Goal

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This article is about the idea of a desired result. Goal_sentence_0

For the scoring method in many sports, see Goal (sport). Goal_sentence_1

For other uses, see Goal (disambiguation). Goal_sentence_2

A goal is an idea of the future or desired result that a person or a group of people envision, plan and commit to achieve. Goal_sentence_3

People endeavour to reach goals within a finite time by setting deadlines. Goal_sentence_4

A goal is roughly similar to a purpose or aim, the anticipated result which guides reaction, or an end, which is an object, either a physical object or an abstract object, that has intrinsic value. Goal_sentence_5

Goal setting Goal_section_0

Main article: Goal setting Goal_sentence_6

Goal-setting theory was formulated based on empirical research and has been called one of the most important theories in organizational psychology. Goal_sentence_7

Edwin A. Locke and Gary P. Latham, the fathers of goal-setting theory, provided a comprehensive review of the core findings of the theory in 2002. Goal_sentence_8

In summary, Locke and Latham found that specific, difficult goals lead to higher performance than either easy goals or instructions to "do your best", as long as feedback about progress is provided, the person is committed to the goal, and the person has the ability and knowledge to perform the task. Goal_sentence_9

According to Locke and Latham, goals affect performance in the following ways: Goal_sentence_10

Goal_ordered_list_0

  1. goals direct attention and effort toward goal-relevant activities,Goal_item_0_0
  2. difficult goals lead to greater effort,Goal_item_0_1
  3. goals increase persistence, with difficult goals prolonging effort, andGoal_item_0_2
  4. goals indirectly lead to arousal, and to discovery and use of task-relevant knowledge and strategies.Goal_item_0_3

A positive relationship between goals and performance depends on several factors. Goal_sentence_11

First, the goal must be considered important and the individual must be committed. Goal_sentence_12

Participative goal setting can help increase performance, but participation itself does not directly improve performance. Goal_sentence_13

Self-efficacy also enhances goal commitment. Goal_sentence_14

For goals to be effective, people need feedback that details their progress in relation to their goal. Goal_sentence_15

This feedback needs to be positive, immediate, graphic, and specific. Goal_sentence_16

Providing feedback leads to set references points and "comparisons to the standard inform their behavioral responses" (Stajkovic A.D. and Sergent, K, Cognitive Automation and Organizational Psychology). Goal_sentence_17

Some coaches recommend establishing specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bounded (SMART) objectives, but not all researchers agree that these SMART criteria are necessary. Goal_sentence_18

The SMART framework does not include goal difficulty as a criterion; in the goal-setting theory of Locke and Latham, it is recommended to choose goals within the 90th percentile of difficulty, based on the average prior performance of those that have performed the task. Goal_sentence_19

Goals can be long-term, intermediate, or short-term. Goal_sentence_20

The primary difference is the time required to achieve them. Goal_sentence_21

Short-term goals expect to be finished in a relatively short period of time, long-term goals in a long period of time, and intermediate in a medium period of time. Goal_sentence_22

Mindset theory of action phases Goal_section_1

Before an individual can set out to achieve a goal, they must first decide on what their desired end-state will be. Goal_sentence_23

Peter Gollwitzer's mindset theory of action phases proposes that there are two phases in which an individual must go through if they wish to achieve a goal. Goal_sentence_24

For the first phase, the individual will mentally select their goal by specifying the criteria and deciding on which goal they will set based on their commitment to seeing it through. Goal_sentence_25

The second phase is the planning phase, in which that individual will decide which set of behaviors are at their disposal and will allow them to best reach their desired end-state or goal. Goal_sentence_26

Goal characteristics Goal_section_2

Personal goals Goal_section_3

Individuals can set personal goals. Goal_sentence_27

A student may set a goal of a high mark in an exam. Goal_sentence_28

An athlete might run five miles a day. Goal_sentence_29

A traveler might try to reach a destination-city within three hours. Goal_sentence_30

Financial goals are a common example, to save for retirement or to save for a purchase. Goal_sentence_31

Managing goals can give returns in all areas of personal life. Goal_sentence_32

Knowing precisely what one wants to achieve makes clear what to concentrate and improve on, and often subconsciously prioritizes that goal. Goal_sentence_33

However, successful goal adjustment (goal disengagement and goal re-engagement capacities) is also a part of leading a healthy life. Goal_sentence_34

Goal setting and planning ("goal work") promotes long-term vision, intermediate mission and short-term motivation. Goal_sentence_35

It focuses intention, desire, acquisition of knowledge, and helps to organize resources. Goal_sentence_36

Efficient goal work includes recognizing and resolving all guilt, inner conflict or limiting belief that might cause one to sabotage one's efforts. Goal_sentence_37

By setting clearly defined goals, one can subsequently measure and take pride in the accomplishment of those goals. Goal_sentence_38

One can see progress in what might have seemed a long, perhaps difficult, grind. Goal_sentence_39

Achieving personal goals Goal_section_4

Achieving complex and difficult goals requires focus, long-term diligence and effort (see Goal pursuit). Goal_sentence_40

Success in any field requires forgoing excuses and justifications for poor performance or lack of adequate planning; in short, success requires emotional maturity. Goal_sentence_41

The measure of belief that people have in their ability to achieve a personal goal also affects that achievement. Goal_sentence_42

Long-term achievements rely on short-term achievements. Goal_sentence_43

Emotional control over the small moments of the single day makes a big difference in the long term. Goal_sentence_44

