Gopher (protocol)

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The Gopher protocol /ˈɡoʊfər/ is a communications protocol designed for distributing, searching, and retrieving documents in Internet Protocol networks. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_0

The design of the Gopher protocol and user interface is menu-driven, and presented an alternative to the World Wide Web in its early stages, but ultimately fell into disfavor, yielding to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) The Gopher ecosystem is often regarded as the effective predecessor of the World Wide Web. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_1

The protocol was invented by a team led by Mark P. McCahill at the University of Minnesota. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_2

It offers some features not natively supported by the Web and imposes a much stronger hierarchy on the documents it stores. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_3

Its text menu interface is well-suited to computing environments that rely heavily on remote text-oriented computer terminals, which were still common at the time of its creation in 1991, and the simplicity of its protocol facilitated a wide variety of client implementations. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_4

More recent Gopher revisions and graphical clients added support for multimedia. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_5

Gopher was preferred by many network administrators for using fewer network resources than Web services. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_6

Gopher's hierarchical structure provided a platform for the first large-scale electronic library connections. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_7

The Gopher protocol is still in use by enthusiasts, and although it has been almost entirely supplanted by the Web, a small population of actively-maintained servers remains. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_8

Origins Gopher (protocol)_section_0

Gopher system was released in mid-1991 by Mark P. McCahill, Farhad Anklesaria, Paul Lindner, Daniel Torrey, and Bob Alberti of the University of Minnesota in the United States. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_9

Its central goals were, as stated in : Gopher (protocol)_sentence_10

Gopher (protocol)_unordered_list_0

  • A file-like hierarchical arrangement that would be familiar to users.Gopher (protocol)_item_0_0
  • A simple syntax.Gopher (protocol)_item_0_1
  • A system that can be created quickly and inexpensively.Gopher (protocol)_item_0_2
  • Extending the file system metaphor, such as searches.Gopher (protocol)_item_0_3

Gopher combines document hierarchies with collections of services, including WAIS, the Archie and Veronica search engines, and gateways to other information systems such as (FTP) and Usenet. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_11

The general interest in campus-wide information systems (CWISs) in higher education at the time, and the ease of setup of Gopher servers to create an instant CWIS with links to other sites' online directories and resources were the factors contributing to Gopher's rapid adoption. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_12

The name was coined by Anklesaria as a play on several meanings of the word "gopher". Gopher (protocol)_sentence_13

The University of Minnesota mascot is the gopher, a gofer is an assistant who "goes for" things, and a gopher burrows through the ground to reach a desired location. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_14

Decline Gopher (protocol)_section_1

The World Wide Web was in its infancy in 1991, and Gopher services quickly became established. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_15

By the late 1990s, Gopher had ceased expanding. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_16

Several factors contributed to Gopher's stagnation: Gopher (protocol)_sentence_17

Gopher (protocol)_unordered_list_1

  • In February 1993, the University of Minnesota announced that it would charge licensing fees for the use of its implementation of the Gopher server. Users became concerned that fees might also be charged for independent implementations. Gopher expansion stagnated, to the advantage of the World Wide Web, to which CERN disclaimed ownership. In September 2000, the University of Minnesota re-licensed its Gopher software under the GNU General Public License.Gopher (protocol)_item_1_4
  • Gopher client functionality was quickly duplicated by the early Mosaic web browser, which subsumed its protocol.Gopher (protocol)_item_1_5
  • Gopher has a more rigid structure than the free-form HTML of the Web. Every Gopher document has a defined format and type, and the typical user navigates through a single server-defined menu system to get to a particular document. This can be quite different from the way a user finds documents on the Web.Gopher (protocol)_item_1_6

Gopher remains in active use by its enthusiasts, and there have been attempts to revive Gopher on modern platforms and mobile devices. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_18

One attempt is The Overbite Project, which hosts various browser extensions and modern clients. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_19

