture controversy. Germany_sentence_49

Under the Hohenstaufen emperors (1138–1254), German princes encouraged German settlement to the south and east (Ostsiedlung). Germany_sentence_50

Members of the Hanseatic League, mostly north German towns, prospered in the expansion of trade. Germany_sentence_51

Population declined starting with the Great Famine in 1315, followed by the Black Death of 1348–50. Germany_sentence_52

The Golden Bull issued in 1356 provided the constitutional structure of the Empire and codified the election of the emperor by seven prince-electors. Germany_sentence_53

Johannes Gutenberg introduced moveable-type printing to Europe, laying the basis for the democratization of knowledge. Germany_sentence_54

In 1517, Martin Luther incited the Protestant Reformation; the 1555 Peace of Augsburg tolerated the "Evangelical" faith (Lutheranism), but also decreed that the faith of the prince was to be the faith of his subjects (cuius regio, eius religio). Germany_sentence_55

From the Cologne War through the Thirty Years' Wars (1618–1648), religious conflict devastated German lands and significantly reduced the population. Germany_sentence_56

The Peace of Westphalia ended religious warfare among the Imperial Estates; their mostly German-speaking rulers were able to choose Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, or the Reformed faith as their official religion. Germany_sentence_57

The legal system initiated by a series of Imperial Reforms (approximately 1495–1555) provided for considerable local autonomy and a stronger Imperial Diet. Germany_sentence_58

The House of Habsburg held the imperial crown from 1438 until the death of Charles VI in 1740. Germany_sentence_59

Following the War of Austrian Succession and the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Charles VI's daughter Maria Theresa ruled as Empress Consort when her husband, Francis I, became Emperor. Germany_sentence_60

From 1740, dualism between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia dominated German history. Germany_sentence_61

In 1772, 1793, and 1795, Prussia and Austria, along with the Russian Empire, agreed to the Partitions of Poland. Germany_sentence_62

During the period of the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic era and the subsequent final meeting of the Imperial Diet, most of the Free Imperial Cities were annexed by dynastic territories; the ecclesiastical territories were secularised and annexed. Germany_sentence_63

In 1806 the Imperium was dissolved; France, Russia, Prussia and the Habsburgs (Austria) competed for hegemony in the German states during the Napoleonic Wars. Germany_sentence_64

German Confederation and Empire Germany_section_4

Main articles: German Question, German Confederation, Unification of Germany, German Empire, and German Colonial Empire Germany_sentence_65

Following the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna founded the German Confederation, a loose league of 39 sovereign states. Germany_sentence_66

The appointment of the Emperor of Austria as the permanent president reflected the Congress's rejection of Prussia's rising influence. Germany_sentence_67

Disagreement within restoration politics partly led to the rise of liberal movements, followed by new measures of repression by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich. Germany_sentence_68

The Zollverein, a tariff union, furthered economic unity. Germany_sentence_69

In light of revolutionary movements in Europe, intellectuals and commoners started the revolutions of 1848 in the German states, raising the German Question. Germany_sentence_70

King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title of Emperor, but with a loss of power; he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution, a temporary setback for the movement. Germany_sentence_71

King William I appointed Otto von Bismarck as the Minister President of Prussia in 1862. Germany_sentence_72

Bismarck successfully concluded the war with Denmark in 1864; the subsequent decisive Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 enabled him to create the North German Confederation which excluded Austria. Germany_sentence_73

After the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War, the German princes proclaimed the founding of the German Empire in 1871. Germany_sentence_74

Prussia was the dominant constituent state of the new empire; the King of Prussia ruled as its Kaiser, and Berlin became its capital. Germany_sentence_75

In the Gründerzeit period following the unification of Germany, Bismarck's foreign policy as Chancellor of Germany secured Germany's position as a great nation by forging alliances and avoiding war. Germany_sentence_76

However, under Wilhelm II, Germany took an imperialistic course, leading to friction with neighbouring countries. Germany_sentence_77

A dual alliance was created with the multinational realm of Austria-Hungary; the Triple Alliance of 1882 included Italy. Germany_sentence_78

Britain, France and Russia also concluded alliances to protect against Habsburg interference with Russian interests in the Balkans or German interference against France. Germany_sentence_79

At the Berlin Conference in 1884, Germany claimed several colonies including German East Africa, German South West Africa, Togoland, and Kamerun. Germany_sentence_80

Later, Germany further expanded its colonial empire to include holdings in the Pacific and China. Germany_sentence_81

The colonial government in South West Africa (present-day Namibia), from 1904 to 1907, carried out the annihilation of the local Herero and Namaqua peoples as punishment for an uprising; this was the 20th century's first genocide. Germany_sentence_82

The assassination of Austria's crown prince on 28 June 1914 provided the pretext for Austria-Hungary to attack Serbia and trigger World War I. Germany_sentence_83

After four years of warfare, in which approximately two million German soldiers were killed, a general armistice ended the fighting. Germany_sentence_84

In the German Revolution (November 1918), Emperor Wilhelm II and the ruling princes abdicated their positions and Germany was declared a federal republic. Germany_sentence_85

Germany's new leadership signed the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, accepting defeat by the Allies. Germany_sentence_86

Germans perceived the treaty as humiliating, which was seen by historians as influential in the rise of Adolf Hitler. Germany_sentence_87

