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This article is about the modern country of Ghana. Ghana_sentence_0

For other uses, see Ghana (disambiguation) and Gana (disambiguation). Ghana_sentence_1


Republic of GhanaGhana_header_cell_0_0_0

and largest cityGhana_header_cell_0_1_0

Official languagesGhana_header_cell_0_2_0 EnglishGhana_cell_0_2_1
Recognised national languagesGhana_header_cell_0_3_0 Ghana_cell_0_3_1
Ethnic groups (2010)Ghana_header_cell_0_4_0 Ghana_cell_0_4_1
ReligionGhana_header_cell_0_5_0 Ghana_cell_0_5_1
Demonym(s)Ghana_header_cell_0_6_0 GhanaianGhana_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentGhana_header_cell_0_7_0 Ghana_cell_0_7_1
PresidentGhana_header_cell_0_8_0 Nana Akufo-AddoGhana_cell_0_8_1
Vice-PresidentGhana_header_cell_0_9_0 Mahamudu BawumiaGhana_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureGhana_header_cell_0_10_0 ParliamentGhana_cell_0_10_1
Independence from the United KingdomGhana_header_cell_0_11_0
DominionGhana_header_cell_0_12_0 6 March 1957Ghana_cell_0_12_1
RepublicGhana_header_cell_0_13_0 1 July 1960Ghana_cell_0_13_1
Current constitutionGhana_header_cell_0_14_0 28 April 1992Ghana_cell_0_14_1
Area Ghana_header_cell_0_15_0
TotalGhana_header_cell_0_16_0 239,567 km (92,497 sq mi) (80th)Ghana_cell_0_16_1
Water (%)Ghana_header_cell_0_17_0 4.61 (11,000 km; 4,247 mi)Ghana_cell_0_17_1
2020 estimateGhana_header_cell_0_19_0 31,072,940 (47th)Ghana_cell_0_19_1
2010 censusGhana_header_cell_0_20_0 24,200,000Ghana_cell_0_20_1
DensityGhana_header_cell_0_21_0 101.5/km (262.9/sq mi) (103rd)Ghana_cell_0_21_1
GDP (PPP)Ghana_header_cell_0_22_0 2020 estimateGhana_cell_0_22_1
TotalGhana_header_cell_0_23_0 $226 billionGhana_cell_0_23_1
Per capitaGhana_header_cell_0_24_0 $7,343Ghana_cell_0_24_1
GDP (nominal)Ghana_header_cell_0_25_0 2020 estimateGhana_cell_0_25_1
TotalGhana_header_cell_0_26_0 $69.757 billionGhana_cell_0_26_1
Per capitaGhana_header_cell_0_27_0 $2,266Ghana_cell_0_27_1
Gini (2012)Ghana_header_cell_0_28_0 42.4


HDI (2018)Ghana_header_cell_0_29_0 0.596

medium · 142ndGhana_cell_0_29_1

CurrencyGhana_header_cell_0_30_0 Ghanaian cedi (GHS)Ghana_cell_0_30_1
Time zoneGhana_header_cell_0_31_0 UTC (GMT)Ghana_cell_0_31_1
Driving sideGhana_header_cell_0_32_0 rightGhana_cell_0_32_1
Calling codeGhana_header_cell_0_33_0 +233Ghana_cell_0_33_1
ISO 3166 codeGhana_header_cell_0_34_0 GHGhana_cell_0_34_1
Internet TLDGhana_header_cell_0_35_0 .ghGhana_cell_0_35_1

Ghana (/ˈɡɑːnə/ (listen)), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country along the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Ghana_sentence_2

Spanning a land mass of 238,535 km (92,099 sq mi), Ghana is bordered by the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo in the east, the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean in the south. Ghana_sentence_3

Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language. Ghana_sentence_4

The first permanent state in the territory of present-day Ghana dates back to the 11th century, the Bono State. Ghana_sentence_5

Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful were the Kingdom of Dagbon and the Ashanti Empire. Ghana_sentence_6

Beginning in the 15th century, the Portuguese Empire, followed by numerous other European powers, contested the area for trading rights, until the British ultimately established control of the coast by the late 19th century. Ghana_sentence_7

Following over a century of native resistance, what are now Ghana's borders follow the lines of what were four separate British colonial territories: Gold Coast, Ashanti, the Northern Territories and British Togoland. Ghana_sentence_8

These were unified as an independent dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations on 6 March 1957. Ghana_sentence_9

Ghana's population of approximately 30 million spans a variety of ethnic, linguistic and religious groups. Ghana_sentence_10

According to the 2010 census, 71.2% of the population was Christian, 17.6% was Muslim, and 5.2% practised traditional faiths. Ghana_sentence_11

Its diverse geography and ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical rain forests. Ghana_sentence_12

Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy led by a president who is both head of state and head of the government. Ghana_sentence_13

Ghana's growing economic prosperity and democratic political system have made it a regional power in West Africa. Ghana_sentence_14

It is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Group of 24 (G24) and the Commonwealth of Nations. Ghana_sentence_15

Etymology Ghana_section_0

The etymology of the name Ghana means "Warrior King" and was the title accorded to the kings of the medieval Ghana Empire in West Africa, but the empire was further north than the modern nation of Ghana, in the region of Guinea. Ghana_sentence_16

Ghana was known for its large Gold usage, and hence was named the Land of Gold by the Arabs during the Trans-Saharan trade. Ghana_sentence_17

History Ghana_section_1

Main article: History of Ghana Ghana_sentence_18

Medieval kingdoms Ghana_section_2

Main articles: Kingdom of Ashanti and Kingdom of Dagbon Ghana_sentence_19

Ghana was recognised as one of the great kingdoms in Bilad el-Sudan by the ninth century. Ghana_sentence_20

Ghana was inhabited in the Middle Ages and the Age of Discovery by a number of ancient predominantly Akan kingdoms in the Southern and Central territories. Ghana_sentence_21

This included the Ashanti Empire, the Akwamu, the Bonoman, the Denkyira, and the Mankessim Kingdom. Ghana_sentence_22

Although the area of present-day Ghana in West Africa has experienced many population movements, the Akans were firmly settled by the 5th century CE. Ghana_sentence_23

By the early 11th century, the Akans were firmly established in the Akan state called Bonoman, for which the Brong-Ahafo Region is named. Ghana_sentence_24

From the 13th century, Akans emerged from what is believed to have been the Bonoman area, to create several Akan states of Ghana, mainly based on gold trading. Ghana_sentence_25

These states included Bonoman (Brong-Ahafo Region), Ashanti (Ashanti Region), Denkyira (Western North region), Mankessim Kingdom (Central region), and Akwamu (Eastern region). Ghana_sentence_26

By the 19th century, the territory of the southern part of Ghana was included in the Kingdom of Ashanti, one of the most influential states in sub-saharan Africa prior to the onset of colonialism. Ghana_sentence_27

The Kingdom of Ashanti government operated first as a loose network, and eventually as a centralised kingdom with an advanced, highly specialised bureaucracy centred in the capital city of Kumasi. Ghana_sentence_28

Prior to Akan contact with Europeans, the Akan people created an advanced economy based on principally gold and gold bar commodities then traded with the states of Africa. Ghana_sentence_29

The earliest known kingdoms to emerge in modern Ghana were the Mole-Dagbani states. Ghana_sentence_30

The Mole-Dagomba came on horseback from present-day Burkina Faso under a single leader, Naa Gbewaa. Ghana_sentence_31

With their advanced weapons and based on a central authority, they easily invaded and occupied the lands of the local people ruled by the Tendamba (land god priests), established themselves as the rulers over the locals, and made Gambaga their capital. Ghana_sentence_32

The death of Naa Gbewaa caused civil war among his children, some of whom broke off and founded separate states including Dagbon, Mamprugu, Mossi, Nanumba and Wala. Ghana_sentence_33

European contact (15th century) Ghana_section_3

Main articles: Gold Coast (region), Portuguese Gold Coast, Dutch Gold Coast, Dutch Slave Coast, Swedish Gold Coast, Danish Gold Coast, Brandenburger Gold Coast, and Gold Coast (British colony) Ghana_sentence_34

Akan trade with European states began after contact with the Portuguese in the 15th century. Ghana_sentence_35

Early European contact by the Portuguese people, who came to the Gold Coast region in the 15th century to trade and then established the Portuguese Gold Coast (Costa do Ouro), focused on the extensive availability of gold. Ghana_sentence_36

The Portuguese built a trading lodge at a coastal settlement called Anomansah (the perpetual drink) which they renamed São Jorge da Mina. Ghana_sentence_37

In 1481, King John II of Portugal commissioned Don Diego d'Azambuja to build the Elmina Castle, which was completed in three years. Ghana_sentence_38

By 1598, the Dutch had joined the Portuguese in the gold trade, establishing the Dutch Gold Coast (Nederlandse Bezittingen ter Kuste van Guinea) and building forts at Fort Komenda and Kormantsi. Ghana_sentence_39

In 1617, the Dutch captured the Olnini Castle from the Portuguese, and Axim in 1642 (Fort St Anthony). Ghana_sentence_40

Other European traders had joined in gold trading by the mid-17th century, most notably the Swedes, establishing the Swedish Gold Coast (Svenska Guldkusten), and Denmark-Norway, establishing the Danish Gold Coast (Danske Guldkyst or Dansk Guinea). Ghana_sentence_41

Portuguese merchants, impressed with the gold resources in the area, named it Costa do Ouro or Gold Coast. Ghana_sentence_42

Also beginning in the 17th century — in addition to the gold trade — Portuguese, Dutch, English, and French traders also participated in the Atlantic slave trade in this area. Ghana_sentence_43

More than thirty forts and castles were built by the Portuguese, Swedish, Dano-Norwegians, Dutch and German merchants; the latter Germans establishing the German Gold Coast (Brandenburger Gold Coast or Groß Friedrichsburg). Ghana_sentence_44

In 1874 Great Britain established control over some parts of the country, assigning these areas the status of British Gold Coast. Ghana_sentence_45

Many military engagements occurred between the British colonial powers and the various Akan nation-states. Ghana_sentence_46

