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This article is about the concept of a supreme "God" in the context of monotheism. God_sentence_0

For the general concept of a being superior to humans that is worshipped as "a god", see Deity and God (male deity). God_sentence_1

For God in specific religions, see Conceptions of God. God_sentence_2

For other uses of the term, see God (disambiguation). God_sentence_3

God, in monotheistic thought, is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, and principal object of faith. God_sentence_4

God is usually conceived as being omnipotent (all-powerful), omniscient (all-knowing), omnipresent (all-present) and omnibenevolent (all-good) as well as having an eternal and necessary existence. God_sentence_5

These attributes are used either in way of analogy or are taken literally. God_sentence_6

God is most often held to be incorporeal (immaterial). God_sentence_7

Incorporeality and corporeality of God are related to conceptions of transcendence (being outside nature) and immanence (being in nature) of God, with positions of synthesis such as the "immanent transcendence". God_sentence_8

Some religions describe God without reference to gender, while others use terminology that is gender-specific and gender-biased. God_sentence_9

God has been conceived as either personal or impersonal. God_sentence_10

In theism, God is the creator and sustainer of the universe, while in deism, God is the creator, but not the sustainer, of the universe. God_sentence_11

In pantheism, God is the universe itself. God_sentence_12

Atheism is an absence of belief in God, while agnosticism deems the existence of God unknown or unknowable. God_sentence_13

God has also been conceived as the source of all moral obligation, and the "greatest conceivable existent". God_sentence_14

Many notable philosophers have developed arguments for and against the existence of God. God_sentence_15

Monotheistic religions refer to their god using various names, some referring to cultural ideas about their god's identity and attributes. God_sentence_16

In ancient Egyptian Atenism, possibly the earliest recorded monotheistic religion, this deity was called Aten and proclaimed to be the one "true" Supreme Being and creator of the universe. God_sentence_17

In the Hebrew Bible and Judaism, the names of God include Elohim, Adonai, YHWH (Hebrew: יהוה‎) and others. God_sentence_18

Yahweh and Jehovah, possible vocalizations of YHWH, are used in Christianity. God_sentence_19

In the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, one God coexists in three "persons" called the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. God_sentence_20

In Islam, the name Allah is used, while Muslims also use a multitude of titles for God. God_sentence_21

In Hinduism, Brahman is often considered a monistic concept of God. God_sentence_22

In Chinese religion, Shangdi is conceived as the progenitor (first ancestor) of the universe, intrinsic to it and constantly bringing order to it. God_sentence_23

Other names for God include Baha in the Baháʼí Faith, Waheguru in Sikhism, Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism, and Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa in Balinese Hinduism. God_sentence_24

Etymology and usage God_section_0

Main article: God (word) God_sentence_25

The earliest written form of the Germanic word God comes from the 6th-century Christian Codex Argenteus. God_sentence_26

The English word itself is derived from the Proto-Germanic * ǥuđan. God_sentence_27

The reconstructed Proto-Indo-European form * ǵhu-tó-m was likely based on the root * ǵhau(ə)-, which meant either "to call" or "to invoke". God_sentence_28

The Germanic words for God were originally neuter—applying to both genders—but during the process of the Christianization of the Germanic peoples from their indigenous Germanic paganism, the words became a masculine syntactic form. God_sentence_29

In the English language, capitalization is used for names by which a god is known, including 'God'. God_sentence_30

Consequently, the capitalized form of god is not used for multiple gods (polytheism) or when used to refer to the generic idea of a deity. God_sentence_31

The English word God and its counterparts in other languages are normally used for any and all conceptions and, in spite of significant differences between religions, the term remains an English translation common to all. God_sentence_32

The same holds for Hebrew El, but in Judaism, God is also given a proper name, the tetragrammaton YHWH, in origin possibly the name of an Edomite or Midianite deity, Yahweh. God_sentence_33

In many English translations of the Bible, when the word LORD is in all capitals, it signifies that the word represents the tetragrammaton. God_sentence_34

Allāh (Arabic: الله‎) is the Arabic term with no plural used by Muslims and Arabic speaking Christians and Jews meaning "The God", while ʾilāh (Arabic: إِلَٰه‎ plural `āliha آلِهَة) is the term used for a deity or a god in general. God_sentence_35

God may also be given a proper name in monotheistic currents of Hinduism which emphasize the personal nature of God, with early references to his name as Krishna-Vasudeva in Bhagavata or later Vishnu and Hari. God_sentence_36

Ahura Mazda is the name for God used in Zoroastrianism. God_sentence_37

"Mazda", or rather the Avestan stem-form Mazdā-, nominative Mazdå, reflects Proto-Iranian *Mazdāh (female). God_sentence_38

It is generally taken to be the proper name of the spirit, and like its Sanskrit cognate medhā, means "intelligence" or "wisdom". God_sentence_39