Germany lost around 13% of its European territory and ceded all of its colonial possessions in Africa and the South Sea. Germany_sentence_88

Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany Germany_section_5

Main articles: Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany Germany_sentence_89

On 11 August 1919, President Friedrich Ebert signed the democratic Weimar Constitution. Germany_sentence_90

In the subsequent struggle for power, communists seized power in Bavaria, but conservative elements elsewhere attempted to overthrow the Republic in the Kapp Putsch. Germany_sentence_91

Street fighting in the major industrial centres, the occupation of the Ruhr by Belgian and French troops, and a period of hyperinflation followed. Germany_sentence_92

A debt restructuring plan and the creation of a new currency in 1924 ushered in the Golden Twenties, an era of artistic innovation and liberal cultural life. Germany_sentence_93

The worldwide Great Depression hit Germany in 1929. Germany_sentence_94

Chancellor Heinrich Brüning's government pursued a policy of fiscal austerity and deflation which caused unemployment of nearly 30% by 1932. Germany_sentence_95

The Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler won a special election in 1932 and Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933. Germany_sentence_96

After the Reichstag fire, a decree abrogated basic civil rights and the first Nazi concentration camp opened. Germany_sentence_97

The Enabling Act gave Hitler unrestricted legislative power, overriding the constitution; his government established a centralised totalitarian state, withdrew from the League of Nations, and dramatically increased the country's rearmament. Germany_sentence_98

A government-sponsored programme for economic renewal focused on public works, the most famous of which was the autobahn. Germany_sentence_99

In 1935, the regime withdrew from the Treaty of Versailles and introduced the Nuremberg Laws which targeted Jews and other minorities. Germany_sentence_100

Germany also reacquired control of the Saarland in 1935, remilitarised the Rhineland in 1936, annexed Austria in 1938, annexed the Sudetenland in 1938 with the Munich Agreement, and in violation of the agreement occupied Czechoslovakia in March 1939. Germany_sentence_101

Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) saw the burning of synagogues, the destruction of Jewish businesses, and mass arrests of Jewish people. Germany_sentence_102

In August 1939, Hitler's government negotiated the Molotov–Ribbentrop pact that divided Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence. Germany_sentence_103

On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland, beginning World War II in Europe; Britain and France declared war on Germany on 3 September. Germany_sentence_104

In the spring of 1940, Germany conquered Denmark and Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France, forcing the French government to sign an armistice. Germany_sentence_105

The British repelled German air attacks in the Battle of Britain in the same year. Germany_sentence_106

In 1941, German troops invaded Yugoslavia, Greece and the Soviet Union. Germany_sentence_107

By 1942, Germany and her allies controlled most of continental Europe and North Africa, but following the Soviet victory at the Battle of Stalingrad, the allies' reconquest of North Africa and invasion of Italy in 1943, German forces suffered repeated military defeats. Germany_sentence_108

In 1944, the Soviets pushed into Eastern Europe; the Western allies landed in France and entered Germany despite a final German counteroffensive. Germany_sentence_109

Following Hitler's suicide during the Battle of Berlin, Germany surrendered on 8 May 1945, ending World War II in Europe. Germany_sentence_110

Following the end of the war, surviving Nazi officials were tried for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials. Germany_sentence_111

In what later became known as the Holocaust, the German government persecuted minorities, including interning them in concentration and death camps across Europe. Germany_sentence_112

In total 17 million people were systematically murdered, including 6 million Jews, at least 130,000 Romani, 275,000 persons with disabilities, thousands of Jehovah's Witnesses, thousands of homosexuals, and hundreds of thousands of political and religious opponents. Germany_sentence_113

Nazi policies in German-occupied countries resulted in the deaths of an estimated 2.7 million Poles, 1.3 million Ukrainians, 1 million Belarusians and 3.5 million Soviet prisoners of war. Germany_sentence_114

German military casualties have been estimated at 5.3 million, and around 900,000 German civilians died. Germany_sentence_115

Around 12 million ethnic Germans were expelled from across Eastern Europe, and Germany lost roughly one-quarter of its pre-war territory. Germany_sentence_116

East and West Germany Germany_section_6

Main article: History of Germany (1945–1990) Germany_sentence_117

After Nazi Germany surrendered, the Allies partitioned Berlin and Germany's remaining territory into four occupation zones. Germany_sentence_118

The western sectors, controlled by France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, were merged on 23 May 1949 to form the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland); on 7 October 1949, the Soviet Zone became the German Democratic Republic (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik; DDR). Germany_sentence_119

They were informally known as West Germany and East Germany. Germany_sentence_120

East Germany selected East Berlin as its capital, while West Germany chose Bonn as a provisional capital, to emphasise its stance that the two-state solution was temporary. Germany_sentence_121

West Germany was established as a federal parliamentary republic with a "social market economy". Germany_sentence_122

Starting in 1948 West Germany became a major recipient of reconstruction aid under the Marshall Plan. Germany_sentence_123

Konrad Adenauer was elected the first Federal Chancellor of Germany in 1949. Germany_sentence_124

The country enjoyed prolonged economic growth (Wirtschaftswunder) beginning in the early 1950s. Germany_sentence_125

West Germany joined NATO in 1955 and was a founding member of the European Economic Community. Germany_sentence_126

East Germany was an Eastern Bloc state under political and military control by the USSR via occupation forces and the Warsaw Pact. Germany_sentence_127

