Governor-General of New Zealand

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For a list of governors-general and, before 1917, governors of New Zealand, see List of governors-general of New Zealand. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_0

Governor-General of New Zealand_table_infobox_0

Governor-General of New Zealand

Kāwana Tianara o Aotearoa  (Māori)Governor-General of New Zealand_header_cell_0_0_0

StyleGovernor-General of New Zealand_header_cell_0_1_0 Her Excellency the Right HonourableGovernor-General of New Zealand_cell_0_1_1
ResidenceGovernor-General of New Zealand_header_cell_0_2_0 Government House, Wellington

Government House, AucklandGovernor-General of New Zealand_cell_0_2_1

SeatGovernor-General of New Zealand_header_cell_0_3_0 Wellington, New ZealandGovernor-General of New Zealand_cell_0_3_1
NominatorGovernor-General of New Zealand_header_cell_0_4_0 Prime Minister of New ZealandGovernor-General of New Zealand_cell_0_4_1
AppointerGovernor-General of New Zealand_header_cell_0_5_0 Monarch of New Zealand

on the advice of the Prime MinisterGovernor-General of New Zealand_cell_0_5_1

Term lengthGovernor-General of New Zealand_header_cell_0_6_0 At Her Majesty's pleasure

(usually 5 years by constitutional convention)Governor-General of New Zealand_cell_0_6_1

FormationGovernor-General of New Zealand_header_cell_0_7_0 3 May 1841Governor-General of New Zealand_cell_0_7_1
First holderGovernor-General of New Zealand_header_cell_0_8_0 William Hobson

as Governor of New ZealandGovernor-General of New Zealand_cell_0_8_1

SalaryGovernor-General of New Zealand_header_cell_0_9_0 NZ$371,900 annuallyGovernor-General of New Zealand_cell_0_9_1
WebsiteGovernor-General of New Zealand_header_cell_0_10_0 Governor-General of New Zealand_cell_0_10_1

The governor-general of New Zealand (Māori: Te kāwana tianara o Aotearoa) is the viceregal representative of the monarch of New Zealand, currently Queen Elizabeth II. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_1

As the Queen is concurrently the monarch of 15 other Commonwealth realms, and lives in the United Kingdom, she, on the advice of her New Zealand prime minister, appoints a governor-general to carry out her constitutional and ceremonial duties within the Realm of New Zealand. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_2

The current office traces its origins to when the administration of New Zealand was placed under the Colony of New South Wales in 1839 and its governor was given jurisdiction over New Zealand. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_3

However, New Zealand would become its own colony the next year with its own governor. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_4

The modern "governor-general" and his or her functions came into being in 1917 and the office is currently mandated by Letters Patent issued in 1983, constituting "the Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Realm of New Zealand". Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_5

Constitutional functions of the governor-general include presiding over the Executive Council, appointing ministers and judges, granting royal assent to legislation, and summoning and dissolving parliament. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_6

These functions are generally exercised only according to the advice of an elected government. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_7

The governor-general also has an important ceremonial role: hosting events at Government House in Wellington, and travelling throughout New Zealand to open conferences, attend services and commemorations and generally provide encouragement to individuals and groups who are contributing to their communities. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_8

When travelling abroad, the governor-general is seen as the representative of New Zealand; for this reason, the governor-general is viewed by some as the de facto head of state. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_9

The governor-general (titled "governor" before 1917) initially represented the British monarch and the British Government. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_10

Therefore, many past officeholders were British, including a succession of minor aristocrats from the 1890s onwards. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_11

In a gradual process, culminating with the adoption of the Statute of Westminster in 1947, the governor-general has become the independent, personal representative of the New Zealand monarch. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_12

In 1972, Sir Denis Blundell became the first New Zealand resident to be appointed to the office. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_13

Governors-general are typically appointed for a five-year term of office, subject to a possible short extension, though they formally serve "at the monarch's pleasure". Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_14

The current Governor-General is Dame Patsy Reddy, who has served since 28 September 2016. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_15

Administrative support for the governor-general is provided by the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_16

Appointment Governor-General of New Zealand_section_0

The New Zealand monarch appoints the governor-general by commission issued under the Seal of New Zealand, known as the "Terms of Appointment". Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_17

Constitutional convention adopted in 1930, following the Imperial Conference held that year, allowed for the appointment of the governor-general to be made upon the advice of the New Zealand Government, though that right was not exercised directly by a New Zealand prime minister until 1967, with the appointment of the first New Zealand-born Governor-General, Sir Arthur Porritt on the advice of Keith Holyoake. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_18