Server census Gopher (protocol)_section_2

Gopher (protocol)_unordered_list_2

  • As of 2012, there remained about 160 gopher servers indexed by Veronica-2, reflecting a slow growth from 2007 when there were fewer than 100. They are typically infrequently updated. On these servers Veronica indexed approximately 2.5 million unique selectors. A handful of new servers were being set up every year by hobbyists with over 50 having been set up and added to Floodgap's list since 1999. A snapshot of Gopherspace in 2007 circulated on BitTorrent and was still available in 2010. Due to the simplicity of the Gopher protocol, setting up new servers or adding Gopher support to browsers is often done in a tongue-in-cheek manner, principally on April Fools' Day.Gopher (protocol)_item_2_7
  • In November 2014 Veronica indexed 144 gopher servers, reflecting a small drop from 2012, but within these servers Veronica indexed approximately 3 million unique selectors.Gopher (protocol)_item_2_8
  • In March 2016 Veronica indexed 135 gopher servers, within which it indexed approximately 4 million unique selectors.Gopher (protocol)_item_2_9
  • In March 2017 Veronica indexed 133 gopher servers, within which it indexed approximately 4.9 million unique selectors.Gopher (protocol)_item_2_10
  • In May 2018 Veronica indexed 260 gopher servers, within which it indexed approximately 3.7 million unique selectors.Gopher (protocol)_item_2_11
  • In May 2019 Veronica indexed 320 gopher servers, within which it indexed approximately 4.2 million unique selectors.Gopher (protocol)_item_2_12
  • In January 2020 Veronica indexed 395 gopher servers, within which it indexed approximately 4.5 million unique selectors.Gopher (protocol)_item_2_13

Technical details Gopher (protocol)_section_3

The conceptualization of knowledge in "Gopher space" or a "cloud" as specific information in a particular file, and the prominence of the FTP, influenced the technology and the resulting functionality of Gopher. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_20

Gopher characteristics Gopher (protocol)_section_4

Gopher is designed to function and to appear much like a mountable read-only global (and software, such as gopherfs, is available that can actually mount a Gopher server as a resource). Gopher (protocol)_sentence_21

At a minimum, whatever a person can do with data files on a CD-ROM, one can do on Gopher. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_22

A Gopher system consists of a series of hierarchical hyperlinkable menus. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_23

The choice of menu items and titles is controlled by the administrator of the server. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_24

Similar to a file on a Web server, a file on a Gopher server can be linked to as a menu item from any other Gopher server. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_25

Many servers take advantage of this inter-server linking to provide a directory of other servers that the user can access. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_26

Protocol Gopher (protocol)_section_5

The Gopher protocol was first described in . Gopher (protocol)_sentence_27

IANA has assigned TCP port 70 to the Gopher protocol. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_28

The protocol is simple to negotiate, making it possible to browse without using a client. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_29

A standard gopher session may therefore appear as follows: Gopher (protocol)_sentence_30

Here, the client has established a TCP connection with the server on port 70, the standard gopher port. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_31

The client then sends a string followed by a carriage return followed by a line feed (a "CR + LF" sequence). Gopher (protocol)_sentence_32

This is the selector, which identifies the document to be retrieved. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_33

If the item selector were an empty line, the default directory would be selected. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_34

The server then replies with the requested item and closes the connection. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_35

According to the protocol, before the connection is closed, the server should send a full-stop (i.e., a period character) on a line by itself. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_36

However, as is the case here, not all servers conform to this part of the protocol and the server may close the connection without returning the final full-stop. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_37

In this example, the item sent back is a gopher menu, a directory consisting of a sequence of lines each of which describes an item that can be retrieved. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_38

Most clients will display these as hypertext links, and so allow the user to navigate through gopherspace by following the links. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_39

All lines in a gopher menu are terminated by "CR + LF", and consist of five fields: the item type as the very first character (see below), the display string (i.e., the description text to display), a selector (i.e., a file-system pathname), host name (i.e., the domain name of the server on which the item resides), and port (i.e., the port number used by that server). Gopher (protocol)_sentence_40

The item type and display string are joined without a space; the other fields are separated by the tab character. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_41

Because of the simplicity of the Gopher protocol, tools such as netcat make it possible to download Gopher content easily from the command line: Gopher (protocol)_sentence_42

The protocol is also supported by cURL as of 7.21.2-DEV. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_43

Search request Gopher (protocol)_section_6

The selector string in the request can optionally be followed by a tab character and a search string. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_44

This is used by item type 7. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_45

Source code of a menu Gopher (protocol)_section_7

Gopher menu items are defined by lines of tab-separated values in a . Gopher (protocol)_sentence_46

