Graham Greene

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

For other people named Graham Greene, see Graham Greene (disambiguation). Graham Greene_sentence_0

Graham Greene_table_infobox_0

Graham Greene

OM CHGraham Greene_header_cell_0_0_0

BornGraham Greene_header_cell_0_1_0 Henry Graham Greene

(1904-10-02)2 October 1904 Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, EnglandGraham Greene_cell_0_1_1

DiedGraham Greene_header_cell_0_2_0 3 April 1991(1991-04-03) (aged 86)

Vevey, SwitzerlandGraham Greene_cell_0_2_1

OccupationGraham Greene_header_cell_0_3_0 WriterGraham Greene_cell_0_3_1
Alma materGraham Greene_header_cell_0_4_0 Balliol College, OxfordGraham Greene_cell_0_4_1
PeriodGraham Greene_header_cell_0_5_0 1925–1991Graham Greene_cell_0_5_1
GenreGraham Greene_header_cell_0_6_0 Literary fiction, thrillerGraham Greene_cell_0_6_1
SpouseGraham Greene_header_cell_0_7_0 Vivien Dayrell-Browning

​ ​(m. 1927; sep. 1947)​Graham Greene_cell_0_7_1

PartnerGraham Greene_header_cell_0_8_0 Catherine Walston, Lady Walston (1946–1966)

Yvonne Cloetta (1966–1991)Graham Greene_cell_0_8_1

ChildrenGraham Greene_header_cell_0_9_0 Lucy Caroline (b. 1933)

Francis (b. 1936)Graham Greene_cell_0_9_1

Henry Graham Greene OM CH (2 October 1904 – 3 April 1991), professionally known as Graham Greene, was an English writer and journalist regarded by many as one of the leading English novelists of the 20th century. Graham Greene_sentence_1

Combining literary acclaim with widespread popularity, Greene acquired a reputation early in his lifetime as a major writer, both of serious Catholic novels, and of thrillers (or "entertainments" as he termed them). Graham Greene_sentence_2

He was shortlisted, in 1966 and 1967, for the Nobel Prize for Literature. Graham Greene_sentence_3

Through 67 years of writings, which included over 25 novels, he explored the ambivalent moral and political issues of the modern world, often through a Catholic perspective. Graham Greene_sentence_4

Although Greene objected strongly to being described as a Roman Catholic novelist, rather than as a novelist who happened to be Catholic, Catholic religious themes are at the root of much of his writing, especially the four major Catholic novels: Brighton Rock, The Power and the Glory, The Heart of the Matter, and The End of the Affair; which have been named "the gold standard" of the Catholic novel. Graham Greene_sentence_5

Several works, such as The Confidential Agent, The Quiet American, Our Man in Havana, The Human Factor, and his screenplay for The Third Man, also show Greene's avid interest in the workings and intrigues of international politics and espionage. Graham Greene_sentence_6

Greene was born in Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire into a large, influential family that included the owners of the Greene King Brewery. Graham Greene_sentence_7

He boarded at Berkhamsted School in Hertfordshire, where his father taught and became headmaster. Graham Greene_sentence_8

Unhappy at the school, he attempted suicide several times. Graham Greene_sentence_9

He attended Balliol College, Oxford, to study history, where, while an undergraduate, he published his first work in 1925—a poorly received volume of poetry, Babbling April. Graham Greene_sentence_10

After graduating, Greene worked first as a private tutor and then as a journalist—first on the Nottingham Journal and then as a sub-editor on The Times. Graham Greene_sentence_11

He converted to Catholicism in 1926 after meeting his future wife, Vivien Dayrell-Browning. Graham Greene_sentence_12

Later in life he took to calling himself a "Catholic agnostic". Graham Greene_sentence_13

He published his first novel, The Man Within, in 1929; its favourable reception enabled him to work full-time as a novelist. Graham Greene_sentence_14

He supplemented his novelist's income with freelance journalism, and book and film reviews. Graham Greene_sentence_15

His 1937 film review of Wee Willie Winkie (for the British journal Night and Day), commented on the sexuality of the nine-year-old star, Shirley Temple. Graham Greene_sentence_16