Today, the Terms of Appointment are counter-signed by the New Zealand prime minister, to signify that the prime minister is responsible for advising the sovereign on the appointment. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_19

The prime minister's advice has sometimes been the result of a decision by Cabinet; there is no requirement for this, and there have been a few instances where the governor-general was appointed with no consultation of Cabinet. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_20

Since 1980, the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet prepares a short list of candidates for the office. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_21

By convention, the leader of the Opposition is consulted on the appointment, however this has not always been the case. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_22

On only one occasion has the prime minister's choice of appointee aroused public anger or complaint, and that controversy was short-lived. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_23

In 1977, Sir Keith Holyoake, a former National Party Prime Minister and a serving Minister of State, was controversially appointed as Governor-General. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_24

The Leader of the Opposition, Bill Rowling, complained he had not been consulted by Prime Minister Robert Muldoon on the appointment of Holyoake, and openly suggested that he would have recommended Sir Edmund Hillary instead. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_25

(Rowling's remark was in turn criticised by the Government, as Sir Edmund had backed the opposition Labour Party in 1975 as part of the "Citizens for Rowling" campaign.) Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_26

It was suggested by many commentators that it would be inappropriate to entrust the office to a former party leader or anyone who is closely allied with a political party; however, despite his background, Holyoake could not be said to have discharged his duties in a partisan way, and he stayed in office for only three years. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_27

Since Holyoake's appointment, the prime minister now confides with the leader of the Opposition during the nomination process, to avoid partisan controversy. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_28

Beginning with the appointment of Sir David Beattie in 1980, lawyers and judges have predominated as governors-general. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_29

Following the introduction of MMP, it has been determined that an understanding of constitutional law is an important prerequisite for candidacy to the office. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_30

There has been on-and-off speculation that a member of the royal family might take up the position. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_31

In 2004, National MP Richard Worth, an avowed monarchist, asked the Prime Minister, Helen Clark, whether she had considered nominating the Earl of Wessex to be the next governor-general. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_32

Swearing-in ceremony Governor-General of New Zealand_section_1

See also: Oath of Allegiance (New Zealand) § Governor-General's Oath Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_33

Before the governor-general enters office, his or her commission of appointment is publicly read in the presence of the chief justice and the members of the Executive Council. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_34

He or she must take the Oath (or Affirmation) of Allegiance, and the Oath (or Affirmation) of Office, which the chief justice or other High Court judge administers. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_35

Election proposals Governor-General of New Zealand_section_2

From time to time, there have been proposals to elect the governor-general. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_36

When first drafted by then Governor George Grey, the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 contained a provision for the governor to be elected by New Zealand's Parliament. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_37

This provision was removed from the final enactment, probably because the Colonial Office wanted to keep a check on New Zealand's colonial government. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_38

In 1887, Sir George Grey, by then also a former Premier, moved the Election of Governor Bill to make the office of governor an elective position. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_39

The Bill was narrowly defeated 46–48, being opposed by the government of Harry Atkinson. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_40

In 1889, Grey tried again with another bill, which if passed would have allowed for a "British subject" to be elected to the office of governor "precisely as an ordinary parliamentary election in each district." Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_41

In 2006, political commentator Colin James suggested that the governor-general could be elected (or, more correctly, nominated to the Queen) by a 60 percent majority of votes cast in Parliament. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_42

James argued that the New Zealand public should be given the ability to choose the Queen's representative and that the current system is undemocratic and not transparent. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_43

Such a system is not unique: the governors-general of Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands are nominated in such a way. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_44

Constitutional law specialist Professor Noel Cox, who is a former chair of Monarchy New Zealand, criticised the proposal, claiming that "[g]iving the Governor-General a new and separate source of democratic legitimacy could result in a separation between Ministers and Governors-General. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_45

...the Governors-General would have their own independent popular mandate, and become potential political rivals of the Ministers". Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_46

In February 2008, the New Zealand Republic proposed electing the governor-general as an interim step to a republic, arguing "Electing the Governor-General allows for easier transition to a republic because the populace is used to electing someone as a ceremonial de facto head of state." Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_47

With the introduction of the Governor-General Act 2010, Green MP Keith Locke suggested Parliament recommend the next governor-general's appointment to the Queen, with a recommendation endorsed by three-quarters of parliament. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_48

In its submission to the select committee considering the Bill, the Republican Movement suggested parliament appoint the next governor-general with a three-quarters majority plus a majority of party leaders in parliament, with a similar dismissal process and a fixed five-year term. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_49

National MP Nikki Kaye queried whether several one-member parties in parliament could veto the decision, which could give them too much power if an appointment was based on one vote per leader. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_50

The Republican Movement responded that the method would ensure appointments were made that most MPs and parties found acceptable. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_51