This file is sometimes called a gophermap. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_47

As the source code to a gopher menu, a gophermap is roughly analogous to an HTML file for a web page. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_48

Each tab-separated line (called a selector line) gives the client software a description of the menu item: what it is, what it's called, and where it leads. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_49

The client displays the menu items in the order that they appear in the gophermap. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_50

The first character in a selector line indicates the item type, which tells the client what kind of file or protocol the menu item points to. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_51

This helps the client decide what to do with it. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_52

Gopher's item types are a more basic precursor to the media type system used by the Web and email attachments. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_53

The item type is followed by the user display string (a description or label that represents the item in the menu); the selector (a path or other string for the resource on the server); the hostname (the domain name or IP address of the server), and the network port. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_54

For example: The following selector line generates a link to the "/home" directory at the subdomain, on port 70. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_55

The item type of 1 indicates that the resource is a Gopher menu. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_56

The string "Floodgap Home" is what the user sees in the menu. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_57

Gopher (protocol)_table_general_0

Item typeGopher (protocol)_header_cell_0_0_0 User display stringGopher (protocol)_header_cell_0_0_1 SelectorGopher (protocol)_header_cell_0_0_2 HostnameGopher (protocol)_header_cell_0_0_3 PortGopher (protocol)_header_cell_0_0_4
1Gopher (protocol)_cell_0_1_0 Floodgap HomeGopher (protocol)_cell_0_1_1 /homeGopher (protocol)_cell_0_1_2 gopher.floodgap.comGopher (protocol)_cell_0_1_3 70Gopher (protocol)_cell_0_1_4

Item types Gopher (protocol)_section_8

In a Gopher menu's source code, a one-character code indicates what kind of content the client should expect. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_58

This code may either be a digit or a letter of the alphabet; letters are case-sensitive. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_59

The technical specification for Gopher, , defines 14 item types. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_60

A one-character code indicates what kind of content the client should expect. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_61

Item type 3 is an error code for exception handling. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_62

Gopher client authors improvised item types h (HTML), i (informational message), and s () after the publication of . Gopher (protocol)_sentence_63

Browsers like Netscape Navigator and early versions of Microsoft Internet Explorer would prepend the item type code to the selector as described in , so that the type of the gopher item could be determined by the url itself. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_64

Most gopher browsers still available, use these prefixes in their urls. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_65

Gopher (protocol)_table_general_1

Canonical typesGopher (protocol)_header_cell_1_0_0
0Gopher (protocol)_cell_1_1_0 Gopher (protocol)_cell_1_1_1
1Gopher (protocol)_cell_1_2_0 Gopher submenuGopher (protocol)_cell_1_2_1
2Gopher (protocol)_cell_1_3_0 CCSO NameserverGopher (protocol)_cell_1_3_1
3Gopher (protocol)_cell_1_4_0 Error code returned by a Gopher server to indicate failureGopher (protocol)_cell_1_4_1
4Gopher (protocol)_cell_1_5_0 BinHex-encoded file (primarily for Macintosh computers)Gopher (protocol)_cell_1_5_1
5Gopher (protocol)_cell_1_6_0 DOS fileGopher (protocol)_cell_1_6_1
6Gopher (protocol)_cell_1_7_0 uuencoded fileGopher (protocol)_cell_1_7_1
7Gopher (protocol)_cell_1_8_0 Gopher full-text searchGopher (protocol)_cell_1_8_1
8Gopher (protocol)_cell_1_9_0 TelnetGopher (protocol)_cell_1_9_1
9Gopher (protocol)_cell_1_10_0 Gopher (protocol)_cell_1_10_1
+Gopher (protocol)_cell_1_11_0 Mirror or alternate server (for load balancing or in case of primary server downtime)Gopher (protocol)_cell_1_11_1
gGopher (protocol)_cell_1_12_0 GIF fileGopher (protocol)_cell_1_12_1
IGopher (protocol)_cell_1_13_0 Gopher (protocol)_cell_1_13_1
TGopher (protocol)_cell_1_14_0 Telnet 3270Gopher (protocol)_cell_1_14_1
Non-canonical typesGopher (protocol)_header_cell_1_15_0
dGopher (protocol)_cell_1_16_0 Doc. Seen used alongside PDF's and .DOC'sGopher (protocol)_cell_1_16_1
hGopher (protocol)_cell_1_17_0 HTML fileGopher (protocol)_cell_1_17_1
iGopher (protocol)_cell_1_18_0 Informational messageGopher (protocol)_cell_1_18_1
sGopher (protocol)_cell_1_19_0 (especially the WAV format)Gopher (protocol)_cell_1_19_1
f F A B C D E G H J K LGopher (protocol)_cell_1_20_0 Gopher (protocol)_cell_1_20_1