Although East Germany claimed to be a democracy, political power was exercised solely by leading members (Politbüro) of the communist-controlled Socialist Unity Party of Germany, supported by the Stasi, an immense secret service. Germany_sentence_128

While East German propaganda was based on the benefits of the GDR's social programmes and the alleged threat of a West German invasion, many of its citizens looked to the West for freedom and prosperity. Germany_sentence_129

The Berlin Wall, built in 1961, prevented East German citizens from escaping to West Germany, becoming a symbol of the Cold War. Germany_sentence_130

Tensions between East and West Germany were reduced in the late 1960s by Chancellor Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik. Germany_sentence_131

In 1989, Hungary decided to dismantle the Iron Curtain and open its border with Austria, causing the emigration of thousands of East Germans to West Germany via Hungary and Austria. Germany_sentence_132

This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support. Germany_sentence_133

In an effort to help retain East Germany as a state, the East German authorities eased border restrictions, but this actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process culminating in the Two Plus Four Treaty under which Germany regained full sovereignty. Germany_sentence_134

This permitted German reunification on 3 October 1990, with the accession of the five re-established states of the former GDR. Germany_sentence_135

The fall of the Wall in 1989 became a symbol of the Fall of Communism, the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, German Reunification and Die Wende. Germany_sentence_136

Reunified Germany and the European Union Germany_section_7

Main articles: German reunification and History of Germany since 1990 Germany_sentence_137

United Germany was considered the enlarged continuation of West Germany so it retained its memberships in international organisations. Germany_sentence_138

Based on the Berlin/Bonn Act (1994), Berlin again became the capital of Germany, while Bonn obtained the unique status of a Bundesstadt (federal city) retaining some federal ministries. Germany_sentence_139

The relocation of the government was completed in 1999, and modernisation of the east German economy was scheduled to last until 2019. Germany_sentence_140

Since reunification, Germany has taken a more active role in the European Union, signing the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 and the Lisbon Treaty in 2007, and co-founding the Eurozone. Germany_sentence_141

Germany sent a peacekeeping force to secure stability in the Balkans and sent German troops to Afghanistan as part of a NATO effort to provide security in that country after the ousting of the Taliban. Germany_sentence_142

In the 2005 elections, Angela Merkel became the first female chancellor. Germany_sentence_143

In 2009 the German government approved a €50 billion stimulus plan. Germany_sentence_144

Among the major German political projects of the early 21st century are the advancement of European integration, the energy transition (Energiewende) for a sustainable energy supply, the "Debt Brake" for balanced budgets, measures to increase the fertility rate (pronatalism), and high-tech strategies for the transition of the German economy, summarised as Industry 4.0. Germany_sentence_145

Germany was affected by the European migrant crisis in 2015: the country took in over a million migrants and developed a quota system which redistributed migrants around its federal states. Germany_sentence_146

Geography Germany_section_8

Main article: Geography of Germany Germany_sentence_147

Germany is in Western and Central Europe, bordering Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria to the southeast, and Switzerland to the south-southwest. Germany_sentence_148

France, Luxembourg and Belgium are situated to the west, with the Netherlands to the northwest. Germany_sentence_149

Germany is also bordered by the North Sea and, at the north-northeast, by the Baltic Sea. Germany_sentence_150

German territory covers 357,022 km (137,847 sq mi), consisting of 348,672 km (134,623 sq mi) of land and 8,350 km (3,224 sq mi) of water. Germany_sentence_151

It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and the 62nd largest in the world. Germany_sentence_152

Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps (highest point: the Zugspitze at 2,963 metres or 9,721 feet) in the south to the shores of the North Sea (Nordsee) in the northwest and the Baltic Sea (Ostsee) in the northeast. Germany_sentence_153

The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of northern Germany (lowest point: in the municipality Neuendorf-Sachsenbande, Wilstermarsch at 3.54 metres or 11.6 feet below sea level) are traversed by such major rivers as the Rhine, Danube and Elbe. Germany_sentence_154

Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, and nickel. Germany_sentence_155

Climate Germany_section_9

Most of Germany has a temperate climate, ranging from oceanic in the north to continental in the east and southeast. Germany_sentence_156

Winters range from cold in the southern Alps to mild and are generally overcast with limited precipitation, while summers can vary from hot and dry to cool and rainy. Germany_sentence_157

The northern regions have prevailing westerly winds that bring in moist air from the North Sea, moderating the temperature and increasing precipitation. Germany_sentence_158

Conversely, the southeast regions have more extreme temperatures. Germany_sentence_159

From February 2019–2020, average monthly temperatures in Germany ranged from a low of 3.3 °C (37.9 °F) in January 2020 to a high of 19.8 °C (67.6 °F) in June 2019. Germany_sentence_160

Average monthly precipitation ranged from 30 litres per square metre in February and April 2019 to 125 litres per square metre in February 2020. Germany_sentence_161

Average monthly hours of sunshine ranged from 45 in November 2019 to 300 in June 2019. Germany_sentence_162

The highest temperature ever recorded in Germany was 42.6 °C on 25 July 2019 in Lingen and the lowest was -37.8 °C on 12 February 1929 in Wolznach. Germany_sentence_163