Tenure Governor-General of New Zealand_section_3

The governor-general holds office "at the monarch's pleasure", under clause II of the Letters Patent 1983. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_52

It is the norm that an appointed individual holds office for a minimum of five years but this tenure may also be extended. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_53

The Terms of Appointment of the governor-general defines their expected term in office. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_54

For instance, Dame Silvia Cartwright would have been in office for five years on 4 April 2006, but her term as governor-general was extended by four months as Prime Minister Helen Clark deemed that "the selection and appointment process [of a new governor-general] [should] not coincide with the pre-election period". Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_55

Administrator of the Government Governor-General of New Zealand_section_4

A vacancy will occur on the resignation, death, incapacity or absence from New Zealand territory of the governor-general. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_56

In the absence of a governor-general the chief justice (currently Helen Winkelmann) becomes the administrator of the Government and performs the functions of the office of governor-general. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_57

The administrator is required to take an oath similar to the governor-general. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_58

If there is no chief justice available then the next most senior judge of the New Zealand judiciary who is able so to act is appointed as administrator. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_59

Prior to the granting of responsible government in 1856, the colonial secretary acted as administrator when a governor was absent. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_60

Dismissal Governor-General of New Zealand_section_5

The prime minister may advise the Queen to dismiss (recall) the governor-general. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_61

As no New Zealand governor-general has ever been dismissed on the advice of the prime minister, it is unclear how quickly the Queen would act on such advice. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_62

Some constitutional lawyers dispute whether the Queen would implement such advice at all, while others argue that the Queen would delay its implementation. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_63

Others argue that the Queen would be obliged to follow the prime minister's advice (so long as the prime minister has the confidence of the House of Representatives), and further that the Queen would be bound to implement the prime minister's advice immediately if so advised. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_64

Critics (such as supporters of a New Zealand republic) have described the ability of the prime minister to advise the Queen to recall the governor-general as a flaw in New Zealand's constitutional makeup that gives the governor-general and the prime minister the ability to dismiss one another. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_65

They argue that this flaw is exacerbated by the reluctance of the monarch or their representatives to become politically involved. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_66

Three 19th-century New Zealand governors were recalled from office: William Hobson (who died before he was officially recalled), Robert FitzRoy, and Sir George Grey. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_67

However, all three governed before the institution of responsible government in New Zealand; they were dismissed on the advice of the British Government. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_68

Functions Governor-General of New Zealand_section_6

The governor-general's functions can be informally divided into three areas: constitutional, ceremonial and community. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_69

Constitutional role Governor-General of New Zealand_section_7

See also: Monarchy of New Zealand § Constitutional role Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_70

The Constitution Act 1986 provides that "the Governor-General appointed by the Sovereign is the Sovereign's representative in New Zealand". Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_71

Most of the powers and authority of the New Zealand monarch have been delegated to the governor-general by the Letters Patent 1983. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_72

Further constitutional duties are outlined in the Constitution Act. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_73

The governor-general is empowered to exercise the Royal Prerogative (royal powers), including the reserve powers, on behalf of the sovereign. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_74

However, when she is present in New Zealand the Queen may exercise her powers personally. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_75

The governor-general is a nominal chief executive, acting within the constraints of constitutional convention and precedent. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_76

Although the governor-general's powers are in theory extensive, they are in practice very limited; most political power is exercised by the New Zealand Parliament (which is composed of the Governor-General-in-Parliament and the House of Representatives), through the prime minister and Cabinet. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_77

The governor-general does use a number of remaining powers, but almost always on the formal advice of the prime minister and other ministers. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_78

Ministers are, in turn, accountable to the democratically elected House of Representatives, and through it, to the people. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_79

(The governor-general may refuse to follow ministerial advice only in the event that the prime minister loses the confidence of the House of Representatives.) Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_80

Even in the appointment of a prime minister, the governor-general rarely exercises any discretion; in accordance with unwritten constitutional conventions, the governor-general must appoint the individual most likely to maintain the support of the House of Representatives: this is usually the leader of the largest party among those forming the government. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_81

Role in executive government Governor-General of New Zealand_section_8

See also: New Zealand Government Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_82

The governor-general appoints and dismisses Cabinet ministers and other ministers, but exercises such a function only on the prime minister's advice. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_83

Thus, in practice, the prime minister, and not the governor-general, exercises complete control over the composition of the Cabinet. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_84

The governor-general may, in theory, unilaterally dismiss a prime minister, but convention and precedent bar such an action. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_85

The governor-general presides over, but is not a member of, the Executive Council of New Zealand. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_86

