Glass frog

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"Glassfrog" redirects here. Glass frog_sentence_0

For the organization, see GlassFrog International Aid Organization. Glass frog_sentence_1

Glass frog_table_infobox_0

Glass frogGlass frog_header_cell_0_0_0
Scientific classification CentrolenidaeGlass frog_header_cell_0_1_0
Kingdom:Glass frog_cell_0_2_0 AnimaliaGlass frog_cell_0_2_1
Phylum:Glass frog_cell_0_3_0 ChordataGlass frog_cell_0_3_1
Class:Glass frog_cell_0_4_0 AmphibiaGlass frog_cell_0_4_1
Order:Glass frog_cell_0_5_0 AnuraGlass frog_cell_0_5_1
Suborder:Glass frog_cell_0_6_0 NeobatrachiaGlass frog_cell_0_6_1
Clade:Glass frog_cell_0_7_0 HyloideaGlass frog_cell_0_7_1
Family:Glass frog_cell_0_8_0 Centrolenidae

Taylor, 1951Glass frog_cell_0_8_1

SubfamiliesGlass frog_header_cell_0_9_0

The glass frogs are frogs of the amphibian family Centrolenidae (order Anura). Glass frog_sentence_2

While the general background coloration of most glass frogs is primarily lime green, the abdominal skin of some members of this family is transparent and translucent. Glass frog_sentence_3

The internal viscera, including the heart, liver, and gastrointestinal tract, are visible through the skin, hence the common name is given as glass frog. Glass frog_sentence_4

Glass frogs are arboreal, meaning they mainly live in trees, and only come out for mating season. Glass frog_sentence_5

Taxonomy Glass frog_section_0

The first described species of Centrolenidae was the "giant" Centrolene geckoideum, named by Marcos Jiménez de la Espada in 1872, based on a specimen collected in northeastern Ecuador. Glass frog_sentence_6

Several species were described in subsequent years by different herpetologists (including G. A. Glass frog_sentence_7

Boulenger, G. K. Noble, and E. Glass frog_sentence_8 H. Taylor), but usually placed together with the tree frogs in the genera Hylella or Hyla. Glass frog_sentence_9

The family Centrolenidae was proposed by Edward H. Taylor in 1945. Glass frog_sentence_10

Between the 1950s and 1970s, most species of glass frogs were known from Central America, particularly from Costa Rica and Panama, where Taylor, Julia F., and Jay M. Savage extensively worked, and just a few species were known to occur in South America. Glass frog_sentence_11

In 1973, John D. Lynch and William E. Duellman published a large revision of the glass frogs from Ecuador, showing the species richness of Centrolenidae was particularly concentrated in the Andes. Glass frog_sentence_12

Later contributions by authors such as Juan Rivero, Savage, William Duellman, John D. Lynch, Pedro Ruiz-Carranza, and José Ayarzagüena increased the number of described taxa, especially from Central America, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Glass frog_sentence_13

The evolutionary relationships, biogeography, and character evolution of centrolenids were discussed by Guayasamin et al. Glass frog_sentence_14

(2008) Glass frogs originated in South America and dispersed multiple times into Central America. Glass frog_sentence_15

Character evolution seems to be complex, with multiple gains and/or losses of humeral spines, reduced hand webbing, and complete ventral transparency. Glass frog_sentence_16

The taxonomical classification of the glass frogs has been problematic. Glass frog_sentence_17

In 1991, after a major revision of the species and taxonomic characters, the herpetologists Pedro Ruiz-Carranza and John D. Lynch published a proposal for a taxonomic classification of the Centrolenidae based on cladistic principles and defining monophyletic groups. Glass frog_sentence_18

That paper was the first of a series of contributions dealing with the glass frogs from Colombia that led them to describe almost 50 species of glass frogs. Glass frog_sentence_19

The genus Centrolene was proposed to include the species with a humeral spine in adult males, and the genus Hyalinobatrachium to include the species with a bulbous liver. Glass frog_sentence_20

However, they left a heterogeneous group of species in the genus Cochranella, defined just by lacking a humeral spine and a bulbous liver. Glass frog_sentence_21

Since the publication of the extensive revision of the Colombian glass frogs, several other publications have dealt with the glass frogs from Venezuela, Costa Rica, and Ecuador. Glass frog_sentence_22

In 2006, the genus Nymphargus was erected for the species with basal webbing among outer fingers (part of the previous Cochranella ocellata species group). Glass frog_sentence_23

Four genera (Centrolene, Cochranella, Hyalinobatrachium, Nymphargus) have been shown to be poly- or paraphyletic and recently a new taxonomy has been proposed (see below). Glass frog_sentence_24

Classification Glass frog_section_1

The family Centrolenidae is a clade of anurans. Glass frog_sentence_25

Previously, the family was considered closely related to the family Hylidae; however, recent phylogenetic studies have placed them (and their sister taxon, the family Allophrynidae) closer to the family Leptodactylidae. Glass frog_sentence_26