Biodiversity Germany_section_10

The territory of Germany can be divided into two ecoregions: European-Mediterranean montane mixed forests and Northeast-Atlantic shelf marine. Germany_sentence_164

As of 2016 51% of Germany's land area is devoted to agriculture, while 30% is forested and 14% is covered by settlements or infrastructure. Germany_sentence_165

Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. Germany_sentence_166

According to the National Forest Inventory, beeches, oaks, and other deciduous trees constitute just over 40% of the forests; roughly 60% are conifers, particularly spruce and pine. Germany_sentence_167

There are many species of ferns, flowers, fungi, and mosses. Germany_sentence_168

Wild animals include roe deer, wild boar, mouflon (a subspecies of wild sheep), fox, badger, hare, and small numbers of the Eurasian beaver. Germany_sentence_169

The blue cornflower was once a German national symbol. Germany_sentence_170

The 16 national parks in Germany include the Jasmund National Park, the Vorpommern Lagoon Area National Park, the Müritz National Park, the Wadden Sea National Parks, the Harz National Park, the Hainich National Park, the Black Forest National Park, the Saxon Switzerland National Park, the Bavarian Forest National Park and the Berchtesgaden National Park. Germany_sentence_171

In addition, there are 17 Biosphere Reserves and 105 nature parks. Germany_sentence_172

More than 400 zoos and animal parks operate in Germany. Germany_sentence_173

The Berlin Zoo, which opened in 1844, is the oldest in Germany, and claims the most comprehensive collection of species in the world. Germany_sentence_174

Politics Germany_section_11

Main articles: Politics of Germany, Taxation in Germany, and Federal budget of Germany Germany_sentence_175


Germany_cell_1_0_0 Germany_cell_1_0_1
Frank-Walter Steinmeier


Angela Merkel


Germany is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. Germany_sentence_176

Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag (Federal Diet) and Bundesrat (Federal Council), which together form the legislative body. Germany_sentence_177

The Bundestag is elected through direct elections using the mixed-member proportional representation system. Germany_sentence_178

The members of the Bundesrat represent and are appointed by the governments of the sixteen federated states. Germany_sentence_179

The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the 1949 constitution known as the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). Germany_sentence_180

Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both the Bundestag and the Bundesrat; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law, are valid in perpetuity. Germany_sentence_181

The president, currently Frank-Walter Steinmeier, is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers. Germany_sentence_182

He is elected by the Bundesversammlung (federal convention), an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates. Germany_sentence_183

The second-highest official in the German order of precedence is the Bundestagspräsident (president of the Bundestag), who is elected by the Bundestag and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body. Germany_sentence_184

The third-highest official and the head of government is the chancellor, who is appointed by the Bundespräsident after being elected by the party or coalition with the most seats in the Bundestag. Germany_sentence_185

The chancellor, currently Angela Merkel, is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet. Germany_sentence_186

Since 1949, the party system has been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Germany_sentence_187

So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties. Germany_sentence_188

However, the smaller liberal Free Democratic Party and the Alliance '90/The Greens have also been junior partners in coalition governments. Germany_sentence_189

Since 2007, the left-wing populist party The Left has been a staple in the German Bundestag, though they have never been part of the federal government. Germany_sentence_190

In the 2017 German federal election, the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time. Germany_sentence_191

Constituent states Germany_section_12

Main articles: States of Germany and Federalism in Germany Germany_sentence_192

Germany comprises sixteen federal states which are collectively referred to as Bundesländer. Germany_sentence_193

Each state has its own state constitution, and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organisation. Germany_sentence_194

As of 2017 Germany is divided into 401 districts (Kreise) at a municipal level; these consist of 294 rural districts and 107 urban districts. Germany_sentence_195

Law Germany_section_13

Main articles: Law of Germany, Judiciary of Germany, and Law enforcement in Germany Germany_sentence_196

Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law. Germany_sentence_197

The Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review. Germany_sentence_198

Germany's supreme court system is specialised: for civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Federal Court of Justice, and for other affairs the courts are the Federal Labour Court, the Federal Social Court, the Federal Finance Court and the Federal Administrative Court. Germany_sentence_199

Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively. Germany_sentence_200

The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public. Germany_sentence_201

Except for petty crimes, which are tried before a single professional judge, and serious political crimes, all charges are tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges (Schöffen) sit side by side with professional judges. Germany_sentence_202

Germany has a low murder rate with 1.18 murders per 100,000 as of 2016. Germany_sentence_203

In 2018, the overall crime rate fell to its lowest since 1992. Germany_sentence_204

Foreign relations Germany_section_14

Main article: Foreign relations of Germany Germany_sentence_205

Germany has a network of 227 diplomatic missions abroad and maintains relations with more than 190 countries. Germany_sentence_206

Germany is a member of NATO, the OECD, the G8, the G20, the World Bank and the IMF. Germany_sentence_207

It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since 1990. Germany_sentence_208

Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus. Germany_sentence_209

The governments of Germany and the United States are close political allies. Germany_sentence_210

Cultural ties and economic interests have crafted a bond between the two countries resulting in Atlanticism. Germany_sentence_211

The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy. Germany_sentence_212

It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations. Germany_sentence_213

The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community. Germany_sentence_214

It was the world's second biggest aid donor in 2019 after the United States. Germany_sentence_215