The Executive Council (which comprises all ministers) exists and meets to give legal effect to decisions made by the Cabinet. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_87

The primary function of the Executive Council is to collectively and formally advise the governor-general to issue Orders in Council (to make, for example, regulations or appointments), which operate under the authority of "the Governor-General in Council". Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_88

The governor-general also has custody of the Seal of New Zealand for all official instruments of "Her Majesty's Government in New Zealand". Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_89

Role in the New Zealand Parliament Governor-General of New Zealand_section_9

The governor-general summons and dissolves the New Zealand Parliament, acting in the absence of the Queen. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_90

Each parliamentary session begins with the governor-general's summons. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_91

The new parliamentary session is marked by the opening of parliament, during which the governor-general delivers the 'Speech from the Throne' in the Legislative Council Chamber, outlining the Government's legislative agenda. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_92

Dissolution ends a parliamentary term (which lasts a maximum of three years), and is followed by a general election for all seats in the House of Representatives. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_93

These powers, however, are almost always exercised on the advice of the prime minister, who also determines the date of an election. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_94

The governor-general may theoretically refuse a dissolution, but the circumstances under which such an action would be warranted are unclear. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_95

It might be justified if a minority government had served only briefly and another party or coalition seemed likely to have better success in holding the confidence of the House. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_96

Before a bill can become law, the Royal Assent is required. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_97

The governor-general acts on the monarch's behalf; in theory, he or she may grant the Royal Assent (making the bill law), or withhold the Royal Assent (vetoing the bill). Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_98

By modern constitutional convention, however, the Royal Assent is invariably granted, and bills are never disallowed. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_99

A law comes into effect from the date the governor-general signs the bill. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_100

Reserve powers Governor-General of New Zealand_section_10

The governor-general acts with the advice of the prime minister, unless the prime minister has lost the confidence of the House of Representatives. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_101

These are the so-called 'reserve powers'. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_102

These powers include the ability to: Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_103

Governor-General of New Zealand_unordered_list_0

  • Dissolve or parliament;Governor-General of New Zealand_item_0_0
  • Appoint or dismiss the prime minister;Governor-General of New Zealand_item_0_1
  • Refuse a prime minister's request for a dissolution;Governor-General of New Zealand_item_0_2
  • Refuse assent to legislation.Governor-General of New Zealand_item_0_3

The exercise of the above powers is a matter of continuing debate. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_104

Many constitutional commentators believe that the governor-general (or the sovereign) does not have the power to refuse Royal Assent to legislation — former law professor and Prime Minister Sir Geoffrey Palmer and Professor Matthew Palmer argue that any refusal of Royal Assent would cause a constitutional crisis. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_105

However, some constitutional lawyers, such as Professor Philip Joseph, believe the governor-general does retain the power to refuse Royal Assent to bills in exceptional circumstances, such as the abolition of democracy. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_106

As with other Commonwealth realms, the governor-general's exercise of the Royal Prerogative under the reserve powers is non-justiciable; that is, they cannot be challenged by judicial review, unlike the actions of other members of the executive (such as the Prime Minister in Fitzgerald v Muldoon). Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_107

Prerogative of mercy Governor-General of New Zealand_section_11

The governor-general also exercises the royal prerogative of mercy, an ancient right of convicted persons to seek a review of their case where they allege an injustice may have occurred. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_108

The prerogative of mercy can be exercised where a person claims to have been wrongly convicted or wrongly sentenced. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_109

The governor-general acts on the advice of the minister of justice. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_110

The governor-general has power to grant a pardon, to refer a person's case back to the court under section 406 of the Crimes Act 1961, and to reduce a person's sentence. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_111

If a person's case is referred back to the court, the court will consider the case in a similar way to hearing an appeal. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_112

The court then provides advice to the governor-general as to how to act. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_113

In 2000, David Bain was granted such an appeal to the Court of Appeal, which in turn was appealed to the Privy Council. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_114

Ceremonial role Governor-General of New Zealand_section_12

With most constitutional functions lent to Cabinet, the governor-general is particularly invested in a representative and ceremonial role. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_115

The extent and nature of that role has depended on the expectations of the time, the individual in office at the time, the wishes of the incumbent government, and the individual's reputation in the wider community. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_116

He or she will host the Queen or her family, as well as foreign royalty and heads of state, and will represent New Zealand abroad on state visits to other nations. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_117

At least once during their term, the governor-general visits the other nations within the Realm of New Zealand: Niue, the Cook Islands and Tokelau, and the Ross Dependency. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_118

Also as part of international relations, the governor-general issues the credentials (called letter of credence) of New Zealand ambassadors and consuls, as authorised by the Letters Patent. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_119

Increasingly, the governor-general is personally accorded the same respect and privileges of a head of state. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_120

This is particularity true when the governor-general visits other nations or receives heads of states. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_121

Under the Defence Act 1990 and letters patent the governor-general is also the formal commander-in-chief of the Defence Force. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_122

The position technically involves issuing commands for New Zealand troops, though the governor-general normally acts on the advice of responsible ministers. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_123

In practice, the commander-in-chief is a ceremonial role in which the governor-general will visit military bases in New Zealand and abroad to take part in military ceremonies, see troops off to and return from active duty, and encourage excellence and morale amongst the forces. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_124

Community role Governor-General of New Zealand_section_13

The governor-general provides leadership in the community. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_125

Governors-general are always the patrons of many charitable, service, sporting and cultural organisations. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_126

The sponsorship or patronage of the governor-general signals that an organisation is worthy of wide support. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_127

This follows the tradition of royal patronage established by British monarchs; however, the practice of issuing warrants of appointment has been discontinued in New Zealand. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_128

Some governors and their spouses founded or supported new charities; in the early 1900s, Lord Plunket and his wife, Lady Victoria, presided over the creation of Truby King's Plunket Society. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_129

Until the later 20th century, many governors and governors-general were grand masters of the Freemasons, and they included visits to lodges as a part of their tours of the country. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_130

The governor-general has also had a long association with the Order of St John, traditionally serving as prior in New Zealand. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_131

Many of the governor-general's community functions have a ceremonial dimension, such as attendance at the official openings of buildings, addresses to open conferences, or launching special events and appeals. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_132

The governor-general spends a large share of his or her working time attending state banquets and receptions, making and hosting state visits, meeting ceremonial groups, and awarding medals and decorations. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_133

As well as attending public events, the governor-general hosts many community functions at Government House, Wellington, such as a garden reception to mark Waitangi Day. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_134

According to the official website of the governor-general, in a typical year over 15,000 people will attend such events. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_135

Starting from New Year's Day 2009, the governor-general issues a New Year's Message to bring to attention issues New Zealanders might consider as they look to the future. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_136

Salary and privileges Governor-General of New Zealand_section_14

Cost Governor-General of New Zealand_section_15

The New Zealand Government pays for the costs associated with the governor-general. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_137

Monarchy New Zealand states "[t]his figure is about one dollar per person per year", about $4.3 million per annum. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_138

An analysis by New Zealand Republic of the 2010 budget shows the office of governor-general costs New Zealand taxpayers about $7.6 million in ongoing costs and $11 million for Government House upgrades, a total of $18.6 million. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_139

These figures are disputed by Monarchy New Zealand, who claim New Zealand Republic "arbitrarily inflated the cost of the Governor-General". Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_140

Salary Governor-General of New Zealand_section_16

As of 2016, the annual salary is NZ$354,000, which is subject to income tax from 2010. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_141

Until the end of Sir Anand Satyanand's term, the salary of governor-general was regulated by the Civil List Act 1979. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_142

From the start of Sir Jerry Mateperae's term, the Governor-General Act 2010 applies. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_143

Residences and household Governor-General of New Zealand_section_17

The governor-general's main residence is Government House, Wellington, and there is a small secondary northern residence, Government House, Auckland. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_144

Government House in Wellington closed in October 2008 for a major $44 million conservation and rebuilding project and was reopened in March 2011. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_145

In November 2012, Prince Charles opened a visitor centre at Government House in Wellington to mark the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_146

The viceregal household aids the governor-general in the execution of the royal constitutional and ceremonial duties and is managed by an official secretary to the governor-general. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_147

All of the governor-general's staff are public servants within the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_148

Transport Governor-General of New Zealand_section_18

Since the 1960s the New Zealand Government has supplied Government House with an official state car to transport the governor-general when he or she carries out official business. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_149

It is also used to transport other state officials, as well as visiting dignitaries, including royalty. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_150

The governor-general's official vehicle displays a representation of St Edward's Crown instead of standard number plates. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_151

The current official car is a BMW 7 Series. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_152

It replaced a Jaguar XJ8, which was purchased in 2003 for about NZ$160,000. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_153

The Jaguar was auctioned off in August 2011. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_154

Symbols Governor-General of New Zealand_section_19

The governor-general's flag may be flown from a vehicle in which the governor-general is travelling, or from a building in which the governor-general is present or is residing. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_155

The flag in its present form was adopted in 2008 and is a blue field with the shield of the New Zealand coat of arms surmounted by a crown in the centre. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_156

It takes precedence over the national flag. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_157

When the governor-general undertakes a state visit abroad, however, the national flag is generally employed to mark his or her presence. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_158

