Glossary of scientific naming

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This is a list of terms and symbols used in scientific names for organisms, and in describing the names. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_0

For proper parts of the names themselves, see List of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_1

Note that many of the abbreviations are used with or without a stop. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_2

Naming standards and taxonomic organizations and their codes and taxonomies Glossary of scientific naming_section_0

Glossary of scientific naming_unordered_list_0

General terms Glossary of scientific naming_section_1

Glossary of scientific naming_unordered_list_1

  • clade, cladisticsGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_14
  • phylum, phylogenyGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_15
  • taxon, taxonomy; Taxon is a journal of the IAPT, where proposals are madeGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_16
  • synonym : a name for a taxon different from the currently accepted nameGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_17
    • pro parte (abbreviation p. p.; "for part" in Latin)Glossary of scientific naming_item_1_18
    • senior synonym, (zoology) : the earliest (correctly published) nameGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_19
    • junior synonym, (zoology) : any later nameGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_20
    • homotypic synonym (botany)Glossary of scientific naming_item_1_21
    • heterotypic synonym (botany) : (or taxonomic synonym) a synonym that comes into being when a taxon is reduced in status ("reduced to synonymy") and becomes part of a different taxon; the zoological equivalent is "subjective synonym"Glossary of scientific naming_item_1_22
    • objective synonym (zoology)Glossary of scientific naming_item_1_23
    • subjective synonym (zoology): see taxonomic synonymGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_24
    • taxonomic synonym (botany): see taxonomic synonymGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_25
  • basionym or basyonym (botany), or protonym or original combination (zoology): original name on which the current name is based; in bacteriology "basonym"Glossary of scientific naming_item_1_26
  • combinatio nova (comb. nov.) : new combination; when a taxon has been given a new name, preserving one of the previous componentsGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_27
  • status novus (abbr. stat. nov.) : new status; when a taxon has been given a new rankGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_28
  • homonym : names spelled identically, but, in some codes, names spelled similarly, as defined by the codeGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_29
    • senior homonym (zoology) : the first legitimate use of the name which generally takes priorityGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_30
    • junior homonym (zoology), later homonym (botany) : a later and generally illegitimate use, though in some circumstances the later name is allowed to standGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_31
    • hemihomonym: a homonym across naming authorities that is permitted because any confusion is improbableGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_32
    • parahomonym: names that are similar enough to be likely to be confusedGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_33
  • isonym (botany) an identical name based on the same type, but published laterGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_34
  • Principle of the First ReviserGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_35
  • Principle of PriorityGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_36
  • Principle of TypificationGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_37
  • taxonomic authorityGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_38
  • binomial authorityGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_39
  • binomial nomenclature (also "binominal")Glossary of scientific naming_item_1_40
  • trinomial nomenclature (also "trinominal")Glossary of scientific naming_item_1_41
  • hybrid name (botany) : either two parent binomials, separated by a "×" (q.v.) or a given binomial, with or without an intercalated "×"Glossary of scientific naming_item_1_42
  • chresonym published usage of a name.Glossary of scientific naming_item_1_43
  • taxon (plural "taxa")Glossary of scientific naming_item_1_46
    • wastebasket taxon (also "wastebin taxon", "dustbin taxon" or "catch-all taxon")Glossary of scientific naming_item_1_47
    • form taxonGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_48
    • Lazarus taxonGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_49
    • Elvis taxonGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_50
    • sister taxonGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_51
    • zombie taxonGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_52
    • node-based taxonGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_53
    • parataxonGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_54
    • ichnotaxon (ichnogenus (igen.), ichnospecies (isp.), etc.) : a taxon (genus, species, etc.) only known by its work, e.g. footprints, nests, or bite marksGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_55
    • ootaxon (oospecies, etc.) : a taxon known from fossil eggsGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_56
    • sciotaxon a taxon known from partial evidence but believed to be identical to an orthotaxonGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_57
  • polyphyletic taxonGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_58
  • monophyletic taxon : a taxon consisting of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants; a cladeGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_59
  • paraphyletic taxonGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_60
  • species complex : a group of closely related species very similar in appearance, generally constituting a monophyletic taxonGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_61
  • species aggregate or aggregate species : a grouping of closely related species that are treated like a single species for practical purposesGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_62
  • alliance : a group of species or genera that have at some time been considered provisionally relatedGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_63
  • conspecific : of the same species; e. g. of two taxa previously thought to be different speciesGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_64
  • congeners : items of the same genusGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_65
  • circumscription : the limits of a taxon as laid down by its descriptionGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_66
  • sensu ("sense" in Latin) : as in sensu stricto (s. s.) (in the strict sense), sensu lato (in a broad sense), etc.; see sensu for more variants and detailsGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_67
  • secundum ("following" in Latin) : e. g. "secundum Smith"Glossary of scientific naming_item_1_68
  • form classificationGlossary of scientific naming_item_1_69