URL links Gopher (protocol)_section_9

Historically, to create a link to a Web server, "GET /" was used as a pseudo-selector to emulate an HTTP GET request. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_66

John Goerzen created an addition to the Gopher protocol, commonly referred to as "URL links", that allows links to any protocol that supports URLs. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_67

For example, to create a link to , the item type is h, the display string is the title of the link, the item selector is "URL:", and the domain and port are that of the originating Gopher server (so that clients that do not support URL links will query the server and receive an HTML redirection page). Gopher (protocol)_sentence_68

Related technology Gopher (protocol)_section_10

The master Gopherspace search engine is Veronica. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_69

Veronica offers a keyword search of all the public Internet Gopher server menu titles. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_70

A Veronica search produces a menu of Gopher items, each of which is a direct pointer to a Gopher data source. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_71

Individual Gopher servers may also use localized search engines specific to their content such as Jughead and Jugtail. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_72

GopherVR is a 3D virtual reality variant of the original Gopher system. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_73

Client software Gopher (protocol)_section_11

Web browsers Gopher (protocol)_section_12

Gopher (protocol)_table_general_2

BrowserGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_0_0 VersionGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_0_1 NotesGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_0_3
First supportedGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_1_0 Last supportedGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_1_1
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_2_0 0.777

(April 2020)Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_2_1

PresentGopher (protocol)_cell_2_2_2 Gopher-only browser for Windows, page cache, TFTP, G6 gopher protocol supportGopher (protocol)_cell_2_2_3
BrowseGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_3_0 ?Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_3_1 PresentGopher (protocol)_cell_2_3_2 This browser is for RISC OSGopher (protocol)_cell_2_3_3
CaminoGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_4_0 1.0Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_4_1 2.1.2Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_4_2 Always uses port 70.Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_4_3
ClassillaGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_5_0 9.0Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_5_1 PresentGopher (protocol)_cell_2_5_2 Hardcoded to port 70 from 9.0–9.2; whitelisted ports from 9.2.1Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_5_3
cURLGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_6_0 7.21.2

(October 2010)Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_6_1

PresentGopher (protocol)_cell_2_6_2 cURL is a command-line file transfer utilityGopher (protocol)_cell_2_6_3
DoobleGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_7_0 1.53Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_7_1 PresentGopher (protocol)_cell_2_7_2 Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_7_3
ELinksGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_8_0 0.10.0Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_8_1 ?Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_8_2 Offers support as a build optionGopher (protocol)_cell_2_8_3
EpiphanyGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_9_0 ?Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_9_1 2.26.3Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_9_2 Disabled after switch to WebKitGopher (protocol)_cell_2_9_3
FalkonGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_10_0 3.1.0,

with plug-in onlyGopher (protocol)_cell_2_10_1


with plug-in onlyGopher (protocol)_cell_2_10_2

Requires Falkon ≥ 3.1.0 with both the KDE Frameworks Integration extension (shipped with Falkon ≥ 3.1.0) enabled and the (separate) kio_gopher plug-in ≥ 0.1.99 (first release for KDE Frameworks 5) installedGopher (protocol)_cell_2_10_3
GaleonGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_11_0 ?Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_11_1 2.0.7Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_11_2 Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_11_3
Google ChromeGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_12_0 With extension onlyGopher (protocol)_cell_2_12_1 N/AGopher (protocol)_cell_2_12_2 With Burrow extensionGopher (protocol)_cell_2_12_3
GophieGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_13_0 1.0