This provoked Twentieth Century Fox to sue, prompting Greene to live in Mexico until after the trial was over. Graham Greene_sentence_17

While in Mexico, Greene developed the ideas for The Power and the Glory. Graham Greene_sentence_18

Greene originally divided his fiction into two genres (which he described as "entertainments" and "novels"): thrillers—often with notable philosophic edges—such as The Ministry of Fear; and literary works—on which he thought his literary reputation would rest—such as The Power and the Glory. Graham Greene_sentence_19

Greene had a history of depression, which had a profound effect on his writing and personal life. Graham Greene_sentence_20

In a letter to his wife, Vivien, he told her that he had "a character profoundly antagonistic to ordinary domestic life," and that "unfortunately, the disease is also one's material." Graham Greene_sentence_21

William Golding praised Greene as "the ultimate chronicler of twentieth-century man's consciousness and anxiety." Graham Greene_sentence_22

He died in 1991, at age 86, of leukemia, and was buried in Corseaux cemetery. Graham Greene_sentence_23

Early years (1904–1925) Graham Greene_section_0

Henry Graham Greene was born in 1904 in St John's House, a boarding house of Berkhamsted School, Hertfordshire, where his father was housemaster. Graham Greene_sentence_24

He was the fourth of six children; his younger brother, Hugh, became Director-General of the BBC, and his elder brother, Raymond, an eminent physician and mountaineer. Graham Greene_sentence_25

His parents, Charles Henry Greene and Marion Raymond Greene, were first cousins, both members of a large, influential family that included the owners of Greene King Brewery, bankers, and statesmen; his mother was cousin to Robert Louis Stevenson. Graham Greene_sentence_26

Charles Greene was second master at Berkhamsted School, where the headmaster was Dr Thomas Fry, who was married to Charles' cousin. Graham Greene_sentence_27

Another cousin was the right-wing pacifist Ben Greene, whose politics led to his internment during World War II. Graham Greene_sentence_28

In his childhood, Greene spent his summers with his uncle, Sir Graham Greene, at Harston House in Cambridgeshire. Graham Greene_sentence_29

In Greene's description of his childhood, he describes his learning to read there: "It was at Harston I found quite suddenly I could read—the book was Dixon Brett, Detective. Graham Greene_sentence_30

I didn't want anyone to know of my discovery, so I read only in secret, in a remote attic, but my mother must have spotted what I was at all the same, for she gave me Ballantyne's The Coral Island for the train journey home—always an interminable journey with the long wait between trains at Bletchley…" Graham Greene_sentence_31

In 1910, Charles Greene succeeded Dr Fry as headmaster of Berkhamsted. Graham Greene_sentence_32

Graham also attended the school as a boarder. Graham Greene_sentence_33

Bullied and profoundly depressed, he made several suicide attempts, including, as he wrote in his autobiography, by Russian roulette and by taking aspirin before going swimming in the school pool. Graham Greene_sentence_34

In 1920, aged 16, in what was a radical step for the time, he was sent for psychoanalysis for six months in London, afterwards returning to school as a day student. Graham Greene_sentence_35

School friends included Claud Cockburn the journalist, and Peter Quennell the historian. Graham Greene_sentence_36

In 1922, Greene was for a short time a member of the Communist Party of Great Britain, and sought an invitation to the new Soviet Union, of which nothing came. Graham Greene_sentence_37

In 1925, while he was an undergraduate at Balliol College, Oxford, his first work, a poorly received volume of poetry titled Babbling April, was published. Graham Greene_sentence_38

Greene suffered from periodic bouts of depression while at Oxford, and largely kept to himself. Graham Greene_sentence_39

Of Greene's time at Oxford, his contemporary Evelyn Waugh noted that: "Graham Greene looked down on us (and perhaps all undergraduates) as childish and ostentatious. Graham Greene_sentence_40

He certainly shared in none of our revelry." Graham Greene_sentence_41

He graduated in 1925 with a second-class degree in history. Graham Greene_sentence_42

Writing career Graham Greene_section_1

After leaving Oxford, Greene worked for a period of time as a private tutor and then turned to journalism; first on the Nottingham Journal, and then as a sub-editor on The Times. Graham Greene_sentence_43