Military Germany_section_15

Main article: Bundeswehr Germany_sentence_216

Germany's military, the Bundeswehr, is organised into the Heer (Army and special forces KSK), Marine (Navy), Luftwaffe (Air Force), Zentraler Sanitätsdienst der Bundeswehr (Joint Medical Service) and Streitkräftebasis (Joint Support Service) branches. Germany_sentence_217

In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 8th highest in the world. Germany_sentence_218

In 2018, military spending was at $49.5 billion, about 1.2% of the country's GDP, well below the NATO target of 2%. Germany_sentence_219

As of January 2020, the Bundeswehr has a strength of 184,001 active soldiers and 80,947 civilians. Germany_sentence_220

Reservists are available to the armed forces and participate in defence exercises and deployments abroad. Germany_sentence_221

Until 2011, military service was compulsory for men at age 18, but this has been officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service. Germany_sentence_222

Since 2001 women may serve in all functions of service without restriction. Germany_sentence_223

According to SIPRI, Germany was the fourth largest exporter of major arms in the world from 2014 to 2018. Germany_sentence_224

In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence. Germany_sentence_225

In state of defence, the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr. Germany_sentence_226

The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany as defensive only. Germany_sentence_227

But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in 1994 the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world. Germany_sentence_228

As of 2017, the German military has about 3,600 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1,200 supporting operations against Daesh, 980 in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and 800 in Kosovo. Germany_sentence_229

Economy Germany_section_16

Main articles: Economy of Germany and Science and technology in Germany Germany_sentence_230

Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force, a low level of corruption, and a high level of innovation. Germany_sentence_231

It is the world's third largest exporter of goods, and has the largest national economy in Europe which is also the world's fourth largest by nominal GDP and the fifth by PPP. Germany_sentence_232

Its GDP per capita measured in purchasing power standards amounts to 121% of the EU27 average (100%). Germany_sentence_233

The service sector contributes approximately 69% of the total GDP, industry 31%, and agriculture 1% as of 2017. Germany_sentence_234

The unemployment rate published by Eurostat amounts to 3.2% as of January 2020, which is the fourth-lowest in the EU. Germany_sentence_235

Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than 450 million consumers. Germany_sentence_236

In 2017, the country accounted for 28% of the Eurozone economy according to the International Monetary Fund. Germany_sentence_237

Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro, in 2002. Germany_sentence_238

Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank, which is headquartered in Frankfurt. Germany_sentence_239

Being home to the modern car, the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world, and is the fourth largest by production. Germany_sentence_240

The top 10 exports of Germany are vehicles, machinery, chemical goods, electronic products, electrical equipments, pharmaceuticals, transport equipments, basic metals, food products, and rubber and plastics. Germany_sentence_241

Germany is one of the largest exporters globally. Germany_sentence_242

Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in 2019, the Fortune Global 500, 29 are headquartered in Germany. Germany_sentence_243

30 major Germany-based companies are included in the DAX, the German stock market index which is operated by Frankfurt Stock Exchange. Germany_sentence_244

Well-known international brands include Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Volkswagen, Audi, Siemens, Allianz, Adidas, Porsche, Bosch and Deutsche Telekom. Germany_sentence_245

Berlin is a hub for startup companies and has become the leading location for venture capital funded firms in the European Union. Germany_sentence_246

Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises, known as the Mittelstand model. Germany_sentence_247

These companies represent 48% global market leaders in their segments, labelled Hidden Champions. Germany_sentence_248

Research and development efforts form an integral part of the German economy. Germany_sentence_249

In 2018 Germany ranked fourth globally in terms of number of science and engineering research papers published. Germany_sentence_250

Research institutions in Germany include the Max Planck Society, the Helmholtz Association, and the Fraunhofer Society and the Leibniz Association. Germany_sentence_251

Germany is the largest contributor to the European Space Agency. Germany_sentence_252

Infrastructure Germany_section_17

Main articles: Transport in Germany, Energy in Germany, Telecommunications in Germany, and Water supply and sanitation in Germany Germany_sentence_253

With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent. Germany_sentence_254

Its road network is among the densest in Europe. Germany_sentence_255

The motorway (Autobahn) is widely known for having no federally mandated speed limit for some classes of vehicles. Germany_sentence_256

The InterCityExpress or ICE train network serves major German cities as well as destinations in neighbouring countries with speeds up to 300 km/h (190 mph). Germany_sentence_257

The largest German airports are Frankfurt Airport and Munich Airport. Germany_sentence_258

The Port of Hamburg is one of the top twenty largest container ports in the world. Germany_sentence_259

In 2015, Germany was the world's seventh-largest consumer of energy. Germany_sentence_260

The government and the nuclear power industry agreed to phase out all nuclear power plants by 2021. Germany_sentence_261

It meets the country's power demands using 40% renewable sources. Germany_sentence_262

Germany is committed to the Paris Agreement and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, and water management. Germany_sentence_263

The country's household recycling rate is among the highest in the world—at around 65%. Germany_sentence_264

Nevertheless, the country's total greenhouse gas emissions were the highest in the EU in 2017. Germany_sentence_265

The German energy transition (Energiewende) is the recognised move to a sustainable economy by means of energy efficiency and renewable energy. Germany_sentence_266

Tourism Germany_section_18

Main article: Tourism in Germany Germany_sentence_267

Germany is the ninth most visited country in the world as of 2017, with 37.4 million visits. Germany_sentence_268

Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe. Germany_sentence_269

Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over €105.3 billion to German GDP. Germany_sentence_270

Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry supports 4.2 million jobs. Germany_sentence_271

Germany's most visited and popular landmarks include Cologne Cathedral, the Brandenburg Gate, the Reichstag, the Dresden Frauenkirche, Neuschwanstein Castle, Heidelberg Castle, the Wartburg, and Sanssouci Palace. Germany_sentence_272

The Europa-Park near Freiburg is Europe's second most popular theme park resort. Germany_sentence_273

Demographics Germany_section_19

Main articles: Demographics of Germany and Germans Germany_sentence_274

With a population of 80.2 million according to the 2011 census, rising to 83.1 million as of 2019, Germany is the most populous country in the European Union, the second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the 19th most populous country in the world. Germany_sentence_275

Its population density stands at 227 inhabitants per square kilometre (588 per square mile). Germany_sentence_276

The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is 80.19 years (77.93 years for males and 82.58 years for females). Germany_sentence_277

The fertility rate of 1.41 children born per woman (2011 estimates) is below the replacement rate of 2.1 and is one of the lowest fertility rates in the world. Germany_sentence_278

Since the 1970s, Germany's death rate has exceeded its birth rate. Germany_sentence_279

However, Germany is witnessing increased birth rates and migration rates since the beginning of the 2010s, particularly a rise in the number of well-educated migrants. Germany_sentence_280

Germany has the third oldest population in the world, with the average age of 47.4 years. Germany_sentence_281

Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries: There is a Danish minority in the northernmost state of Schleswig-Holstein; the Sorbs, a Slavic population, are in the Lusatia region of Saxony and Brandenburg. Germany_sentence_282

the Roma and Sinti live throughout the country; and the Frisians are concentrated in Schleswig-Holstein's western coast and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony. Germany_sentence_283

After the United States, Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world. Germany_sentence_284

The majority of migrants live in western Germany, in particular in urban areas. Germany_sentence_285

Of the country's residents, 18.6 million people (22.5%) were of immigrant or partially immigrant descent in 2016 (including persons descending or partially descending from ethnic German repatriates). Germany_sentence_286

In 2015, the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs listed Germany as host to the second-highest number of international migrants worldwide, about 5% or 12 million of all 244 million migrants. Germany_sentence_287

As of 2018, Germany ranks fifth amongst EU countries in terms of the percentage of migrants in the country's population, at 12.9%. Germany_sentence_288

Germany has a number of large cities. Germany_sentence_289

There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions. Germany_sentence_290

The country's largest city is Berlin, while its largest urban area is the Ruhr. Germany_sentence_291

Religion Germany_section_20

Main article: Religion in Germany Germany_sentence_292

The 2011 German Census showed Christianity as the largest religion in Germany, with 66.8% identified themselves as Christian, with 3.8% of those not being church members. Germany_sentence_293

31.7% declared themselves as Protestants, including members of the Evangelical Church in Germany (which encompasses Lutheran, Reformed and administrative or confessional unions of both traditions) and the free churches (German: Evangelische Freikirchen); 31.2% declared themselves as Roman Catholics, and Orthodox believers constituted 1.3%. Germany_sentence_294

According to data from 2016, the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed 28.5% and 27.5%, respectively, of the population. Germany_sentence_295

Islam is the second largest religion in the country. Germany_sentence_296

In the 2011 census, 1.9% of the census population (1.52 million people) gave their religion as Islam, but this figure is deemed unreliable because a disproportionate number of adherents of this religion (and other religions, such as Judaism) are likely to have made use of their right not to answer the question. Germany_sentence_297

Most of the Muslims are Sunnis and Alevites from Turkey, but there are a small number of Shi'ites, Ahmadiyyas and other denominations. Germany_sentence_298

Other religions comprise less than one percent of Germany's population. Germany_sentence_299

A study in 2018 estimated that 38% of the population are not members of any religious organization or denomination, though up to a third may still consider themselves religious. Germany_sentence_300

Irreligion in Germany is strongest in the former East Germany, which used to be predominantly Protestant before the enforcement of state atheism, and in major metropolitan areas. Germany_sentence_301

Languages Germany_section_21

Main articles: German language and Languages of Germany Germany_sentence_302

German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany. Germany_sentence_303

It is one of 24 official and working languages of the European Union, and one of the three procedural languages of the European Commission. Germany_sentence_304

German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union, with around 100 million native speakers. Germany_sentence_305

Recognised native minority languages in Germany are Danish, Low German, Low Rhenish, Sorbian, Romany, North Frisian and Saterland Frisian; they are officially protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Germany_sentence_306

The most used immigrant languages are Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish, Polish, the Balkan languages and Russian. Germany_sentence_307

Germans are typically multilingual: 67% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language and 27% in at least two. Germany_sentence_308

Education Germany_section_22

Main article: Education in Germany Germany_sentence_309

Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states. Germany_sentence_310

Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years. Germany_sentence_311

Primary education usually lasts for four to six years. Germany_sentence_312

Secondary schooling is divided into tracks based on whether students pursue academic or vocational education. Germany_sentence_313

A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree. Germany_sentence_314

It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school. Germany_sentence_315

This model is well regarded and reproduced all around the world. Germany_sentence_316

Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment. Germany_sentence_317

The general requirement for university is the Abitur. Germany_sentence_318

According to an OECD report in 2014, Germany is the world's third leading destination for international study. Germany_sentence_319

The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world, with Heidelberg University (established in 1386) being the oldest. Germany_sentence_320

The Humboldt University of Berlin, founded in 1810 by the liberal educational reformer Wilhelm von Humboldt, became the academic model for many Western universities. Germany_sentence_321

In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence. Germany_sentence_322

Health Germany_section_23

Main article: Healthcare in Germany Germany_sentence_323

Germany's system of hospitals, called Krankenhäuser, dates from medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the 1880s. Germany_sentence_324

Since the 1880s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system. Germany_sentence_325

The population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract. Germany_sentence_326

According to the World Health Organization, Germany's health care system was 77% government-funded and 23% privately funded as of 2013. Germany_sentence_327

In 2014, Germany spent 11.3% of its GDP on health care. Germany_sentence_328

Germany ranked 20th in the world in 2013 in life expectancy with 77 years for men and 82 years for women, and it had a very low infant mortality rate (4 per 1,000 live births). Germany_sentence_329

In 2019, the principal cause of death was cardiovascular disease, at 37%. Germany_sentence_330

Obesity in Germany has been increasingly cited as a major health issue. Germany_sentence_331

A 2014 study showed that 52 percent of the adult German population was overweight or obese. Germany_sentence_332

Culture Germany_section_24

Main article: Culture of Germany Germany_sentence_333

Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular. Germany_sentence_334

Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker ("the land of poets and thinkers"), because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought. Germany_sentence_335

A global opinion poll for the BBC revealed that Germany is recognised for having the most positive influence in the world in 2013 and 2014. Germany_sentence_336

Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs, which include Advent wreaths, Christmas pageants, Christmas trees, Stollen cakes, and other practices. Germany_sentence_337

As of 2016 UNESCO inscribed 41 properties in Germany on the World Heritage List. Germany_sentence_338

There are a number of public holidays in Germany determined by each state; 3 October has been a national day of Germany since 1990, celebrated as the Tag der Deutschen Einheit (German Unity Day). Germany_sentence_339

Music Germany_section_25

Main article: Music of Germany Germany_sentence_340

German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers. Germany_sentence_341

Dieterich Buxtehude, Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel were influential composers of the Baroque period. Germany_sentence_342

Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras. Germany_sentence_343

Carl Maria von Weber, Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms were significant Romantic composers. Germany_sentence_344

Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Germany_sentence_345

Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. Germany_sentence_346

Karlheinz Stockhausen and Wolfgang Rihm are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. Germany_sentence_347

As of 2013, Germany was the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world. Germany_sentence_348

German popular music of the 20th and 21st centuries includes the movements of Neue Deutsche Welle, pop, Ostrock, heavy metal/rock, punk, pop rock, indie and schlager pop. Germany_sentence_349

German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre. Germany_sentence_350

DJs and artists of the techno and house music scenes of Germany have become well known (e.g. Paul van Dyk, Paul Kalkbrenner, and Scooter). Germany_sentence_351

Art and design Germany_section_26

Main articles: German art, Architecture of Germany, and German fashion Germany_sentence_352

German painters have influenced western art. Germany_sentence_353

Albrecht Dürer, Hans Holbein the Younger, Matthias Grünewald and Lucas Cranach the Elder were important German artists of the Renaissance, Johann Baptist Zimmermann of the Baroque, Caspar David Friedrich and Carl Spitzweg of Romanticism, Max Liebermann of Impressionism and Max Ernst of Surrealism. Germany_sentence_354

Several German art groups formed in the 20th century; Die Brücke (The Bridge) and Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) influenced the development of expressionism in Munich and Berlin. Germany_sentence_355

The New Objectivity arose in response to expressionism during the Weimar Republic. Germany_sentence_356

After World War II, broad trends in German art include neo-expressionism and the New Leipzig School. Germany_sentence_357

Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles, which were precursors of Romanesque. Germany_sentence_358

Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Germany_sentence_359

Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved (e.g. Weser Renaissance). Germany_sentence_360

Vernacular architecture in Germany is often identified by its timber framing (Fachwerk) traditions and varies across regions, and among carpentry styles. Germany_sentence_361

When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism and a distinctive style of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Gründerzeit style. Germany_sentence_362

Expressionist architecture developed in the 1910s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles. Germany_sentence_363

Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: it is the home of Werkbund initiated by Hermann Muthesius (New Objectivity), and of the Bauhaus movement founded by Walter Gropius. Germany_sentence_364

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century; he conceived of the glass façade skyscraper. Germany_sentence_365

Renowned contemporary architects and offices include Pritzker Prize winners Gottfried Böhm and Frei Otto. Germany_sentence_366

German designers became early leaders of modern product design. Germany_sentence_367

The Berlin Fashion Week and the fashion trade fair Bread & Butter are held twice a year. Germany_sentence_368

Literature and philosophy Germany_section_27

Main articles: German literature and German philosophy Germany_sentence_369

German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach. Germany_sentence_370

Well-known German authors include Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Theodor Fontane. Germany_sentence_371

The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level. Germany_sentence_372

The Grimms also gathered and codified regional variants of the German language, grounding their work in historical principles; their Deutsches Wörterbuch, or German Dictionary, sometimes called the Grimm dictionary, was begun in 1838 and the first volumes published in 1854. Germany_sentence_373