Personal goal achievement and happiness Goal_section_5

There has been a lot of research conducted looking at the link between achieving desired goals, changes to self-efficacy and integrity and ultimately changes to subjective well-being. Goal_sentence_45

Goal efficacy refers to how likely an individual is to succeed in achieving their goal. Goal_sentence_46

Goal integrity refers to how consistent one's goals are with core aspects of the self. Goal_sentence_47

Research has shown that a focus on goal efficacy is associated with well-being factor happiness (subjective well-being) and goal integrity is associated with the well-being factor meaning (psychology). Goal_sentence_48

Multiple studies have shown the link between achieving long-term goals and changes in subjective well-being; most research shows that achieving goals that hold personal meaning to an individual increases feelings of subjective well-being. Goal_sentence_49

Self-concordance model Goal_section_6

The self-concordance model is a model that looks at the sequence of steps that occur from the commencement of a goal to attaining that goal. Goal_sentence_50

It looks at the likelihood and impact of goal achievement based on the type of goal and meaning of the goal to the individual. Goal_sentence_51

Different types of goals impact both goal achievement and the sense of subjective well-being brought about by achieving the goal. Goal_sentence_52

The model breaks down factors that promote, first, striving to achieve a goal, then achieving a goal, and then the factors that connect goal achievement to changes in subjective well-being. Goal_sentence_53

Self-concordant goals Goal_section_7

Goals that are pursued to fulfill intrinsic values or to support an individual's self-concept are called self-concordant goals. Goal_sentence_54

Self-concordant goals fulfill basic needs and align with what psychoanalyst Donald Winnicott called an individual's "True Self". Goal_sentence_55

Because these goals have personal meaning to an individual and reflect an individual's self-identity, self-concordant goals are more likely to receive sustained effort over time. Goal_sentence_56

In contrast, goals that do not reflect an individual's internal drive and are pursued due to external factors (e.g. social pressures) emerge from a non-integrated region of a person and are therefore more likely to be abandoned when obstacles occur. Goal_sentence_57

Furthermore, self-determination theory and research surrounding this theory shows that if an individual effectively achieves a goal, but that goal is not self-endorsed or self-concordant, well-being levels do not change despite goal attainment. Goal_sentence_58

Goal management in organizations Goal_section_8

In organizations, goal management consists of the process of recognizing or inferring goals of individual team-members, abandoning goals that are no longer relevant, identifying and resolving conflicts among goals, and prioritizing goals consistently for optimal team-collaboration and effective operations. Goal_sentence_59

For any successful commercial system, it means deriving profits by making the best quality of goods or the best quality of services available to end-users (customers) at the best possible cost. Goal_sentence_60

Goal management includes: Goal_sentence_61

Goal_unordered_list_1

  • assessment and dissolution of non-rational blocks to successGoal_item_1_4
  • time managementGoal_item_1_5
  • frequent reconsideration (consistency checks)Goal_item_1_6
  • feasibility checksGoal_item_1_7
  • adjusting milestones and main-goal targetsGoal_item_1_8

Jens Rasmussen (human factors expert) and Morten Lind distinguish three fundamental categories of goals related to technological system management: Goal_sentence_62

Goal_ordered_list_2

  1. production goalsGoal_item_2_9
  2. safety goalsGoal_item_2_10
  3. economy goalsGoal_item_2_11

Organizational goal-management aims for individual employee goals and objectives to align with the vision and strategic goals of the entire organization. Goal_sentence_63

Goal-management provides organizations with a mechanism to effectively communicate corporate goals and strategic objectives to each person across the entire organization. Goal_sentence_64

The key consists of having it all emanate from a pivotal source and providing each person with a clear, consistent organizational-goal message so that every employee understands how their efforts contribute to an enterprise's success. Goal_sentence_65

An example of goal types in business management: Goal_sentence_66

Goal_unordered_list_3

  • Consumer goals: this refers to supplying a product or service that the market/consumer wantsGoal_item_3_12
  • Product goals: this refers to supplying an outstanding value proposition compared to other products - perhaps due to factors such as quality, design, reliability and noveltyGoal_item_3_13
  • Operational goals: this refers to running the organization in such a way as to make the best use of management skills, technology and resourcesGoal_item_3_14
  • Secondary goals: this refers to goals which an organization does not regard as prioritiesGoal_item_3_15

Goal displacement Goal_section_9

Goal displacement occurs when the original goals of an entity or organization are replaced over time by different goals. Goal_sentence_67

In some instances, this creates problems, because the new goals may exceed the capacity of the mechanisms put in place to meet the original goals. Goal_sentence_68

New goals adopted by an organization may also increasingly become focused on internal concerns, such as establishing and enforcing structures for reducing common employee disputes. Goal_sentence_69

In some cases, the original goals of the organization become displaced in part by repeating behaviors that become traditional within the organization. Goal_sentence_70

For example, a company that manufactures widgets may decide to do seek good publicity by putting on a fundraising drive for a popular charity, or having a tent at a local county fair. Goal_sentence_71

If the fundraising drive or county fair tent is successful, the company may choose to make this an annual tradition, and may eventually involve more and more employees and resources in the new goal of raising the most charitable funds, or having the best county fair tent. Goal_sentence_72

In some cases, goals are displaced because the initial problem is resolved or the initial goal becomes impossible to pursue. Goal_sentence_73

A famous example is the March of Dimes, which began as an organization to fund the fight against polio, but once that disease was effectively brought under control by the polio vaccine, transitioned to being an organization for combating birth defects. Goal_sentence_74

See also Goal_section_10

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goal.