The Akan Kingdom of Ashanti defeated the British a few times in the 100-year-long Anglo-Ashanti wars but eventually lost with the War of the Golden Stool in the early 1900s. Ghana_sentence_47

Transition to independence Ghana_section_4

See also: Dominion of Ghana and Ghana Independence Act 1957 Ghana_sentence_48

In 1947, the newly formed United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) led by "The Big Six" called for "self-government within the shortest possible time" following the Gold Coast legislative election, 1946. Ghana_sentence_49

Kwame Nkrumah, a Ghanaian nationalist who led Ghana from 1957 to 1966 as the country's first Prime Minister and President, formed the Convention People's Party (CPP) in 1949 with the motto "self-government now". Ghana_sentence_50

The party initiated a "positive action" campaign involving non-violent protests, strikes and non-cooperation with the British authorities. Ghana_sentence_51

Nkrumah was arrested and sentenced to one year imprisonment during this time. Ghana_sentence_52

In the Gold Coast's February 1951 general election, he was elected to Parliament and released from prison to become leader of government business. Ghana_sentence_53

He became Prime Minister of the Gold Coast in 1952. Ghana_sentence_54

He improved the infrastructure of the country and his Africanisation policies created better career opportunities for Ghanaians. Ghana_sentence_55

On 6 March 1957 at 12 midnight, the Gold Coast, Ashanti, the Northern Territories and British Togoland were unified as one single independent dominion within the British Commonwealth under the name Ghana. Ghana_sentence_56

This was done under the Ghana Independence Act 1957. Ghana_sentence_57

The current flag of Ghana, consisting of the colours red, gold, green, and a black star, dates back to this unification. Ghana_sentence_58

It was designed by Theodosia Salome Okoh; the red represents the blood that was shed towards independence, the gold represents the industrial minerals wealth of Ghana, the green symbolises the rich grasslands of Ghana, and the black star is the symbol of the Ghanaian people and African emancipation. Ghana_sentence_59

On 1 July 1960, following the Ghanaian constitutional referendum and Ghanaian presidential election, Nkrumah declared Ghana as a republic and assumed the presidency. Ghana_sentence_60

6 March is the nation's Independence Day and 1 July is now celebrated as Republic Day. Ghana_sentence_61

At the time of independence Nkrumah declared, "My first objective is to abolish from Ghana poverty, ignorance, and disease. Ghana_sentence_62

We shall measure our progress by the improvement in the health of our people; by the number of children in school, and by the quality of their education; by the availability of water and electricity in our towns and villages; and by the happiness which our people take in being able to manage their own affairs. Ghana_sentence_63

The welfare of our people is our chief pride, and it is by this that the government will ask to be judged. Ghana_sentence_64

". Ghana_sentence_65

Nkrumah was the first African head of state to promote the concept of Pan-Africanism, which he had been introduced to during his studies at Lincoln University, Pennsylvania in the United States, at the time when Marcus Garvey was becoming famous for his "Back to Africa Movement". Ghana_sentence_66

Nkrumah merged the teachings of Garvey, Martin Luther King Jr. and the naturalised Ghanaian scholar W. Ghana_sentence_67 E. B. Ghana_sentence_68 Du Bois into the formation of 1960s Ghana. Ghana_sentence_69

Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, as he became known, played an instrumental part in the founding of the Non-Aligned Movement, and in establishing the Kwame Nkrumah Ideological Institute to teach his ideologies of communism and socialism. Ghana_sentence_70

His life achievements were recognised by Ghanaians during his centenary birthday celebration, and the day was instituted as a public holiday in Ghana (Founder's Day). Ghana_sentence_71

Operation Cold Chop and aftermath Ghana_section_5

Main article: History of Ghana (1966–79) Ghana_sentence_72

The government of Nkrumah was subsequently overthrown by a coup by the Ghana Armed Forces codenamed "Operation Cold Chop". Ghana_sentence_73

This occurred while Nkrumah was abroad with Zhou Enlai in the People's Republic of China, on a fruitless mission to Hanoi in Vietnam to help end the Vietnam War. Ghana_sentence_74

The coup took place on 24 February 1966, led by Col. Emmanuel Kwasi Kotoka. Ghana_sentence_75

The National Liberation Council (NLC) was formed, chaired by Lt. General Joseph A. Ankrah. Ghana_sentence_76

A series of alternating military and civilian governments, often affected by economic instabilities, ruled Ghana from 1966 to 1981, ending with the ascension to power of Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings of the Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC) in 1981. Ghana_sentence_77

These changes resulted in the suspension of the Constitution of Ghana in 1981, and the banning of political parties in Ghana. Ghana_sentence_78

The economy soon declined, so Rawlings negotiated a structural adjustment plan changing many old economic policies, and economic growth soon recovered during the mid-1980s. Ghana_sentence_79

A new Constitution of Ghana restoring multi-party system politics was promulgated in Ghanaian presidential election, 1992; Rawlings was elected as president of Ghana then, and again in Ghanaian general election, 1996. Ghana_sentence_80

21st century Ghana_section_6

Winning the 2000 Ghanaian elections, John Agyekum Kufuor of the New Patriotic Party (NPP) was sworn into office as president of Ghana on 7 January 2001, and attained the presidency again in the 2004 Ghanaian elections, thus also serving two terms (the term limit) as president of Ghana and thus marking the first time under the fourth republic that power was transferred from one legitimately elected head of state and head of government to another. Ghana_sentence_81

Nana Akufo-Addo, the ruling party candidate, was defeated in a very close election by John Atta Mills of the National Democratic Congress (NDC) following the Ghanaian presidential election, 2008. Ghana_sentence_82

Mills died of natural causes and was succeeded by vice-president John Dramani Mahama on 24 July 2012. Ghana_sentence_83

Following the Ghanaian presidential election, 2012, John Dramani Mahama became President-elect and was inaugurated on 7 January 2013. Ghana_sentence_84

Ghana was a stable democracy. Ghana_sentence_85

As a result of the Ghanaian presidential election, 2016, Nana Akufo-Addo became President-elect and was inaugurated as the fifth President of the Fourth Republic of Ghana and eighth President of Ghana on 7 January 2017. Ghana_sentence_86

Historical timeline Ghana_section_7

Geography and geology Ghana_section_8

Main articles: Geography of Ghana and Geology of Ghana Ghana_sentence_87

Ghana is located on the Gulf of Guinea, only a few degrees north of the Equator, therefore giving it a warm climate. Ghana_sentence_88

Ghana spans an area of 238,535 km (92,099 sq mi), and has an Atlantic coastline that stretches 560 kilometres (350 miles) on the Gulf of Guinea in Atlantic Ocean to its south. Ghana_sentence_89

It lies between latitudes 4°45'N and 11°N, and longitudes 1°15'E and 3°15'W. Ghana_sentence_90

The Prime Meridian passes through Ghana, specifically through the industrial port town of Tema. Ghana_sentence_91

Ghana is geographically closer to the "centre" of the Earth geographical coordinates than any other country; even though the notional centre, (0°, 0°) is located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately 614 km (382 mi) off the south-east coast of Ghana on the Gulf of Guinea. Ghana_sentence_92

Grasslands mixed with south coastal shrublands and forests dominate Ghana, with forest extending northward from the south-west coast of Ghana on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean 320 kilometres (200 miles) and eastward for a maximum of about 270 kilometres (170 miles) with the Kingdom of Ashanti or the southern part of Ghana being a primary location for mining of industrial minerals and timber. Ghana_sentence_93

Ghana encompasses plains, waterfalls, low hills, rivers, Lake Volta, the world's largest artificial lake, Dodi Island and Bobowasi Island on the south Atlantic Ocean coast of Ghana. Ghana_sentence_94

The northernmost part of Ghana is Pulmakong and the southernmost part of Ghana is Cape Three Points. Ghana_sentence_95

Climate Ghana_section_9

Main article: Climate of Ghana Ghana_sentence_96

The climate of Ghana is tropical, and there are two main seasons: the wet season and the dry season. Ghana_sentence_97

Government and politics Ghana_section_10

Main article: Government of Ghana Ghana_sentence_98

Further information: Politics of Ghana Ghana_sentence_99

Ghana is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy with a parliamentary multi-party system that is dominated by two parties — the National Democratic Congress (NDC) and the New Patriotic Party (NPP). Ghana_sentence_100

Ghana alternated between civilian and military governments until January 1993, when the military government gave way to the Fourth Republic of Ghana after presidential and parliamentary elections in late 1992. Ghana_sentence_101

The 1992 constitution of Ghana divides powers among a Commander-in-Chief of the Ghana Armed Forces (President of Ghana), parliament (Parliament of Ghana), cabinet (Cabinet of Ghana), council of state (Ghanaian Council of State), and an independent judiciary (Judiciary of Ghana). Ghana_sentence_102

The Government of Ghana is elected by universal suffrage after every four years. Ghana_sentence_103

Nana Akufo-Addo won the Presidency in the Ghanaian general election held on 7 December 2016, defeating incumbent John Mahama. Ghana_sentence_104

He was sworn in on 7 January 2017. Ghana_sentence_105

The 2012 Fragile States Index indicated that Ghana is ranked the 67th least fragile state in the world and the 5th least fragile state in Africa after Mauritius, 2nd Seychelles, 3rd Botswana, and 4th South Africa. Ghana_sentence_106

Ghana ranked 112th out of 177 countries on the index. Ghana_sentence_107

Ghana ranked as the 64th least corrupt and politically corrupt country in the world out of all 174 countries ranked and Ghana ranked as the 5th least corrupt and politically corrupt country in Africa out of 53 countries in the 2012 Transparency International Corruption Perception Index. Ghana_sentence_108

Ghana was ranked 7th in Africa out of 53 countries in the 2012 Ibrahim Index of African Governance. Ghana_sentence_109

The Ibrahim Index is a comprehensive measure of African government, based on a number of different variables which reflect the success with which governments deliver essential political goods to its citizens. Ghana_sentence_110

Foreign relations Ghana_section_11

Main article: Foreign relations of Ghana Ghana_sentence_111

Since independence, Ghana has been devoted to ideals of nonalignment and is a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement. Ghana_sentence_112

Ghana favours international and regional political and economic co-operation, and is an active member of the United Nations and the African Union. Ghana_sentence_113