While he was working in Nottingham, he started corresponding with Vivien Dayrell-Browning, who had written to him to correct him on a point of Catholic doctrine. Graham Greene_sentence_44

Greene was an agnostic at the time, but when he later began to think about marrying Vivien, it occurred to him that, as he puts it in A Sort of Life, he "ought at least to learn the nature and limits of the beliefs she held." Graham Greene_sentence_45

Greene was baptised on 26 February 1926 and they married on 15 October 1927 at St Mary's Church, Hampstead, North London. Graham Greene_sentence_46

Greene's first published novel was The Man Within (1929). Graham Greene_sentence_47

Favourable reception emboldened him to quit his sub-editor job at The Times and work as a full-time novelist. Graham Greene_sentence_48

The next two books, The Name of Action (1930) and Rumour at Nightfall (1932), were unsuccessful; and he later disowned them. Graham Greene_sentence_49

His first true success was Stamboul Train (1932) which was taken on by the Book Society and adapted as the film Orient Express, in 1934. Graham Greene_sentence_50

He supplemented his novelist's income with freelance journalism, book and film reviews for The Spectator, and co-editing the magazine Night and Day. Graham Greene_sentence_51

Greene's 1937 film review of Wee Willie Winkie, for Night and Day—which said that the nine-year-old star, Shirley Temple, displayed "a dubious coquetry" which appealed to "middle-aged men and clergymen"—provoked Twentieth Century Fox successfully to sue for £3,500 plus costs, and Greene leaving the UK to live in Mexico until after the trial was over. Graham Greene_sentence_52

While in Mexico, Greene developed the ideas for the novel often considered his masterpiece, The Power and the Glory. Graham Greene_sentence_53

By the 1950s, Greene had become known as one of the finest writers of his generation. Graham Greene_sentence_54

As his career lengthened, both Greene and his readers found the distinction between entertainments and novels increasingly problematic. Graham Greene_sentence_55

The last book Greene termed an entertainment was Our Man in Havana in 1958. Graham Greene_sentence_56

Greene also wrote short stories and plays, which were well received, although he was always first and foremost a novelist. Graham Greene_sentence_57

His first play, The Living Room, debuted in 1953. Graham Greene_sentence_58

Michael Korda, a lifelong friend of Greene and later his editor at Simon & Schuster, once observed Greene at work. Graham Greene_sentence_59

Korda observed that Greene wrote in a small black leather notebook with a black fountain pen and would write approximately 500 words. Graham Greene_sentence_60

Korda described this as Graham's daily penance—once he finished he put the notebook away for the rest of the day. Graham Greene_sentence_61

His writing influences included Conrad, Ford, Haggard, Stevenson, James, Proust, Buchan, and Péguy. Graham Greene_sentence_62

Travel and espionage Graham Greene_section_2

Throughout his life, Greene travelled far from England, to what he called the world's wild and remote places. Graham Greene_sentence_63

In 1941, the travels led to his being recruited into MI6 by his sister, Elisabeth, who worked for the agency. Graham Greene_sentence_64

Accordingly, he was posted to Sierra Leone during the Second World War. Graham Greene_sentence_65

Kim Philby, who would later be revealed as a Soviet agent, was Greene's supervisor and friend at MI6. Graham Greene_sentence_66

Greene resigned from MI6 in 1944. Graham Greene_sentence_67

Greene later wrote an introduction to Philby's 1968 memoir, My Silent War. Graham Greene_sentence_68

As a novelist Greene wove the characters he met and the places where he lived into the fabric of his novels. Graham Greene_sentence_69

Greene first left Europe at 30 years of age in 1935 on a trip to Liberia that produced the travel book Journey Without Maps. Graham Greene_sentence_70

His 1938 trip to Mexico to see the effects of the government's campaign of forced anti-Catholic secularisation was paid for by the publishing company Longman, thanks to his friendship with Tom Burns. Graham Greene_sentence_71

That voyage produced two books, the factual The Lawless Roads (published as Another Mexico in the U.S.) and the novel The Power and the Glory. Graham Greene_sentence_72