(April 2020)Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_13_1

PresentGopher (protocol)_cell_2_13_2 -Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_13_3
Internet ExplorerGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_14_0 N/AGopher (protocol)_cell_2_14_1 6Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_14_2 Support removed by MS02-047 from IE 6 SP1 can be re-enabled in the Windows Registry. Always uses port 70.Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_14_3
Internet Explorer for MacGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_15_0 ?Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_15_1 5.2.3Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_15_2 PowerPC-onlyGopher (protocol)_cell_2_15_3
K-MeleonGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_16_0 ?Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_16_1 PresentGopher (protocol)_cell_2_16_2 Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_16_3
KonquerorGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_17_0 With plug-in onlyGopher (protocol)_cell_2_17_1 ?Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_17_2 Requires kio_gopher plug-inGopher (protocol)_cell_2_17_3
libwwwGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_18_0 1.0c

(December 1992)Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_18_1

PresentGopher (protocol)_cell_2_18_2 libwww is an API for internet applicationsGopher (protocol)_cell_2_18_3
Line Mode BrowserGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_19_0 Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_19_1 PresentGopher (protocol)_cell_2_19_2 Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_19_3
LynxGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_20_0 ?Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_20_1 PresentGopher (protocol)_cell_2_20_2 Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_20_3
MosaicGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_21_0 ?Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_21_1 Present (3.0)Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_21_2 Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_21_3
Mozilla FirefoxGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_22_0 0.0Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_22_1 3.6Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_22_2 Built-in support dropped from Firefox 4.0 onwards; can be added back by installing one of the extensions by the Overbite ProjectGopher (protocol)_cell_2_22_3
Netscape NavigatorGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_23_0 ?Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_23_1 (protocol)_cell_2_23_2 Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_23_3
NetSurfGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_24_0 N/AGopher (protocol)_cell_2_24_1 N/AGopher (protocol)_cell_2_24_2 Under development, based on the cURL fetcherGopher (protocol)_cell_2_24_3
OmniWebGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_25_0 5.9.2Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_25_1 PresentGopher (protocol)_cell_2_25_2 First WebKit Browser to support GopherGopher (protocol)_cell_2_25_3
OperaGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_26_0 N/AGopher (protocol)_cell_2_26_1 N/AGopher (protocol)_cell_2_26_2 Opera 9.0 includes a proxy capabilityGopher (protocol)_cell_2_26_3
PavukGopher (protocol)_header_cell_2_27_0 ?Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_27_1 PresentGopher (protocol)_cell_2_27_2 Pavuk is a web mirror (recursive download) software programGopher (protocol)_cell_2_27_3
SeaMonkeyGopher (protocol)_cell_2_28_0 1.0Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_28_1 2.0.14Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_28_2 Built-in support dropped from SeaMonkey 2.1 onwards; can be added back by installing one of the extensions by the Overbite ProjectGopher (protocol)_cell_2_28_3
WebPositiveGopher (protocol)_cell_2_29_0 ?Gopher (protocol)_cell_2_29_1 PresentGopher (protocol)_cell_2_29_2 WebKit-based browser used in the Haiku operating systemGopher (protocol)_cell_2_29_3

Browsers that do not natively support Gopher can still access servers using one of the available Gopher to HTTP gateways. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_74

Gopher support was disabled in Internet Explorer versions 5.x and 6 for Windows in August 2002 by a patch meant to fix a security vulnerability in the browser's Gopher protocol handler to reduce the attack surface which was included in IE6 SP1; however, it can be re-enabled by editing the Windows registry. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_75

In Internet Explorer 7, Gopher support was removed on the WinINET level. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_76

Gopher browser extensions Gopher (protocol)_section_13

For Mozilla Firefox and SeaMonkey, Overbite extensions extend Gopher browsing and support the current versions of the browsers (Firefox Quantum v ≥57 and equivalent versions of SeaMonkey): Gopher (protocol)_sentence_77

Gopher (protocol)_unordered_list_3

  • OverbiteWX redirects gopher:// URLs to a proxy;Gopher (protocol)_item_3_14
  • OverbiteNX adds native-like support;Gopher (protocol)_item_3_15
  • for Firefox up to 56.*, and equivalent versions of SeaMonkey, OverbiteFF adds native-like support.Gopher (protocol)_item_3_16

OverbiteWX includes support for accessing Gopher servers not on port 70 using a whitelist and for CSO/ph queries. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_78

OverbiteFF always uses port 70. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_79

For Chromium and Google Chrome, Burrow is available. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_80

It redirects gopher:// URLs to a proxy. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_81

In the past an Overbite proxy-based extension for these browsers was available but is no longer maintained and does not work with the current (>23) releases. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_82