Types Glossary of scientific naming_section_2

Glossary of scientific naming_unordered_list_2

  • TypeGlossary of scientific naming_item_2_70
  • Type genusGlossary of scientific naming_item_2_71
  • Type seriesGlossary of scientific naming_item_2_72
  • Type speciesGlossary of scientific naming_item_2_73
  • Type specimenGlossary of scientific naming_item_2_74
  • Type locality or location: where the type specimen was foundGlossary of scientific naming_item_2_88
  • Type host: in parasitology, the host species from which the type specimen was recoveredGlossary of scientific naming_item_2_89

Rank names Glossary of scientific naming_section_3

Main article: Taxonomic rank Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_3

The main ranks are kingdom (regnum), phylum or division (divisio), class (classis), order (ordo), family (familia), genus and species. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_4

The ranks of section and series are also used in botany for groups within genera, while section is used in zoology for a division of an order. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_5

Further levels in the hierarchy can be made by the addition of prefixes such as sub-, super-, infra-, and so on. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_6

Divisions such as "morph", "form", "variety", "strain", "breed", "cultivar", hybrid (nothospecies) and "landrace" are used to describe various sub-specific groups in different fields. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_7

It is possible for a clade to be unranked, for example Psoroptidia (Yunker, 1955) and the SAR supergroup. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_8

Sometimes a rank is described as clade where the traditional hierarchy cannot accommodate them.. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_9

Latin descriptions of names or taxa Glossary of scientific naming_section_4

Note that in zoology the English descriptions, such as "conserved name", for example, are acceptable and generally used. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_10

These descriptions can be classified between accepted names (nom. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_11

cons., nom. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_12

nov., nom. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_13

prot.) Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_14

and unaccepted combinations for different reasons (nom. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_15

err., nom. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_16

illeg., nom. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_17

nud., nom. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_18

rej., nom. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_19

supp., nom. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_20

van. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_21

), with some cases in between regarding the use (nom. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_22

dub. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_23

used but not fully accepted; nom. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_24

obl. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_25

accepted but not fully used, so it yields precedence to a nom. Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_26