In 1953, the Holy Office informed Greene that The Power and the Glory was damaging to the reputation of the priesthood; but later, in a private audience with Greene, Pope Paul VI told him that, although parts of his novels would offend some Catholics, he should ignore the criticism. Graham Greene_sentence_73

Greene first travelled to Haiti in 1954, where The Comedians (1966) is set, which was then under the rule of dictator François Duvalier, known as "Papa Doc", frequently staying at the Hotel Oloffson in Port-au-Prince. Graham Greene_sentence_74

And, in the late 1950s, as inspiration for his novel, A Burnt-Out Case (1960), Greene spent time travelling around Africa visiting a number of leper colonies in the Congo Basin and in what were then the British Cameroons. Graham Greene_sentence_75

During this trip in late February and early March 1959, he met several times with Andrée de Jongh, a Belgian resistance fighter responsible for establishing an escape route for downed airmen from Belgium to the Pyrenees. Graham Greene_sentence_76

In 1957, just months after Fidel Castro began his final revolutionary assault on the Batista regime in Cuba, Greene played a small role in helping the revolutionaries, as a secret courier transporting warm clothing for Castro's rebels hiding in the hills during the Cuban winter. Graham Greene_sentence_77

Greene was said to have a fascination with strong leaders, which may have accounted for his interest in Castro, whom he later met. Graham Greene_sentence_78

After one visit Castro gave Greene a painting he had done, which hung in the living room of the French house where the author spent the last years of his life. Graham Greene_sentence_79

Greene did later voice doubts about Castro's Cuba, telling a French interviewer in 1983, "I admire him for his courage and his efficiency, but I question his authoritarianism," adding: "All successful revolutions, however idealistic, probably betray themselves in time." Graham Greene_sentence_80

Publishing career Graham Greene_section_3

Between 1944 and 1948, Greene was director at Eyre & Spottiswoode under chairman Douglas Jerrold, in charge of developing its fiction list. Graham Greene_sentence_81

Greene created The Century Library series, which was discontinued after he left following a conflict with Jerrold regarding Anthony Powell's contract. Graham Greene_sentence_82

In 1958, Greene was offered the position of chairman by Oliver Crosthwaite-Eyre, but declined. Graham Greene_sentence_83

He was a director at The Bodley Head from 1957 to 1968 under Max Reinhardt. Graham Greene_sentence_84

Personal life Graham Greene_section_4

Greene was an atheist, but was baptised into the Catholic faith in 1926 after meeting his future wife Vivien Dayrell-Browning. Graham Greene_sentence_85

They were married on 15 October 1927 at St Mary's Church, Hampstead, North London. Graham Greene_sentence_86

The Greenes had two children, Lucy Caroline (born 1933) and Francis (born 1936). Graham Greene_sentence_87

In his discussions with Father Trollope, the priest to whom he went for instruction in Catholicism, Greene argued with the cleric "on the ground of dogmatic atheism", as Greene's primary difficulty with religion was what he termed the "if" surrounding God's existence. Graham Greene_sentence_88

He found, however, that "after a few weeks of serious argument the 'if' was becoming less and less improbable", and Greene was converted and baptised after vigorous arguments initially with the priest in which he defended atheism, or at least the "if" of agnosticism. Graham Greene_sentence_89

Late in life, Greene called himself a "Catholic agnostic". Graham Greene_sentence_90

Beginning in 1946, Greene had an affair with Catherine Walston, the wife of Harry Walston, a wealthy farmer and future life peer. Graham Greene_sentence_91

That relationship is generally thought to have informed the writing of The End of the Affair, published in 1951, when the affair came to an end. Graham Greene_sentence_92

Greene left his family in 1947, but in accordance with Catholic teaching, Vivien refused to grant him a divorce, and they remained married until Greene's death in 1991. Graham Greene_sentence_93

Greene suffered from manic depression (bipolar disorder). Graham Greene_sentence_94

Final years and death Graham Greene_section_5

After falling victim to a financial swindler, Greene chose to leave Britain in 1966, moving to Antibes, to be close to Yvonne Cloetta, whom he had known since 1959, a relationship that endured until his death. Graham Greene_sentence_95

