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Type of siteGoogle+_header_cell_0_0_0 Google+_cell_0_0_1
Available inGoogle+_header_cell_0_1_0 MultilingualGoogle+_cell_0_1_1
Predecessor(s)Google+_header_cell_0_2_0 Google+_cell_0_2_1
OwnerGoogle+_header_cell_0_3_0 GoogleGoogle+_cell_0_3_1
Created byGoogle+_header_cell_0_4_0 Google+_cell_0_4_1
URLGoogle+_header_cell_0_5_0 at the Wayback Machine (archive index)Google+_cell_0_5_1
CommercialGoogle+_header_cell_0_6_0 No longer availableGoogle+_cell_0_6_1
RegistrationGoogle+_header_cell_0_7_0 Required; no longer availableGoogle+_cell_0_7_1
UsersGoogle+_header_cell_0_8_0 200 million (2019)Google+_cell_0_8_1
LaunchedGoogle+_header_cell_0_9_0 June 28, 2011; 9 years ago (2011-06-28)Google+_cell_0_9_1
Current statusGoogle+_header_cell_0_10_0 Google+_cell_0_10_1
Written inGoogle+_header_cell_0_11_0 Java, JavaScriptGoogle+_cell_0_11_1

Google+ (pronounced and sometimes written as Google Plus; sometimes called G+) was a social network owned and operated by Google. Google+_sentence_0

The network was launched on June 28, 2011, in an attempt to challenge other social networks, linking other Google products like Google Drive, Blogger and YouTube. Google+_sentence_1

The service, Google's fourth foray into social networking, experienced strong growth in its initial years, although usage statistics varied, depending on how the service was defined. Google+_sentence_2

Three Google executives oversaw the service, which underwent substantial changes that led to a redesign in November 2015. Google+_sentence_3

Due to low user engagement and disclosed software design flaws that potentially allowed outside developers access to personal information of its users, the Google+ developer API was discontinued on March 7, 2019, and Google+ was shut down for business and personal use on April 2, 2019. Google+_sentence_4

Google+ continued to be available as "Google+ for G Suite", all users transitioned to "Google Currents" later. Google+_sentence_5

History Google+_section_0

Release Google+_section_1

Google+ was the company's fourth foray into social networking, following Google Buzz (introduced 2010, retired in 2011), Google Friend Connect (introduced 2008, retired by March 2012), and Orkut (introduced in 2004, as of 2013 operated entirely by subsidiary Google Brazil – retired in September 2014). Google+_sentence_6

Google+ was introduced in June 2011. Google+_sentence_7

Features included the ability to post photos and status updates to the stream or interest-based communities, group different types of relationships (rather than simply "friends") into Circles, a multi-person instant messaging, text and video chat called Hangouts, events, location tagging, and the ability to edit and upload photos to private cloud-based albums. Google+_sentence_8

According to a 2016 book by a former Facebook employee, some leaders at Facebook saw Google's foray into social networking as a serious threat to the company. Google+_sentence_9

Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg instituted a company-wide "lockdown", signaling that employees were supposed to dedicate time to bringing Facebook's features into line with Google+. Google+_sentence_10

Growth Google+_section_2

Assessments of Google+ growth varied widely, because Google first defined the service as a social network, then later as "a social layer across all of Google's services", allowing them to share a user's identity and interests. Google+_sentence_11

According to Ars Technica, Google+ signups were "often just an incidental byproduct of signing up for other Google services." Google+_sentence_12

Consequently, the reported number of active users on Google+ grew significantly, but the average time users spent on the site was a small fraction of that on comparable social media services. Google+_sentence_13

In 2011, Google+ had 10 million users two weeks after the launch. Google+_sentence_14

In a month, it had 25 million. Google+_sentence_15

In October 2011, the service had 40 million users, according to Larry Page. Google+_sentence_16

According to ComScore, the biggest market was the United States followed by India. Google+_sentence_17

At the end of 2011, Google+ had 90 million users. Google+_sentence_18

In October 2013, approximately 540 million monthly active users used the social layer by interacting with Google+'s enhanced properties, such as Gmail, the +1 button, and YouTube comments. Google+_sentence_19

Some 300 million monthly active users participated in the social network by interacting with the Google+ social-networking stream. Google+_sentence_20