Ghana has a strong relationship with the United States. Ghana_sentence_114

Three recent US presidents--Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama—made diplomatic trips to Ghana. Ghana_sentence_115

Many Ghanaian diplomats and politicians hold positions in international organisations, including Ghanaian diplomat and former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, International Criminal Court Judge Akua Kuenyehia, and former President Jerry John Rawlings and former President John Agyekum Kuffour, who both served as diplomats of the United Nations. Ghana_sentence_116

In September 2010, Ghana's former President John Atta Mills visited China on an official visit. Ghana_sentence_117

Mills and China's former President Hu Jintao, marked the 50th anniversary of diplomatic ties between the two nations, at the Great Hall of the People on 20 September 2010. Ghana_sentence_118

China reciprocated with an official visit in November 2011, by the Vice-Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of China, Zhou Tienong who visited Ghana and met with Ghana's President John Dramani Mahama. Ghana_sentence_119

The Islamic Republic of Iran and the 6th President of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad met with the 12th President of Ghana, John Dramani Mahama on 16 April 2013 to hold discussions with President John Dramani Mahama on strengthening the Non-Aligned Movement and also co–chair a bilateral meeting between Ghana and Iran at the Ghanaian presidential palace Flagstaff House. Ghana_sentence_120

The Government of Ghana reciprocated with an official state visit on 5 August 2013 by the Vice-President of Ghana, Kwesi Amissah-Arthur, who met with the Vice-President of Iran, Eshaq Jahangiri on the basis of autarky and possible bilateral trade at the Islamic Republic of Iran's presidential palace, Sa'dabad Palace. Ghana_sentence_121

UN Agencies in Ghana Ghana_section_12

There are a number of UN Entities in the country such as the FAO, IFAD, ILO, IMO, IOM, UN-Habitat, UNAIDS, UNCDF, UNDP, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNIC, UNICEF, UNIDO, UNODC, UNOPS, WFP and WHO. Ghana_sentence_122

Sustainable Development Goals Ghana_section_13

Further information: Sustainable Development Goals and Ghana Ghana_sentence_123

The Sustainable Development Goals in Ghana were integrated into Ghana's development agenda and the budget. Ghana_sentence_124

The SDGs were said to have been implemented through the decentralized planning system. Ghana_sentence_125

This allows stakeholders participations such as UN Agencies, traditional leaders, civil society organizations, academia, and others. Ghana_sentence_126

The SDGs are a global call to action to end poverty among others. Ghana_sentence_127

The goals are 17 in number and the UN and its partners in the country are working towards achieving them. Ghana_sentence_128

According to the president Nana Akufo-Addo of Ghana, Ghana was "the first sub-Saharan African country to achieve the goal of halving poverty, as contained in Goal 1 of the Millennium Development GoalsGhana_sentence_129

Law enforcement and police Ghana_section_14

Further information: Law enforcement in Ghana Ghana_sentence_130

The Ghana Police Service (GPS) and the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) are the main law enforcement agencies of the Republic of Ghana, and are responsible for the detection of crime, maintenance of law and order and the maintenance of internal peace and security. Ghana_sentence_131

The Ghana Police Service has eleven specialised police units including a Militarized police Rapid deployment force (RDF) and Marine Police Unit (MPU). Ghana_sentence_132

The Ghana Police Service operates in 12 divisions: ten covering the ten regions of Ghana, one assigned specifically to the seaport and industrial hub of Tema, and the twelfth being the Railways, Ports and Harbours Division. Ghana_sentence_133

The Ghana Police Service's Marine Police Unit and Division handles issues that arise from the country's offshore oil and gas industry. Ghana_sentence_134

The Ghana Prisons Service and the sub-division Borstal Institute for Juveniles administers incarceration in Ghana. Ghana_sentence_135

Ghana retains and exercises the death penalty for treason, corruption, robbery, piracy, drug trafficking, rape, and homicide. Ghana_sentence_136

27 convicts (all men) were sentenced to death in Ghana in 2012 and the Ghana Prisons Service statistics of the total number of convicts sentenced to death in Ghana as of December 2012 was 162 men and 4 women, with a total prison inmate population of 13,983 convicts as of 22 July 2013. Ghana_sentence_137

"The new sustainable development goals adopted by the United Nations call for the international community to come together to promote the rule of law; support equal access to justice for all; reduce corruption; and develop effective, accountable, and transparent institutions at all levels." Ghana_sentence_138

Ghanaian drug war and the Narcotics Control Board Ghana_section_15

Ghana is used as a key narcotics industry transshipment point by traffickers, usually from South America as well as some from other African nations. Ghana_sentence_139

In 2013, the UN chief of the Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) stated that "West Africa is completely weak in terms of border control and the big drug cartels from Colombia and Latin America have chosen Africa as a way to reach Europe." Ghana_sentence_140

There is not a wide or popular knowledge about the narcotics industry and intercepted narcotics within Ghana itself, due to the industry's operations and involvement in the underground economy. Ghana_sentence_141

The social context within which narcotic trafficking, storage, transportation, and repacking systems exist in Ghana and the state's location along the Gulf of Guinea within the Atlantic Ocean – only a few degrees north of the Equator – makes Ghana an attractive country for the narcotics business. Ghana_sentence_142

The Narcotics Control Board (NACOB) has impounded container ships at the Sekondi Naval Base in the Takoradi Harbour. Ghana_sentence_143

These ships were carrying thousands of kilograms of cocaine, with a street value running into billions of Ghana cedis. Ghana_sentence_144

However, drug seizures saw a decline in 2011. Ghana_sentence_145

Drug cartels are using new methods in narcotics production and narcotics exportation, to avoid Ghanaian security agencies. Ghana_sentence_146

Underdeveloped institutions, porous open borders, and the existence of established smuggling organisations contribute to Ghana's position in the narcotics industry. Ghana_sentence_147

John Atta Mills, president between 2009 and 2012, initiated ongoing efforts to reduce the role of airports in Ghana's drug trade. Ghana_sentence_148

Military Ghana_section_16

Main article: Ghana Armed Forces Ghana_sentence_149

In 1957, the Ghana Armed Forces (GAF) consisted of its headquarters, support services, three battalions of infantry and a reconnaissance squadron with armoured vehicles. Ghana_sentence_150

Ghanaian Prime Minister and President Kwame Nkrumah aimed at rapidly expanding the GAF to support the United States of Africa ambitions. Ghana_sentence_151

Thus in 1961, 4th and 5th Battalions were established, and in 1964 6th Battalion was established, from a parachute airborne unit originally raised in 1963. Ghana_sentence_152

Today, Ghana is a regional power and regional hegemon. Ghana_sentence_153

In his book Shake Hands with the Devil, Canadian Forces commander Roméo Dallaire highly rated the GAF soldiers and military personnel. Ghana_sentence_154

The military operations and military doctrine of the GAF are conceptualised on the Constitution of Ghana, Ghana's Law on Armed Force Military Strategy, and Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (KAIPTC) agreements to which GAF is attestator. Ghana_sentence_155

GAF military operations are executed under the auspices and imperium of the Ministry of Defense (MoD) Minister for Defence. Ghana_sentence_156

Although Ghana is relatively peaceful and is often considered to be one of the least violent countries in the region, Ghana has experienced political violence in the past and 2017 has thus far seen an upward trend in incidents motivated by political grievances. Ghana_sentence_157

In 2017, Ghana signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. Ghana_sentence_158

Administrative divisions Ghana_section_17

Main article: Administrative divisions of Ghana Ghana_sentence_159

Ghana is divided into 16 administrative regions, sub-divided into 275 districts: Ghana_sentence_160

Human rights Ghana_section_18

See also: Human rights in Ghana and LGBT rights in Ghana Ghana_sentence_161

Homosexual acts are prohibited by law in Ghana. Ghana_sentence_162

According to 2013 survey by the Pew Research Center, 96% of Ghanaians believe that homosexuality should not be accepted by society. Ghana_sentence_163

Sometimes old women in Ghana are accused of witchcraft, particularly in rural Ghana. Ghana_sentence_164

Issues of witchcraft mainly remain as speculations based on superstitions within families. Ghana_sentence_165

In some parts of northern Ghana, there exists what are called witch camps. Ghana_sentence_166

This is said to house a total of around 1,000 people accused of witchcraft. Ghana_sentence_167

The Ghanaian government has announced that it intends to close the camps. Ghana_sentence_168

While women in Ghana are given equal rights under the constitution of Ghana, disparities in education, employment, and healthcare for women remain prevalent. Ghana_sentence_169

Economy Ghana_section_19

Main articles: Economy of Ghana, New media in Ghana, and Automobile manufacturing in Ghana Ghana_sentence_170

Key sectors Ghana_section_20

Ghana is an average natural resource enriched country possessing industrial minerals, hydrocarbons and precious metals. Ghana_sentence_171

It is an emerging designated digital economy with mixed economy hybridisation and an emerging market with 8.7% GDP growth in 2012. Ghana_sentence_172

It has an economic plan target known as the "Ghana Vision 2020". Ghana_sentence_173

This plan envisions Ghana as the first African country to become a developed country between 2020 and 2029 and a newly industrialised country between 2030 and 2039. Ghana_sentence_174

This excludes fellow Group of 24 member and Sub-Saharan African country South Africa, which is a newly industrialised country. Ghana_sentence_175

Ghana's economy also has ties to the Chinese yuan renminbi along with Ghana's vast gold reserves. Ghana_sentence_176

In 2013, the Bank of Ghana began circulating the renminbi throughout Ghanaian state-owned banks and to the Ghana public as hard currency along with the national Ghana cedi for second national trade currency. Ghana_sentence_177

Between 2012 and 2013, 37.9 percent of rural dwellers were experiencing poverty whereas only 10.6 percent of urban dwellers were. Ghana_sentence_178

Urban areas hold greater opportunity for employment, particularly in informal trade, while nearly all (94 percent) of rural poor households participate in the agricultural sector. Ghana_sentence_179

The state-owned Volta River Authority and Ghana National Petroleum Corporation are the two major electricity producers. Ghana_sentence_180

The Akosombo Dam, built on the Volta River in 1965, along with Bui Dam, Kpong Dam, and several other hydroelectric dams provide hydropower. Ghana_sentence_181