In 1973, he had an uncredited cameo appearance as an insurance company representative in François Truffaut's film Day for Night. Graham Greene_sentence_96

In 1981, Greene was awarded the Jerusalem Prize, awarded to writers concerned with the freedom of the individual in society. Graham Greene_sentence_97

He lived the last years of his life in Vevey, on Lake Geneva in Switzerland, the same town Charlie Chaplin was living in at this time. Graham Greene_sentence_98

He visited Chaplin often, and the two were good friends. Graham Greene_sentence_99

His book Doctor Fischer of Geneva or the Bomb Party (1980) is based on themes of combined philosophical and geographical influences. Graham Greene_sentence_100

He ceased going to mass and confession in the 1950s, but in his final years began to receive the sacraments again from Father Leopoldo Durán, a Spanish priest, who became a friend. Graham Greene_sentence_101

In one of his final works, a pamphlet titled J'Accuse: The Dark Side of Nice (1982), Greene wrote of a legal matter that embroiled him and his extended family in Nice, and declared that organised crime flourished in Nice because the city's upper levels of civic government protected judicial and police corruption. Graham Greene_sentence_102

The accusation provoked a libel lawsuit that Greene lost; but he was vindicated after his death when, in 1994, the former mayor of Nice, Jacques Médecin, was imprisoned for corruption and associated crimes. Graham Greene_sentence_103

In 1984, in celebration of his 80th birthday, the brewery which Greene's great-grandfather founded in 1799 made a special edition of its 'St. Graham Greene_sentence_104

Edmunds' ale for him, with a special label in his honour. Graham Greene_sentence_105

Commenting on turning 80, Greene said, "The big advantage...is that at 80 you are more likely these days to beat out encountering your end in a nuclear war", adding, "the other side of the problem is that I really don't want to survive myself [which] has nothing to do with nukes, but with the body hanging around while the mind departs." Graham Greene_sentence_106

In 1986, Greene was awarded Britain's Order of Merit. Graham Greene_sentence_107

He died in 1991 at age 86 of leukaemia and was buried in Corseaux cemetery. Graham Greene_sentence_108

Writing style and themes Graham Greene_section_6

Greene originally divided his fiction into two genres: thrillers (mystery and suspense books), such as The Ministry of Fear, which he described as entertainments, often with notable philosophic edges; and literary works, such as The Power and the Glory, which he described as novels, on which he thought his literary reputation was to be based. Graham Greene_sentence_109

As his career lengthened, both Greene and his readers found the distinction between entertainments and novels increasingly problematic. Graham Greene_sentence_110

The last book Greene termed an entertainment was Our Man in Havana in 1958. Graham Greene_sentence_111

When Travels with My Aunt was published eleven years later, many reviewers noted that Greene had designated it a novel, even though, as a work decidedly comic in tone, it appeared closer to his last two entertainments, Loser Takes All and Our Man in Havana, than to any of the novels. Graham Greene_sentence_112

Greene, they speculated, seemed to have dropped the category of entertainment. Graham Greene_sentence_113

This was soon confirmed. Graham Greene_sentence_114

In the Collected Edition of Greene's works published in 22 volumes between 1970 and 1982, the distinction between novels and entertainments is no longer maintained. Graham Greene_sentence_115

All are novels. Graham Greene_sentence_116

Greene was one of the more "cinematic" of twentieth-century writers; most of his novels and many of his plays and short stories have been adapted for film or television. Graham Greene_sentence_117

The Internet Movie Database lists 66 titles between 1934 and 2010 based on Greene material. Graham Greene_sentence_118

Some novels were filmed more than once, such as Brighton Rock in 1947 and 2011, The End of the Affair in 1955 and 1999, and The Quiet American in 1958 and 2002. Graham Greene_sentence_119

The 1936 thriller A Gun for Sale was filmed at least five times under different titles. Graham Greene_sentence_120

Greene received an Academy Award nomination for the screenplay for the 1948 Carol Reed film The Fallen Idol, adapted from his own short story The Basement Room. Graham Greene_sentence_121