Google+'s user engagement was lower than that of its competitors; ComScore estimated that users averaged 3.3 minutes on the site in January 2012, and 7.5 hours on Facebook. Google+_sentence_21

In March 2013, average time spent on the site remained low: about 7 minutes, according to Nielsen, not including traffic from apps. Google+_sentence_22

In February 2014, The New York Times likened Google+ to a ghost town, citing Google's stated 540 million "monthly active users" and noting that almost half did not visit the site. Google+_sentence_23

The company replied that the significance of Google+ was less as a Facebook competitor than as a means of gathering and connecting user information from Google's various services. Google+_sentence_24

Changes in management and product direction Google+_section_3

In April 2014, Vic Gundotra, the executive in charge of Google+, departed the company with management responsibility going to David Besbris. Google+_sentence_25

By March 2015, Google executive Bradley Horowitz, who had co-founded Google+ with Gundotra, had replaced Besbris, becoming vice president of streams, photos, and sharing. Google+_sentence_26

In an interview with Steven Levy published on May 28, 2015, Horowitz said that Google+ was about to undergo a "huge shift" that would better reflect how the service is actually used. Google+_sentence_27

By that time, two core Google+ functions, communications and photos, had become standalone services. Google+_sentence_28

Google Photos, Google's photo and video library, was announced at the May 2015 Google I/O conference. Google+_sentence_29

Google Hangouts, Google's communications platform, was announced two years earlier, also at Google I/O. Google+_sentence_30

Google subsequently refocused Google+ on shared interests, removing features not supporting "an interest-based social experience". Google+_sentence_31

The company also eliminated the Google+ social layer; users no longer needed a Google+ profile to share content and communicate with contacts. Google+_sentence_32

The transition began with YouTube, where a Google+ profile was no longer required to create, upload, or comment on a channel, but a Google+ page was instead required. Google+_sentence_33

YouTube comments no longer appeared on Google+ or vice versa. Google+_sentence_34

Redesign Google+_section_4

On November 18, 2015, Google+ underwent a redesign with the stated intent of making the site simpler and faster, making the new features of Communities and Collections more prominent, and removing features such as Hangouts integration, Events and Custom URLs, though Events and Custom URLs were eventually added back. Google+_sentence_35

Until January 24, 2017, users accessing the site using desktop computers could access some of the discontinued features by selecting the option "Back to classic G+". Google+_sentence_36

Shutdown of consumer version Google+_section_5

See also: 2018 Google data breach Google+_sentence_37

On October 8, 2018, Google announced it would be ending the consumer version of Google+ by the end of August 2019, later changing that date to April 2, 2019. Google+_sentence_38

The company cited low user engagement and difficulties in "creating and maintaining a successful Google+ that meets consumer's expectations", noting that 90% of user sessions on the service lasted less than five seconds. Google+_sentence_39

It also acknowledged a design flaw in an API that could expose private user data. Google+_sentence_40

Google said it found no evidence that "any developer was aware of this bug, or abusing the API" or that "any Profile data was misused." Google+_sentence_41

According to The Wall Street Journal, the data exposure was discovered in the spring of 2018, and was not reported by the company because of fears of increased regulatory scrutiny. Google+_sentence_42

The newspaper said that "the move effectively puts the final nail in the coffin of a product that was launched in 2011 to challenge Facebook, and is widely seen as one of Google's biggest failures." Google+_sentence_43

On December 10, 2018, Google reported that a subsequent Google+ API update exposed customer data for six days before being discovered, again saying there was no evidence of any breach. Google+_sentence_44

The bug allowed outside developers access to personal information of users. Google+_sentence_45

Over 52.5 million users were affected. Google+_sentence_46

The company moved the service's shutdown date to April 2019, and said it would "sunset all Google+ APIs in the next 90 days." Google+_sentence_47

Shutdown of business version Google+_section_6

On its business-oriented G Suite, Google replaced Google+ with a similar product called Currents, which facilitates internal communications. Google+_sentence_48

A few months after the Google+ closure, in July 2019, the company soft launched an experimental social networking platform called Shoelace, oriented toward organizing local activities and events. Google+_sentence_49

However, due to the coronavirus pandemic, Shoelace shut down on May 12, 2020. Google+_sentence_50

On June 5, 2020, Google announced that Currents is replacing Google+ for all G Suite customers on July 6, 2020. Google+_sentence_51