In addition, the Government of Ghana has sought to build the second nuclear power plant in Africa. Ghana_sentence_182

The Ghana Stock Exchange is the 5th largest on continental Africa and 3rd largest in sub-saharan Africa with a market capitalisation of GH¢ 57.2 billion or CN¥ 180.4 billion in 2012 with the South Africa JSE Limited as first. Ghana_sentence_183

The Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) was the 2nd best performing stock exchange in sub-saharan Africa in 2013. Ghana_sentence_184

Ghana also produces high-quality cocoa. Ghana_sentence_185

It is the 2nd largest producer of cocoa globally, and was projected to become the world's largest producer of cocoa in 2015. Ghana_sentence_186

Ghana is classified as a middle income country. Ghana_sentence_187

Services account for 50% of GDP, followed by manufacturing (24.1%), extractive industries (5%), and taxes (20.9%). Ghana_sentence_188

Manufacturing Ghana_section_21

The Ghana economy is an emerging digital-based mixed economy hybrid with an increasing primary manufacturing and export of digital technology goods along with assembling and exporting automobiles and ships, diverse resource rich exportation of industrial minerals, agricultural products primarily cocoa, petroleum and natural gas, and industries such as information and communications technology primarily via Ghana's state digital technology corporation Rlg Communications which manufactures tablet computers with smartphones and various consumer electronics. Ghana_sentence_189

Urban electric cars have been manufactured in Ghana since 2014. Ghana_sentence_190

Petroleum and natural gas production Ghana_section_22

Ghana produces and exports an abundance of hydrocarbons such as sweet crude oil and natural gas. Ghana_sentence_191

The 100% state-owned filling station company of Ghana, Ghana Oil Company (GOIL) is the number 1 petroleum and gas filling station of Ghana and the 100% state-owned state oil company Ghana National Petroleum Corporation (GNPC) oversees hydrocarbon exploration and production of Ghana's entire petroleum and natural gas reserves. Ghana_sentence_192

Ghana aims to further increase output of oil to 2.2 million barrels (350,000 m) per day and gas to 34,000,000 cubic metres (1.2×10^ cu ft) per day. Ghana_sentence_193

Ghana's Jubilee Oilfield which contains up to 3 billion barrels (480,000,000 m) of sweet crude oil was discovered in 2007, among the many other offshore and inland oilfields in Ghana. Ghana_sentence_194

Ghana is believed to have up to 5 billion barrels (790,000,000 m) to 7 billion barrels (1.1×10 m) of petroleum in reserves, which is the fifth largest in Africa and the 21st to 25th largest proven reserves in the world. Ghana_sentence_195

It also has up to 1.7×10 cubic metres (6×10^ cu ft) of natural gas in reserves, which is the sixth largest in Africa and the 49th largest natural gas proven reserves in the world. Ghana_sentence_196

Oil and gas exploration off Ghana's eastern coast on the Gulf of Guinea is ongoing, and the amount of both crude oil and natural gas continues to increase. Ghana_sentence_197

The Government of Ghana has drawn up plans to nationalise Ghana's entire petroleum and natural gas reserves to increase government revenue. Ghana_sentence_198

Industrial minerals mining Ghana_section_23

Main article: Mining industry of Ghana Ghana_sentence_199

Known for its industrial minerals, Ghana is the world's 7th largest producer of gold, producing 130 metric tons in 2019, and is now the largest producer in Africa ahead of South Africa. Ghana_sentence_200

Ghana has the 9th largest reserves and the 9th largest production rate of diamonds in the world. Ghana_sentence_201

Industrial minerals and exports from South Ghana include gold, silver, timber, diamonds, bauxite, and manganese. Ghana_sentence_202

South Ghana also has mineral deposits of barite, basalt, clay, dolomite, feldspar, granite, gravel, gypsum, iron ore, kaolin, laterite, limestone, magnesite, marble, mica, phosphates, phosphorus, rocks, salts, sand, sandstone, silver, slate, talc, and uranium that are yet to be fully exploited. Ghana_sentence_203

The Government of Ghana has drawn up plans to nationalize Ghana's entire mining industry to increase government revenues. Ghana_sentence_204

Real estate Ghana_section_24

The real estate and housing market of Ghana has become an important and strategic economic sector, particularly in the urban centres of south Ghana such as Accra, Kumasi, Sekondi-Takoradi and Tema. Ghana_sentence_205

However, many of its citizens particularly those in Accra cannot afford the housing prices which is a trait of most major cities globally particularly in the West. Ghana_sentence_206

Kumasi is growing at a faster rate than Accra, and there is less competition in its real estate market. Ghana_sentence_207

The gross rental income tax of Ghana is withheld at 10%, capital gains are taxed at 15% with a 5% gift tax imposed on the transfer of properties and Ghana's real estate market is divided into 3 areas: public sector real estate development, emerging private sector real estate development, and private individuals. Ghana_sentence_208

The activities of these 3 groups are facilitated by the Ghanaian banks and the primary mortgage market which has demonstrated enormous growth potential. Ghana_sentence_209

Recent developments in the Ghanaian economy has given birth to a boom in the construction sector, including the housing and public housing sector generating and injecting billions of dollars annually into the Ghanaian economy. Ghana_sentence_210

The real estate market investment perspective and attraction comes from Ghana's tropical location and robust political stability. Ghana_sentence_211

An increasing number of the Ghanaian populace are investing in properties and the Ghana government is empowering the private sector in the real estate direction. Ghana_sentence_212

Trade and exports Ghana_section_25

In July 2013, International Enterprise Singapore opened its 38th global office in Accra, to develop trade and investment on logistics, oil and gas, aviation, transportation and consumer sectors. Ghana_sentence_213

Singapore and Ghana also signed four bilateral agreements to promote public sector and private sector collaboration, as Ghana aims to predominantly shift its economic trade partnership to East Asia and Southeast Asia. Ghana_sentence_214

The economic centre is IE Singapore's second office in Africa, coming six months after opening in Johannesburg, South Africa in January 2013. Ghana_sentence_215

Ghana's labour force in 2008 totalled 11.5 million Ghanaian citizens. Ghana_sentence_216

Tema Harbour is Africa's largest harbour and Takoradi Harbour along with Tema harbour in Ghana handles goods and exports for Ghana. Ghana_sentence_217

They are also traffic junctions where goods are transhipped; the Tema harbour handles the majority of the nation's export cargo and most of the country's chief exports is shipped from Takoradi harbour. Ghana_sentence_218

The Takoradi harbour and Tema harbour are operated by the state-owned Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority. Ghana_sentence_219

Electricity generation sector Ghana_section_26

Main article: Electricity sector in Ghana Ghana_sentence_220

Severe shortages of electricity in 2015 & 2016 led to dumsor (persistent, irregular and unpredictable electric power outages), increasing the interest in renewables. Ghana_sentence_221

As of 2019, there is now a surplus of electricity which now presents a new set of financial challenges. Ghana_sentence_222

Economic transparency Ghana_section_27

According to Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index of 2018, out of 180 countries, Ghana was ranked 78th, with a score of 41 on a scale where a 0–9 score means highly corrupt, and a 90–100 score means very clean. Ghana_sentence_223

This was based on perceived levels of public sector corruption. Ghana_sentence_224

In 2013, out of 177 countries, Ghana was ranked 63rd with Cuba and Saudi Arabia with a score of 46. Ghana_sentence_225

Previously in 2012, the country ranked 64 and scored 45. Ghana_sentence_226

Thus, Ghana's public sector scored lower in 2013 than in 2012, according to CPI's scores. Ghana_sentence_227

Local reports have claimed that Ghana loses US$4.5 billion annually from nominal gross domestic product (Nominal GDP) growth as a result of economic corruption and economic crime by the incumbent National Democratic Congress (NDC) government of Ghana led by John Dramani Mahama. Ghana_sentence_228

It is also said Ghana has lost an additional US$2.5 billion from nominal gross domestic product (Nominal GDP) growth between the months of January 2013 to October 2013 through economic corrupt practices under the Mahama administration. Ghana_sentence_229

The incumbent president is however seen to be fighting corruption by some government members, and a fellow politician of an opposition party, after ordering investigations into scandals. Ghana_sentence_230

Nonetheless others believe his actions are not sufficient in some cases. Ghana_sentence_231

John Addo Kufuor, son of former President John Agyekum Kufuor and Kojo Annan, son of former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, have been named in association with the Panama Papers. Ghana_sentence_232

Science and technology Ghana_section_28

Ghana was the first sub-Saharan African country to launch a cellular mobile network (1992). Ghana_sentence_233

It was one of the first countries in Africa to be connected to the internet and to introduce ADSL broadband services. Ghana_sentence_234

Space and satellite programmes Ghana_section_29

The Ghana Space Science and Technology Centre (GSSTC) and Ghana Space Agency (GhsA) oversee the space exploration and space programmes of Ghana. Ghana_sentence_235

GSSTC and GhsA worked to have a national security observational satellite launched into orbit in 2015. Ghana_sentence_236

The first practical step in its endeavor was a CanSat launched on 15 May 2013, a space programme spearheaded by the All Nations University College (ANUC) in Koforidua. Ghana_sentence_237

The CanSat was deployed 200 metres (660 feet) high from a helium-filled balloon and took some aerial images as well as temperature readings. Ghana_sentence_238

As its next step in advancing space science and satellite technology in the sub-region, an amateur ground station has been designed and built by the university. Ghana_sentence_239

It has successfully tracked and communicated with several (amateur) radio satellites in orbit including the International Space Station, receiving slow-scan TV images on 18 and 20 December 2014. Ghana_sentence_240

The miniaturized earth observational satellite is to be launched into orbit in 2017. Ghana_sentence_241

Ghana's annual space exploration expenditure has been 1% of its gross domestic product (GDP), to support research in science and technology. Ghana_sentence_242

In 2012, Ghana was elected to chair the Commission on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development in the South (Comsats); Ghana has a joint effort in space exploration with South Africa's South African National Space Agency (SANSA). Ghana_sentence_243

Cybernetics and cyberwarfare Ghana_section_30

See also: Sakawa Ghana_sentence_244

The use of computer technology for teaching and learning began to receive government of Ghana's attention from the late 1990s. Ghana_sentence_245