Both the Avestan and Sanskrit words reflect Proto-Indo-Iranian *mazdhā-, from Proto-Indo-European mn̩sdʰeh1, literally meaning "placing (dʰeh1) one's mind (*mn̩-s)", hence "wise". God_sentence_40

Waheguru (Punjabi: vāhigurū) is a term most often used in Sikhism to refer to God. God_sentence_41

It means "Wonderful Teacher" in the Punjabi language. God_sentence_42

Vāhi (a Middle Persian borrowing) means "wonderful" and guru (Sanskrit: guru) is a term denoting "teacher". God_sentence_43

Waheguru is also described by some as an experience of ecstasy which is beyond all descriptions. God_sentence_44

The most common usage of the word "Waheguru" is in the greeting Sikhs use with each other: God_sentence_45

Baha, the "greatest" name for God in the Baháʼí Faith, is Arabic for "All-Glorious". God_sentence_46

General conceptions God_section_1

Main article: Conceptions of God God_sentence_47

The philosophy of religion recognizes the following as essential attributes of God: God_sentence_48


  • Omnipotence (limitless power)God_item_0_0
  • Omniscience (limitless knowledge)God_item_0_1
  • Eternity (God is not bound by time)God_item_0_2
  • Goodness (God is wholly benevolent)God_item_0_3
  • Unity (God cannot be divided)God_item_0_4
  • Simplicity (God is not composite)God_item_0_5
  • Incorporeality (God is not material)God_item_0_6
  • Immutability (God is not subject to change)God_item_0_7
  • Impassability (God is not affected)God_item_0_8

There is no clear consensus on the nature or the existence of God. God_sentence_49

The Abrahamic conceptions of God include the monotheistic definition of God in Judaism, the trinitarian view of Christians, and the Islamic concept of God. God_sentence_50

There were also various conceptions of God in the ancient Greco-Roman world, such as Aristotle's view of an unmoved mover, the Neoplatonic concept of the One and the pantheistic God of Stoic Physics. God_sentence_51

The dharmic religions differ in their view of the divine: views of God in Hinduism vary by region, sect, and caste, ranging from monotheistic to polytheistic. God_sentence_52

Many polytheistic religions share the idea of a creator deity, although having a name other than "God" and without all of the other roles attributed to a singular God by monotheistic religions. God_sentence_53

Sikhism is sometimes seen as being pantheistic about God. God_sentence_54

Śramaṇa religions are generally non-creationist, while also holding that there are divine beings (called Devas in Buddhism and Jainism) of limited power and lifespan. God_sentence_55

Jainism has generally rejected creationism, holding that soul substances (Jīva) are uncreated and that time is beginningless. God_sentence_56

Depending on one's interpretation and tradition, Buddhism can be conceived as being either non-theistic, trans-theistic, pantheistic, or polytheistic. God_sentence_57

However, Buddhism has generally rejected the specific monotheistic view of a Creator God. God_sentence_58

The Buddha criticizes the theory of creationism in the early Buddhist texts. God_sentence_59

Also, major Indian Buddhist philosophers, such as Nagarjuna, Vasubandhu, Dharmakirti and Buddhaghosa, consistently critiqued Creator God views put forth by Hindu thinkers. God_sentence_60

Oneness God_section_2

Main articles: Monotheism and Henotheism God_sentence_61

Monotheists believe that there is only one god, and may also believe this god is worshipped in different religions under different names. God_sentence_62

The view that all theists actually worship the same god, whether they know it or not, is especially emphasized in the Baháʼí Faith, Hinduism and Sikhism. God_sentence_63

In Christianity, the doctrine of the Trinity describes God as one God in three divine Persons (each of the three Persons is God himself). God_sentence_64

The Most Holy Trinity comprises God the Father, God the Son (Jesus), and God the Holy Spirit. God_sentence_65

In the past centuries, this fundamental mystery of the Christian faith was also summarized by the Latin formula Sancta Trinitas, Unus Deus (Holy Trinity, Unique God), reported in the Litanias Lauretanas. God_sentence_66

Islam's most fundamental concept is tawhid meaning "oneness" or "uniqueness". God_sentence_67

God is described in the Quran as: "He is Allah, the One and Only; Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him." God_sentence_68

Muslims repudiate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and the divinity of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism. God_sentence_69

In Islam, God is transcendent and does not resemble any of his creations in any way. God_sentence_70

Thus, Muslims are not iconodules, and are not expected to visualize God. God_sentence_71

Henotheism is the belief and worship of a single god while accepting the existence or possible existence of other deities. God_sentence_72

Theism, deism, and pantheism God_section_3

Main articles: Theism, Deism, and Pantheism God_sentence_73

Theism generally holds that God exists realistically, objectively, and independently of human thought; that God created and sustains everything; that God is omnipotent and eternal; and that God is personal and interacting with the universe through, for example, religious experience and the prayers of humans. God_sentence_74

Theism holds that God is both transcendent and immanent; thus, God is simultaneously infinite and, in some way, present in the affairs of the world. God_sentence_75