For Konqueror, Kio gopher is available. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_83

Gopher clients for mobile devices Gopher (protocol)_section_14

Some have suggested that the bandwidth-sparing simple interface of Gopher would be a good match for mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs), but so far, mobile adaptations of HTML and XML and other simplified content have proven more popular. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_84

The PyGopherd server provides a built-in WML front-end to Gopher sites served with it. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_85

The early 2010s saw a renewed interest in native Gopher clients for popular smartphones: Overbite, an open source client for Android 1.5+ was released in alpha stage in 2010. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_86

PocketGopher was also released in 2010, along with its source code, for several Java ME compatible devices. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_87

Gopher Client was released in 2016 as a proprietary client for iPhone and iPad devices and is currently maintained. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_88

Other Gopher clients Gopher (protocol)_section_15

Gopher popularity was at its height at a time when there were still many equally competing computer architectures and operating systems. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_89

As a result, there are several Gopher clients available for Acorn RISC OS, AmigaOS, Atari MiNT, CMS, DOS, classic Mac OS, MVS, NeXT, OS/2 Warp, most UNIX-like operating systems, VMS, Windows 3.x, and Windows 9x. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_90

GopherVR was a client designed for 3D visualization, and there is even a Gopher client in MOO. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_91

The majority of these clients are hard-coded to work on TCP port 70. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_92

Gopher to HTTP gateways Gopher (protocol)_section_16

Users of Web browsers that have incomplete or no support for Gopher can access content on Gopher servers via a server gateway or proxy server that converts Gopher menus into HTML; known proxies are the Floodgap Public Gopher proxy and Gopher Proxy. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_93

Similarly, certain server packages such as GN and PyGopherd have built-in Gopher to HTTP interfaces. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_94

Squid Proxy software gateways any gopher:// URL to HTTP content, enabling any browser or web agent to access gopher content easily. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_95

Server software Gopher (protocol)_section_17

Because the protocol is trivial to implement in a basic fashion, there are many server packages still available, and some are still maintained. Gopher (protocol)_sentence_96