User demographics Google+_section_7

Google+'s user base was roughly 60% male and 25% female in November 2013, and 15% "other" or unknown. Google+_sentence_52

Early adopters of Google+ in mid-2011 were mostly male (71.24%), and the dominant age bracket (35%) was between 25 and 34. Google+_sentence_53

An August 2011 survey estimated that 13% of U.S. adults had joined Google+. Google+_sentence_54

Features and functions Google+_section_8

User profile Google+_section_9

A Google+ user profile was a publicly visible account of a user that was attached to many Google properties. Google+_sentence_55

It included basic social networking services like a profile photo, an about section, a cover photo, previous work and school history, interests, places lived and an area to post status updates. Google+_sentence_56

It also included several identity service sections, such as a contributor and other profiles area that allowed users to link their "properties across the web". Google+_sentence_57

These sections were optionally linked to other social media accounts one had, any blogs one owns or have written or sites one is a contributor to. Google+_sentence_58

This area was used for Google Authorship. Google+_sentence_59

Customized or Vanity URLs were made available to the public starting on October 29, 2013, to any account that was 30+ days old and had a profile photo and at least 10 followers. Google+_sentence_60

Google removed author photos from search results in June 2014, and in August 2014 Google stopped showing authorship in search results, both photo and author name. Google+_sentence_61

Circles Google+_section_10

Circles was a core feature of the Google+ Social Platform. Google+_sentence_62

It enabled users to organize people into groups or lists for sharing across various Google products and services. Google+_sentence_63

Organization of circles was done through a drag-and-drop interface until a site redesign in 2015 reduced it to a simple checkbox interface. Google+_sentence_64

Once a circle was created, a Google+ user could share specific private content to only that circle. Google+_sentence_65

For example, work-themed content could be shared with only colleagues, and one's friends and family could see more personal content and photos. Google+_sentence_66

The option to share Public or with Everyone was always available. Google+_sentence_67

Users were originally able to create Shared Circles, a one-time share to promote a circle of individuals, but the feature has been removed. Google+_sentence_68

Another function of Circles was to control the content of one's Stream. Google+_sentence_69

If a user clicked on a Circle in the Circle Streams list, the Stream portion of the page (the center) would contain only posts shared by users in that Circle. Google+_sentence_70

For the unsegmented Stream (including content from all of a user's Circles), each Circle had a drop-down configuration item with four options: none, fewer, standard, and more. Google+_sentence_71

The none position required the user to select the Circle name explicitly to see content from users in that Circle. Google+_sentence_72

The remaining positions controlled the quantity of posts which appear in one's main Stream, but the algorithm controlling what shows has not been disclosed. Google+_sentence_73

Stream Google+_section_11

In the "Stream", which occupies the main portion of the page, users could see updates from those in their Circles and posts in Communities they had joined. Google+_sentence_74

There was a compose button which allowed users to create a post. Google+_sentence_75

Along with the text entry field, there were icons to upload and share photos and videos, and to create a poll. Google+_sentence_76

The Stream could be filtered to show only posts from specific Circles. Google+_sentence_77

Identity services Google+_section_12

Starting in November 2011, Google+ profiles were used as the background account for many Google services including YouTube, Gmail, , Android, Google Play, Google Music, Google Voice, Google Wallet, Google Local and more. Google+_sentence_78

As of January 10, Google Search was customized with a feature called Search Plus Your World, which inserted content shared on Google+ profiles and brand pages under Web Search results, if one was logged into one's Google+ account while using it. Google+_sentence_79

The feature, which was opt-in, was received with controversy over the emphasis of Google+ profiles over other social networking services. Google+_sentence_80

The feature built upon the earlier "Social Search" feature which indexes content shared or published by authors; "Social Search", however, relied partly upon returns from non-Google services, such as Twitter and Flickr. Google+_sentence_81

As of July 2011, tweets were no longer shown due to the expiration of Google's contract with Twitter. Google+_sentence_82

Privacy Google+_section_13

The privacy setting allowed users to disclose certain information to the circles of their choice. Google+_sentence_83

Users could also see their profile visitors. Google+_sentence_84

+1 button Google+_section_14

Google+ featured a "+1 button" which allowed people to recommend sites and posts, similar in use to Facebook's Like button. Google+_sentence_85