Not all theists subscribe to all of these propositions, but each usually subscribes to some of them (see, by way of comparison, family resemblance). God_sentence_76

Catholic theology holds that God is infinitely simple and is not involuntarily subject to time. God_sentence_77

Most theists hold that God is omnipotent, omniscient, and benevolent, although this belief raises questions about God's responsibility for evil and suffering in the world. God_sentence_78

Some theists ascribe to God a self-conscious or purposeful limiting of omnipotence, omniscience, or benevolence. God_sentence_79

Open Theism, by contrast, contends that, due to the nature of time, God's omniscience does not mean the deity can predict the future. God_sentence_80

Theism is sometimes used to refer in general to any belief in a god or gods, i.e., monotheism or polytheism. God_sentence_81

Deism holds that God is wholly transcendent: God exists, but does not intervene in the world beyond what was necessary to create it. God_sentence_82

In this view, God is not anthropomorphic, and neither answers prayers nor produces miracles. God_sentence_83

Common in Deism is a belief that God has no interest in humanity and may not even be aware of humanity. God_sentence_84

Pandeism combines Deism with Pantheistic beliefs. God_sentence_85

Pandeism is proposed to explain as to Deism why God would create a universe and then abandon it, and as to Pantheism, the origin and purpose of the universe. God_sentence_86

Pantheism holds that God is the universe and the universe is God, whereas Panentheism holds that God contains, but is not identical to, the Universe. God_sentence_87

It is also the view of the Liberal Catholic Church; Theosophy; some views of Hinduism except Vaishnavism, which believes in panentheism; Sikhism; some divisions of Neopaganism and Taoism, along with many varying denominations and individuals within denominations. God_sentence_88

Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism, paints a pantheistic/panentheistic view of God—which has wide acceptance in Hasidic Judaism, particularly from their founder The Baal Shem Tov—but only as an addition to the Jewish view of a personal god, not in the original pantheistic sense that denies or limits persona to God. God_sentence_89

Other concepts God_section_4

Dystheism, which is related to theodicy, is a form of theism which holds that God is either not wholly good or is fully malevolent as a consequence of the problem of evil. God_sentence_90

One such example comes from Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov, in which Ivan Karamazov rejects God on the grounds that he allows children to suffer. God_sentence_91

In modern times, some more abstract concepts have been developed, such as process theology and open theism. God_sentence_92

The contemporaneous French philosopher Michel Henry has however proposed a phenomenological approach and definition of God as phenomenological essence of Life. God_sentence_93

God has also been conceived as being incorporeal (immaterial), a personal being, the source of all moral obligation, and the "greatest conceivable existent". God_sentence_94

These attributes were all supported to varying degrees by the early Jewish, Christian and Muslim theologian philosophers, including Maimonides, Augustine of Hippo, and Al-Ghazali, respectively. God_sentence_95

Non-theistic views God_section_5

See also: Evolutionary origin of religions and Evolutionary psychology of religion God_sentence_96

Non-theist views about God also vary. God_sentence_97

Some non-theists avoid the concept of God, whilst accepting that it is significant to many; other non-theists understand God as a symbol of human values and aspirations. God_sentence_98

The nineteenth-century English atheist Charles Bradlaugh declared that he refused to say "There is no God", because "the word 'God' is to me a sound conveying no clear or distinct affirmation"; he said more specifically that he disbelieved in the Christian god. God_sentence_99

Stephen Jay Gould proposed an approach dividing the world of philosophy into what he called "non-overlapping magisteria" (NOMA). God_sentence_100

In this view, questions of the supernatural, such as those relating to the existence and nature of God, are non-empirical and are the proper domain of theology. God_sentence_101

The methods of science should then be used to answer any empirical question about the natural world, and theology should be used to answer questions about ultimate meaning and moral value. God_sentence_102

In this view, the perceived lack of any empirical footprint from the magisterium of the supernatural onto natural events makes science the sole player in the natural world. God_sentence_103

Another view, advanced by Richard Dawkins, is that the existence of God is an empirical question, on the grounds that "a universe with a god would be a completely different kind of universe from one without, and it would be a scientific difference." God_sentence_104

Carl Sagan argued that the doctrine of a Creator of the Universe was difficult to prove or disprove and that the only conceivable scientific discovery that could disprove the existence of a Creator (not necessarily a God) would be the discovery that the universe is infinitely old. God_sentence_105

Stephen Hawking and co-author Leonard Mlodinow state in their book, The Grand Design, that it is reasonable to ask who or what created the universe, but if the answer is God, then the question has merely been deflected to that of who created God. God_sentence_106

Both authors claim however, that it is possible to answer these questions purely within the realm of science, and without invoking any divine beings. God_sentence_107

Agnosticism and atheism God_section_6

Agnosticism is the view that the truth values of certain claims—especially metaphysical and religious claims such as whether God, the divine or the supernatural exist—are unknown and perhaps unknowable. God_sentence_108

Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities. God_sentence_109

In a narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities, although it can be defined as a lack of belief in the existence of any deities, rather than a positive belief in the nonexistence of any deities. God_sentence_110

Anthropomorphism God_section_7

Main article: Anthropomorphism God_sentence_111

Pascal Boyer argues that while there is a wide array of supernatural concepts found around the world, in general, supernatural beings tend to behave much like people. God_sentence_112

The construction of gods and spirits like persons is one of the best known traits of religion. God_sentence_113

He cites examples from Greek mythology, which is, in his opinion, more like a modern soap opera than other religious systems. God_sentence_114

Bertrand du Castel and Timothy Jurgensen demonstrate through formalization that Boyer's explanatory model matches physics' epistemology in positing not directly observable entities as intermediaries. God_sentence_115

Anthropologist Stewart Guthrie contends that people project human features onto non-human aspects of the world because it makes those aspects more familiar. God_sentence_116

Sigmund Freud also suggested that god concepts are projections of one's father. God_sentence_117

Likewise, Émile Durkheim was one of the earliest to suggest that gods represent an extension of human social life to include supernatural beings. God_sentence_118

In line with this reasoning, psychologist Matt Rossano contends that when humans began living in larger groups, they may have created gods as a means of enforcing morality. God_sentence_119

In small groups, morality can be enforced by social forces such as gossip or reputation. God_sentence_120

However, it is much harder to enforce morality using social forces in much larger groups. God_sentence_121

Rossano indicates that by including ever-watchful gods and spirits, humans discovered an effective strategy for restraining selfishness and building more cooperative groups. God_sentence_122

Existence God_section_8

Main article: Existence of God God_sentence_123

Arguments about the existence of God typically include empirical, deductive, and inductive types. God_sentence_124

Different views include that: "God does not exist" (strong atheism); "God almost certainly does not exist" (de facto atheism); "no one knows whether God exists" (agnosticism); "God exists, but this cannot be proven or disproven" (de facto theism); and that "God exists and this can be proven" (strong theism). God_sentence_125

Countless arguments have been proposed to prove the existence of God. God_sentence_126

Some of the most notable arguments are the Five Ways of Aquinas, the Argument from desire proposed by C.S. God_sentence_127 Lewis, and the Ontological Argument formulated both by St. God_sentence_128 Anselm and René Descartes. God_sentence_129

St. Anselm's approach was to define God as, "that than which nothing greater can be conceived". God_sentence_130

Famed pantheist philosopher Baruch Spinoza would later carry this idea to its extreme: "By God I understand a being absolutely infinite, i.e., a substance consisting of infinite attributes, of which each one expresses an eternal and infinite essence." God_sentence_131

For Spinoza, the whole of the natural universe is made of one substance, God, or its equivalent, Nature. God_sentence_132

His proof for the existence of God was a variation of the Ontological argument. God_sentence_133

Scientist Isaac Newton saw the nontrinitarian God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation. God_sentence_134

Nevertheless, he rejected polymath Leibniz' thesis that God would necessarily make a perfect world which requires no intervention from the creator. God_sentence_135

In Query 31 of the Opticks, Newton simultaneously made an argument from design and for the necessity of intervention: God_sentence_136

St. Thomas believed that the existence of God is self-evident in itself, but not to us. God_sentence_137

"Therefore I say that this proposition, "God exists", of itself is self-evident, for the predicate is the same as the subject.... Now because we do not know the essence of God, the proposition is not self-evident to us; but needs to be demonstrated by things that are more known to us, though less known in their nature—namely, by effects." God_sentence_138

St. Thomas believed that the existence of God can be demonstrated. God_sentence_139

Briefly in the Summa theologiae and more extensively in the Summa contra Gentiles, he considered in great detail five arguments for the existence of God, widely known as the quinque viae (Five Ways). God_sentence_140

For the original text of the five proofs, see quinque viae God_sentence_141


  1. Motion: Some things undoubtedly move, though cannot cause their own motion. Since there can be no infinite chain of causes of motion, there must be a First Mover not moved by anything else, and this is what everyone understands by God.God_item_1_9
  2. Causation: As in the case of motion, nothing can cause itself, and an infinite chain of causation is impossible, so there must be a First Cause, called God.God_item_1_10
  3. Existence of necessary and the unnecessary: Our experience includes things certainly existing but apparently unnecessary. Not everything can be unnecessary, for then once there was nothing and there would still be nothing. Therefore, we are compelled to suppose something that exists necessarily, having this necessity only from itself; in fact itself the cause for other things to exist.God_item_1_11
  4. Gradation: If we can notice a gradation in things in the sense that some things are more hot, good, etc., there must be a superlative that is the truest and noblest thing, and so most fully existing. This then, we call God (Note: Thomas does not ascribe actual qualities to God Himself).God_item_1_12
  5. Ordered tendencies of nature: A direction of actions to an end is noticed in all bodies following natural laws. Anything without awareness tends to a goal under the guidance of one who is aware. This we call God (Note that even when we guide objects, in Thomas's view, the source of all our knowledge comes from God as well).God_item_1_13