Influential authors of the 20th century include Gerhart Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, Heinrich Böll and Günter Grass. Germany_sentence_374

The German book market is the third largest in the world, after the United States and China. Germany_sentence_375

The Frankfurt Book Fair is the most important in the world for international deals and trading, with a tradition spanning over 500 years. Germany_sentence_376

The Leipzig Book Fair also retains a major position in Europe. Germany_sentence_377

German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz's contributions to rationalism; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant; the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling; Arthur Schopenhauer's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; Friedrich Nietzsche's development of perspectivism; Gottlob Frege's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy; Martin Heidegger's works on Being; Oswald Spengler's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt School has been particularly influential. Germany_sentence_378

Media Germany_section_28

Main articles: Media of Germany and Cinema of Germany Germany_sentence_379

The largest internationally operating media companies in Germany are the Bertelsmann enterprise, Axel Springer SE and ProSiebenSat.1 Media. Germany_sentence_380

Germany's television market is the largest in Europe, with some 38 million TV households. Germany_sentence_381

Around 90% of German households have cable or satellite TV, with a variety of free-to-view public and commercial channels. Germany_sentence_382

There are more than 300 public and private radio stations in Germany; Germany's national radio network is the Deutschlandradio and the public Deutsche Welle is the main German radio and television broadcaster in foreign languages. Germany_sentence_383

Germany's print market of newspapers and magazines is the largest in Europe. Germany_sentence_384

The papers with the highest circulation are Bild, Süddeutsche Zeitung, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and Die Welt. Germany_sentence_385

The largest magazines include ADAC Motorwelt and Der Spiegel. Germany_sentence_386

Germany has a large video gaming market, with over 34 million players nationwide. Germany_sentence_387

German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. Germany_sentence_388

The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in 1895. Germany_sentence_389

The renowned Babelsberg Studio in Potsdam was established in 1912, thus being the first large-scale film studio in the world. Germany_sentence_390

Early German cinema was particularly influential with German expressionists such as Robert Wiene and Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau. Germany_sentence_391

Director Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1927) is referred to as the first major science-fiction film. Germany_sentence_392

After 1945, many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm (rubble film). Germany_sentence_393

East German film was dominated by state-owned film studio DEFA, while the dominant genre in West Germany was the Heimatfilm ("homeland film"). Germany_sentence_394

During the 1970s and 1980s, New German Cinema directors such as Volker Schlöndorff, Werner Herzog, Wim Wenders, and Rainer Werner Fassbinder brought West German auteur cinema to critical acclaim. Germany_sentence_395

The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film ("Oscar") went to the German production Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum) in 1979, to Nirgendwo in Afrika (Nowhere in Africa) in 2002, and to Das Leben der Anderen (The Lives of Others) in 2007. Germany_sentence_396

Various Germans won an Oscar for their performances in other films. Germany_sentence_397

The annual European Film Awards ceremony is held every other year in Berlin, home of the European Film Academy. Germany_sentence_398

The Berlin International Film Festival, known as "Berlinale", awarding the "Golden Bear" and held annually since 1951, is one of the world's leading film festivals. Germany_sentence_399

The "Lolas" are annually awarded in Berlin, at the German Film Awards. Germany_sentence_400

Cuisine Germany_section_29

Main article: German cuisine Germany_sentence_401

German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities (e.g. the southern regions of Bavaria and Swabia share some traditions with Switzerland and Austria). Germany_sentence_402

International varieties such as pizza, sushi, Chinese food, Greek food, Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular. Germany_sentence_403

Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about 600 main types of bread and 1,200 types of pastries and rolls (Brötchen). Germany_sentence_404

German cheeses account for about 22% of all cheese produced in Europe. Germany_sentence_405

In 2012 over 99% of all meat produced in Germany was either pork, chicken or beef. Germany_sentence_406

Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1,500 varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts. Germany_sentence_407

Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions, the national alcoholic drink is beer. Germany_sentence_408

German beer consumption per person stands at 110 litres (24 imp gal; 29 US gal) in 2013 and remains among the highest in the world. Germany_sentence_409

German beer purity regulations date back to the 16th century. Germany_sentence_410

The 2018 Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars, giving the country a cumulative total of 300 stars. Germany_sentence_411

Sports Germany_section_30

Main article: Sport in Germany Germany_sentence_412

Football is the most popular sport in Germany. Germany_sentence_413

With more than 7 million official members, the German Football Association (Deutscher Fußball-Bund) is the largest single-sport organisation worldwide, and the German top league, the Bundesliga, attracts the second highest average attendance of all professional sports leagues in the world. Germany_sentence_414

The German men's national football team won the FIFA World Cup in 1954, 1974, 1990, and 2014, the UEFA European Championship in 1972, 1980 and 1996, and the FIFA Confederations Cup in 2017. Germany_sentence_415

Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world. Germany_sentence_416

Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Germany_sentence_417

Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times (as of 2017). Germany_sentence_418

The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships. Germany_sentence_419

Sebastian Vettel is also among the top five most successful Formula One drivers of all time. Germany_sentence_420

Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games, ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count (when combining East and West German medals). Germany_sentence_421

Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in 1936: the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Germany_sentence_422

Munich hosted the Summer Games of 1972. Germany_sentence_423

See also Germany_section_31


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