The information and communications technology in education policy of Ghana requires the use of information and communications technology for teaching and learning at all levels of the education of Ghana system. Ghana_sentence_246

The Ministry of Education (MOE) supports institutions in teaching of information and communications technology literacy. Ghana_sentence_247

Majority of secondary, and some basic schools of Ghana have computer laboratories. Ghana_sentence_248

Ghana's intention to become the information technology hub of West Africa has led the government of Ghana to enact cyber crime legislation and enhance cyber security practices. Ghana_sentence_249

Acting on that goal, in 2008 Ghana passed the Electronic Communications Act and the Electronic Transactions Act, which established the legal framework for governing information technology. Ghana_sentence_250

In November 2011, the Deputy Minister for Communications and Technology announced the development of a national cyber security strategy, aimed at combating cyber crime and securing critical infrastructure. Ghana_sentence_251

In June 2012, the National Information Technology Agency (NITA) announced a national computer emergency response team "strategy" designed to co-ordinate government response to cyberattacks, both internal and external. Ghana_sentence_252

The agency also established computer emergency response teams for each municipal, metropolitan, and district assembly to improve co-ordination and information-sharing on cyberspace threats. Ghana_sentence_253

Ghana is ranked 2nd on continental Africa and 7th globally in cyber warfare, cyberterrorism, cyber crime, and internet crime. Ghana_sentence_254

Health and biotechnology Ghana_section_31

The Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine is an agency of the Ministry of Health that was set up in the 1970s for both R&D and as a practical resource (product production & distribution/provision) primarily in areas of biotechnology related to medicinal plants. Ghana_sentence_255

This includes both herbal medicine and work on more advanced applications. Ghana_sentence_256

It also has a secondary role as an educational resource for foreign students in health, biotechnology and related fields. Ghana_sentence_257

Education Ghana_section_32

Main article: Education in Ghana Ghana_sentence_258

Overview Ghana_section_33

Ghanaian education system is divided in three parts: Basic Education, secondary cycle, and tertiary education. Ghana_sentence_259

"Basic Education" lasts 11 years (ages 4‒15). Ghana_sentence_260

It is divided into Kindergarten (2 years), Primary School (2 module of 3 years) and Junior High (3 years). Ghana_sentence_261

Junior High School (JHS) ends with the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE). Ghana_sentence_262

Once the BECE is achieved, the pupil can proceed to the secondary cycle. Ghana_sentence_263

Hence, the pupil has the choice between general education (offered by the Senior High School) and vocational education (offered by the technical Senior High School or the Technical and Vocational Institutes). Ghana_sentence_264

Senior High School lasts three years and leads to the West African Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSCE), which is a prerequisite for enrollment in a university bachelor's degree programme. Ghana_sentence_265

Polytechnics are open to vocational students, from SHS or TVI. Ghana_sentence_266

A Bachelor's degree usually requires four years of study. Ghana_sentence_267

It can be followed by a one- or two-year master's degree programme, which can be followed by a PhD programme of at least three years. Ghana_sentence_268

A polytechnic programme lasts two or three years. Ghana_sentence_269

Ghana also possesses numerous colleges of education. Ghana_sentence_270

Some of the notable universities in Ghana are The University of Ghana, Legon, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, and University of Cape Coast, just to mention a few. Ghana_sentence_271

The Ghanaian education system from kindergarten up to an undergraduate degree level generally takes 20 years. Ghana_sentence_272

The academic year usually goes from August to May inclusive. Ghana_sentence_273

The school year in primary education lasts 40 weeks in Primary School and SHS and 45 weeks in JHS. Ghana_sentence_274

Enrollment Ghana_section_34

With over 95% of its children in school, Ghana currently has one of the highest school enrollment rates in all of Africa. Ghana_sentence_275

The ratio of females to males in the total education system was 0.98, in 2014. Ghana_sentence_276

Foreign students Ghana_section_35

Ghana's education system annually attracts a large number of foreign students particularly in the university sector. Ghana_sentence_277

Funding of education Ghana_section_36

The government largely funds basic education comprising public primary schools and public junior high schools. Ghana_sentence_278

Senior high schools were subsidised by the government until September 2017/2018 academic year that senior high education became free. Ghana_sentence_279

At the higher education level, the government funds more than 80% of resources provided to public universities, polytechnics and teacher training colleges. Ghana_sentence_280

As part of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education, Fcube, the government supplies all basic education schools with all their textbooks and other educational supplies like exercise books. Ghana_sentence_281

Senior high schools are also provided with all their textbook requirement by the government. Ghana_sentence_282

Private schools acquire their educational material from private suppliers. Ghana_sentence_283

Kindergarten and education structure Ghana_section_37

The female and male ages 15–24 years literacy rate in Ghana was 81% in 2010, with males at 82%, and females at 80%. Ghana_sentence_284

Ghanaian children begin their education at the age of three or four starting from kindergarten (nursery school and preschool), then to elementary school (primary school), high school (junior high school and senior high school) and finally university. Ghana_sentence_285

The average age at which a Ghanaian child enters primary school is 6 years. Ghana_sentence_286

Ghana has a free education 6-year primary school education system beginning at age six, and, under the educational reforms implemented in 1988 and reformed in 2007, they pass on to a 3-year junior high school system. Ghana_sentence_287

At the end of the third year of junior high, there is a mandatory "Basic Education Certificate Examination". Ghana_sentence_288

Those continuing must complete the 4-year senior high school programme (which has been changed to three years) and take an admission exam to enter any university or tertiary programme. Ghana_sentence_289

The Ghanaian education system from nursery school up to an undergraduate degree level takes 20 years. Ghana_sentence_290

In 2005, Ghana had 12,130 primary schools, 5,450 junior secondary schools, 503 senior secondary schools, 21 public training colleges, 18 technical institutions, two diploma-awarding institutions and 6 universities. Ghana_sentence_291

In 2010, there were relatively more females (53.0%) than males (40.5%) with primary school and JSS (junior secondary school) / JHS (junior high school) as their highest level of education. Ghana_sentence_292

Elementary Ghana_section_38

The Ghanaian Ministry of Education and the Ghanaian National Accreditation Board provide free education at the elementary school (primary school) level, and most Ghanaians have relatively easy access to high school education (junior high school and senior high school). Ghana_sentence_293

These numbers can be contrasted with the single university and handful of secondary and primary schools that existed at the time of independence in 1957. Ghana_sentence_294

Ghana's spending on education has varied between 28 and 40% of its annual budget in the past decade. Ghana_sentence_295

All teaching is done in English, mostly by qualified Ghanaian educators. Ghana_sentence_296

The courses taught at the primary or basic school level include English, Ghanaian language and culture, mathematics, environmental studies, social studies, Mandarin and French as an OIF associated-member, integrated or general science, pre-vocational skills and pre-technical skills, religious and moral education, and physical activities such as Ghanaian music and dance, and physical education. Ghana_sentence_297

High school Ghana_section_39

Further information: List of senior secondary schools in Ghana Ghana_sentence_298

The senior high level school curriculum has core subjects and elective subjects of which students must take four the core subjects of English language, mathematics, integrated science (including science, agriculture and environmental studies) and social studies (economics, geography, history and government). Ghana_sentence_299

High school students also choose four elective subjects from five available programmes: agriculture programme, general programme (arts or science option), business programme, vocational programme and technical programme. Ghana_sentence_300

Apart from most primary and secondary schools which choose the Ghanaian system of schooling, there are also international schools such as the Takoradi International School, Tema International School, Galaxy International School, The Roman Ridge School, Lincoln Community School, Faith Montessori School, American International School, Alpha Beta Christian College, Ghana Christian International High School, Association International School, New Nation School, SOS Hermann Gmeiner International College, Vilac International School, Akosombo International School (which offers Cambridge O level certificate), North Legon Little Campus and International Community School, which offer the International Baccalaureat, Advanced Level General Certificate of Education and the International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE). Ghana_sentence_301

University Ghana_section_40

Further information: List of universities in Ghana Ghana_sentence_302

There are eight national public universities in Ghana: the University of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, University of Cape Coast, University of Education, University for Development Studies, University of Mines and Technology, University of Professional Studies, Accra, University of Energy and Natural Resources, and University of Health and Allied Sciences. Ghana_sentence_303

Ghana has a growing number of accredited private universities including Lancaster University, Ghana, Ghana Technology University College, Ashesi University College, Methodist University College Ghana, Central University College, Accra Institute of Technology, Regent University College of Science and Technology, Valley View University, Catholic University College, Presbyterian University College and Zenith University College. Ghana_sentence_304

The oldest university in Ghana, the University of Ghana, was founded in 1948. Ghana_sentence_305

It had 29,754 students in 2008. Ghana_sentence_306

Its programmes in the arts, humanities, business, and the social sciences, as well as medicine, are among the best in the country. Ghana_sentence_307

Many universities—including Harvard University, Cornell University, and Oxford University—have special study-abroad programmes with Ghanaian schools and provide their students the opportunity to study abroad at Ghanaian universities. Ghana_sentence_308

New York University has a campus in Accra. Ghana_sentence_309

The University of Ghana has seen a shift of its traditionally best students to the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. Ghana_sentence_310

Since Ghana's independence, the country has been one of the most educational in sub-Saharan Africa. Ghana_sentence_311

Former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan has been chancellor of the University of Ghana since 2008. Ghana_sentence_312

Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, the second university to be established in the country, is the premier university of science and technology in Ghana and West Africa. Ghana_sentence_313

Demographics Ghana_section_41

Main article: Demographics of Ghana Ghana_sentence_314

Further information: Ghanaian people Ghana_sentence_315

Ghana is a multiethnic country. Ghana_sentence_316

The largest ethnic group is the Ashanti people. Ghana_sentence_317

Ghana's territorial area within West Africa was unoccupied and uninhabited by humans until the 10th century BC. Ghana_sentence_318

By the 10th century AD, the Guans were the first settlers in Ghana long before the other tribes came. Ghana_sentence_319

Akans had established Bonoman (Brong Ahafo region) and were joined by the current settlers and inhabitants by the 16th century. Ghana_sentence_320