He also wrote several original screenplays. Graham Greene_sentence_122

In 1949, after writing the novella as "raw material", he wrote the screenplay for a classic film noir, The Third Man, also directed by Carol Reed, and featuring Orson Welles. Graham Greene_sentence_123

In 1983, The Honorary Consul, published ten years earlier, was released as a film under its original title, starring Michael Caine and Richard Gere. Graham Greene_sentence_124

Author and screenwriter Michael Korda contributed a foreword and introduction to this novel in a commemorative edition. Graham Greene_sentence_125

In 2009, The Strand Magazine began to publish in serial form a newly discovered Greene novel titled The Empty Chair. Graham Greene_sentence_126

The manuscript was written in longhand when Greene was 22 and newly converted to Catholicism. Graham Greene_sentence_127

Greene's literary style was described by Evelyn Waugh in Commonweal as "not a specifically literary style at all. Graham Greene_sentence_128

The words are functional, devoid of sensuous attraction, of ancestry, and of independent life". Graham Greene_sentence_129

Commenting on the lean prose and its readability, Richard Jones wrote in the Virginia Quarterly Review that "nothing deflects Greene from the main business of holding the reader's attention." Graham Greene_sentence_130

Greene's novels often have religious themes at their centre. Graham Greene_sentence_131

In his literary criticism he attacked the modernist writers Virginia Woolf and E. Graham Greene_sentence_132 M. Forster for having lost the religious sense which, he argued, resulted in dull, superficial characters, who "wandered about like cardboard symbols through a world that is paper-thin." Graham Greene_sentence_133

Only in recovering the religious element, the awareness of the drama of the struggle in the soul that carries the permanent consequence of salvation or damnation, and of the ultimate metaphysical realities of good and evil, sin and divine grace, could the novel recover its dramatic power. Graham Greene_sentence_134

Suffering and unhappiness are omnipresent in the world Greene depicts; and Catholicism is presented against a background of unvarying human evil, sin, and doubt. Graham Greene_sentence_135

V. Graham Greene_sentence_136 S. Pritchett praised Greene as the first English novelist since Henry James to present, and grapple with, the reality of evil. Graham Greene_sentence_137

Greene concentrated on portraying the characters' internal lives—their mental, emotional, and spiritual depths. Graham Greene_sentence_138

His stories are often set in poor, hot and dusty tropical places such as Mexico, West Africa, Vietnam, Cuba, Haiti, and Argentina, which led to the coining of the expression "Greeneland" to describe such settings. Graham Greene_sentence_139

The novels often portray the dramatic struggles of the individual soul from a Catholic perspective. Graham Greene_sentence_140

Greene was criticised for certain tendencies in an unorthodox direction—in the world, sin is omnipresent to the degree that the vigilant struggle to avoid sinful conduct is doomed to failure, hence not central to holiness. Graham Greene_sentence_141

His friend and fellow Catholic Evelyn Waugh attacked that as a revival of the Quietist heresy. Graham Greene_sentence_142

This aspect of his work also was criticised by the theologian Hans Urs von Balthasar, as giving sin a mystique. Graham Greene_sentence_143

Greene responded that constructing a vision of pure faith and goodness in the novel was beyond his talents. Graham Greene_sentence_144

Praise of Greene from an orthodox Catholic point of view by Edward Short is in Crisis Magazine, and a mainstream Catholic critique is presented by Joseph Pearce. Graham Greene_sentence_145

Catholicism's prominence decreased in his later writings. Graham Greene_sentence_146

According to Ernest Mandel in his Delightful Murder: a Social History of the Crime Story: "Greene started out as a conservative agent of the British intelligence services, upholding such reactionary causes as the struggle of the Catholic Church against the Mexican revolution (The Power and the Glory, 1940), and arguing the necessary merciful function of religion in a context of human misery (Brighton Rock, 1938; The Heart of the Matter, 1948). Graham Greene_sentence_147

The better he came to know the socio-political realities of the third world where he was operating, and the more directly he came to be confronted by the rising tide of revolution in those countries, the more his doubts regarding the imperialist cause grew, and the more his novels shifted away from any identification with the latter." Graham Greene_sentence_148

The supernatural realities that haunted the earlier work declined and were replaced by a humanistic perspective, a change reflected in his public criticism of orthodox Catholic teaching. Graham Greene_sentence_149