The national flag is also flown at half-mast upon the death of an incumbent or former governor-general. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_159

The design of the flag, with the shield and crown in the centre, mirrors the collar badge of the New Zealand Order of Merit which can only be worn by the Queen and the governor-general. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_160

A viceregal salute—composed of the first six bars of "God Save the Queen"—is used to greet the governor-general upon arrival at, and mark his or her departure from most official events. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_161

Precedence and titles Governor-General of New Zealand_section_20

In the New Zealand order of precedence, the governor-general outranks all individuals except the sovereign. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_162

The governor-general and their spouse are styled "His/Her Excellency" during the term in office, and the governor-general is entitled to the style "The Right Honourable" for life upon assuming the office. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_163

From 2006, former living governors-general were entitled to use the style "the Honourable", if they did not already hold the title or the higher appointment of Privy Counsellor. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_164

The incumbent governor-general uses the titles of Chancellor and Principal Knight or Dame Grand Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit and Principal Companion of the Queen's Service Order. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_165

He or she is titled "Sir" or "Dame". Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_166

Official dress Governor-General of New Zealand_section_21

The governor-general is entitled to a special court uniform that is worn on ceremonial occasions, consisting of a dark navy wool double-breasted coatee with silver oak leaf and fern embroidery on the collar and cuffs trimmed with silver buttons embossed with the Royal Arms; bullion-edged epaulettes on the shoulders; dark navy trousers with a wide band of silver oak-leaf braid down the outside seam; silver sword belt with ceremonial sword; bicorne cocked hat with plume of ostrich feathers; black patent leather Wellington boots with spurs, etc. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_167

There is also a tropical version made of white tropical wool cut in a typical military fashion worn with a plumed helmet. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_168

This dress has fallen into disuse since the 1980s. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_169

Initially this was due to Sir Paul Reeves, as a cleric, choosing not wearing a military uniform. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_170

Although not specifically colonial, the traditional dress was abandoned as overt reminders of a colonial legacy. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_171

Usually the governor-general will now wear a black lounge jacket with morning dress trousers for men or formal day dress for ladies (or military uniform if they are already entitled to it) for ceremonial occasions and normal day dress at other times. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_172

The undress form of the uniform is still worn on rare occasions, such as when the governor-general visits military bases. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_173

History Governor-General of New Zealand_section_22

Governors Governor-General of New Zealand_section_23

From 1832 James Busby was assigned the post of official British resident in New Zealand. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_174

He played a role in drafting the Treaty of Waitangi, which established British colonial rule over New Zealand. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_175

Captain William Hobson was first appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand by letters patent on 24 November 1840 (having previously been the British Consul to New Zealand), when New Zealand was part of the colony of New South Wales. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_176

While Hobson is usually considered the first Governor of New Zealand, Sir George Gipps was the first governor over New Zealand, albeit only in his capacity as Governor of New South Wales, until New Zealand was established as a separate colony on 3 May 1841. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_177

Hobson continued in office until his death on 10 September 1842. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_178

In Hobson's place the Colonial Office appointed Captain Robert FitzRoy. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_179

FitzRoy struggled to keep order between Māori and settlers keen to buy their land, with very limited financial and military resources at his disposal. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_180

Outbreak of the first armed conflicts of the New Zealand Wars and FitzRoy's siding with Māori claims against the New Zealand Company and its settlers over land deals lead to his recall by the Colonial Office in 1845. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_181

FitzRoy's replacement, Sir George Grey, is considered by some historians, such as Michael King, to be the most important and influential Governor of New Zealand. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_182

Grey was the last Governor of New Zealand to act without reference to parliament. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_183

During his first term (1845–1852), Grey petitioned the British Parliament to largely suspend the complex New Zealand Constitution Act 1846 (Grey briefly took the title "Governor-in-Chief" under the Act but this was eventually reverted to Governor), drafting his own constitution bill, which became the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_184

Grey's first term ended before responsible government was implemented, although he established the first provinces under the 1846 Constitution Act, appointing a Lieutenant-Governor for each of the provinces: George Dean Pitt for the New Ulster Province and Robert Wynyard for the New Munster Province. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_185

The office of Lieutenant-Governor was superseded by elected Superintendents with the implementation of the 1852 Constitution Act, in 1853. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_186

The task of overseeing the transition to a responsible government was left to Robert Wynyard, as the Administrator of the Government, who opened the 1st New Zealand Parliament on 24 May 1854. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_187

Wynyard was quickly confronted by the demands from members of parliament for the ability to select ministers from among their number—rather than the governor deciding. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_188