In 2010, the population of Ghana was 72.2% Christian (24.3% Pentecostal, 18.4% Protestant, 13.1% Catholic and 11.4% other). Ghana_sentence_321

Approximately 18.6% of the population of Ghana are Muslim, (51% Sunni, 16% Ahmadiyya, and 8% Shia). Ghana_sentence_322

Just over 10,000 Ghanaians practice Hinduism, with most of them being indigenous converts. Ghana_sentence_323

Hinduism in Ghana was popularized by Swami Ghana Nanda ji, who opened several temples in the nation. Ghana_sentence_324

The temple of Lord Shiva in Accra is one of the largest where there are celebrations to Ganesh Chaturthi, Rath Yatra, and other Hindu observations. Ghana_sentence_325

The Bahá’í religious community, established in Ghana in 1951, today includes more than 100 communities and over 50 local Bahá’í administrative councils, called Local Spiritual Assemblies. Ghana_sentence_326

As of 2014, there are 375,000 registered legal skilled workers (permanent residents) or foreign workers/students (i.e. Ghana Card holders) inhabitants with an annually 1.5 million transited airport layovers. Ghana_sentence_327

In its first post-colonial census in 1960, Ghana had a population of 6.7 million. Ghana_sentence_328

The median age of Ghanaian citizens is 30 years old and the average household size is 3.6 persons. Ghana_sentence_329

The Government of Ghana states that the official language of Ghana is English, and is spoken by 67.1% of the inhabiting population of Ghana. Ghana_sentence_330

Population Ghana_section_42

Main articles: Ghana Immigration Service and Ghanaian nationality law Ghana_sentence_331

As of 22 June 2019, Ghana has a population of 30,083,000. Ghana_sentence_332

Around 29 percent of the population is under the age of 15, while persons aged 15–64 make up 57.8 percent of the population. Ghana_sentence_333

The Ashanti Region had the most, (Akan) (Ashanti) (4.7 million in Ashanti, 2.3 million in Brong-Ahafo, 2.2 million in Central, 2.6 million in Eastern, 2.3 million in Western, and 4 million in the seat of government in Greater Accra geographically and legally part of Eastern then administered separately on 23 July 1982). Ghana_sentence_334

As of 2010, 4.1 million persons reside in the Northern territories (2.4 million in Northern, 1 million in Upper East, and 0.7 million in Upper West). Ghana_sentence_335

As of 2010, 2.1 million persons reside in Ewe territory Volta. Ghana_sentence_336

Immigration Ghana_section_43

Main articles: Immigration to Ghana and Illegal immigration in Ghana Ghana_sentence_337

Due to the recent legal immigration of skilled workers who possess Ghana Cards, there is a small population of Chinese, Malaysian, Indian, Middle Eastern and European nationals. Ghana_sentence_338

In 2010, the Ghana Immigration Service reported a large number of economic migrants and Illegal immigrants inhabiting Ghana: 14.6% (or 3.1 million) of Ghana's 2010 population (predominantly Nigerians, Burkinabe citizens, Togolese citizens, and Malian citizens). Ghana_sentence_339

In 1969, under the "Ghana Aliens Compliance Order" (GACO) enacted by the Prime Minister of Ghana Kofi Abrefa Busia; Government of Ghana with BGU (Border Guard Unit) deported over 3,000,000 aliens and illegal immigrants in three months as they made up 20% of the population at the time. Ghana_sentence_340

In 2013, there was a mass deportation of illegal miners, more than 4,000 of them Chinese nationals. Ghana_sentence_341

Languages Ghana_section_44

Main article: Languages of Ghana Ghana_sentence_342

English is the official language. Ghana_sentence_343

Additionally, there are eleven languages that have the status of government-sponsored languages: Ghana_sentence_344


Of these, Akan is the most widely spoken. Ghana_sentence_345

Since Ghana is surrounded by French-speaking countries, French is widely taught in schools and universities, as well as a language used for commercial and international economic exchanges. Ghana_sentence_346

Since 2006, Ghana has been an associate member of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the global organisation that unites French-speaking countries (84 nations on 6 continents). Ghana_sentence_347

In 2005, over 350 000 Ghanaian children studied French in schools. Ghana_sentence_348

Since then, its status has progressively been updated to a mandatory language in every high school. Ghana_sentence_349

Ghanaian Pidgin English (GhPE), also known as Kru English (or, in Akan, kroo brofo), is a variety of West African Pidgin English spoken mainly in Accra and in the southern towns. Ghana_sentence_350

GhPE can be divided into two varieties, referred to as "uneducated" or "non-institutionalized" pidgin and "educated" or "institutionalized" pidgin, the former associated with uneducated or illiterate people and the latter acquired and used in institutions such as universities. Ghana_sentence_351

Religion Ghana_section_45

Main article: Religion in Ghana Ghana_sentence_352


Religious affiliation in GhanaGhana_table_caption_1
AffiliationGhana_header_cell_1_0_0 2000 CensusGhana_header_cell_1_0_1 2010 CensusGhana_header_cell_1_0_2 2014 DHS SurveyGhana_header_cell_1_0_3
ChristianGhana_cell_1_1_0 68.8%Ghana_cell_1_1_1 71.2%Ghana_cell_1_1_2 76.9%Ghana_cell_1_1_3
Pentecostal/CharismaticGhana_cell_1_2_0 24.1%Ghana_cell_1_2_1 28.3%Ghana_cell_1_2_2 36.3%Ghana_cell_1_2_3
ProtestantGhana_cell_1_3_0 18.6%Ghana_cell_1_3_1 18.4%Ghana_cell_1_3_2 13.5%Ghana_cell_1_3_3
CatholicGhana_cell_1_4_0 15.1%Ghana_cell_1_4_1 13.1%Ghana_cell_1_4_2 10.4%Ghana_cell_1_4_3
Other ChristianGhana_cell_1_5_0 11.0%Ghana_cell_1_5_1 11.4%Ghana_cell_1_5_2 16.7%Ghana_cell_1_5_3
MuslimGhana_cell_1_6_0 15.9%Ghana_cell_1_6_1 17.6%Ghana_cell_1_6_2 16.4%Ghana_cell_1_6_3
TraditionalGhana_cell_1_7_0 8.5%Ghana_cell_1_7_1 5.2%Ghana_cell_1_7_2 2.6%Ghana_cell_1_7_3
NoneGhana_cell_1_8_0 6.1%Ghana_cell_1_8_1 5.3%Ghana_cell_1_8_2 4.3%Ghana_cell_1_8_3
OtherGhana_cell_1_9_0 0.7%Ghana_cell_1_9_1 0.8%Ghana_cell_1_9_2 0.0%Ghana_cell_1_9_3

Ghana is a largely Christian country, although a sizable Muslim minority exists. Ghana_sentence_353

Traditional (indigenous) beliefs are also practiced. Ghana_sentence_354

The fertility rate of Ghana declined from 3.99 (2000) to 3.28 (2010) with 2.78 in urban region and 3.94 in rural region. Ghana_sentence_355

The United Nations reports a fertility decline from 6.95 (1970) to 4.82 (2000) to 3.93 live births per woman in 2017. Ghana_sentence_356

Mortality Ghana_section_46

Life expectancy at birth in 2018 was 64 for a female and 62 for a male. Ghana_sentence_357

The top ten causes of death in Ghana in 2018 were: Ghana_sentence_358


  1. MalariaGhana_item_1_7
  2. Lower respiratory infectionsGhana_item_1_8
  3. Neonatal disordersGhana_item_1_9
  4. Ischemic heart diseaseGhana_item_1_10
  5. StrokeGhana_item_1_11
  6. HIV/AIDSGhana_item_1_12
  7. TuberculosisGhana_item_1_13
  8. Diarrheal diseasesGhana_item_1_14
  9. Road injuriesGhana_item_1_15
  10. DiabetesGhana_item_1_16

Crime Ghana_section_47

Main article: Crime in Ghana Ghana_sentence_359

Crime in Ghana is investigated by the Ghana Police Service. Ghana_sentence_360

Ghana had a murder rate of 1.68 per 100,000 population in 2011. Ghana_sentence_361

Universal health care and life expectancy Ghana_section_48

Main articles: NHIS and Health in Ghana Ghana_sentence_362

Further information: Eye care in Ghana and Optometry in Ghana Ghana_sentence_363

Ghana has a universal health care system strictly designated for Ghanaian nationals, National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). Ghana_sentence_364

Health care is very variable throughout Ghana and in 2012, over 12 million Ghanaian nationals were covered by the National Health Insurance Scheme (Ghana) (NHIS). Ghana_sentence_365

Urban centres are well served, and contain most of the hospitals, clinics, and pharmacies in Ghana. Ghana_sentence_366

There are over 200 hospitals in Ghana and Ghana is a destination for medical tourism. Ghana_sentence_367

In 2010, there were 0.1 physicians per 1,000 people and as of 2011, 0.9 hospital beds per 1,000 people. Ghana_sentence_368

The 2014 estimate of life expectancy at birth had increased to an average of 65.75 years with males at 63.4 years and females at 68.2 years, and in 2013 infant mortality decreased to 39 per 1,000 live births. Ghana_sentence_369

Sources vary on life expectancy at birth; the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated 62 years for men and 64 years for women born in 2016. Ghana_sentence_370

There was an estimation of 15 physicians and 93 nurses per 100,000 persons in 2010. Ghana_sentence_371

5.2% of Ghana's GDP was spent on health in 2010, and all Ghanaian citizens have the right to access primary health care. Ghana_sentence_372

In May 2020, the WHO announced Ghana became the second country in the WHO African Region to attain regulatory system "maturity level 3", the second-highest in the four-tiered WHO classification of National medicines regulatory systems. Ghana_sentence_373

As of 2012, the HIV/AIDS prevalence was estimated at 1.40% among adults aged 15–49. Ghana_sentence_374

Culture Ghana_section_49

Main article: Culture of Ghana Ghana_sentence_375

Ghanaian culture is a diverse mixture of the practices and beliefs of many different Ghanaian ethnic groups. Ghana_sentence_376

The 2010 census reported that the largest ethnic groups are the Akan (47.3 percent), the Mole-Dagbani (16.6 percent), the Ewe (13.9 percent), the Ga-Dangme (7.4 percent), the Gurma (5.7) and the Guan (3.7 percent). Ghana_sentence_377