In his later years, Greene was a strong critic of American imperialism and sympathised with the Cuban leader Fidel Castro, whom he had met. Graham Greene_sentence_150

Years before the Vietnam War, he prophetically attacked the idealistic but arrogant beliefs of The Quiet American, whose certainty in his own virtue kept him from seeing the disaster he inflicted on the Vietnamese. Graham Greene_sentence_151

In Ways of Escape, reflecting on his Mexican trip, he complained that Mexico's government was insufficiently left-wing compared with Cuba's. Graham Greene_sentence_152

In Greene's opinion, "Conservatism and Catholicism should be ... impossible bedfellows". Graham Greene_sentence_153

In 1949, when the New Statesman held a contest for parodies of Greene's writing style, he submitted an entry under the name "N. Wilkinson" and won second prize. Graham Greene_sentence_154

His entry comprised the first two paragraphs of a novel, apparently set in Italy, The Stranger's Hand: An Entertainment. Graham Greene_sentence_155

Greene's friend Mario Soldati, a Piedmontese novelist and film director, believed it had the makings of a suspense film about Yugoslav spies in postwar Venice. Graham Greene_sentence_156

Upon Soldati's prompting, Greene continued writing the story as the basis for a film script. Graham Greene_sentence_157

Apparently he lost interest in the project, leaving it as a substantial fragment that was published posthumously in The Graham Greene Film Reader (1993) and No Man's Land (2005). Graham Greene_sentence_158

A script for The Stranger's Hand was written by Guy Elmes on the basis of Greene's unfinished story, and filmed by Soldati in 1954. Graham Greene_sentence_159

In 1965, Greene again entered a similar New Statesman competition pseudonymously, and won an honourable mention. Graham Greene_sentence_160

Legacy Graham Greene_section_7

Greene is regarded as a major 20th-century novelist, and was praised by John Irving, prior to Greene's death, as "the most accomplished living novelist in the English language." Graham Greene_sentence_161

Novelist Frederick Buechner called Greene's novel The Power and the Glory a "tremendous influence." Graham Greene_sentence_162

By 1943, Greene had acquired the reputation of being the "leading English male novelist of his generation", and at the time of his death in 1991 had a reputation as a writer of both deeply serious novels on the theme of Catholicism, and of "suspense-filled stories of detection". Graham Greene_sentence_163

Acclaimed during his lifetime, he was shortlisted in 1966 for the Nobel Prize for Literature. Graham Greene_sentence_164

In 1967, Greene was among the final three choices, according to Nobel records unsealed on the 50th anniversary in 2017. Graham Greene_sentence_165

The committee also considered Jorge Luis Borges and Miguel Ángel Asturias, with the latter the chosen winner. Graham Greene_sentence_166

Greene collected several literary awards for his novels, including the 1941 Hawthornden Prize for The Power and the Glory and the 1948 James Tait Black Memorial Prize for The Heart of the Matter. Graham Greene_sentence_167

As an author, he received the 1968 Shakespeare Prize and the 1981 Jerusalem Prize, a biennial literary award given to writers whose works have dealt with themes of human freedom in society. Graham Greene_sentence_168

In 1986, he was awarded Britain's Order of Merit. Graham Greene_sentence_169

The Graham Greene International Festival is an annual four-day event of conference papers, informal talks, question and answer sessions, films, dramatised readings, music, creative writing workshops and social events. Graham Greene_sentence_170

It is organised by the Graham Greene Birthplace Trust, and takes place in the writer's home town of Berkhamsted (about 35 miles northwest of London), on dates as close as possible to the anniversary of his birth (2 October). Graham Greene_sentence_171

Its purpose is to promote interest in and study of the works of Graham Greene. Graham Greene_sentence_172

He is the subject of the 2013 documentary film, Dangerous Edge: A Life of Graham Greene. Graham Greene_sentence_173

His short story "The Destructors" was featured in the 2001 film Donnie Darko. Graham Greene_sentence_174

Select works Graham Greene_section_8

Main article: Graham Greene bibliography Graham Greene_sentence_175


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graham Greene.