The parliament passed a resolution to that effect on 2 June. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_189

Wynyard and the Executive Council of New Zealand refused to allow this, stating that the Colonial Office made no mention of responsible government in its dispatches. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_190

Wynyard then offered to add some elected members of parliament to the Executive Council, which he did—a compromise that worked for a few weeks, until on 1 August 1854, parliament again demanded complete power to appoint ministers. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_191

Wynyard refused and prorogued parliament for two weeks. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_192

Then on 31 August, he appointed more elected members to the Executive Council, but when Parliament met again on 8 August 1855, it moved a motion of no confidence in the members. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_193

Fortunately for Wynyard the next Governor, Sir Thomas Gore Browne, arrived on 6 September 1855. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_194

Gore Browne's tenure saw the introduction of responsible government, which constrained the powers of the governor, who now had to work with a Premier and their ministers. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_195

In the following years, Gore Browne and Premier Edward Stafford clashed over whether the governor (and hence the imperial government) had control over Māori affairs, a key issue at the time with the ongoing New Zealand Wars. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_196

Stafford began the practice of Cabinet meeting independently of the Executive Council, further reducing the influence of the governor. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_197

Sir George Grey returned to New Zealand in 1861 for a second term. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_198

Grey struggled to meet the competing demands of the Colonial and British governments. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_199

The New Zealand Wars had brought many thousands of British troops to New Zealand, and fearing further fighting Grey, with the support of Edward Stafford, evaded Colonial Office instructions to finalise their return to Britain. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_200

In the end, the Colonial Office recalled Grey in February 1868. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_201

After Grey, successive governors of New Zealand were derived from the British aristocracy and played a much less active role in government. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_202

In only a few instances did the governor refuse the advice of the premier. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_203

Ironically this happened mainly during the tenure of Sir George Grey as Premier of New Zealand from 1877 to 1879. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_204

One famous instance of the use of the governor's powers came during the term of Sir Arthur Gordon. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_205

Sir Arthur had left New Zealand on 13 September 1881 for a visit to the Pacific Islands. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_206

In his absence, Premier John Hall advised Chief Justice James Prendergast, acting as the Administrator of the Government (Prendergast was well known for his negative opinions about Māori from his decision in the case Wi Parata v the Bishop of Wellington), to order the invasion of the Māori pacifist Te Whiti o Rongomai's village at Parihaka, something the Governor had indicated he was opposed to. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_207

Governors-General Governor-General of New Zealand_section_24

British subjects Governor-General of New Zealand_section_25

In 1907 Sir Joseph Ward's Liberal government passed a resolution to create New Zealand as the Dominion of New Zealand. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_208

This led to new letters patent being issued in 1917, which greatly curtailed the powers of the governor. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_209

To reflect these changes, the office was renamed governor-general (equivalent to governors-general of other dominions), with the Earl of Liverpool, the serving Governor, becoming the first to be titled Governor-General. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_210

In 1926, following the King-Byng affair in Canada, an Imperial Conference approved the Balfour Declaration, which defined a British Commonwealth as a freely associated grouping known as the Commonwealth of Nations. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_211

The Declaration was ratified by the British (Imperial) Parliament with the Statute of Westminster in 1931. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_212

The effect of the Declaration was to elevate the governor-general from a representative of the British Government to a regal position with all the theoretical constitutional powers of the sovereign. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_213

New Zealand did not ratify the Statute of Westminster until after the Second World War however, with the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947 being passed on 25 November 1947. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_214

Despite adopting the statute later than most other Commonwealth realms, the functions of the governor-general in representing the British Government were gradually reduced prior to the statute passing. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_215

For example, beginning in 1939, the British High Commissioner to New Zealand replaced the Governor-General as the foremost diplomatic representative of the British Government in New Zealand. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_216

In 1945, New Zealand Prime Minister Peter Fraser suggested that Sir Bernard Freyberg, the British-born commander of New Zealand's armed forces, be appointed Governor-General. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_217

Until 1967, the precedent was that governors-general were nominated by the British Foreign Office (successor of the Colonial Office) in consultation with the New Zealand prime minister, who then recommended appointments to the sovereign. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_218

New Zealand citizens Governor-General of New Zealand_section_26

During the 1960s, the Foreign Office made strong overtures that the appointment of the governor-general should be made by the New Zealand prime minister and the Queen. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_219

A Gallup poll for the Auckland Star newspaper found 43 percent of respondents preferred Britons for the role, while 41 percent favoured New Zealanders and 6 percent candidates from other Commonwealth countries. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_220

In 1967 the first New Zealand-born Governor-General, Sir Arthur Porritt (later Lord Porritt), was appointed to the office, on the advice of the New Zealand Prime Minister, Sir Keith Holyoake. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_221