The Akan make up a majority of the population in the Central (81.7 percent), Western (78.2 percent), Ashanti (74.2 percent), Brong Ahafo (58.9 percent) and Eastern (51.1 percent) regions. Ghana_sentence_378

Food and drink Ghana_section_50

Main article: Ghanaian cuisine Ghana_sentence_379

Ghanaian cuisine and gastronomy is diverse, and includes an assortment of soups and stews with varied seafoods and most Ghanaian soups are prepared with vegetables, meat, poultry or fish. Ghana_sentence_380

Fish is important in the Ghanaian diet with tilapia, roasted and fried whitebait, smoked fish and crayfish all being common components of Ghanaian dishes. Ghana_sentence_381

Banku (akple) is a common Ghanaian starchy food made from ground corn (maize), and cornmeal based staples, kɔmi (kenkey) and banku (akple) are usually accompanied by some form of fried fish (chinam) or grilled tilapia and a very spicy condiment made from raw red and green chillies, onions and tomatoes (pepper sauce). Ghana_sentence_382

Banku and tilapia is a combo served in most Ghanaian restaurants. Ghana_sentence_383

Fufu is the most common exported Ghanaian dish, in that it is a delicacy across the African diaspora. Ghana_sentence_384

Literature Ghana_section_51

The Ghanaian national literature radio programme and accompanying publication Voices of Ghana was one of the earliest on the African continent. Ghana_sentence_385

The most prominent Ghanaian authors are novelists; J. Ghana_sentence_386 E. Casely Hayford, Ayi Kwei Armah and Nii Ayikwei Parkes, who gained international acclaim with the books, Ethiopia Unbound (1911), The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born (1968) and Tail of the Blue Bird (2009), respectively. Ghana_sentence_387

In addition to novels, other literature arts such as Ghanaian theatre and poetry have also had a very good development and support at the national level with prominent Ghanaian playwrights and poets Joe de Graft and Efua Sutherland. Ghana_sentence_388

Much of the 2016 novel Homegoing by Ghanaian-born American writer Yaa Gyasi takes place in Ghana. Ghana_sentence_389

Adinkra Ghana_section_52

Main article: Adinkra symbols Ghana_sentence_390

During the 13th century, Ghanaians developed their unique art of adinkra printing. Ghana_sentence_391

Hand-printed and hand-embroidered adinkra clothes were made and used exclusively by the then Ghanaian royalty for devotional ceremonies. Ghana_sentence_392

Each of the motifs that make up the corpus of adinkra symbolism has a name and meaning derived from a proverb, a historical event, human attitude, ethology, plant life-form, or shapes of inanimate and man-made objects. Ghana_sentence_393

These are graphically rendered in stylised geometric shapes. Ghana_sentence_394

The meanings of the motifs may be categorised into aesthetics, ethics, human relations, and concepts. Ghana_sentence_395

The Adinkra symbols have a decorative function as tattoos but also represent objects that encapsulate evocative messages that convey traditional wisdom, aspects of life or the environment. Ghana_sentence_396

There are many different symbols with distinct meanings, often linked with proverbs. Ghana_sentence_397

In the words of Anthony Appiah, they were one of the means in a pre-literate society for "supporting the transmission of a complex and nuanced body of practice and belief". Ghana_sentence_398

Traditional clothing Ghana_section_53

Main article: Kente cloth Ghana_sentence_399

Along with the Adinkra cloth Ghanaians use many different cloth fabrics for their traditional attire. Ghana_sentence_400

The different ethnic groups have their own individual cloth. Ghana_sentence_401

The most well known is the Kente cloth. Ghana_sentence_402

Kente is a very important Ghanaian national costume and clothing and these cloths are used to make traditional and modern Ghanaian Kente attire. Ghana_sentence_403

Different symbols and different colours mean different things. Ghana_sentence_404

Kente is the most famous of all the Ghanaian cloths. Ghana_sentence_405

Kente is a ceremonial cloth hand-woven on a horizontal treadle loom and strips measuring about 4 inches wide are sewn together into larger pieces of cloths. Ghana_sentence_406

Cloths come in various colours, sizes and designs and are worn during very important social and religious occasions. Ghana_sentence_407

In a cultural context, kente is more important than just a cloth and it is a visual representation of history and also a form of written language through weaving. Ghana_sentence_408

The term kente has its roots in the Akan word kɛntɛn which means a basket and the first kente weavers used raffia fibres to weave cloths that looked like kenten (a basket); and thus were referred to as kenten ntoma; meaning basket cloth. Ghana_sentence_409

The original Akan name of the cloth was nsaduaso or nwontoma, meaning "a cloth hand-woven on a loom"; however, "kente" is the most frequently used term today. Ghana_sentence_410

Modern clothing Ghana_section_54

Contemporary Ghanaian fashion includes traditional and modern styles and fabrics and has made its way into the African and global fashion scene. Ghana_sentence_411

The cloth known as African print fabric was created out of Dutch wax textiles. Ghana_sentence_412

It is believed that in the late 1800s, Dutch ships on their way to Asia stocked with machine-made textiles that mimicked Indonesian Batik stopped at many West African ports on the way. Ghana_sentence_413

The fabrics did not do well in Asia. Ghana_sentence_414

However, in West Africa – mainly Ghana where there was an already established market for cloths and textiles – the client base grew and it was changed to include local and traditional designs, colours and patterns to cater to the taste of the new consumers. Ghana_sentence_415

Today outside of Africa it is called "Ankara" and it has a client base well beyond Ghana and Africa as a whole. Ghana_sentence_416

It is very popular among Caribbean peoples and African Americans; celebrities such as Solange Knowles and her sister Beyoncé have been seen wearing African print attire. Ghana_sentence_417

Many designers from countries in North America and Europe are now using African prints and it has gained a global interest. Ghana_sentence_418

British luxury fashion house Burberry created a collection around Ghanaian styles. Ghana_sentence_419

American musician Gwen Stefani has repeatedly incorporated African prints into her clothing line and can often be seen wearing it. Ghana_sentence_420

Internationally acclaimed Ghanaian-British designer Ozwald Boateng introduced African print suits in his 2012 collection. Ghana_sentence_421

Music and dance Ghana_section_55

Main articles: Music of Ghana, Azonto, and Kpanlogo Ghana_sentence_422

The music of Ghana is diverse and varies between different ethnic groups and regions. Ghana_sentence_423

Ghanaian music incorporates several distinct types of musical instruments such as the talking drum ensembles, Akan Drum, goje fiddle and koloko lute, court music, including the Akan Seperewa, the Akan atumpan, the Ga kpanlogo styles, and log xylophones used in asonko music. Ghana_sentence_424

The most well known genres to have come from Ghana are African jazz, which was created by Ghanaian artist Kofi Ghanaba, and its earliest form of secular music, called highlife. Ghana_sentence_425

Highlife originated in the late 19th century and early 20th century and spread throughout West Africa. Ghana_sentence_426

In the 1990s a new genre of music was created by the youth incorporating the influences of highlife, Afro-reggae, dancehall and hiphop. Ghana_sentence_427

This hybrid was called hiplife. Ghana_sentence_428

Ghanaian artists such as "Afro Roots" singer, activist and songwriter Rocky Dawuni, R&B and soul singer Rhian Benson and Sarkodie have had international success. Ghana_sentence_429

In December 2015, Rocky Dawuni became the first Ghanaian musician to be nominated for a Grammy award in the Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album category for his 6th studio album titled Branches of The Same Tree released 31 March 2015. Ghana_sentence_430

Ghanaian dance is as diverse as its music, and there are traditional dances and different dances for different occasions. Ghana_sentence_431

The most known Ghanaian dances are those for celebrations. Ghana_sentence_432

These dances include the Adowa, Kpanlogo, Azonto, Klama, Agbadza, Borborbor and Bamaya. Ghana_sentence_433

The Nana Otafrija Pallbearing Services, also known as the Dancing Pallbearers, come from the coastal town of Prampram in the Greater Accra Region of southern Ghana. Ghana_sentence_434

The group of pallbearers were featured in a BBC feature story in 2017, and footage from the story became part of an Internet meme in the wake of the COVID-19 world pandemic. Ghana_sentence_435

Film Ghana_section_56

Ghana has a budding and thriving film industry. Ghana_sentence_436

Ghana's film industry dates as far back as 1948 when the Gold Coast Film Unit was set up in the Information Services Department. Ghana_sentence_437

Some internationally recognised films have come from Ghana. Ghana_sentence_438

In 1970, I Told You So was one of the first Ghanaian films to receive international acknowledgement and received great reviews from The New York Times. Ghana_sentence_439

It was followed by the 1973 Ghanaian and Italian production The African Deal also known as "Contratto carnale" featuring Bahamian American actor Calvin Lockhart. Ghana_sentence_440

1983's Kukurantumi: the Road to Accra, a Ghanaian and German production directed by King Ampaw, was written about by famous American film critic Vincent Canby. Ghana_sentence_441

In 1987, Cobra Verde, another Ghanaian and German production directed by Werner Herzog, received international acclamation and in 1988, Heritage Africa won more than 12 film awards. Ghana_sentence_442

In recent times there have been collaborations between Ghanaian and Nigerian crew and cast and a number of productions turned out. Ghana_sentence_443

Many Ghanaian films are co-produced with Nollywood, the Nigerian film industry, and some are distributed by Nigerian marketers. Ghana_sentence_444

Also, Nigerian filmmakers often feature Ghanaian actors and actresses in their movies and Ghanaian filmmakers feature Nigerian actors and actresses in theirs. Ghana_sentence_445

Nadia Buari, Yvonne Nelson, Lydia Forson and Jackie Appiah all popular Ghanaian actresses and Van Vicker and Majid Michel both popular Ghanaian actors, have starred in many Nigerian movies. Ghana_sentence_446

As a result of these collaborations, Western viewers often confuse Ghanaian movies with Nollywood and count their sales as one; however, they are two independent industries that sometimes share Nollywood. Ghana_sentence_447

In 2009, UNESCO described Nollywood as the second-biggest film industry in the world after Bollywood. Ghana_sentence_448