prot). Glossary of scientific naming_sentence_27

Glossary of scientific naming_unordered_list_3

  • Candidatus (Ca.) - a taxon proposed from incomplete information, such as uncultured bacteria known from metagenomicsGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_90
  • ex errore – made in errorGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_91
  • incertae sedis – of uncertain placementGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_92
  • nomen alternativum (nom. alt.; plural: nomina alternativa) – an alternative name,Glossary of scientific naming_item_3_93
  • nomen conservandum (nom. cons.; plural: nomina conservanda) – a conserved nameGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_94
  • nomen dubium (nom. dub.; plural: nomina dubia) (zoo. bact. bot.(informal)) – a name of questionable applicationGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_95
    • nomen ambiguum (plural: nomina ambigua), (bot.) a name that has been used with more than one meaningGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_96
    • nomen confusum (plural: nomina confusa), (bact.) a name based on a mixed bacterial cultureGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_97
    • nomen perplexum (plural: nomina perplexa), a name confusingly similar to another name or namesGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_98
    • nomen periculosum (plural: nomina periculosa), an name which can lead to dangerous outcomes, through confusionGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_99
  • nomen erratum (nom. err.; plural: nomina errata) - a name given in errorGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_100
  • nomen illegitimum (nom. illeg.; plural: nomina illegitima) – an illegitimate nameGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_101
  • nomen invalidum (nom. inval.; plural: nomina invalida) – an invalid nameGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_102
  • nomen manuscriptum - a name that appears in a manuscriptGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_103
  • nomen monstrositatum (nom. monstr.) – a name based on a monstrosity (fasciation, phyllody or similar deformities)Glossary of scientific naming_item_3_104
  • nomen novum (nom. nov.; plural: nomina nova) – a replacement nameGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_105
  • nomen nudum (nom. nud.; plural: nomina nuda) – a name published without an accompanying descriptionGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_106
  • nomen oblitum (nom. obl.; plural: nomina oblita) – a name which has been overlooked (literally, forgotten) and is no longer validGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_107
  • nomen protectum (nom. prot.; plural: nomina protecta) – a name granted protectionGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_108
  • nomen rejiciendum (nom. rej.; plural: nomina rejicienda) – a name that has been rejected and cannot be usedGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_109
  • nomen suppressum (nom. supp.; plural: nomina suppressa) – a name that has been suppressed and cannot be usedGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_110
  • nomen vanum (plural: nomina vana) - not a useful term, has been used to mean either a nomen dubium (see above in this list), or an invalid change in spelling, better called an unjustified emendationGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_111
  • species inquirenda, a species of doubtful identity requiring further investigationGlossary of scientific naming_item_3_112

Latin abbreviations Glossary of scientific naming_section_5

Glossary of scientific naming_unordered_list_4

  • cf. : confer; literally "compare", indicates approximate placementGlossary of scientific naming_item_4_113
  • f. : forma; formGlossary of scientific naming_item_4_114
  • nothovar. : nothovarietas; hybrid varietyGlossary of scientific naming_item_4_115
  • p. p. : pro parte; "for part"Glossary of scientific naming_item_4_116
  • pro syn. : pro synonymo; "as synonym"Glossary of scientific naming_item_4_117
  • sensu auct. : sensu auctorum; in the sense of certain authors (generally referring to an invalid usage)Glossary of scientific naming_item_4_118
  • s.l. : sensu lato; in the broad (loose) senseGlossary of scientific naming_item_4_119
  • sp. (plural spp.) : species (identical in English)Glossary of scientific naming_item_4_120
  • s.s. : sensu stricto; in the strict (narrow or precise) senseGlossary of scientific naming_item_4_121
  • subf. : subforma; subformGlossary of scientific naming_item_4_122
  • subsp. (plural subspp.) : subspecies (identical in English)Glossary of scientific naming_item_4_123
  • subvar. : subvarietas; subvarietyGlossary of scientific naming_item_4_124
  • var. : varietas; varietyGlossary of scientific naming_item_4_125

English abbreviations Glossary of scientific naming_section_6

Glossary of scientific naming_unordered_list_5

  • bot. - botanyGlossary of scientific naming_item_5_126
  • zoo. - zoologyGlossary of scientific naming_item_5_127

Symbols Glossary of scientific naming_section_7

Glossary of scientific naming_unordered_list_6

  • × : cross; indicates a hybridGlossary of scientific naming_item_6_128
  •  : extinctGlossary of scientific naming_item_6_129
  • + : graft or chimera; indicates a graft hybridGlossary of scientific naming_item_6_130

See also Glossary of scientific naming_section_8

Glossary of scientific naming_unordered_list_7

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: of scientific naming.