The monophyly of Centrolenidae is supported by morphological and behavioral characters, including:1) presence of a dilated process on the medial side of the third metacarpal (an apparently unique synapomorphy); 2) ventral origin of the musculus flexor teres digiti III relative to the musculus transversi metacarpi I; 3) terminal phalanges T-shaped; 4) exotroph, lotic, burrower/fossorial tadpoles with a vermiform body and dorsal C-shaped eyes, that live buried within leaf packs in still or flowing water systems; and 5) eggs clutches deposited outside of water on vegetation or rocks above still or flowing water systems. Glass frog_sentence_27

Several molecular synapomorphies also support the monophyly of the clade. Glass frog_sentence_28

The taxonomic classification of the Centrolenidae was recently modified. Glass frog_sentence_29

The family now contains two subfamilies and 12 genera. Glass frog_sentence_30

Genera Glass frog_section_2

Glass frog_unordered_list_0

Glass frog_unordered_list_1

  • Glass frog_item_1_30
  • Glass frog_item_1_31

Characteristics Glass frog_section_3

Glass frogs are generally small, ranging from 3 - 7.5cm (1.2 - 3.0) in length. Glass frog_sentence_31

They are green in color over most of their bodies, except for the skin along the lower surface of the body and legs, which are transparent or translucent. Glass frog_sentence_32

Glass frogs are similar in appearance to some green frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus and to some tree frogs of the family Hylidae. Glass frog_sentence_33

However, hylid tree frogs have eyes that face to the side, whilst those of glass frogs face forward. Glass frog_sentence_34

Some species of green tree frogs (especially juveniles), such as Hyloscirtus palmeri and Hypsiboas pellucens, have the transparent abdominal skin typical of glass frogs, but they also have calcars on the heels, a character not present in any species of the Centrolenidae. Glass frog_sentence_35

Two members of the glass-frog family Centrolenidae (Centrolenella fleischmanni, C. Glass frog_sentence_36 prosoblepon) and the hylid subfamily Phyllomedusinae (Agalychnis moreletii, Pachymedusa dacnicolor) reflect near-infrared light (700 to 900 nanometers) when examined by infrared color photography. Glass frog_sentence_37

Infrared reflectance may confer adaptive advantage to these arboreal frogs both in thermoregulation and infrared cryptic coloration. Glass frog_sentence_38

Camouflage Glass frog_section_4

The evolutionary advantage of a partly clear skin, but with opaque back, was a mystery, as it did not seem to be effective as camouflage. Glass frog_sentence_39

It was found that the colour of the frog's body changed little against darker or lighter foliage, but the legs were more translucent and consequently changed in brightness. Glass frog_sentence_40

By resting with the translucent legs surrounding the body, the frog's edge appears softer, with less brightness gradient from the leaf to the legs and from the legs to the body, making the outline less noticeable. Glass frog_sentence_41

Experiments with computer-generated images and gelatine models of opaque and translucent frogs found that the translucent frogs were less visible, and were attacked by birds significantly less often. Glass frog_sentence_42

Distribution Glass frog_section_5

The Centrolenidae are a diverse family, distributed from southern Mexico to Panama, and through the Andes from Venezuela and the island of Tobago to Bolivia, with some species in the Amazon and Orinoco River basins, the Guiana Shield region, southeastern Brazil, and northern Argentina. Glass frog_sentence_43

Biology Glass frog_section_6

Glass frogs are mostly arboreal. Glass frog_sentence_44

They live along rivers and streams during the breeding season, and are particularly diverse in montane cloud forests of Central and South America, although some species occur also in Amazon and Chocóan rainforest and semideciduous forests. Glass frog_sentence_45

Hyalinobatrachium valerioi glass frogs are carnivores, their diet mainly including small insects like crickets, moths, flies, spiders, and other smaller frogs. Glass frog_sentence_46

The eggs are usually deposited on the leaves of trees or shrubs hanging over the running water of mountain streams, creeks, and small rivers. Glass frog_sentence_47

One species leaves its eggs over stones close to waterfalls. Glass frog_sentence_48

The method of egg-laying on the leaf varies between species. Glass frog_sentence_49

The males usually call from leaves close to their egg clutches. Glass frog_sentence_50

These eggs are less vulnerable to predators than those laid within water, but are affected by the parasitic maggots of some fly species. Glass frog_sentence_51

As a result, some glass frogs show parental care. Glass frog_sentence_52

In many species, glass frog females brood their eggs during the night the eggs are fertilized, which improves the survival of the eggs, while in almost a third of species, glass frog males stay on guard for much longer periods. Glass frog_sentence_53

After they hatch, the tadpoles fall into the waters below. Glass frog_sentence_54

The tadpoles are elongated, with powerful tails and low fins, suited for fast-flowing water. Glass frog_sentence_55

Outside of the breeding season, some species live in the canopy. Glass frog_sentence_56

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: frog.