Though The Ghana Film Industry had a downtrend for almost a decade mainly because of low input in production this scenario has drastically change. Ghana_sentence_449

New and emerging young film makers are adding spice to the already rich Ghana movie scene. Ghana_sentence_450

Bliz Bazawule, Peter Sedufia, Joseph Clef and many others have shown the world the new age of filming in Ghana. Ghana_sentence_451

Media Ghana_section_57

Main article: Media of Ghana Ghana_sentence_452

The media of Ghana are amongst the most free in Africa. Ghana_sentence_453

Chapter 12 of the 1992 Constitution of Ghana guarantees freedom of the press and independence of the media, while Chapter 2 prohibits censorship. Ghana_sentence_454

Post-independence, the government and media often had a tense relationship, with private outlets closed during the military governments and strict media laws that prevented criticism of government. Ghana_sentence_455

Press freedoms were restored in 1992, and after the election in 2000 of John Agyekum Kufuor the tensions between the private media and government decreased. Ghana_sentence_456

Kufuor supported press freedom and repealed a libel law, but maintained that the media had to act responsibly. Ghana_sentence_457

The Ghanaian media has been described as "one of the most unfettered" in Africa, operating with little restriction. Ghana_sentence_458

The private press often carries criticism of government policy. Ghana_sentence_459

Sports Ghana_section_58

Main article: Sports in Ghana Ghana_sentence_460

See also: Ghana at the Winter Olympics and Ghana at the Olympics Ghana_sentence_461

Association football (or soccer) is the top spectator sport in Ghana and the national men's football team is known as the Black Stars, with the under-20 team known as the Black Satellites. Ghana_sentence_462

Ghana has won the African Cup of Nations four times, the FIFA U-20 World Cup once, and has participated in three consecutive FIFA World Cups in 2006, 2010, and 2014. Ghana_sentence_463

In the 2010 FIFA World Cup, Ghana became the third African country to reach the quarter-final stage of the World Cup after Cameroon in 1990 and Senegal in 2002. Ghana_sentence_464

Ghana national U-20 football team, known as the Black Satellites, is considered to be the feeder team for the Ghana national football team. Ghana_sentence_465

Ghana is the first and only country on the Africa continent to be crowned FIFA U-20 World Cup Champions, and two-time runners up in 1993 and 2001. Ghana_sentence_466

The Ghana national U-17 football team known as the Black Starlets are two-time FIFA U-17 World Cup champions in 1991 and 1995, two-time runners up in 1993 and 1997. Ghana_sentence_467

Ghanaian football teams Asante Kotoko SC and Accra Hearts of Oak SC are the 5th and 9th best football teams on the Africa continent and have won a total of five Africa continental association football and Confederation of African Football trophies; Ghanaian football club Asante Kotoko SC has been crowned two-time CAF Champions League winners in 1970, 1983 and five-time CAF Champions League runners up, and Ghanaian football club Accra Hearts of Oak SC has been crowned 2000 CAF Champions League winner and two-time CAF Champions League runners up, 2001 CAF Super Cup champions and 2004 CAF Confederation Cup champions. Ghana_sentence_468

The International Federation of Football History and Statistics crowned Asante Kotoko SC as the African club of the 20th century. Ghana_sentence_469

There are several club football teams in Ghana that play in the Ghana Premier League and Division One League, both administered by the Ghana Football Association. Ghana_sentence_470

Ghana competed in the Winter Olympics in 2010 for the first time. Ghana_sentence_471

Ghana qualified for the 2010 Winter Olympics, scoring 137.5 International Ski Federation points, within the qualifying range of 120–140 points. Ghana_sentence_472

Ghanaian skier, Kwame Nkrumah-Acheampong, nicknamed "The snow leopard", became the first Ghanaian to take part in the Winter Olympics, at the 2010 Winter Olympics held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, taking part in the slalom skiing. Ghana_sentence_473

Ghana finished 47th out of 102 participating nations, of whom 54 finished in the Alpine skiing slalom. Ghana_sentence_474

Kwame Nkrumah-Acheampong broke on the international skiing circuit, being the second black African skier to do so. Ghana_sentence_475

Ghana's last medal at the Summer Olympics dates back to 1992. Ghana_sentence_476

Ghanaian athletes have won a total of four Olympics medals in thirteen appearances at the Summer Olympics, three in boxing, and a bronze medal in association football, and thus became the first country on the Africa continent to win a medal at association football. Ghana_sentence_477

Ghana competes in the Commonwealth Games, sending athletes in every edition since 1954 (except for the 1986 games). Ghana_sentence_478

Ghana has won fifty-seven medals at the Commonwealth Games, including fifteen gold, with all but one of their medals coming in athletics and boxing. Ghana_sentence_479

The country has also produced a number of world class boxers, including Azumah Nelson a three-time world champion and considered as Africa's greatest boxer, Nana Yaw Konadu also a three-time world champion, Ike Quartey, and Joshua Clottey. Ghana_sentence_480

Ghana's women's football team won bronze at the Africa Women Cup of Nations 2016 edition in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Ghana_sentence_481

The team beat South Africa 1–0. Ghana_sentence_482

Ghana will host the 2023 African Games in Accra. Ghana_sentence_483

Cultural heritage and architecture Ghana_section_59

See also: Ghana's material cultural heritage and Ghanaian museums Ghana_sentence_484

There are two types of Ghanaian traditional construction: the series of adjacent buildings in an enclosure around a common are common and the traditional round huts with grass roof. Ghana_sentence_485

The round huts with grass roof architecture are situated in the northern regions of Ghana (Northern, Upper East and Upper West regions), while the series of adjacent buildings are in the southern regions of Ghana (Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra and Western regions). Ghana_sentence_486

Ghanaian postmodern architecture and high-tech architecture buildings are predominant in the Ghanaian southern regions, while the Ghanaian heritage sites are most evident by the more than thirty forts and castles built in Ghana. Ghana_sentence_487

Some of these forts are Fort William and Fort Amsterdam. Ghana_sentence_488

Ghana has museums that are situated inside castles, and two are situated inside a fort. Ghana_sentence_489

The Military Museum and the National Museum organise temporary exhibitions. Ghana_sentence_490

Ghana has museums that show a in-depth look at specific Ghanaian regions, there are a number of museums that provide insight into the traditions and history of their own geographical area in Ghana. Ghana_sentence_491

The Cape Coast Castle Museum and St. Georges Castle (Elmina Castle) Museum offer guided tours. Ghana_sentence_492

The Museum of Science and Technology provides its visitors with a look into the domain of Ghanaian scientific development, through exhibits of objects of scientific and technological interest. Ghana_sentence_493

National symbols Ghana_section_60

The coat of arms depicts two animals: the tawny eagle (Aquila rapax, a very large bird that lives in the savannas and deserts; 35% of Ghana's landmass is desert, 35% is forest, 30% is savanna) and the lion (Panthera leo, a big cat); a ceremonial sword, a heraldic castle on a heraldic sea, a cocoa tree and a mine shaft representing the industrial mineral wealth of Ghana, and a five-pointed black star rimmed with gold representing the mineral gold wealth of Ghana and the lodestar of the Ghanaian people. Ghana_sentence_494

It also has the legend Freedom and Justice. Ghana_sentence_495

The flag of Ghana consists of three horizontal bands (strips) of red (top), gold (middle) and green (bottom); the three bands are the same height and width; the middle band bears a five-pointed black star in the centre of the gold band, the colour red band stands for the blood spilled to achieve the nation's independence: gold stands for Ghana's industrial mineral wealth, and the color green symbolises the rich tropical rainforests and natural resources of Ghana. Ghana_sentence_496

Tourism Ghana_section_61

Main article: Tourism in Ghana Ghana_sentence_497

In 2011, 1,087,000 tourists visited Ghana. Ghana_sentence_498

Tourist arrivals to Ghana include South Americans, Asians, Europeans, and North Americans. Ghana_sentence_499

The attractions and major tourist destinations of Ghana include a warm, tropical climate year-round, diverse wildlife, waterfalls such as Kintampo waterfalls and the largest waterfall in west Africa, Wli waterfalls, Ghana's coastal palm-lined sandy beaches, caves, mountains, rivers, and reservoirs and lakes such as Lake Bosumtwi and the largest man-made lake in the world by surface area, Lake Volta, dozens of forts and castles, World Heritage Sites, nature reserves and national parks. Ghana_sentence_500

Aside the beautiful natural reserves which serves as a tourist site, there are some castles in Ghana that also serve as tourist sites which attracts many tourists from all over the world. Ghana_sentence_501

Some of the notable castles are Cape Coast Castle and the Elmina Castle all in the Central region of Ghana. Ghana_sentence_502

Not only are the castles important for tourism but also serve as mark for remembering our forefathers whose blood were shed and sacrifices made to preserve and promote the black or African heritage which was robbed through the slave trade. Ghana_sentence_503

As a result of this, the World Heritage Convention of UNESCO named Ghana's castles and forts as World Heritage Monuments. Ghana_sentence_504

The World Economic Forum statistics in 2010 showed that out of the world's favorite tourist destinations, Ghana was ranked 108th out of 139 countries. Ghana_sentence_505

The country had moved two places up from the 2009 rankings. Ghana_sentence_506

In 2011, Forbes magazine, published that Ghana was ranked the eleventh most friendly country in the world. Ghana_sentence_507

The assertion was based on a survey in 2010 of a cross-section of travelers. Ghana_sentence_508

Of all the African countries that were included in the survey, Ghana ranked highest. Ghana_sentence_509

Tourism is the fourth highest earner of foreign exchange for the country. Ghana_sentence_510

In 2017, Ghana ranks as the 43rd–most peaceful country in the world. Ghana_sentence_511

To enter Ghana, it is necessary to have a visa authorized by the Government of Ghana. Ghana_sentence_512

Travelers must apply for this visa at a Ghanaian embassy; this process can take approximately two weeks. Ghana_sentence_513

By law, visitors entering Ghana must be able to produce a yellow fever vaccination certificate. Ghana_sentence_514

According to Destination Pride – a data-driven search platform used to visualize the world's LGBTQ+ laws, rights and social sentiment – Ghana's Pride score is 22 (out of 100). Ghana_sentence_515

See also Ghana_section_62


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