Google+ Pages Google+_section_15

Google+ Pages was released on November 7, 2011 to all users, allowing businesses to connect with fans. Google+_sentence_86

It allowed entities which were not individuals (such as organizations, companies, and publications) to set up profiles, or "pages", for the posting and syndication of posts. Google+_sentence_87

It was similar to Facebook Pages. Google+_sentence_88

Google+ Badges was quietly introduced to select enterprises beginning on November 9, 2011, and officially released to the public on November 16. Google+_sentence_89

Badges were sidebar widgets which embed "Add to Circles" buttons and drop-down lists into off-site websites and blogs, similar to Facebook's Like Box widgets. Google+_sentence_90

This was officially treated by Google as a replacement for the older Google Friend Connect and its widgets, and GFC was announced by Senior Vice President of Operations Urs Hölzle on November 23, 2011, as scheduled to be retired by March 12, 2012, on all non-Blogger sites in favor of Google+ Page Badges. Google+_sentence_91

Google+ Views was introduced on April 1, 2014. Google+_sentence_92

It featured a "view counter", which is displayed on every user's profile page. Google+_sentence_93

The view counter shows the number of times the user's content has been seen by others, including photos, posts, and profile page. Google+_sentence_94

This feature was later removed in favor of an insights feature. Google+_sentence_95

Communities Google+_section_16

Google+ Communities was released on December 6, 2012. Google+_sentence_96

This allowed users to create ongoing conversations about particular topics. Google+_sentence_97

Google+ Communities were also able to be created and managed under Google+ Page accounts. Google+_sentence_98

Events Google+_section_17

Events allowed users to invite other people to share photos and media in real time. Google+_sentence_99

This was removed from Google+ as part of the November 2015 redesign, but later added back in a different location. Google+_sentence_100

Events were later included on the user's profile. Google+_sentence_101

Discover Google+_section_18

The Discover page showed trending posts and articles on Google+ and around the web. Google+_sentence_102

It was similar to the What's Hot page that was removed as part of the November 2015 redesign. Google+_sentence_103

Google Local Google+_section_19

On June 11, 2014, Google combined Google Places and Google+ Local Business Pages with the Google My Business product. Google+_sentence_104

The product used the interface of Google+ but had many more features, including insights and analytics. Google+_sentence_105

On May 30, 2012, Google Places was replaced by Google+ Local, which integrated directly with the Google+ service to allow users to post photos and reviews of locations directly to its page on the service. Google+_sentence_106

Additionally, Google+ Local and Maps featured detailed reviews and ratings from Zagat, which was acquired by Google in September 2011. Google+_sentence_107

Photography Google+_section_20


  • Google+ Creative Kit was an online photo editor integrated to Google+ on October 27, 2011, similar to Picnik, integrated earlier to Picasa Web Albums. This feature was removed from Google+ in 2015.Google+_item_0_0
  • Auto Awesome: Released at Google I/O in 2013, the feature applied special effects, manually (with Android) or automatically, often using multiple sequential shots. Effects included composite motion in a single image, short animation, photo booth style, and high-dynamic range rendering (HDR). This feature was moved to Google Photos in 2015.Google+_item_0_1
  • Auto Enhance: With Auto Enhance, Google+ made subtle adjustments to hypothetically improve photos. This feature was moved to Google Photos in 2015.Google+_item_0_2
  • Google+ Auto-Backup: A desktop utility that imported a large collection of photos and videos. This feature was moved to Google Photos in 2015.Google+_item_0_3

Additional features Google+_section_21


  • Google Takeout provided the ability to download one's content from Google+.Google+_item_1_4
  • Hashtags, where "#" is written before a word or CamelCase, were hyperlinked to the most recent or highest-trending search results within Google+ containing the term. This, a feature which gained notoriety as a microblogging practice on Twitter, was implemented as a Google+ feature on October 12, 2011. Autocompletion came on January 17, 2012.Google+_item_1_5
  • Since the launch (and up until the shutdown) of Google+, Google added and made changes to many features. On September 30, 2011, the company released a list of changes and additions to Google+ mobile which include:Google+_item_1_6
    • An easier method to +mention someone from a mobile device. To +mention another user, one wrote +[their name] inside a post or comment. In order to +1 comments more easily, users were also able to +1 them directly from their iOS devices. They also introduced this feature to the Android app in December 2011.Google+_item_1_7
      • The change from an @ sign to a "+" sign in order to match the name of the platform.Google+_item_1_8
  • Selected public figures had verified names. Google determined whether a particular profile warrants verification. The purpose was to indicate to site visitors whether a particular profile belonged to who one would generally expect the name to be, and not someone who coincidentally had the same name as a public figure. Verified identity profiles had a checkmark logo after their name. Examples of profiles that bore the verified name badge include Linus Torvalds, William Shatner, Leo Laporte, Mark Zuckerberg, Larry Page, and Sergey Brin.Google+_item_1_9