Gopher (protocol)_table_general_3

ServerGopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_0_0 Developed byGopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_0_1 Latest versionGopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_0_2 Release dateGopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_0_3 LicenseGopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_0_4 Written inGopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_0_5 NotesGopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_0_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_1_0 Rob LinwoodGopher (protocol)_cell_3_1_1 1.0.1Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_1_2 22 April 2004Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_1_3 MITGopher (protocol)_cell_3_1_4 JavaGopher (protocol)_cell_3_1_5 Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_1_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_2_0 Timm MurrayGopher (protocol)_cell_3_2_1 0.1Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_2_2 26 March 2004Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_2_3 GPLGopher (protocol)_cell_3_2_4 PerlGopher (protocol)_cell_3_2_5 Apache 2 plugin to run Gopher-Server.Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_2_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_3_0 Charles ChildersGopher (protocol)_cell_3_3_1 2017.4Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_3_2 9 October 2017Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_3_3 ISCGopher (protocol)_cell_3_3_4 ForthGopher (protocol)_cell_3_3_5 Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_3_6
BucktoothGopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_4_0 Cameron KaiserGopher (protocol)_cell_3_4_1 0.2.9Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_4_2 1 May 2011Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_4_3 Floodgap Free Software LicenseGopher (protocol)_cell_3_4_4 PerlGopher (protocol)_cell_3_4_5 Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_4_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_5_0 SSS8555Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_5_1 0.777Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_5_2 7 July 2020Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_5_3 Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_5_4 PerlGopher (protocol)_cell_3_5_5 with G6 extention and TFTPGopher (protocol)_cell_3_5_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_6_0 Michael LazarGopher (protocol)_cell_3_6_1 2.2.1Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_6_2 11 April 2020Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_6_3 GPLv3Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_6_4 PythonGopher (protocol)_cell_3_6_5 Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_6_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_7_0 Quinn EvansGopher (protocol)_cell_3_7_1 0.0.1Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_7_2 10 August 2015Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_7_3 2-clause BSDGopher (protocol)_cell_3_7_4 Common LispGopher (protocol)_cell_3_7_5 Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_7_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_8_0 Christoph LohmannGopher (protocol)_cell_3_8_1 0.34Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_8_2 13 March 2019Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_8_3 MITGopher (protocol)_cell_3_8_4 CGopher (protocol)_cell_3_8_5 Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_8_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_9_0 ?Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_9_1 2.25-20020226Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_9_2 26 February 2002Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_9_3 GPLGopher (protocol)_cell_3_9_4 CGopher (protocol)_cell_3_9_5 Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_9_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_10_0 Sean MacLennanGopher (protocol)_cell_3_10_1 1.2Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_10_2 8 October 2010Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_10_3 GPLv2Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_10_4 CGopher (protocol)_cell_3_10_5 Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_10_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_11_0 Geoff SevartGopher (protocol)_cell_3_11_1 1.07Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_11_2 8 July 2013Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_11_3 FreewareGopher (protocol)_cell_3_11_4 .NET 3.5 (Win32/Win64)Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_11_5 Version 1.06 of 26 August 2010 is available from .Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_11_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_12_0 Timm MurrayGopher (protocol)_cell_3_12_1 0.1.1Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_12_2 26 March 2004Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_12_3 GPLGopher (protocol)_cell_3_12_4 PerlGopher (protocol)_cell_3_12_5 Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_12_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_13_0 Kim Holviala and othersGopher (protocol)_cell_3_13_1 3.1Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_13_2 14 November 2019Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_13_3 BSDGopher (protocol)_cell_3_13_4 CGopher (protocol)_cell_3_13_5 Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_13_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_14_0 Guillaume DuhamelGopher (protocol)_cell_3_14_1 0.2.3Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_14_2 29 March 2012Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_14_3 GPLGopher (protocol)_cell_3_14_4 CGopher (protocol)_cell_3_14_5 Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_14_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_15_0 ?Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_15_1 0.5Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_15_2 30 December 2012Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_15_3 GPLv3Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_15_4 FreeBASICGopher (protocol)_cell_3_15_5 Version 0.4 is available from .Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_15_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_16_0 Aaron W. HsuGopher (protocol)_cell_3_16_1 8.0Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_16_2 20 June 2011Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_16_3 ISCGopher (protocol)_cell_3_16_4 SchemeGopher (protocol)_cell_3_16_5 Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_16_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_17_0 Mate NagyGopher (protocol)_cell_3_17_1 1.1Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_17_2 29 January 2018Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_17_3 GPLv3Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_17_4 CGopher (protocol)_cell_3_17_5 Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_17_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_18_0 Mateusz VisteGopher (protocol)_cell_3_18_1 1.0.12Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_18_2 7 July 2019Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_18_3 GPLv3Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_18_4 CGopher (protocol)_cell_3_18_5 Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_18_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_19_0 dotcomboomGopher (protocol)_cell_3_19_1 1.1Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_19_2 16 May 2020Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_19_3 BSD 2-ClauseGopher (protocol)_cell_3_19_4 PythonGopher (protocol)_cell_3_19_5 Python-based Gopher library with both server and client supportGopher (protocol)_cell_3_19_6
PyGopherdGopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_20_0 John GoerzenGopher (protocol)_cell_3_20_1 (protocol)_cell_3_20_2 14 February 2017Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_20_3 GPLGopher (protocol)_cell_3_20_4 PythonGopher (protocol)_cell_3_20_5 Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_20_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_21_0 Adam GurnoGopher (protocol)_cell_3_21_1 0.3.5Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_21_2 7 August 2001Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_21_3 GPLv2Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_21_4 PythonGopher (protocol)_cell_3_21_5 Development stopped as of 17 April 2003Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_21_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_22_0 Salvatore SanfilippoGopher (protocol)_cell_3_22_1 6.0.9Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_22_2 26 October 2020Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_22_3 BSD 3 ClauseGopher (protocol)_cell_3_22_4 CGopher (protocol)_cell_3_22_5 Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_22_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_23_0 Lukas EppleGopher (protocol)_cell_3_23_1 (protocol)_cell_3_23_2 13 May 2020Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_23_3 GPLGopher (protocol)_cell_3_23_4 HaskellGopher (protocol)_cell_3_23_5 Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_23_6
Gopher (protocol)_header_cell_3_24_0 Nathaniel LeveckGopher (protocol)_cell_3_24_1 0.0.1Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_24_2 15 January 2020Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_24_3 GPLGopher (protocol)_cell_3_24_4 FreeBASICGopher (protocol)_cell_3_24_5 Gopher (protocol)_cell_3_24_6

See also Gopher (protocol)_section_18

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