Porritt's appointment was followed by Sir Denis Blundell in 1972, who was the first fully New Zealand-resident Governor-General. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_222

In 1983, letters patent were issued once again, further reducing the powers of the office. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_223

The new letters patent were counter-signed by the New Zealand Prime Minister, symbolising the "" of the office. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_224

The governor-general now presided over the "Realm of New Zealand" instead of the "Dominion of New Zealand". Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_225

Following the 1984 constitutional crisis, the 1852 Constitution Act was replaced by the Constitution Act 1986 and the governor-general's powers further limited. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_226

For example, section 16 of the 1986 Act significantly narrowed section 56 of the 1852 Act so that the governor-general has much less discretion to refuse Royal Assent to bills of parliament. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_227

With the patriation of the office came an expectation that the officeholders would be representative of New Zealanders generally; since then a more diverse group of governors-general have been appointed. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_228

Former Anglican Archbishop of New Zealand Sir Paul Reeves (1985–90) was the first Māori Governor-General. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_229

Dame Catherine Tizard (1990–96) was the first woman to be appointed to the office. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_230

Sir Anand Satyanand (2006–11) was the first Governor-General of Indian and Pacific Islander origin, and the first Roman Catholic to hold the office. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_231

De facto head of state Governor-General of New Zealand_section_27

Increasingly, the governor-general is regarded as a de facto head of state. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_232

Political commentator Colin James has expressed this view, along with historian Gavin McLean and former Prime Minister Helen Clark. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_233

The governor-general has been performing more and more of the functions of a head of state, such as travelling overseas, representing all New Zealanders at major international events and generally promoting New Zealand interests abroad. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_234

The first time such a visit occurred was in 1989 for the state funeral of the late Japanese Emperor Hirohito. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_235

However, governors-general could not make state visits until 1992, when the King of Spain invited Dame Catherine Tizard on a State Visit for the Seville Expo '92. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_236

Buckingham Palace advised that the Queen cannot travel abroad in her capacity as Queen of New Zealand. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_237

As a compromise, the Palace agreed that governors-general could accept invitations for state visits, but that it must be made clear that the governor-general is the Sovereign's representative. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_238

At the 2007 commemorations of the Battle of Passchendaele, Governor-General Anand Satyanand represented New Zealand on behalf of the Queen, while the Queen herself represented the United Kingdom. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_239

Reform of the office is usually only mentioned in the context of a New Zealand republic. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_240

Helen Clark, when defending Dame Silvia Cartwright following a political controversy over prison sentences, stated "[o]ne of the challenges for us is we clearly are no longer a dominion of Britain where the Governor-General is exactly like the Queen. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_241

I think we need to consider how the role of Governor-General might evolve further. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_242

As you know, my view is that one day there will be a president fulfilling the kind of role the Governor-General does." Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_243

Others, such as Professor Noel Cox have argued that the governor-general's role needs to be updated, rather than reforming the office. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_244

Some constitutional academics expressed concern that the process of electoral reform could result in the governor-general having greater political influence due to the reserve powers of government formation. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_245

In 1993, the then Governor-General Dame Catherine Tizard caused controversy by suggesting that under the proposed mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system, the governor-general may have to use their reserve powers more often. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_246

Following the adoption of MMP at a referendum later in 1993, Prime Minister Jim Bolger suggested at the opening of parliament in 1994 that one reason New Zealand might move to a republic was that the governor-general would have more influence under the new electoral system. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_247

In a 1996 address, Governor-General Sir Michael Hardie Boys clarified how he would use his powers in the case of an unclear electoral result; he maintained that politicians must decide who would govern, and only after a public announcement of their decision would he appoint a prime minister. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_248

In December 2009 a review of the Civil List Act 1979 by the Law Commission recommended that part 1 of the Act be repealed, and replaced with a new Governor-General Bill to reflect the nature of the modern office of governor-general. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_249

The most significant change would be that the governor-general was no longer exempt from paying income tax on their salary. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_250

The changes proposed in the report would take effect for the appointment and term of the next Governor-General. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_251

The Bill was introduced into the House of Representatives on 28 June 2010 and was granted Royal Assent on 22 November 2010. Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_252

In 2020 a poll by Curia, commissioned by New Zealand Republic, found 32 percent of New Zealanders thought the governor-general was the head of state, and only 18 percent could name the Queen as New Zealand's head of state (25 percent answered that it was the prime minister). Governor-General of New Zealand_sentence_253

See also Governor-General of New Zealand_section_28

Governor-General of New Zealand_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: of New Zealand.