Some theologians, such as the scientist and theologian A.E. God_sentence_142 McGrath, argue that the existence of God is not a question that can be answered using the scientific method. God_sentence_143

Agnostic Stephen Jay Gould argues that science and religion are not in conflict and do not overlap. God_sentence_144

Some findings in the fields of cosmology, evolutionary biology and neuroscience are interpreted by some atheists (including Lawrence M. Krauss and Sam Harris) as evidence that God is an imaginary entity only, with no basis in reality. God_sentence_145

These atheists claim that a single, omniscient God who is imagined to have created the universe and is particularly attentive to the lives of humans has been imagined, embellished and promulgated in a trans-generational manner. God_sentence_146

Richard Dawkins interprets such findings not only as a lack of evidence for the material existence of such a God, but as extensive evidence to the contrary. God_sentence_147

However, his views are opposed by some theologians and scientists including Alister McGrath, who argues that existence of God is compatible with science. God_sentence_148

Specific attributes God_section_9

Different religious traditions assign differing (though often similar) attributes and characteristics to God, including expansive powers and abilities, psychological characteristics, gender characteristics, and preferred nomenclature. God_sentence_149

The assignment of these attributes often differs according to the conceptions of God in the culture from which they arise. God_sentence_150

For example, attributes of God in Christianity, attributes of God in Islam, and the Thirteen Attributes of Mercy in Judaism share certain similarities arising from their common roots. God_sentence_151

Names God_section_10

Main article: Names of God God_sentence_152

The word God is "one of the most complex and difficult in the English language." God_sentence_153

In the Judeo-Christian tradition, "the Bible has been the principal source of the conceptions of God". God_sentence_154

That the Bible "includes many different images, concepts, and ways of thinking about" God has resulted in perpetual "disagreements about how God is to be conceived and understood". God_sentence_155

Many traditions see God as incorporeal and eternal, and regard him as a point of living light like human souls, but without a physical body, as he does not enter the cycle of birth, death and rebirth. God_sentence_156

God is seen as the perfect and constant embodiment of all virtues, powers and values and that he is the unconditionally loving Father of all souls, irrespective of their religion, gender, or culture. God_sentence_157

Throughout the Hebrew and Christian Bibles there are many names for God. God_sentence_158

One of them is Elohim. God_sentence_159

Another one is El Shaddai, translated "God Almighty". God_sentence_160

A third notable name is El Elyon, which means "The High God". God_sentence_161

Also noted in the Hebrew and Christian Bibles is the name "I Am that I Am". God_sentence_162

God is described and referred in the Quran and hadith by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahman, meaning "Most Compassionate" and Al-Rahim, meaning "Most Merciful" (See Names of God in Islam). God_sentence_163

Many of these names are also used in the scriptures of the Baháʼí Faith. God_sentence_164

Vaishnavism, a tradition in Hinduism, has a list of titles and names of Krishna. God_sentence_165

Gender God_section_11

Main article: Gender of God God_sentence_166

The gender of God may be viewed as either a literal or an allegorical aspect of a deity who, in classical western philosophy, transcends bodily form. God_sentence_167

Polytheistic religions commonly attribute to each of the gods a gender, allowing each to interact with any of the others, and perhaps with humans, sexually. God_sentence_168

In most monotheistic religions, God has no counterpart with which to relate sexually. God_sentence_169

Thus, in classical western philosophy the gender of this one-and-only deity is most likely to be an analogical statement of how humans and God address, and relate to, each other. God_sentence_170

Namely, God is seen as begetter of the world and revelation which corresponds to the active (as opposed to the receptive) role in sexual intercourse. God_sentence_171

Biblical sources usually refer to God using male words, except , , and (female); , , , , , (a mother); (a mother eagle); and and (a mother hen). God_sentence_172

Relationship with creation God_section_12

See also: Creator deity, Prayer, and Worship God_sentence_173

Prayer plays a significant role among many believers. God_sentence_174

Muslims believe that the purpose of existence is to worship God. God_sentence_175

He is viewed as a personal God and there are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God. God_sentence_176

Prayer often also includes supplication and asking forgiveness. God_sentence_177

God is often believed to be forgiving. God_sentence_178

For example, a hadith states God would replace a sinless people with one who sinned but still asked repentance. God_sentence_179

Christian theologian Alister McGrath writes that there are good reasons to suggest that a "personal god" is integral to the Christian outlook, but that one has to understand it is an analogy. God_sentence_180

"To say that God is like a person is to affirm the divine ability and willingness to relate to others. God_sentence_181

This does not imply that God is human, or located at a specific point in the universe." God_sentence_182

Adherents of different religions generally disagree as to how to best worship God and what is God's plan for mankind, if there is one. God_sentence_183

There are different approaches to reconciling the contradictory claims of monotheistic religions. God_sentence_184

One view is taken by exclusivists, who believe they are the chosen people or have exclusive access to absolute truth, generally through revelation or encounter with the Divine, which adherents of other religions do not. God_sentence_185

Another view is religious pluralism. God_sentence_186

A pluralist typically believes that his religion is the right one, but does not deny the partial truth of other religions. God_sentence_187

An example of a pluralist view in Christianity is supersessionism, i.e., the belief that one's religion is the fulfillment of previous religions. God_sentence_188

A third approach is relativistic inclusivism, where everybody is seen as equally right; an example being universalism: the doctrine that salvation is eventually available for everyone. God_sentence_189

A fourth approach is syncretism, mixing different elements from different religions. God_sentence_190

An example of syncretism is the New Age movement. God_sentence_191

Jews and Christians believe that humans are created in the image of God, and are the center, crown and key to God's creation, stewards for God, supreme over everything else God had made (); for this reason, humans are in Christianity called the "Children of God". God_sentence_192

Depiction God_section_13

Zoroastrianism God_section_14

During the early Parthian Empire, Ahura Mazda was visually represented for worship. God_sentence_193

This practice ended during the beginning of the Sassanid empire. God_sentence_194

Zoroastrian iconoclasm, which can be traced to the end of the Parthian period and the beginning of the Sassanid, eventually put an end to the use of all images of Ahura Mazda in worship. God_sentence_195

However, Ahura Mazda continued to be symbolized by a dignified male figure, standing or on horseback which is found in Sassanian investiture. God_sentence_196

Judaism God_section_15

At least some Jews do not use any image for God, since God is the unimaginable Being who cannot be represented in material forms. God_sentence_197

The burning bush that was not consumed by the flames is described in Book of Exodus as a symbolic representation of God when he appeared to Moses. God_sentence_198

Christianity God_section_16

Further information: God in Christianity and God in Catholicism God_sentence_199

See also: God the Father in Western art God_sentence_200

Early Christians believed that the words of the Gospel of John 1:18: "No man has seen God at any time" and numerous other statements were meant to apply not only to God, but to all attempts at the depiction of God. God_sentence_201

However, later depictions of God are found. God_sentence_202

Some, like the Hand of God, are depiction borrowed from Jewish art. God_sentence_203

The beginning of the 8th century witnessed the suppression and destruction of religious icons as the period of Byzantine iconoclasm (literally image-breaking) started. God_sentence_204

The Second Council of Nicaea in 787 effectively ended the first period of Byzantine iconoclasm and restored the honouring of icons and holy images in general. God_sentence_205

However, this did not immediately translate into large scale depictions of God the Father. God_sentence_206

Even supporters of the use of icons in the 8th century, such as Saint John of Damascus, drew a distinction between images of God the Father and those of Christ. God_sentence_207

Prior to the 10th century no attempt was made to use a human to symbolize God the Father in Western art. God_sentence_208

Yet, Western art eventually required some way to illustrate the presence of the Father, so through successive representations a set of artistic styles for symbolizing the Father using a man gradually emerged around the 10th century AD. God_sentence_209

A rationale for the use of a human is the belief that God created the soul of Man in the image of his own (thus allowing Human to transcend the other animals). God_sentence_210

It appears that when early artists designed to represent God the Father, fear and awe restrained them from a usage of the whole human figure. God_sentence_211

Typically only a small part would be used as the image, usually the hand, or sometimes the face, but rarely a whole human. God_sentence_212

In many images, the figure of the Son supplants the Father, so a smaller portion of the person of the Father is depicted. God_sentence_213

By the 12th century depictions of God the Father had started to appear in French illuminated manuscripts, which as a less public form could often be more adventurous in their iconography, and in stained glass church windows in England. God_sentence_214

Initially the head or bust was usually shown in some form of frame of clouds in the top of the picture space, where the Hand of God had formerly appeared; the Baptism of Christ on the famous baptismal font in Liège of Rainer of Huy is an example from 1118 (a Hand of God is used in another scene). God_sentence_215

Gradually the amount of the human symbol shown can increase to a half-length figure, then a full-length, usually enthroned, as in Giotto's fresco of c. 1305 in Padua. God_sentence_216

In the 14th century the Naples Bible carried a depiction of God the Father in the Burning bush. God_sentence_217

By the early 15th century, the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry has a considerable number of symbols, including an elderly but tall and elegant full-length figure walking in the Garden of Eden, which show a considerable diversity of apparent ages and dress. God_sentence_218

The "Gates of Paradise" of the Florence Baptistry by Lorenzo Ghiberti, begun in 1425 use a similar tall full-length symbol for the Father. God_sentence_219

The Rohan Book of Hours of about 1430 also included depictions of God the Father in half-length human form, which were now becoming standard, and the Hand of God becoming rarer. God_sentence_220

At the same period other works, like the large Genesis altarpiece by the Hamburg painter Meister Bertram, continued to use the old depiction of Christ as Logos in Genesis scenes. God_sentence_221

In the 15th century there was a brief fashion for depicting all three persons of the Trinity as similar or identical figures with the usual appearance of Christ. God_sentence_222

In an early Venetian school Coronation of the Virgin by Giovanni d'Alemagna and Antonio Vivarini (c. 1443), The Father is depicted using the symbol consistently used by other artists later, namely a patriarch, with benign, yet powerful countenance and with long white hair and a beard, a depiction largely derived from, and justified by, the near-physical, but still figurative, description of the Ancient of Days. God_sentence_223

. God_sentence_224

...the Ancient of Days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire. God_sentence_225

(Daniel 7:9) God_sentence_226

In the Annunciation by Benvenuto di Giovanni in 1470, God the Father is portrayed in the red robe and a hat that resembles that of a Cardinal. God_sentence_227

However, even in the later part of the 15th century, the symbolic representation of the Father and the Holy Spirit as "hands and dove" continued, e.g. in Andrea del Verrocchio and Leonardo da Vinci's Baptism of Christ in c. 1472–1475. God_sentence_228

In Renaissance paintings of the adoration of the Trinity, God may be depicted in two ways, either with emphasis on The Father, or the three elements of the Trinity. God_sentence_229

The most usual depiction of the Trinity in Renaissance art depicts God the Father using an old man, usually with a long beard and patriarchal in appearance, sometimes with a triangular halo (as a reference to the Trinity), or with a papal crown, specially in Northern Renaissance painting. God_sentence_230

In these depictions The Father may hold a globe or book (to symbolize God's knowledge and as a reference to how knowledge is deemed divine). God_sentence_231

He is behind and above Christ on the Cross in the Throne of Mercy iconography. God_sentence_232

A dove, the symbol of the Holy Spirit may hover above. God_sentence_233

Various people from different classes of society, e.g. kings, popes or martyrs may be present in the picture. God_sentence_234

In a Trinitarian Pietà, God the Father is often symbolized using a man wearing a papal dress and a papal crown, supporting the dead Christ in his arms. God_sentence_235

They are depicted as floating in heaven with angels who carry the instruments of the Passion. God_sentence_236

Representations of God the Father and the Trinity were attacked both by Protestants and within Catholicism, by the Jansenist and Baianist movements as well as more orthodox theologians. God_sentence_237

As with other attacks on Catholic imagery, this had the effect both of reducing Church support for the less central depictions, and strengthening it for the core ones. God_sentence_238

In the Western Church, the pressure to restrain religious imagery resulted in the highly influential decrees of the final session of the Council of Trent in 1563. God_sentence_239

The Council of Trent decrees confirmed the traditional Catholic doctrine that images only represented the person depicted, and that veneration to them was paid to the person, not the image. God_sentence_240

Artistic depictions of God the Father were uncontroversial in Catholic art thereafter, but less common depictions of the Trinity were condemned. God_sentence_241

In 1745 Pope Benedict XIV explicitly supported the Throne of Mercy depiction, referring to the "Ancient of Days", but in 1786 it was still necessary for Pope Pius VI to issue a papal bull condemning the decision of an Italian church council to remove all images of the Trinity from churches. God_sentence_242

God the Father is symbolized in several Genesis scenes in Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling, most famously The Creation of Adam (whose image of near touching hands of God and Adam is iconic of humanity, being a reminder that Man is created in the Image and Likeness of God ()).God the Father is depicted as a powerful figure, floating in the clouds in Titian's Assumption of the Virgin in the Frari of Venice, long admired as a masterpiece of High Renaissance art. God_sentence_243

The Church of the Gesù in Rome includes a number of 16th-century depictions of God the Father. God_sentence_244

In some of these paintings the Trinity is still alluded to in terms of three angels, but Giovanni Battista Fiammeri also depicted God the Father as a man riding on a cloud, above the scenes. God_sentence_245

In both the Last Judgment and the Coronation of the Virgin paintings by Rubens he depicted God the Father using the image that by then had become widely accepted, a bearded patriarchal figure above the fray. God_sentence_246

In the 17th century, the two Spanish artists Diego Velázquez (whose father-in-law Francisco Pacheco was in charge of the approval of new images for the Inquisition) and Bartolomé Esteban Murillo both depicted God the Father using a patriarchal figure with a white beard in a purple robe. God_sentence_247

While representations of God the Father were growing in Italy, Spain, Germany and the Low Countries, there was resistance elsewhere in Europe, even during the 17th century. God_sentence_248

In 1632 most members of the Star Chamber court in England (except the Archbishop of York) condemned the use of the images of the Trinity in church windows, and some considered them illegal. God_sentence_249

Later in the 17th century Sir Thomas Browne wrote that he considered the representation of God the Father using an old man "a dangerous act" that might lead to Egyptian symbolism. God_sentence_250

In 1847, Charles Winston was still critical of such images as a "Romish trend" (a term used to refer to Roman Catholics) that he considered best avoided in England. God_sentence_251

In 1667 the 43rd chapter of the Great Moscow Council specifically included a ban on a number of symbolic depictions of God the Father and the Holy Spirit, which then also resulted in a whole range of other icons being placed on the forbidden list, mostly affecting Western-style depictions which had been gaining ground in Orthodox icons. God_sentence_252

The Council also declared that the person of the Trinity who was the "Ancient of Days" was Christ, as Logos, not God the Father. God_sentence_253

However some icons continued to be produced in Russia, as well as Greece, Romania, and other Orthodox countries. God_sentence_254

Islam God_section_17

Further information: God in Islam God_sentence_255

Muslims believe that God (Allah) is beyond all comprehension and equal, and does not resemble any of his creations in any way. God_sentence_256

Thus, Muslims are not iconodules, are not expected to visualize God, and instead of having pictures of Allah in their mosques, typically have religious calligraphy written on the wall. God_sentence_257

In the Ismaili interpretation of Islam, assigning attributes to God as well as negating any attributes from God (via negativa) both qualify as anthropomorphism and are rejected, as God cannot be understood by either assigning attributes to Him or taking attributes away from Him. God_sentence_258

Therefore, Abu Yaqub Al-Sijistani, a renowned Ismaili thinker, suggested the method of double negation; for example: “God is not existent” followed by “God is not non-existent”. God_sentence_259

This glorifies God from any understanding or human comprehension. God_sentence_260

Baháʼí Faith God_section_18

Further information: Manifestation of God (Baháʼí Faith) God_sentence_261

In the Kitáb-i-Íqán, the primary theological work of the Baháʼí Faith, God is described as “Him Who is the central Orb of the universe, its Essence and ultimate Purpose.” Bahá'u'lláh taught that God is directly unknowable to common mortals, but that his attributes and qualities can be indirectly known by learning from and imitating his divine Manifestations, which in Baháʼí theology are somewhat comparable to Hindu avatars or Abrahamic prophets. God_sentence_262

These Manifestations are the great prophets and teachers of many of the major religious traditions. God_sentence_263

These include Krishna, Buddha, Jesus, Zoroaster, Muhammad, Bahá'ú'lláh, and others. God_sentence_264

Although the faith is strictly monotheistic, it also preaches the unity of all religions and focuses on these multiple epiphanies as necessary for meeting the needs of humanity at different points in history and for different cultures, and as part of a scheme of progressive revelation and education of humanity. God_sentence_265

Theological approaches God_section_19

See also: Classical theism and Theistic Personalism God_sentence_266

Classical theists (such as ancient Greco-Medieval philosophers, Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox Christians, many Jews and Muslims, and some Protestants) speak of God as a divinely simple 'nothing' that is completely transcendent (totally independent of all else), and having attributes such as immutability, impassibility, and timelessness. God_sentence_267

Theologians of theistic personalism (the view held by Rene Descartes, Isaac Newton, Alvin Plantinga, Richard Swinburne, William Lane Craig, and most modern evangelicals) argue that God is most generally the ground of all being, immanent in and transcendent over the whole world of reality, with immanence and transcendence being the contrapletes of personality. God_sentence_268

Carl Jung equated religious ideas of God with transcendental metaphors of higher consciousness, in which God can be just as easily be imagined "as an eternally flowing current of vital energy that endlessly changes shape ... as an eternally unmoved, unchangeable essence." God_sentence_269

Many philosophers developed arguments for the existence of God, while attempting to comprehend the precise implications of God's attributes. God_sentence_270

Reconciling some of those attributes—particularly the attributes of the God of theistic personalism—generated important philosophical problems and debates. God_sentence_271

For example, God's omniscience may seem to imply that God knows how free agents will choose to act. God_sentence_272

If God does know this, their ostensible free will might be illusory, or foreknowledge does not imply predestination, and if God does not know it, God may not be omniscient. God_sentence_273

The last centuries of philosophy have seen vigorous questions regarding the arguments for God's existence raised by such philosophers as Immanuel Kant, David Hume and Antony Flew, although Kant held that the argument from morality was valid. God_sentence_274

The theist response has been either to contend, as does Alvin Plantinga, that faith is "properly basic", or to take, as does Richard Swinburne, the evidentialist position. God_sentence_275

Some theists agree that only some of the arguments for God's existence are compelling, but argue that faith is not a product of reason, but requires risk. God_sentence_276

There would be no risk, they say, if the arguments for God's existence were as solid as the laws of logic, a position summed up by Pascal as "the heart has reasons of which reason does not know." God_sentence_277

Many religious believers allow for the existence of other, less powerful spiritual beings such as angels, saints, jinn, demons, and devas. God_sentence_278

See also God_section_20


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/God.