Collections Google+_section_22

In May 2015, Google+ launched the “Collections” feature which was inspired by Pinterest. Google+_sentence_108

It allowed users to "build content collections based on topics and interests". Google+_sentence_109

Deprecated features Google+_section_23


  • Search in Google+ allowed users to search for content within Google+ and around the web. Users type what they're looking for into the Google+ search box, and Google will return relevant people and posts, as well as popular content from around the web. A search feature has been re-implemented to Google+ but it only turns up content within Google+ instead of including popular content from around the web.Google+_item_2_10
  • Messenger, also called Huddle, was a feature available to Android, iPhone, and SMS devices for communicating through instant messaging within Circles. Additionally, users can share photos in Messenger between their Circles. This feature was removed in August 2013 since it is superseded by Hangouts.Google+_item_2_11
  • Sparks was a front-end to Google Search, enabling users to identify topics they might be interested in sharing with others. "Featured interests" sparks are also available, based on topics others globally are finding interesting. Sparks is accessed as a pull-down from search results and helps to keep users informed of the latest updates on the topics of their interest. Sparks was removed sometime in November 2012.Google+_item_2_12
  • Games had 16 games when Google+ launched on August 11, 2011, which expanded to 44 a few months later, but by April 2013 there were 38 since some games were removed by the owner. Unlike Facebook games, Google+ games are located under a games tab, which gave games less visibility, and had separate notifications from the rest of a user's notifications. All games were removed from Google+ in June 2013.Google+_item_2_13
  • Ripples, introduced on October 27, 2011, was a visualization tool, showing how re-sharing activity happens regarding a public post. One could replay the public share's activity, zoom in on certain events, identify top contributors, view statistics about average chain length, the most influential people in the chain, the language of the sharers, etc. The feature was removed in May 2015.Google+_item_2_14
  • Hangouts, the feature that enabled users to chat, voice, and video conference between users, was removed from Google+ as part of the November 2015 redesign and made accessible through its own Hangouts homepage and mobile applications.Google+_item_2_15
  • Hangouts on Air, introduced in September 2011, the live streaming service was moved to YouTube Live starting September 12, 2016.Google+_item_2_16
  • Location was mostly the service that was Latitude. It allowed the account holder to share their location with a person, circle or circles. The location could be as accurate as the GPS on the mobile device or set to only show a city. "Location sharing has moved to Google Maps" appeared in Plus on March 27, 2017.Google+_item_2_17
  • What's Hot, introduced on October 27, 2011, was a stream showing what Google+ users had commented, shared and interacted with the most. It was similar to "Trending Topics" On Twitter. The page was removed in late 2015, but a new "discover" stream introduced in 2017 provided similar functionality.Google+_item_2_18
  • Photos was a suite of features which provided photo backup and editing, removed in 2015 and replaced with a separate product called Google Photos.Google+_item_2_19
  • Mentions was a separate stream that showed posts and images the user was +mentioned in. This page was removed in the November 2015 redesign.Google+_item_2_20

Technologies Google+_section_24

According to Joseph Smarr, one of the Google+ team's technical leads, Google+ was a typical Google web application: it used Java servlets for the server code and JavaScript for the browser-side of the UI, largely built with Google's Closure framework, including the JavaScript compiler and the template system. Google+_sentence_110

They use the HTML5 History API to maintain good-looking URLs in modern browsers despite the AJAX app. Google+_sentence_111

To achieve fast response times Google often renders the Closure templates on the server side before any JavaScript is loaded; then the JavaScript finds the right DOM nodes, hooks up event handlers, etc. Google+_sentence_112

The back ends are built mostly on top of Bigtable and , and other common Google technologies such as MapReduce. Google+_sentence_113

Controversies, criticism, and class action lawsuit Google+_section_25

Censorship by governments Google+_section_26

Within a day of the website's launch, various news agencies reported that Google+ was blocked by the People's Republic of China. Google+_sentence_114

This is part of a wider policy of censorship in mainland China. Google+_sentence_115

As of June 2011, Google+ remained unavailable in mainland China. Google+_sentence_116

While it is not technically "blocked", it was made impossible to use by slowing it down to a crawl. Google+_sentence_117

The Iranian government has also blocked access to Google+ from July 11, 2011, as part of Internet censorship in Iran. Google+_sentence_118

"Occupy Obama's G+" Google+_section_27

On February 20, 2012, Internet users from the People's Republic of China realized that state restrictions on Google+ had been relaxed for unknown reasons, allowing them to post on Google+ pages. Google+_sentence_119

In particular, Chinese users began to inundate the official election campaign pages of U.S. president Barack Obama on Google+ with often off-topic comments. Google+_sentence_120

Nymwars Google+_section_28

Main article: Nymwars Google+_sentence_121

In July 2011, Google+ required users to identify themselves using their real names, and some accounts were suspended when this requirement was not met. Google+_sentence_122

Google VP Bradley Horowitz stated that a violation of the terms of service will only affect offenders' access to Google+ and not any of the other services that Google provides. Google+_sentence_123

However, there were early reports of account holders being temporarily locked out of all of Google services. Google+_sentence_124

On October 19, 2011, at the Web 2.0 Summit, Google executive Vic Gundotra revealed that Google+ would begin supporting pseudonyms and other types of identity "within a few months". Google+_sentence_125

Starting on January 23, 2012, Google+ began allowing the use of established pseudonyms. Google+_sentence_126

In July 2014, Google+'s policy was changed to allow any name to be used. Google+_sentence_127

Commenting on YouTube Google+_section_29

On November 6, 2013, YouTube, Google's popular video-hosting site, began requiring that commenting on its videos be done via a Google+ account, making it impossible to reply to pre-Google+ integrated comments. Google+_sentence_128

YouTube said that its new commenting system featured improved tools for moderation, and comments would no longer be shown chronologically with two top comments at the top when applicable, but would be featured according to "relevance" and popularity, determined by the commenters' community engagement, reputation, and up-votes for a particular comment. Google+_sentence_129

The decision led hundreds of thousands of users to criticize the change. Google+_sentence_130

Some YouTube commenters and content creators complained that the Google+ requirement that users use their real name created online privacy and security concerns. Google+_sentence_131

YouTube co-founder Jawed Karim voiced his disapproval in one of a few comments subsequent to the change including the temporary addition of the following comments, "Why the fuck do I need a Google+ account to comment on a video?" Google+_sentence_132

and "I can't comment here anymore, since I don't want a google+ account" to the description of the first ever video on the site. Google+_sentence_133

Thousands of commenters on YouTube pasted text art tanks and stick figures called "Bob" to protest the new commenting system and Google+. Google+_sentence_134

Supporters of the changes said it was a positive step at cleaning up the "virtual cesspool" of homophobic, racist, sexist and offensive comments found on YouTube. Google+_sentence_135

However, this actually increased the spam, and in fixing the issue, Google took the opportunity to strike back against those posting "Bob" ASCII art in protest at the company's actions. Google+_sentence_136

On July 27, 2015, it was announced that the integration with Google+ would be discontinued and that YouTube would require only a Google+ page to use all the features, such as uploading videos and posting comments. Google+_sentence_137

YouTube had these changes rolled out over the course of several months, with the comments feature already having an update directly after the announcement: comments only appeared on YouTube and were no longer shared to the social network platform. Google+_sentence_138

In October 2016, YouTube made it possible to reply to pre-Google+ integrated comments once more with or without a Google+ account. Google+_sentence_139

Class action lawsuit Google+_section_30

In October 2018, a class action lawsuit was filed against Google, Inc. and Alphabet, Inc. due to "non-public" Google+ account data being exposed as a result of a privacy bug that allowed app developers to gain access to private information of users. Google+_sentence_140

The litigation was settled in July 2020 for $7.5 million with a payout to claimants of at least $5 each, with a maximum of $12 each. Google+_sentence_141

In popular culture Google+_section_31


See also Google+_section_32

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: