Phonograph record

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For the magazine, see Phonograph Record (magazine). Phonograph record_sentence_0

A phonograph record (also known as a gramophone record, especially in British English), or simply a record, is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. Phonograph record_sentence_1

The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. Phonograph record_sentence_2

At first, the discs were commonly made from shellac, with earlier records having a fine abrasive filler mixed in. Phonograph record_sentence_3

Starting in the 1940s polyvinyl chloride became common, hence the name vinyl. Phonograph record_sentence_4

In the mid-2000s, gradually, records made of any material began to be called vinyl records, or simply vinyl. Phonograph record_sentence_5

The phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. Phonograph record_sentence_6

It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had effectively superseded it by around 1912. Phonograph record_sentence_7

Records retained the largest market share even when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. Phonograph record_sentence_8

By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, and the record left the mainstream in 1991. Phonograph record_sentence_9

Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, and during the 1990s and early 2000s were commonly used by disc jockeys (DJs), especially in dance music genres. Phonograph record_sentence_10

They were also listened to by a growing number of audiophiles. Phonograph record_sentence_11

The phonograph record has made a niche resurgence as a format for rock music in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the US in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. Phonograph record_sentence_12

Likewise, sales in the UK increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014. Phonograph record_sentence_13

As of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the US and 30 in other countries. Phonograph record_sentence_14

The increased popularity of the record has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Phonograph record_sentence_15

Only two producers of lacquers (acetate discs or master discs) remain: Apollo Masters in California, and MDC in Japan. Phonograph record_sentence_16

On February 06, 2020, there was a fire which destroyed the Apollo Masters plant. Phonograph record_sentence_17

According to the Apollo Masters website, their future is still uncertain. Phonograph record_sentence_18

Phonograph records are generally described by their diameter in inches (12-inch, 10-inch, 7-inch) (although they were designed in Millimeters), the rotational speed in revolutions per minute (rpm) at which they are played (​8 ⁄3, ​16 ⁄3, ​33 ⁄3, 45, 78), and their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed (LP [long playing], 12-inch disc, ​33 ⁄3 rpm; SP [single], 10-inch disc, 78 rpm, or 7-inch disc, 45 rpm; EP [extended play], 12-inch disc or 7-inch disc, ​33 ⁄3 or 45 rpm); their reproductive quality, or level of fidelity (high-fidelity, orthophonic, full-range, etc.); and the number of audio channels (mono, stereo, quad, etc.). Phonograph record_sentence_19

The phrase broken record refers to a malfunction when the needle skips/jumps back to the previous groove and plays the same section over and over again indefinitely. Phonograph record_sentence_20

The large cover (and inner sleeves) are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression, especially in the case of 12-inch discs. Phonograph record_sentence_21

Early history Phonograph record_section_0

The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back. Phonograph record_sentence_22

In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonograph record_sentence_23

Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Phonograph record_sentence_24

Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. Phonograph record_sentence_25

In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Phonograph record_sentence_26

Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Phonograph record_sentence_27

Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Phonograph record_sentence_28

Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Phonograph record_sentence_29

Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he actually reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later. Phonograph record_sentence_30

The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. Phonograph record_sentence_31

The recording could be played back immediately. Phonograph record_sentence_32

The Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey, Rosapelly and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but, importantly, not reproducing sound. Phonograph record_sentence_33

Edison also invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Phonograph record_sentence_34

Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. Phonograph record_sentence_35

A decade later, Edison developed a greatly improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet. Phonograph record_sentence_36

This proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. Phonograph record_sentence_37

The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Phonograph record_sentence_38

Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner (although Thomas Edison's original patent included flat disks), who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone". Phonograph record_sentence_39

Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm (approx 5 inches) in diameter, and were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Phonograph record_sentence_40

Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. Phonograph record_sentence_41

In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Phonograph record_sentence_42

Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson eventually improved it. Phonograph record_sentence_43

Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" trademark for legal reasons, in 1901 Johnson's and Berliner's separate companies reorganized to form the Victor Talking Machine Company in Camden, New Jersey, whose products would come to dominate the market for many years. Phonograph record_sentence_44

Emile Berliner moved his company to Montreal in 1900. Phonograph record_sentence_45

The factory, which became the Canadian branch of RCA Victor, still exists. Phonograph record_sentence_46

There is a dedicated museum in Montreal for Berliner (Musée des ondes Emile Berliner). Phonograph record_sentence_47

In 1901, 10-inch disc records were introduced, followed in 1903 by 12-inch records. Phonograph record_sentence_48

These could play for more than three and four minutes, respectively, whereas contemporary cylinders could only play for about two minutes. Phonograph record_sentence_49

In an attempt to head off the disc advantage, Edison introduced the Amberol cylinder in 1909, with a maximum playing time of ​4 ⁄2 minutes (at 160 rpm), which in turn were superseded by Blue Amberol Records, which had a playing surface made of celluloid, a plastic, which was far less fragile. Phonograph record_sentence_50

Despite these improvements, during the 1910s discs decisively won this early format war, although Edison continued to produce new Blue Amberol cylinders for an ever-dwindling customer base until late in 1929. Phonograph record_sentence_51

By 1919, the basic patents for the manufacture of lateral-cut disc records had expired, opening the field for countless companies to produce them. Phonograph record_sentence_52

Analog disc records dominated the home entertainment market until they were outsold by digital compact discs in the 1980s, which were in turn supplanted by digital audio recordings distributed via online music stores and Internet . Phonograph record_sentence_53

78 rpm disc developments Phonograph record_section_1

Early speeds Phonograph record_section_2

Early disc recordings were produced in a variety of speeds ranging from 60 to 130 rpm, and a variety of sizes. Phonograph record_sentence_54

As early as 1894, Emile Berliner's United States Gramophone Company was selling single-sided 7-inch discs with an advertised standard speed of "about 70 rpm". Phonograph record_sentence_55

One standard audio recording handbook describes speed regulators, or governors, as being part of a wave of improvement introduced rapidly after 1897. Phonograph record_sentence_56

A picture of a hand-cranked 1898 Berliner Gramophone shows a governor. Phonograph record_sentence_57

It says that spring drives replaced hand drives. Phonograph record_sentence_58

It notes that: Phonograph record_sentence_59

By 1925, the speed of the record was becoming standardized at a nominal value of 78 rpm. Phonograph record_sentence_60

However, the standard differed between places with alternating current electricity supply at 60 hertz (cycles per second, Hz) and those at 50 Hz. Phonograph record_sentence_61

Where the mains supply was 60 Hz, the actual speed was 78.26 rpm: that of a 60 Hz stroboscope illuminating 92-bar calibration markings. Phonograph record_sentence_62

Where it was 50 Hz, it was 77.92 rpm: that of a 50 Hz stroboscope illuminating 77-bar calibration markings. Phonograph record_sentence_63

Acoustic recording Phonograph record_section_3

Early recordings were made entirely acoustically, the sound being collected by a horn and piped to a diaphragm, which vibrated the cutting stylus. Phonograph record_sentence_64

Sensitivity and frequency range were poor, and frequency response was very irregular, giving acoustic recordings an instantly recognizable tonal quality. Phonograph record_sentence_65

A singer almost had to put his or her face in the recording horn. Phonograph record_sentence_66

A way of reducing resonance was to wrap the recording horn with tape. Phonograph record_sentence_67

Lower-pitched orchestral instruments such as cellos and double basses were often doubled (or replaced) by louder instruments, such as tubas. Phonograph record_sentence_68

Standard violins in orchestral ensembles were commonly replaced by Stroh violins, which became popular with recording studios. Phonograph record_sentence_69

Even drums, if planned and placed properly, could be effectively recorded and heard on even the earliest jazz and military band recordings. Phonograph record_sentence_70

The loudest instruments such as the drums and trumpets were positioned the farthest away from the collecting horn. Phonograph record_sentence_71

Lillian Hardin Armstrong, a member of King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band, which recorded at Gennett Records in 1923, remembered that at first Oliver and his young second trumpet, Louis Armstrong, stood next to each other and Oliver's horn could not be heard. Phonograph record_sentence_72

"They put Louis about fifteen feet over in the corner, looking all sad." Phonograph record_sentence_73

Electrical recording Phonograph record_section_4

During the first half of the 1920s, engineers at Western Electric, as well as independent inventors such as Orlando Marsh, developed technology for capturing sound with a microphone, amplifying it with vacuum tubes, then using the amplified signal to drive an electromechanical recording head. Phonograph record_sentence_74

Western Electric's innovations resulted in a broader and smoother frequency response, which produced a dramatically fuller, clearer and more natural-sounding recording. Phonograph record_sentence_75

Soft or distant sounds that were previously impossible to record could now be captured. Phonograph record_sentence_76

Volume was now limited only by the groove spacing on the record and the amplification of the playback device. Phonograph record_sentence_77

Victor and Columbia licensed the new electrical system from Western Electric and began recording discs during the Spring of 1925. Phonograph record_sentence_78

The first electrically recorded Red Seal record was Chopin's "Impromptus" and Schubert's "Litanei" performed by Alfred Cortot for Victor in Camden, New Jersey. Phonograph record_sentence_79

A 1926 Wanamaker's ad in The New York Times offers records "by the latest Victor process of electrical recording". Phonograph record_sentence_80

It was recognized as a breakthrough; in 1930, a Times music critic stated: Phonograph record_sentence_81

Electrically amplified record players were initially expensive and slow to be adopted. Phonograph record_sentence_82

In 1925, the Victor company introduced both the Orthophonic Victrola, an acoustical record player that was designed to play electrically recorded discs, and the electrically amplified Electrola. Phonograph record_sentence_83

The acoustical Orthophonics were priced from US$95 to $300, depending on cabinetry. Phonograph record_sentence_84

However the cheapest Electrola cost $650, in an era when the price of a new Ford Model T was less than $300 and clerical jobs paid around $20 a week. Phonograph record_sentence_85

The Orthophonic had an interior folded exponential horn, a sophisticated design informed by impedance-matching and transmission-line theory, and designed to provide a relatively flat frequency response. Phonograph record_sentence_86

Its first public demonstration was front-page news in The New York Times, which reported: Phonograph record_sentence_87

Gradually, electrical reproduction entered the home. Phonograph record_sentence_88

The spring motor was replaced by an electric motor. Phonograph record_sentence_89

The old sound box with its needle-linked diaphragm was replaced by an electromagnetic pickup that converted the needle vibrations into an electrical signal. Phonograph record_sentence_90

The tone arm now served to conduct a pair of wires, not sound waves, into the cabinet. Phonograph record_sentence_91

The exponential horn was replaced by an amplifier and a loudspeaker. Phonograph record_sentence_92

Sales of records declined precipitously during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Phonograph record_sentence_93

RCA, which purchased the Victor Talking Machine Company in 1929, introduced an inexpensive turntable called the Duo Jr., which was designed to be connected to their radio sets. Phonograph record_sentence_94

According to Edward Wallerstein (the general manager of RCA's Victor division), this device was "instrumental in revitalizing the industry". Phonograph record_sentence_95

78 rpm materials Phonograph record_section_5

The earliest disc records (1889–1894) were made of variety of materials including hard rubber. Phonograph record_sentence_96

Around 1895, a shellac-based material was introduced and became standard. Phonograph record_sentence_97

Formulas for the mixture varied by manufacturer over time, but it was typically about one-third shellac and two-thirds mineral filler (finely pulverized slate or limestone), with cotton fibers to add tensile strength, carbon black for color (without which it tended to be an unattractive "dirty" gray or brown color), and a very small amount of a lubricant to facilitate release from the manufacturing press. Phonograph record_sentence_98

Columbia Records used a laminated disc with a core of coarser material or fiber. Phonograph record_sentence_99

The production of shellac records continued throughout the 78 rpm era which lasted until the 1950s in industrialized nations, but well into the 1960s in others. Phonograph record_sentence_100

Less abrasive formulations were developed during its waning years and very late examples in like-new condition can have noise levels as low as vinyl. Phonograph record_sentence_101

Flexible, "unbreakable" alternatives to shellac were introduced by several manufacturers during the 78 rpm era. Phonograph record_sentence_102

Beginning in 1904, Nicole Records of the UK coated celluloid or a similar substance onto a cardboard core disc for a few years, but they were noisy. Phonograph record_sentence_103

In the United States, Columbia Records introduced flexible, fiber-cored "Marconi Velvet Tone Record" pressings in 1907, but their longevity and relatively quiet surfaces depended on the use of special gold-plated Marconi Needles and the product was not successful. Phonograph record_sentence_104

Thin, flexible plastic records such as the German Phonycord and the British Filmophone and Goodson records appeared around 1930 but not for long. Phonograph record_sentence_105

The contemporary French Pathé Cellodiscs, made of a very thin black plastic resembling the vinyl "sound sheet" magazine inserts of the 1965–1985 era, were similarly short-lived. Phonograph record_sentence_106

In the US, Hit of the Week records were introduced in early 1930. Phonograph record_sentence_107

They were made of a patented translucent plastic called Durium coated on a heavy brown paper base. Phonograph record_sentence_108

A new issue debuted weekly, sold at newsstands like a magazine. Phonograph record_sentence_109

Although inexpensive and commercially successful at first, they fell victim to the Great Depression and US production ended in 1932. Phonograph record_sentence_110

Durium records continued to be made in the UK and as late as 1950 in Italy, where the name "Durium" survived into the LP era as a brand of vinyl records. Phonograph record_sentence_111

Despite these innovations, shellac continued to be used for the overwhelming majority of commercial 78 rpm records throughout the format's lifetime. Phonograph record_sentence_112

In 1931, RCA Victor introduced vinyl plastic-based Victrolac as a material for unusual-format and special-purpose records. Phonograph record_sentence_113

One was a 16-inch, ​33 ⁄3 rpm record used by the Vitaphone sound-on-disc movie system. Phonograph record_sentence_114

In 1932, RCA began using Victrolac in a home recording system. Phonograph record_sentence_115

By the end of the 1930s vinyl's light weight, strength, and low surface noise had made it the preferred material for prerecorded radio programming and other critical applications. Phonograph record_sentence_116

For ordinary 78 rpm records, however, the much higher cost of the synthetic plastic, as well as its vulnerability to the heavy pickups and mass-produced steel needles used in home record players, made its general substitution for shellac impractical at that time. Phonograph record_sentence_117

During the Second World War, the United States Armed Forces produced thousands of 12-inch vinyl 78 rpm V-Discs for use by the troops overseas. Phonograph record_sentence_118

After the war, the use of vinyl became more practical as new record players with lightweight crystal pickups and precision-ground styli made of sapphire or an exotic osmium alloy proliferated. Phonograph record_sentence_119

In late 1945, RCA Victor began offering "De Luxe" transparent red vinyl pressings of some Red Seal classical 78s, at a de luxe price. Phonograph record_sentence_120

Later, Decca Records introduced vinyl Deccalite 78s, while other record companies used vinyl formulations trademarked as Metrolite, Merco Plastic, and Sav-o-flex, but these were mainly used to produce "unbreakable" children's records and special thin vinyl DJ pressings for shipment to radio stations. Phonograph record_sentence_121

78 rpm disc sizes Phonograph record_section_6

In the 1890s, the diameter of the earliest (toy) discs was generally 12.5 cm (nominally 5 inches). Phonograph record_sentence_122

By the mid-1890s, discs were usually 7 inches (nominally 17.5 cm) in diameter. Phonograph record_sentence_123

By 1910, the 10-inch (25 cm) record was by far the most popular standard, containing about three minutes of music or other entertainment on one side. Phonograph record_sentence_124

From 1903 onwards, 12-inch (30 cm) records were produced, mostly featuring classical music or operatic selections, with four to five minutes of music per side. Phonograph record_sentence_125

Victor, Brunswick and Columbia also issued 12-inch popular medleys, usually spotlighting a Broadway show score. Phonograph record_sentence_126

An 8-inch (20 cm) disc with a 2-inch (50 mm)-diameter label became popular for about a decade in Britain, but those records cannot be played in full on most modern record players, because tonearms cannot track far enough toward the center of the record without modifying the equipment. Phonograph record_sentence_127

In 1903, Victor offered a series of 14-inch (36 cm) "Deluxe Special" records, which played at 60 rpm and sold for two dollars. Phonograph record_sentence_128

Fewer than fifty titles were issued, and the series was dropped in 1906, due to poor sales. Phonograph record_sentence_129

Also in 1906, a short-lived British firm called Neophone marketed a series of single-sided 20-inch (50 cm) records, offering complete performances of some operatic overtures and shorter pieces. Phonograph record_sentence_130

Pathé also issued 14-inch and 20-inch records around the same time. Phonograph record_sentence_131

78 rpm recording time Phonograph record_section_7

The playing time of a phonograph record depends on the available groove length divided by the turntable speed. Phonograph record_sentence_132

Total groove length in turn depends on how closely the grooves are spaced, in addition to the record diameter. Phonograph record_sentence_133

At the beginning of the 20th century, the early discs played for two minutes, the same as cylinder records. Phonograph record_sentence_134

The 12-inch disc, introduced by Victor in 1903, increased the playing time to three and a half minutes. Phonograph record_sentence_135

Because the standard 10-inch 78 rpm record could hold about three minutes of sound per side, most popular recordings were limited to that duration. Phonograph record_sentence_136

For example, when King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band, including Louis Armstrong on his first recordings, recorded 13 sides at Gennett Records in Richmond, Indiana, in 1923, one side was 2:09 and four sides were 2:52–2:59. Phonograph record_sentence_137

In January 1938, Milt Gabler started recording for Commodore Records, and to allow for longer continuous performances, he recorded some 12-inch discs. Phonograph record_sentence_138

Eddie Condon explained: "Gabler realized that a jam session needs room for development." Phonograph record_sentence_139

The first two 12-inch recordings did not take advantage of their capability: "Carnegie Drag" was 3m 15s; "Carnegie Jump", 2m 41s. Phonograph record_sentence_140

But at the second session, on April 30, the two 12-inch recordings were longer: "Embraceable You" was 4m 05s; "Serenade to a Shylock", 4m 32s. Phonograph record_sentence_141

Another way to overcome the time limitation was to issue a selection extending to both sides of a single record. Phonograph record_sentence_142

Vaudeville stars Gallagher and Shean recorded "Mr. Gallagher and Mr. Shean", written by themselves or, allegedly, by Bryan Foy, as two sides of a 10-inch 78 in 1922 for Victor. Phonograph record_sentence_143

Longer musical pieces were released as a set of records. Phonograph record_sentence_144

In 1903 HMV in England made the first complete recording of an opera, Verdi's Ernani, on 40 single-sided discs. Phonograph record_sentence_145

In 1940, Commodore released Eddie Condon and his Band's recording of "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" in four parts, issued on both sides of two 12-inch 78s. Phonograph record_sentence_146

The limited duration of recordings persisted from their advent until the introduction of the LP record in 1948. Phonograph record_sentence_147

In popular music, the time limit of ​3 ⁄2 minutes on a 10-inch 78 rpm record meant that singers seldom recorded long pieces. Phonograph record_sentence_148

One exception is Frank Sinatra's recording of Rodgers and Hammerstein's "Soliloquy", from Carousel, made on May 28, 1946. Phonograph record_sentence_149

Because it ran 7m 57s, longer than both sides of a standard 78 rpm 10-inch record, it was released on Columbia's Masterwork label (the classical division) as two sides of a 12-inch record. Phonograph record_sentence_150

The same was true of John Raitt's performance of the song on the original cast album of Carousel, which had been issued on a 78-rpm album set by American Decca in 1945. Phonograph record_sentence_151

In the 78 era, classical-music and spoken-word items generally were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. Phonograph record_sentence_152

For example, on June 10, 1924, four months after the February 12 premier of Rhapsody in Blue, George Gershwin recorded an abridged version of the seventeen-minute work with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra. Phonograph record_sentence_153

It was released on two sides of Victor 55225 and ran for 8m 59s. Phonograph record_sentence_154

Record albums Phonograph record_section_8

78 rpm records were normally sold individually in brown paper or cardboard sleeves that were plain, or sometimes printed to show the producer or the retailer's name. Phonograph record_sentence_155

Generally the sleeves had a circular cut-out exposing the record label to view. Phonograph record_sentence_156

Records could be laid on a shelf horizontally or stood on an edge, but because of their fragility, breakage was common. Phonograph record_sentence_157

German record company Odeon pioneered the album in 1909 when it released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package. Phonograph record_sentence_158

However, the previous year Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen. Phonograph record_sentence_159

The practice of issuing albums was not adopted by other record companies for many years. Phonograph record_sentence_160

One exception, HMV, produced an album with a pictorial cover for its 1917 recording of The Mikado (Gilbert & Sullivan). Phonograph record_sentence_161

By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records (the term "record album" was printed on some covers). Phonograph record_sentence_162

These albums came in both 10-inch and 12-inch sizes. Phonograph record_sentence_163

The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. Phonograph record_sentence_164

In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums, typically with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Phonograph record_sentence_165

Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight tunes per album. Phonograph record_sentence_166

When the 12-inch vinyl LP era began in 1948, each disc could hold a similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, so they were still referred to as an "album", as they are today. Phonograph record_sentence_167

78 rpm releases in the microgroove era Phonograph record_section_9

For collectible or nostalgia purposes, or for the benefit of higher-quality audio playback provided by the 78 rpm speed with newer vinyl records and their lightweight stylus pickups, a small number of 78 rpm records have been released since the major labels ceased production. Phonograph record_sentence_168

One attempt at this was in 1951, when inventor Ewing Dunbar Nunn founded the label Audiophile Records, which released a series of 78 rpm-mastered albums that were microgroove and pressed on vinyl (as opposed to traditional 78s, with their shellac composition and wider 3-mil sized grooves). Phonograph record_sentence_169

This series came in heavy manilla envelopes and began with a jazz album AP-1 and was soon followed by other AP numbers up through about AP-19. Phonograph record_sentence_170

Around 1953 the standard LP had proven itself to Nunn and he switched to ​33 ⁄3 rpm and began using art slicks on a more standard cardboard sleeve. Phonograph record_sentence_171

The Audiophile numbers can be found into the hundreds today but the most collectable ones are the early 78 rpm releases, especially the first, AP-1. Phonograph record_sentence_172

The 78 rpm speed was mainly to take advantage of the wider audio frequency response that faster speeds like 78 rpm can provide for vinyl microgroove records, hence the label's name (obviously catering to the audiophiles of the 1950s "hi-fi" era, when stereo gear could provide a much wider range of audio than before). Phonograph record_sentence_173

Also around 1953, Bell Records released a series of budget-priced plastic 7-inch 78 rpm pop music singles. Phonograph record_sentence_174

In 1968, Reprise planned to release a series of 78 rpm singles from their artists on their label at the time, called the Reprise Speed Series. Phonograph record_sentence_175

Only one disc actually saw release, Randy Newman's "I Think It's Going to Rain Today", a track from his self-titled debut album (with "The Beehive State" on the flipside). Phonograph record_sentence_176

Reprise did not proceed further with the series due to a lack of sales for the single, and a lack of general interest in the concept. Phonograph record_sentence_177

In 1978, guitarist and vocalist Leon Redbone released a promotional 78 rpm record featuring two songs ("Alabama Jubilee" and "Please Don't Talk About Me When I'm Gone") from his Champagne Charlie album. Phonograph record_sentence_178

In 1980, Stiff Records in the United Kingdom issued a 78 by Joe "King" Carrasco containing the songs "Buena" (Spanish for "good," with the alternate spelling "Bueno" on the label) and "Tuff Enuff". Phonograph record_sentence_179

Underground comic cartoonist and 78 rpm record collector Robert Crumb released three vinyl 78s by his Cheap Suit Serenaders in the 1970s. Phonograph record_sentence_180

In the 1990s Rhino Records issued a series of boxed sets of 78 rpm reissues of early rock and roll hits, intended for owners of vintage jukeboxes. Phonograph record_sentence_181

The records were made of vinyl, however, and some of the earlier vintage 78 rpm jukeboxes and record players (the ones that were pre-war) were designed with heavy tone arms to play the hard slate-impregnated shellac records of their time. Phonograph record_sentence_182

These vinyl Rhino 78's were softer and would be destroyed by old juke boxes and old record players, but play very well on newer 78-capable turntables with modern lightweight tone arms and jewel needles. Phonograph record_sentence_183

As a special release for Record Store Day 2011, Capitol re-released The Beach Boys single "Good Vibrations" in the form of a 10-inch 78 rpm record (b/w "Heroes and Villains"). Phonograph record_sentence_184

More recently, The Reverend Peyton's Big Damn Band has released their tribute to blues guitarist Charley Patton Peyton on Patton on both 12-inch LP and 10-inch 78 rpm. Phonograph record_sentence_185

Both are accompanied with a link to a digital download of the music, acknowledging the probability that purchasers might be unable to play the vinyl recording. Phonograph record_sentence_186

New sizes and materials Phonograph record_section_10

See also: LP record Phonograph record_sentence_187

Both the microgroove LP ​33 ⁄3 rpm record and the 45 rpm single records are made from vinyl plastic that is flexible and unbreakable in normal use, even when they are sent through the mail with care from one place to another. Phonograph record_sentence_188

The vinyl records, however, are easier to scratch or gouge, and much more prone to warping compared to most 78 rpm records, which were made of shellac. Phonograph record_sentence_189

In 1931, RCA Victor launched the first commercially available vinyl long-playing record, marketed as program-transcription discs. Phonograph record_sentence_190

These revolutionary discs were designed for playback at ​33 ⁄3 rpm and pressed on a 30 cm diameter flexible plastic disc, with a duration of about ten minutes playing time per side. Phonograph record_sentence_191

RCA Victor's early introduction of a long-play disc was a commercial failure for several reasons including the lack of affordable, reliable consumer playback equipment and consumer wariness during the Great Depression. Phonograph record_sentence_192

Because of financial hardships that plagued the recording industry during that period (and RCA's own parched revenues), Victor's long-playing records were discontinued by early 1933. Phonograph record_sentence_193

There was also a small batch of longer-playing records issued in the very early 1930s: Columbia introduced 10-inch longer-playing records (18000-D series), as well as a series of double-grooved or longer-playing 10-inch records on their Harmony, Clarion & Velvet Tone "budget" labels. Phonograph record_sentence_194

There were also a couple of longer-playing records issued on ARC (for release on their Banner, Perfect, and Oriole labels) and on the Crown label. Phonograph record_sentence_195

All of these were phased out in mid-1932. Phonograph record_sentence_196

Vinyl's lower surface noise level than shellac was not forgotten, nor was its durability. Phonograph record_sentence_197

In the late 1930s, radio commercials and pre-recorded radio programs being sent to disc jockeys started being pressed in vinyl, so they would not break in the mail. Phonograph record_sentence_198

In the mid-1940s, special DJ copies of records started being made of vinyl also, for the same reason. Phonograph record_sentence_199

These were all 78 rpm. Phonograph record_sentence_200

During and after World War II, when shellac supplies were extremely limited, some 78 rpm records were pressed in vinyl instead of shellac, particularly the six-minute 12-inch (30 cm) 78 rpm records produced by V-Disc for distribution to United States troops in World War II. Phonograph record_sentence_201

In the 1940s, radio transcriptions, which were usually on 16-inch records, but sometimes 12-inch, were always made of vinyl, but cut at ​33 ⁄3 rpm. Phonograph record_sentence_202

Shorter transcriptions were often cut at 78 rpm. Phonograph record_sentence_203

Beginning in 1939, Dr. Phonograph record_sentence_204 Peter Goldmark and his staff at Columbia Records and at CBS Laboratories undertook efforts to address problems of recording and playing back narrow grooves and developing an inexpensive, reliable consumer playback system. Phonograph record_sentence_205

It took about eight years of study, except when it was suspended because of World War II. Phonograph record_sentence_206

Finally, the 12-inch (30 cm) Long Play (LP) ​33 ⁄3 rpm microgroove record album was introduced by the Columbia Record Company at a New York press conference on June 18, 1948. Phonograph record_sentence_207

At the same time, Columbia introduced a vinyl 7-inch ​33 ⁄3 rpm microgroove single, calling it ZLP, but it was short-lived and is very rare today, because RCA Victor introduced a 45 rpm single a few months later, which became the standard. Phonograph record_sentence_208

Unwilling to accept and license Columbia's system, in February 1949, RCA Victor released the first 45 rpm single, 7 inches in diameter with a large center hole. Phonograph record_sentence_209

The 45 rpm player included a changing mechanism that allowed multiple disks to be stacked, much as a conventional changer handled 78s. Phonograph record_sentence_210

The short playing time of a single 45 rpm side meant that long works, such as symphonies, had to be released on multiple 45s instead of a single LP, but RCA claimed that the new high-speed changer rendered side breaks so brief as to be inaudible or inconsequential. Phonograph record_sentence_211

Early 45 rpm records were made from either vinyl or polystyrene. Phonograph record_sentence_212

They had a playing time of eight minutes. Phonograph record_sentence_213

Another size and format was that of radio transcription discs beginning in the 1940s. Phonograph record_sentence_214

These records were usually vinyl, 33 rpm, and 16 inches in diameter. Phonograph record_sentence_215

No home record player could accommodate such large records, and they were used mainly by radio stations. Phonograph record_sentence_216

They were on average 15 minutes per side and contained several songs or radio program material. Phonograph record_sentence_217

These records became less common in the United States when tape recorders began being used for radio transcriptions around 1949. Phonograph record_sentence_218

In the UK, analog discs continued to be the preferred medium for the licence of BBC transcriptions to overseas broadcasters until the use of CDs became a practical alternative. Phonograph record_sentence_219

On a few early phonograph systems and radio transcription discs, as well as some entire albums, the direction of the groove is reversed, beginning near the center of the disc and leading to the outside. Phonograph record_sentence_220

A small number of records (such as The Monty Python Matching Tie and Handkerchief) were manufactured with multiple separate grooves to differentiate the tracks (usually called "NSC-X2"). Phonograph record_sentence_221

Speeds Phonograph record_section_11

Shellac era Phonograph record_section_12

The earliest rotation speeds varied considerably, but from 1900 to 1925 most records were recorded at 74–82 revolutions per minute (rpm). Phonograph record_sentence_222

Edison Disc Records consistently ran at 80 rpm. Phonograph record_sentence_223

At least one attempt to lengthen playing time was made in the early 1920s. Phonograph record_sentence_224

World Records produced records that played at a constant linear velocity, controlled by Noel Pemberton Billing's patented add-on speed governor. Phonograph record_sentence_225

As the needle moved from the outside to the inside, the rotational speed of the record gradually increased as the groove diameter decreased. Phonograph record_sentence_226

This behavior is similar to the modern compact disc and the CLV version of its predecessor, the (analog encoded) Philips LaserDisc, but is reversed from inside to outside. Phonograph record_sentence_227

In the 1920s, 78.26 rpm was standardized when stroboscopic discs and turntable edge markings were introduced to standardize the speeds of recording lathes. Phonograph record_sentence_228

At that speed, a strobe disc with 92 lines would "stand still" in 60 Hz light. Phonograph record_sentence_229

In regions of the world that use 50 Hz current, the standard was 77.92 rpm (and a disk with 77 lines). Phonograph record_sentence_230

After World War II, these records became retroactively known as 78s, to distinguish them from the newer disc record formats known by their rotational speeds. Phonograph record_sentence_231

Earlier they were just called records, or when there was a need to distinguish them from cylinders, disc records. Phonograph record_sentence_232

The older 78 rpm format continued to be mass-produced alongside the newer formats using new materials in decreasing numbers until the summer of 1958 in the U.S., and in a few countries, such as the Philippines and India (both countries issued recordings by the Beatles on 78s), into the late 1960s. Phonograph record_sentence_233

For example, Columbia Records' last reissue of Frank Sinatra songs on 78 rpm records was an album called Young at Heart, issued in November, 1954. Phonograph record_sentence_234

As late as the early 1970s, some children's records were released at the 78 rpm speed. Phonograph record_sentence_235

In the United Kingdom, the 78 rpm single persisted somewhat longer than in the United States, where it was overtaken in popularity by the 45 rpm in the late 1950s, as teenagers became increasingly affluent. Phonograph record_sentence_236

Some of Elvis Presley's early singles on Sun Records may have sold more copies on 78 than on 45. Phonograph record_sentence_237

This is because of their popularity in 1954–55 in "hillbilly" market in the South and Southwestern United States, where replacing the family 78 rpm record player with a new 45 rpm player was a luxury few could afford at the time. Phonograph record_sentence_238

By the end of 1957, RCA Victor announced that 78s accounted for less than 10% of Presley's singles sales, confirming the demise of the 78 rpm format. Phonograph record_sentence_239

The last Presley single released on 78 in the United States was RCA Victor 20–7410, "I Got Stung"/"One Night" (1958), while the last 78 in the UK was RCA 1194, "A Mess Of Blues"/"Girl Of My Best Friend" issued in 1960. Phonograph record_sentence_240

Microgroove and vinyl era Phonograph record_section_13

After World War II, two new competing formats entered the market, gradually replacing the standard 78 rpm: the ​33 ⁄3 rpm (often called 33 rpm), and the 45 rpm. Phonograph record_sentence_241

Phonograph record_unordered_list_0

  • The ​33 ⁄3 rpm LP (for "long-play") format was developed by Columbia Records and marketed in June 1948. The first LP release consisted of 85 12-inch classical pieces starting with the Mendelssohn violin concerto, Nathan Milstein violinist, Philharmonic Symphony of New York conducted by Bruno Walter, Columbia ML-4001. Also released in June 1948 were three series of 10-inch "LPs" and a 7-inch "ZLP".Phonograph record_item_0_0
  • RCA Victor developed the 45 rpm format and marketed it in March 1949. The 45s released by RCA in March 1949 were in seven different colors of vinyl depending on the type of music recorded: blues, country, popular, etc.Phonograph record_item_0_1

Columbia and RCA Victor each pursued their R&D secretly. Phonograph record_sentence_242

Both types of new disc used narrower grooves, intended to be played with a smaller stylus—typically 0.001 inch (1 mil, or about 25 µm) wide, compared to 0.003 inch (76 µm) for a 78—so the new records were sometimes described as microgroove. Phonograph record_sentence_243

In the mid-1950s all record companies agreed to a common frequency response standard, called RIAA equalization. Phonograph record_sentence_244

Before the establishment of the standard each company used its own preferred equalization, requiring discriminating listeners to use pre-amplifiers with selectable equalization curves. Phonograph record_sentence_245

Some recordings, such as books for the blind, were pressed for playing at ​16 ⁄3 rpm. Phonograph record_sentence_246

Prestige Records released jazz records in this format in the late 1950s; for example, two of their Miles Davis albums were paired together in this format. Phonograph record_sentence_247

Peter Goldmark, the man who developed the ​33 ⁄3 rpm record, developed the Highway Hi-Fi ​16 ⁄3 rpm record to be played in Chrysler automobiles, but poor performance of the system and weak implementation by Chrysler and Columbia led to the demise of the ​16 ⁄3 rpm records. Phonograph record_sentence_248

Subsequently, the ​16 ⁄3 rpm speed was used for narrated publications for the blind and visually impaired, and was never widely commercially available, although it was common to see new turntable models with a 16 rpm speed setting produced as late as the 1970s. Phonograph record_sentence_249

The Seeburg Corporation introduced the Seeburg Background Music System in 1959, using a ​16 ⁄3 rpm 9-inch record with 2-inch center hole. Phonograph record_sentence_250

Each record held 40 minutes of music per side, recorded at 420 grooves per inch. Phonograph record_sentence_251

The commercial rivalry between RCA Victor and Columbia Records led to RCA Victor's introduction of what it had intended to be a competing vinyl format, the 7-inch (175 mm) 45 rpm disc, with a much larger center hole. Phonograph record_sentence_252

For a two-year period from 1948 to 1950, record companies and consumers faced uncertainty over which of these formats would ultimately prevail in what was known as the "War of the Speeds". Phonograph record_sentence_253

(See also format war.) Phonograph record_sentence_254

In 1949 Capitol and Decca adopted the new LP format and RCA Victor gave in and issued its first LP in January 1950. Phonograph record_sentence_255

The 45 rpm size was gaining in popularity, too, and Columbia issued its first 45s in February 1951. Phonograph record_sentence_256

By 1954, 200 million 45s had been sold. Phonograph record_sentence_257

Eventually the 12-inch (300 mm) ​33 ⁄3 rpm LP prevailed as the dominant format for musical albums, and 10-inch LPs were no longer issued. Phonograph record_sentence_258

The last Columbia Records reissue of any Frank Sinatra songs on a 10-inch LP record was an album called Hall of Fame, CL 2600, issued on October 26, 1956, containing six songs, one each by Tony Bennett, Rosemary Clooney, Johnnie Ray, Frank Sinatra, Doris Day, and Frankie Laine. Phonograph record_sentence_259

The 10-inch LP had a longer life in the United Kingdom, where important early British rock and roll albums such as Lonnie Donegan's Showcase and Billy Fury's The Sound of Fury were released in that form. Phonograph record_sentence_260

The 7-inch (175 mm) 45 rpm disc or "single" established a significant niche for shorter-duration discs, typically containing one item on each side. Phonograph record_sentence_261

The 45 rpm discs typically emulated the playing time of the former 78 rpm discs, while the 12-inch LP discs eventually provided up to one half-hour of recorded material per side. Phonograph record_sentence_262

The 45 rpm discs also came in a variety known as extended play (EP), which achieved up to 10–15 minutes play at the expense of attenuating (and possibly compressing) the sound to reduce the width required by the groove. Phonograph record_sentence_263

EP discs were cheaper to produce, and were used in cases where unit sales were likely to be more limited or to reissue LP albums on the smaller format for those people who had only 45 rpm players. Phonograph record_sentence_264

LP albums could be purchased one EP at a time, with four items per EP, or in a boxed set with three EPs or twelve items. Phonograph record_sentence_265

The large center hole on 45s allows for easier handling by jukebox mechanisms. Phonograph record_sentence_266

EPs were generally discontinued by the late 1950s in the U.S. as three- and four-speed record players replaced the individual 45 players. Phonograph record_sentence_267

One indication of the decline of the 45 rpm EP is that the last Columbia Records reissue of Frank Sinatra songs on 45 rpm EP records, called Frank Sinatra (Columbia B-2641) was issued on December 7, 1959. Phonograph record_sentence_268

The EP lasted considerably longer in Europe, and was a popular format during the 1960s for recordings by artists such as Serge Gainsbourg and the Beatles. Phonograph record_sentence_269

In the late 1940s and early 1950s, 45-rpm-only players that lacked speakers and plugged into a jack on the back of a radio were widely available. Phonograph record_sentence_270

Eventually, they were replaced by the three-speed record player. Phonograph record_sentence_271

From the mid-1950s through the 1960s, in the U.S. the common home record player or "stereo" (after the introduction of stereo recording) would typically have had these features: a three- or four-speed player (78, 45, ​33 ⁄3, and sometimes ​16 ⁄3 rpm); with changer, a tall spindle that would hold several records and automatically drop a new record on top of the previous one when it had finished playing, a combination cartridge with both 78 and microgroove styli and a way to flip between the two; and some kind of adapter for playing the 45s with their larger center hole. Phonograph record_sentence_272

The adapter could be a small solid circle that fit onto the bottom of the spindle (meaning only one 45 could be played at a time) or a larger adaptor that fit over the entire spindle, permitting a stack of 45s to be played. Phonograph record_sentence_273

RCA Victor 45s were also adapted to the smaller spindle of an LP player with a plastic snap-in insert known as a "spider". Phonograph record_sentence_274

These inserts, commissioned by RCA president David Sarnoff and invented by Thomas Hutchison, were prevalent starting in the 1960s, selling in the tens of millions per year during the 45 rpm heyday. Phonograph record_sentence_275

In countries outside the U.S., 45s often had the smaller album-sized holes, e.g., Australia and New Zealand, or as in the United Kingdom, especially before the 1970s, the disc had a small hole within a circular central section held only by three or four lands so that it could be easily punched out if desired (typically for use in jukeboxes). Phonograph record_sentence_276

Capacitance Electronic Discs were videodiscs invented by RCA, based on mechanically tracked ultra-microgrooves (9541 grooves/inch) on a 12-inch conductive vinyl disc. Phonograph record_sentence_277

Only a small portion of the tracking stylus was electrically active; this sensing electrode detected the changing capacitance between it and microscopic peaks and valleys of the conductive disc surface, while the entire stylus rides over many crests at once. Phonograph record_sentence_278

Sound enhancements Phonograph record_section_14

During the vinyl era, various developments were introduced. Phonograph record_sentence_279

Stereo finally lost its previous experimental status, and eventually became standard internationally. Phonograph record_sentence_280

Quadraphonic sound effectively had to wait for digital formats before finding a permanent position in the market place. Phonograph record_sentence_281

High fidelity Phonograph record_section_15

Further information: High fidelity Phonograph record_sentence_282

The term "high fidelity" was coined in the 1920s by some manufacturers of radio receivers and phonographs to differentiate their better-sounding products claimed as providing "perfect" sound reproduction. Phonograph record_sentence_283

The term began to be used by some audio engineers and consumers through the 1930s and 1940s. Phonograph record_sentence_284

After 1949 a variety of improvements in recording and playback technologies, especially stereo recordings, which became widely available in 1958, gave a boost to the "hi-fi" classification of products, leading to sales of individual components for the home such as amplifiers, loudspeakers, phonographs, and tape players. Phonograph record_sentence_285

High Fidelity and Audio were two magazines that hi-fi consumers and engineers could read for reviews of playback equipment and recordings. Phonograph record_sentence_286

Stereophonic sound Phonograph record_section_16

Stereophonic sound recording, which attempts to provide a more natural listening experience by reproducing the spatial locations of sound sources in the horizontal plane, was the natural extension to monophonic recording, and attracted various alternative engineering attempts. Phonograph record_sentence_287

The ultimately dominant "45/45" stereophonic record system was invented by Alan Blumlein of EMI in 1931 and patented the same year. Phonograph record_sentence_288

EMI cut the first stereo test discs using the system in 1933 (see Bell Labs Stereo Experiments of 1933) although the system was not exploited commercially until much later. Phonograph record_sentence_289

In this system, each of two stereo channels is carried independently by a separate groove wall, each wall face moving at 45 degrees to the plane of the record surface (hence the system's name) in correspondence with the signal level of that channel. Phonograph record_sentence_290

By convention, the inner wall carries the left-hand channel and the outer wall carries the right-hand channel. Phonograph record_sentence_291

While the stylus only moves horizontally when reproducing a monophonic disk recording, on stereo records the stylus moves vertically as well as horizontally. Phonograph record_sentence_292

During playback, the movement of a single stylus tracking the groove is sensed independently, e.g., by two coils, each mounted diagonally opposite the relevant groove wall. Phonograph record_sentence_293

The combined stylus motion can be represented in terms of the vector sum and difference of the two stereo channels. Phonograph record_sentence_294

Vertical stylus motion then carries the L − R difference signal and horizontal stylus motion carries the L + R summed signal, the latter representing the monophonic component of the signal in exactly the same manner as a purely monophonic record. Phonograph record_sentence_295

The advantages of the 45/45 system as compared to alternative systems were: Phonograph record_sentence_296

Phonograph record_unordered_list_1

  • complete compatibility with monophonic playback systems. A monophonic cartridge reproduces the monophonic component of a stereo record instead of only one of its channels. (However, many monophonic styli had such low vertical compliance that they ploughed through the vertical modulation, destroying the stereo information. This led to the common recommendation never to use a mono cartridge on a stereo record.) Conversely, a stereo cartridge reproduces the lateral grooves of monophonic recording equally through both channels, rather than one channel;Phonograph record_item_1_2
  • equally balanced reproduction, because each channel has equal fidelity (not the case, e.g., with a higher-fidelity laterally recorded channel and a lower-fidelity vertically recorded channel); and,Phonograph record_item_1_3
  • higher fidelity in general, because the "difference" signal is usually of low amplitude and is thus less affected by the greater intrinsic distortion of vertical recording.Phonograph record_item_1_4

In 1957 the first commercial stereo two-channel records were issued first by Audio Fidelity followed by a translucent blue vinyl on Bel Canto Records, the first of which was a multi-colored-vinyl sampler featuring A Stereo Tour of Los Angeles narrated by Jack Wagner on one side, and a collection of tracks from various Bel Canto albums on the back. Phonograph record_sentence_297

Following in 1958, more stereo LP releases were offered by Audio Fidelity Records in the US and Pye Records in Britain. Phonograph record_sentence_298

However, it was not until the mid-to-late 1960s that the sales of stereophonic LPs overtook those of their monophonic equivalents, and became the dominant record type. Phonograph record_sentence_299

Quadraphonic records Phonograph record_section_17

The development of quadraphonic records was announced in 1971. Phonograph record_sentence_300

These recorded four separate sound signals. Phonograph record_sentence_301

This was achieved on the two stereo channels by electronic matrixing, where the additional channels were combined into the main signal. Phonograph record_sentence_302

When the records were played, phase-detection circuits in the amplifiers were able to decode the signals into four separate channels. Phonograph record_sentence_303

There were two main systems of matrixed quadraphonic records produced, confusingly named SQ (by CBS) and QS (by Sansui). Phonograph record_sentence_304

They proved commercially unsuccessful, but were an important precursor to later surround sound systems, as seen in SACD and home cinema today. Phonograph record_sentence_305

A different format, Compatible Discrete 4 (CD-4; not to be confused with Compact Disc), was introduced by RCA. Phonograph record_sentence_306

This system encoded the front-rear difference information on an ultrasonic carrier. Phonograph record_sentence_307

The system required a compatible cartridge to capture it on carefully calibrated pickup arm/turntable combinations. Phonograph record_sentence_308

CD-4 was less successful than matrix formats. Phonograph record_sentence_309

(A further problem was that no cutting heads were available that could handle the high frequency information. Phonograph record_sentence_310

This was remedied by cutting at half the speed. Phonograph record_sentence_311

Later, the special half-speed cutting heads and equalization techniques were employed to get wider frequency response in stereo with reduced distortion and greater headroom.) Phonograph record_sentence_312

Other enhancements Phonograph record_section_18

Under the direction of recording engineer C. Robert Fine, Mercury Records initiated a minimalist single microphone monaural recording technique in 1951. Phonograph record_sentence_313

The first record, a Chicago Symphony Orchestra performance of Pictures at an Exhibition, conducted by Rafael Kubelik, was described as "being in the living presence of the orchestra" by The New York Times music critic. Phonograph record_sentence_314

The series of records was then named Mercury Living Presence. Phonograph record_sentence_315

In 1955, Mercury began three-channel stereo recordings, still based on the principle of the single microphone. Phonograph record_sentence_316

The center (single) microphone was of paramount importance, with the two side mics adding depth and space. Phonograph record_sentence_317

Record masters were cut directly from a three-track to two-track mixdown console, with all editing of the master tapes done on the original three-tracks. Phonograph record_sentence_318

In 1961, Mercury enhanced this technique with three-microphone stereo recordings using 35 mm magnetic film instead of ​⁄2-inch tape for recording. Phonograph record_sentence_319

The greater thickness and width of 35 mm magnetic film prevented tape layer print-through and pre-echo and gained extended frequency range and transient response. Phonograph record_sentence_320

The Mercury Living Presence recordings were remastered to CD in the 1990s by the original producer, Wilma Cozart Fine, using the same method of three-to-two mix directly to the master recorder. Phonograph record_sentence_321

Through the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, various methods to improve the dynamic range of mass-produced records involved highly advanced disc cutting equipment. Phonograph record_sentence_322

These techniques, marketed, to name two, as the CBS DisComputer and Teldec Direct Metal Mastering, were used to reduce inner-groove distortion. Phonograph record_sentence_323

RCA Victor introduced another system to reduce dynamic range and achieve a groove with less surface noise under the commercial name of Dynagroove. Phonograph record_sentence_324

Two main elements were combined: another disk material with less surface noise in the groove and dynamic compression for masking background noise. Phonograph record_sentence_325

Sometimes this was called "diaphragming" the source material and not favoured by some music lovers for its unnatural side effects. Phonograph record_sentence_326

Both elements were reflected in the brandname of Dynagroove, described elsewhere in more detail. Phonograph record_sentence_327

It also used the earlier advanced method of forward-looking control on groove spacing with respect to volume of sound and position on the disk. Phonograph record_sentence_328

Lower recorded volume used closer spacing; higher recorded volume used wider spacing, especially with lower frequencies. Phonograph record_sentence_329

Also, the higher track density at lower volumes enabled disk recordings to end farther away from the disk center than usual, helping to reduce endtrack distortion even further. Phonograph record_sentence_330

Also in the late 1970s, "direct-to-disc" records were produced, aimed at an audiophile niche market. Phonograph record_sentence_331

These completely bypassed the use of magnetic tape in favor of a "purist" transcription directly to the master lacquer disc. Phonograph record_sentence_332

Also during this period, half-speed mastered and "original master" records were released, using expensive state-of-the-art technology. Phonograph record_sentence_333

A further late 1970s development was the Disco Eye-Cued system used mainly on Motown 12-inch singles released between 1978 and 1980. Phonograph record_sentence_334

The introduction, drum-breaks, or choruses of a track were indicated by widely separated grooves, giving a visual cue to DJs mixing the records. Phonograph record_sentence_335

The appearance of these records is similar to an LP, but they only contain one track each side. Phonograph record_sentence_336

The mid-1970s saw the introduction of dbx-encoded records, again for the audiophile niche market. Phonograph record_sentence_337

These were completely incompatible with standard record playback preamplifiers, relying on the dbx compandor encoding/decoding scheme to greatly increase dynamic range (dbx encoded disks were recorded with the dynamic range compressed by a factor of two: quiet sounds were meant to be played back at low gain and loud sounds were meant to be played back at high gain, via automatic gain control in the playback equipment; this reduced the effect of surface noise on quiet passages). Phonograph record_sentence_338

A similar and very short-lived scheme involved using the CBS-developed "CX" noise reduction encoding/decoding scheme. Phonograph record_sentence_339

Laser turntable Phonograph record_section_19

Main article: Laser turntable Phonograph record_sentence_340

ELPJ, a Japanese-based company, sells a laser turntable that uses a laser to read vinyl discs optically, without physical contact. Phonograph record_sentence_341

The laser turntable eliminates record wear and the possibility of accidental scratches, which degrade the sound, but its expense limits use primarily to digital archiving of analog records, and the laser does not play back colored vinyl or picture discs. Phonograph record_sentence_342

Various other laser-based turntables were tried during the 1990s, but while a laser reads the groove very accurately, since it does not touch the record, the dust that vinyl attracts due to static electric charge is not mechanically pushed out of the groove, worsening sound quality in casual use compared to conventional stylus playback. Phonograph record_sentence_343

In some ways similar to the laser turntable is the IRENE scanning machine for disc records, which images with microphotography, invented by a team of physicists at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories. Phonograph record_sentence_344

An offshoot of IRENE, the Confocal Microscope Cylinder Project, can capture a high-resolution three-dimensional image of the surface, down to 200 µm. Phonograph record_sentence_345

In order to convert to a digital sound file, this is then played by a version of the same 'virtual stylus' program developed by the research team in real-time, converted to digital and, if desired, processed through sound-restoration programs. Phonograph record_sentence_346

Formats Phonograph record_section_20

Types of records Phonograph record_section_21

See also: Recording medium comparison Phonograph record_sentence_347

As recording technology evolved, more specific terms for various types of phonograph records were used in order to describe some aspect of the record: either its correct rotational speed ("​16 ⁄3 rpm" (revolutions per minute), "​33 ⁄3 rpm", "45 rpm", "78 rpm") or the material used (particularly "vinyl" to refer to records made of polyvinyl chloride, or the earlier "shellac records" generally the main ingredient in 78s). Phonograph record_sentence_348

Terms such as "long-play" (LP) and "extended-play" (EP) describe multi-track records that play much longer than the single-item-per-side records, which typically do not go much past four minutes per side. Phonograph record_sentence_349

An LP can play for up to 30 minutes per side, though most played for about 22 minutes per side, bringing the total playing time of a typical LP recording to about forty-five minutes. Phonograph record_sentence_350

Many pre-1952 LPs, however, played for about 15 minutes per side. Phonograph record_sentence_351

The 7-inch 45 rpm format normally contains one item per side but a 7-inch EP could achieve recording times of 10 to 15 minutes at the expense of attenuating and compressing the sound to reduce the width required by the groove. Phonograph record_sentence_352

EP discs were generally used to make available tracks not on singles including tracks on LPs albums in a smaller, less expensive format for those who had only 45 rpm players. Phonograph record_sentence_353

The term "album", originally used to mean a "book" with liner notes, holding several 78 rpm records each in its own "page" or sleeve, no longer has any relation to the physical format: a single LP record, or nowadays more typically a compact disc. Phonograph record_sentence_354

The term EP is still used for a release that is longer than a single but shorter than an album, even if it is not on vinyl format. Phonograph record_sentence_355

The usual diameters of the holes are 0.286 inches (7.26 mm) with larger holes on singles in the USA being 1.5 inches (38.1 mm). Phonograph record_sentence_356

Many 7" singles pressed outside the US come with the smaller spindle hole size, and are occasionally pressed with notches to allow the center part to be "punched out" for playing on larger spindles. Phonograph record_sentence_357

Sizes of records in the United States and the UK are generally measured in inches, e.g. 7-inch records, which are generally 45 rpm records. Phonograph record_sentence_358

LPs were 10-inch records at first, but soon the 12-inch size became by far the most common. Phonograph record_sentence_359

Generally, 78s were 10-inch, but 12-inch and 7-inch and even smaller were made —— the so-called "little wonders". Phonograph record_sentence_360

Standard formats Phonograph record_section_22

Phonograph record_table_general_0

DiameterPhonograph record_cell_0_0_0 Finished DiameterPhonograph record_cell_0_0_1 NamePhonograph record_cell_0_0_2 Revolutions per minutePhonograph record_cell_0_0_3 Approximate durationPhonograph record_cell_0_0_4
16 in (41 cm)Phonograph record_cell_0_1_0 ​15 ⁄16″ ±​⁄32″Phonograph record_cell_0_1_1 Transcription discPhonograph record_cell_0_1_2 ​33 ⁄3 rpmPhonograph record_cell_0_1_3 15 min/sidePhonograph record_cell_0_1_4
12 in (30 cm)Phonograph record_cell_0_2_0 ​11 ⁄8″ ±​⁄32″Phonograph record_cell_0_2_1 LP (Long Play)Phonograph record_cell_0_2_2 ​33 ⁄3 rpmPhonograph record_cell_0_2_3 22 min/sidePhonograph record_cell_0_2_4
Maxi Single, 12-inch singlePhonograph record_cell_0_3_0 45 rpmPhonograph record_cell_0_3_1 15 min/sidePhonograph record_cell_0_3_2
SinglePhonograph record_cell_0_4_0 78 rpmPhonograph record_cell_0_4_1 4–5 min/side.Phonograph record_cell_0_4_2
10 in (25 cm)Phonograph record_cell_0_5_0 ​9 ⁄8″ ±​⁄32″Phonograph record_cell_0_5_1 LP (Long Play)Phonograph record_cell_0_5_2 ​33 ⁄3 rpmPhonograph record_cell_0_5_3 12–15 min/side.Phonograph record_cell_0_5_4
EP (Extended Play)Phonograph record_cell_0_6_0 45 rpmPhonograph record_cell_0_6_1 9–12 min/sidePhonograph record_cell_0_6_2
SinglePhonograph record_cell_0_7_0 78 rpmPhonograph record_cell_0_7_1 3 min/sidePhonograph record_cell_0_7_2
7 in (18 cm)Phonograph record_cell_0_8_0 ​6 ⁄8″ ±​⁄32″Phonograph record_cell_0_8_1 EP (Extended Play)Phonograph record_cell_0_8_2 ​33 ⁄3 rpmPhonograph record_cell_0_8_3 7 min/sidePhonograph record_cell_0_8_4
SinglePhonograph record_cell_0_9_0 45 rpmPhonograph record_cell_0_9_1 ​4 ⁄2 min/sidePhonograph record_cell_0_9_2

Phonograph record_description_list_2

  • Notes:Phonograph record_item_2_5
    • Before the mid-1950s the ​33 ⁄3 rpm LP was most commonly found in a 10-inch (25 cm) format. The 10-inch format disappeared from United States stores around 1957, supplanted by 12″ discs, but remained common in some markets until the mid-1960s. The 10-inch vinyl format was resurrected in the 1970s for marketing some popular recordings as collectible, and these are occasionally seen today.Phonograph record_item_2_6
    • The first disk recordings were invented by Emile Berliner and were pressed as 7 inch approx. 78 rpm recordings between 1887 and 1900. They are rarely found today.Phonograph record_item_2_7
    • Columbia pressed many 7 inch ​33 ⁄3 rpm vinyl singles in 1949 but were dropped in early 1950 due to the popularity of the RCA 45.Phonograph record_item_2_8
    • The EP Extended Play ​33 ⁄3 rpm 7″ disc, which typically contained two selections (tracks) on each side, was incompatible with existing jukeboxes and unsuccessful when introduced in the U.S. in the 1960s, but was common in Europe and other parts of the world.Phonograph record_item_2_9
    • Original hole diameters were 0.286″ ±0.001″ for ​33 ⁄3 and 78.26 rpm records, and 1.504″ ±0.002″ for 45 rpm records.Phonograph record_item_2_10

Less common formats Phonograph record_section_23

Main article: Unusual types of gramophone records Phonograph record_sentence_361

Flexi discs were thin flexible records that were distributed with magazines and as promotional gifts from the 1960s to the 1980s. Phonograph record_sentence_362

In March 1949, as RCA released the 45, Columbia released several hundred 7-inch, ​33 ⁄3 rpm, small-spindle-hole singles. Phonograph record_sentence_363

This format was soon dropped as it became clear that the RCA 45 was the single of choice and the Columbia 12-inch LP would be the album of choice. Phonograph record_sentence_364

The first release of the 45 came in seven colors: black 47-xxxx popular series, yellow 47-xxxx juvenile series, green (teal) 48-xxxx country series, deep red 49-xxxx classical series, bright red (cerise) 50-xxxx blues/spiritual series, light blue 51-xxxx international series, dark blue 52-xxxx light classics. Phonograph record_sentence_365

Most colors were soon dropped in favor of black because of production problems. Phonograph record_sentence_366

However, yellow and deep red were continued until about 1952. Phonograph record_sentence_367

The first 45 rpm record created for sale was "PeeWee the Piccolo" RCA 47-0147 pressed in yellow translucent vinyl at the Sherman Avenue plant, Indianapolis on December 7, 1948, by R. O. Phonograph record_sentence_368

Price, plant manager. Phonograph record_sentence_369

In the 1970s, the government of Bhutan produced now-collectible postage stamps on playable vinyl mini-discs. Phonograph record_sentence_370

Structure Phonograph record_section_24

The normal commercial disc is engraved with two sound-bearing concentric spiral grooves, one on each side, running from the outside edge towards the center. Phonograph record_sentence_371

The last part of the spiral meets an earlier part to form a circle. Phonograph record_sentence_372

The sound is encoded by fine variations in the edges of the groove that cause a stylus (needle) placed in it to vibrate at acoustic frequencies when the disc is rotated at the correct speed. Phonograph record_sentence_373

Generally, the outer and inner parts of the groove bear no intended sound (exceptions include the Beatles' Sgt. Phonograph record_sentence_374 Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band and Split Enz's Mental Notes). Phonograph record_sentence_375

Increasingly from the early 20th century, and almost exclusively since the 1920s, both sides of the record have been used to carry the grooves. Phonograph record_sentence_376

Occasional records have been issued since then with a recording on only one side. Phonograph record_sentence_377

In the 1980s Columbia records briefly issued a series of less expensive one-sided 45 rpm singles. Phonograph record_sentence_378

The majority of non-78 rpm records are pressed on black vinyl. Phonograph record_sentence_379

The coloring material used to blacken the transparent PVC plastic mix is carbon black, which increases the strength of the disc and makes it opaque. Phonograph record_sentence_380

Polystyrene is often used for 7-inch records. Phonograph record_sentence_381

Some records are pressed on colored vinyl or with paper pictures embedded in them ("picture discs"). Phonograph record_sentence_382

Certain 45 rpm RCA or RCA Victor Red Seal records used red translucent vinyl for extra "Red Seal" effect. Phonograph record_sentence_383

During the 1980s there was a trend for releasing singles on colored vinyl—sometimes with large inserts that could be used as posters. Phonograph record_sentence_384

This trend has been revived recently with 7-inch singles. Phonograph record_sentence_385

Since its inception in 1948, vinyl record standards for the United States follow the guidelines of the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). Phonograph record_sentence_386

The inch dimensions are nominal, not precise diameters. Phonograph record_sentence_387

The actual dimension of a 12-inch record is 302 mm (11.89 in), for a 10-inch it is 250 mm (9.84 in), and for a 7-inch it is 175 mm (6.89 in). Phonograph record_sentence_388

Records made in other countries are standardized by different organizations, but are very similar in size. Phonograph record_sentence_389

The record diameters are typically nominally 300 mm, 250 mm and 175 mm. Phonograph record_sentence_390

There is an area about 3 mm (0.12 in) wide at the outer edge of the disk, called the lead-in or run-in, where the groove is widely spaced and silent. Phonograph record_sentence_391

The stylus is lowered onto the lead-in, without damaging the recorded section of the groove. Phonograph record_sentence_392

Between tracks on the recorded section of an LP record there is usually a short gap of around 1 mm (0.04 in) where the groove is widely spaced. Phonograph record_sentence_393

This space is clearly visible, making it easy to find a particular track. Phonograph record_sentence_394

Towards the center, at the end of the groove, there is another wide-pitched section known as the lead-out. Phonograph record_sentence_395

At the very end of this section the groove joins itself to form a complete circle, called the lock groove; when the stylus reaches this point, it circles repeatedly until lifted from the record. Phonograph record_sentence_396

On some recordings (for example Sgt. Phonograph record_sentence_397 Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band by The Beatles, Super Trouper by ABBA and Atom Heart Mother by Pink Floyd), the sound continues on the lock groove, which gives a strange repeating effect. Phonograph record_sentence_398

Automatic turntables rely on the position or angular velocity of the arm, as it reaches the wider spacing in the groove, to trigger a mechanism that lifts the arm off the record. Phonograph record_sentence_399

Precisely because of this mechanism, most automatic turntables are incapable of playing any audio in the lock groove, since they will lift the arm before it reaches that groove. Phonograph record_sentence_400

The catalog number and stamper ID is written or stamped in the space between the groove in the lead-out on the master disc, resulting in visible recessed writing on the final version of a record. Phonograph record_sentence_401

Sometimes the cutting engineer might add handwritten comments or their signature, if they are particularly pleased with the quality of the cut. Phonograph record_sentence_402

These are generally referred to as "run-out etchings". Phonograph record_sentence_403

When auto-changing turntables were commonplace, records were typically pressed with a raised (or ridged) outer edge and a raised label area, allowing records to be stacked onto each other without the delicate grooves coming into contact, reducing the risk of damage. Phonograph record_sentence_404

Auto-changers included a mechanism to support a stack of several records above the turntable itself, dropping them one at a time onto the active turntable to be played in order. Phonograph record_sentence_405

Many longer sound recordings, such as complete operas, were interleaved across several 10-inch or 12-inch discs for use with auto-changing mechanisms, so that the first disk of a three-disk recording would carry sides 1 and 6 of the program, while the second disk would carry sides 2 and 5, and the third, sides 3 and 4, allowing sides 1, 2, and 3 to be played automatically; then the whole stack reversed to play sides 4, 5, and 6. Phonograph record_sentence_406

Vinyl quality Phonograph record_section_25

The sound quality and durability of vinyl records is highly dependent on the quality of the vinyl. Phonograph record_sentence_407

During the early 1970s, as a cost-cutting move, much of the industry began reducing the thickness and quality of vinyl used in mass-market manufacturing. Phonograph record_sentence_408

The technique was marketed by RCA Victor as the Dynaflex (125 g) process, but was considered inferior by most record collectors. Phonograph record_sentence_409

Most vinyl records are pressed from a mix of 70% virgin and 30% recycled vinyl. Phonograph record_sentence_410

New or "virgin" heavy/heavyweight (180–220 g) vinyl is commonly used for modern audiophile vinyl releases in all genres. Phonograph record_sentence_411

Many collectors prefer to have heavyweight vinyl albums, which have been reported to have better sound than normal vinyl because of their higher tolerance against deformation caused by normal play. Phonograph record_sentence_412

One hundred eighty gram vinyl is more expensive to produce only because it uses more vinyl. Phonograph record_sentence_413

Manufacturing processes are identical regardless of weight. Phonograph record_sentence_414

In fact, pressing lightweight records requires more care. Phonograph record_sentence_415

An exception is the propensity of 200 g pressings to be slightly more prone to non-fill, when the vinyl biscuit does not sufficiently fill a deep groove during pressing (percussion or vocal amplitude changes are the usual locations of these artifacts). Phonograph record_sentence_416

This flaw causes a grinding or scratching sound at the non-fill point. Phonograph record_sentence_417

Since most vinyl records contain up to 30% recycled vinyl, impurities can accumulate in the record and cause even a brand-new record to have audio artifacts such as clicks and pops. Phonograph record_sentence_418

Virgin vinyl means that the album is not from recycled plastic, and will theoretically be devoid of these impurities. Phonograph record_sentence_419

In practice, this depends on the manufacturer's quality control. Phonograph record_sentence_420

The "orange peel" effect on vinyl records is caused by worn molds. Phonograph record_sentence_421

Rather than having the proper mirror-like finish, the surface of the record will have a texture that looks like orange peel. Phonograph record_sentence_422

This introduces noise into the record, particularly in the lower frequency range. Phonograph record_sentence_423

With direct metal mastering (DMM), the master disc is cut on a copper-coated disc, which can also have a minor "orange peel" effect on the disc itself. Phonograph record_sentence_424

As this "orange peel" originates in the master rather than being introduced in the pressing stage, there is no ill effect as there is no physical distortion of the groove. Phonograph record_sentence_425

Original master discs are created by lathe-cutting: a lathe is used to cut a modulated groove into a blank record. Phonograph record_sentence_426

The blank records for cutting used to be cooked up, as needed, by the cutting engineer, using what Robert K. Morrison describes as a "metallic soap", containing lead litharge, ozokerite, barium sulfate, montan wax, stearin and paraffin, among other ingredients. Phonograph record_sentence_427

Cut "wax" sound discs would be placed in a vacuum chamber and gold-sputtered to make them electrically conductive for use as mandrels in an electroforming bath, where pressing stamper parts were made. Phonograph record_sentence_428

Later, the French company Pyral invented a ready-made blank disc having a thin nitro-cellulose lacquer coating (approximately 7 mils thickness on both sides) that was applied to an aluminum substrate. Phonograph record_sentence_429

Lacquer cuts result in an immediately playable, or processable, master record. Phonograph record_sentence_430

If vinyl pressings are wanted, the still-unplayed sound disc is used as a mandrel for electroforming nickel records that are used for manufacturing pressing stampers. Phonograph record_sentence_431

The electroformed nickel records are mechanically separated from their respective mandrels. Phonograph record_sentence_432

This is done with relative ease because no actual "plating" of the mandrel occurs in the type of electrodeposition known as electroforming, unlike with electroplating, in which the adhesion of the new phase of metal is chemical and relatively permanent. Phonograph record_sentence_433

The one-molecule-thick coating of silver (that was sprayed onto the processed lacquer sound disc in order to make its surface electrically conductive) reverse-plates onto the nickel record's face. Phonograph record_sentence_434

This negative impression disc (having ridges in place of grooves) is known as a nickel master, "matrix" or "father". Phonograph record_sentence_435

The "father" is then used as a mandrel to electroform a positive disc known as a "mother". Phonograph record_sentence_436

Many mothers can be grown on a single "father" before ridges deteriorate beyond effective use. Phonograph record_sentence_437

The "mothers" are then used as mandrels for electroforming more negative discs known as "sons". Phonograph record_sentence_438

Each "mother" can be used to make many "sons" before deteriorating. Phonograph record_sentence_439

The "sons" are then converted into "stampers" by center-punching a spindle hole (which was lost from the lacquer sound disc during initial electroforming of the "father"), and by custom-forming the target pressing profile. Phonograph record_sentence_440

This allows them to be placed in the dies of the target (make and model) record press and, by center-roughing, to facilitate the adhesion of the label, which gets stuck onto the vinyl pressing without any glue. Phonograph record_sentence_441

In this way, several million vinyl discs can be produced from a single lacquer sound disc. Phonograph record_sentence_442

When only a few hundred discs are required, instead of electroforming a "son" (for each side), the "father" is removed of its silver and converted into a stamper. Phonograph record_sentence_443

Production by this latter method, known as the "two-step process" (as it does not entail creation of "sons" but does involve creation of "mothers", which are used for test playing and kept as "safeties" for electroforming future "sons") is limited to a few hundred vinyl pressings. Phonograph record_sentence_444

The pressing count can increase if the stamper holds out and the quality of the vinyl is high. Phonograph record_sentence_445

The "sons" made during a "three-step" electroforming make better stampers since they don't require silver removal (which reduces some high fidelity because of etching erasing part of the smallest groove modulations) and also because they have a stronger metal structure than "fathers". Phonograph record_sentence_446

Limitations Phonograph record_section_26

Production Phonograph record_section_27

Further information: Production of phonograph records Phonograph record_sentence_447

For the first several decades of disc record manufacturing, sound was recorded directly on to the "master disc" at the recording studio. Phonograph record_sentence_448

From about 1950 on (earlier for some large record companies, later for some small ones) it became usual to have the performance first recorded on audio tape, which could then be processed or edited, and then dubbed on to the master disc. Phonograph record_sentence_449

A record cutter would engrave the grooves into the master disc. Phonograph record_sentence_450

Early versions of these master discs were soft wax, and later a harder lacquer was used. Phonograph record_sentence_451

The mastering process was originally something of an art as the operator had to manually allow for the changes in sound which affected how wide the space for the groove needed to be on each rotation. Phonograph record_sentence_452

Preservation Phonograph record_section_28

As the playing of gramophone records causes gradual degradation of the recording, they are best preserved by transferring them onto other media and playing the records as rarely as possible. Phonograph record_sentence_453

They need to be stored on edge, and do best under environmental conditions that most humans would find comfortable. Phonograph record_sentence_454

The equipment for playback of certain formats (e.g. ​16 ⁄3 and 78 rpm) is manufactured only in small quantities, leading to increased difficulty in finding equipment to play the recordings. Phonograph record_sentence_455

Where old disc recordings are considered to be of artistic or historic interest, from before the era of tape or where no tape master exists, archivists play back the disc on suitable equipment and record the result, typically onto a digital format, which can be copied and manipulated to remove analog flaws without any further damage to the source recording. Phonograph record_sentence_456

For example, Nimbus Records uses a specially built horn record player to transfer 78s. Phonograph record_sentence_457

Anyone can do this using a standard record player with a suitable pickup, a phono-preamp (pre-amplifier) and a typical personal computer. Phonograph record_sentence_458

However, for accurate transfer, professional archivists carefully choose the correct stylus shape and diameter, tracking weight, equalisation curve and other playback parameters and use high-quality analogue-to-digital converters. Phonograph record_sentence_459

As an alternative to playback with a stylus, a recording can be read optically, processed with software that calculates the velocity that the stylus would be moving in the mapped grooves and converted to a digital recording format. Phonograph record_sentence_460

This does no further damage to the disc and generally produces a better sound than normal playback. Phonograph record_sentence_461

This technique also has the potential to allow for reconstruction of broken or otherwise damaged discs. Phonograph record_sentence_462

Current status Phonograph record_section_29

See also: Vinyl revival Phonograph record_sentence_463

Groove recordings, first designed in the final quarter of the 19th century, held a predominant position for nearly a century—withstanding competition from reel-to-reel tape, the 8-track cartridge, and the compact cassette. Phonograph record_sentence_464

The widespread popularity of Sony's Walkman was a factor that contributed to the vinyl's lessening usage in the 1980s. Phonograph record_sentence_465

In 1988, the compact disc surpassed the gramophone record in unit sales. Phonograph record_sentence_466

Vinyl records experienced a sudden decline in popularity between 1988 and 1991, when the major label distributors restricted their return policies, which retailers had been relying on to maintain and swap out stocks of relatively unpopular titles. Phonograph record_sentence_467

First the distributors began charging retailers more for new product if they returned unsold vinyl, and then they stopped providing any credit at all for returns. Phonograph record_sentence_468

Retailers, fearing they would be stuck with anything they ordered, only ordered proven, popular titles that they knew would sell, and devoted more shelf space to CDs and cassettes. Phonograph record_sentence_469

Record companies also deleted many vinyl titles from production and distribution, further undermining the availability of the format and leading to the closure of pressing plants. Phonograph record_sentence_470

This rapid decline in the availability of records accelerated the format's decline in popularity, and is seen by some as a deliberate ploy to make consumers switch to CDs, which unlike today, were more profitable for the record companies. Phonograph record_sentence_471

In spite of their flaws, such as the lack of portability, records still have enthusiastic supporters. Phonograph record_sentence_472

Vinyl records continue to be manufactured and sold today, especially by independent rock bands and labels, although record sales are considered to be a niche market composed of audiophiles, collectors, and DJs. Phonograph record_sentence_473

Old records and out-of-print recordings in particular are in much demand by collectors the world over. Phonograph record_sentence_474

(See Record collecting.) Phonograph record_sentence_475

Many popular new albums are given releases on vinyl records and older albums are also given reissues, sometimes on audiophile-grade vinyl. Phonograph record_sentence_476

In the United Kingdom, the popularity of indie rock caused sales of new vinyl records (particularly 7 inch singles) to increase significantly in 2006, briefly reversing the downward trend seen during the 1990s. Phonograph record_sentence_477

In the United States, annual vinyl sales increased by 85.8% between 2006 and 2007, although starting from a low base, and by 89% between 2007 and 2008. Phonograph record_sentence_478

However, sales increases have moderated over recent years falling to less than 10% during 2017. Phonograph record_sentence_479

Many electronic dance music and hip hop releases today are still preferred on vinyl; however, digital copies are still widely available. Phonograph record_sentence_480

This is because for disc jockeys ("DJs"), vinyl has an advantage over the CD: direct manipulation of the medium. Phonograph record_sentence_481

DJ techniques such as slip-cueing, beatmatching, and scratching originated on turntables. Phonograph record_sentence_482

With CDs or compact audio cassettes one normally has only indirect manipulation options, e.g., the play, stop, and pause buttons. Phonograph record_sentence_483

With a record one can place the stylus a few grooves farther in or out, accelerate or decelerate the turntable, or even reverse its direction, provided the stylus, record player, and record itself are built to withstand it. Phonograph record_sentence_484

However, many CDJ and DJ advances, such as DJ software and time-encoded vinyl, now have these capabilities and more. Phonograph record_sentence_485

Figures released in the United States in early 2009 showed that sales of vinyl albums nearly doubled in 2008, with 1.88 million sold—up from just under 1 million in 2007. Phonograph record_sentence_486

In 2009, 3.5 million units sold in the United States, including 3.2 million albums, the highest number since 1998. Phonograph record_sentence_487

Sales have continued to rise into the 2010s, with around 2.8 million sold in 2010, which is the most sales since record keeping began in 1991, when vinyl had been overshadowed by Compact Cassettes and compact discs. Phonograph record_sentence_488

In 2014 artist Jack White sold 40,000 copies of his second solo release, Lazaretto, on vinyl. Phonograph record_sentence_489

The sales of the record beat the largest sales in one week on vinyl since 1991. Phonograph record_sentence_490

The sales record was previously held by Pearl Jam's Vitalogy, which sold 34,000 copies in one week in 1994. Phonograph record_sentence_491

In 2014, the sale of vinyl records was the only physical music medium with increasing sales with relation to the previous year. Phonograph record_sentence_492

Sales of other mediums including individual digital tracks, digital albums and compact discs have fallen, the last having the greatest drop-in-sales rate. Phonograph record_sentence_493

In 2011, the Entertainment Retailers Association in the United Kingdom found that consumers were willing to pay on average £16.30 (€19.37, US$25.81) for a single vinyl record, as opposed to £7.82 (€9.30, US$12.38) for a CD and £6.80 (€8.09, US$10.76) for a digital download. Phonograph record_sentence_494

In the United States, new vinyl releases often have a larger profit margin (per individual item) than do releases on CD or digital downloads (in many cases), as the latter formats quickly go down in price. Phonograph record_sentence_495

In 2015 the sales of vinyl records went up 32%, to $416 million, their highest level since 1988. Phonograph record_sentence_496

There were 31.5 million vinyl records sold in 2015, and the number has increased annually ever since 2006. Phonograph record_sentence_497

Vinyl sales continued to grow in 2017, comprising 14% of all physical album sales. Phonograph record_sentence_498

The number one vinyl LP sold was the re-release of The Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Phonograph record_sentence_499

2012 vinyl LP charts Phonograph record_section_30

Phonograph record_table_general_1

#Phonograph record_header_cell_1_0_0 US Top 10Phonograph record_header_cell_1_0_1 UK Top 10Phonograph record_header_cell_1_0_3
No.Phonograph record_cell_1_1_0 AlbumPhonograph record_cell_1_1_1 ArtistPhonograph record_cell_1_1_2 AlbumPhonograph record_cell_1_1_3 ArtistPhonograph record_cell_1_1_4
1Phonograph record_cell_1_2_0 BlunderbussPhonograph record_cell_1_2_1 Jack WhitePhonograph record_cell_1_2_2 CoexistPhonograph record_cell_1_2_3 The XXPhonograph record_cell_1_2_4
2Phonograph record_cell_1_3_0 Abbey RoadPhonograph record_cell_1_3_1 The BeatlesPhonograph record_cell_1_3_2 Ziggy StardustPhonograph record_cell_1_3_3 David BowiePhonograph record_cell_1_3_4
3Phonograph record_cell_1_4_0 BabelPhonograph record_cell_1_4_1 Mumford & SonsPhonograph record_cell_1_4_2 BlunderbussPhonograph record_cell_1_4_3 Jack WhitePhonograph record_cell_1_4_4
4Phonograph record_cell_1_5_0 El CaminoPhonograph record_cell_1_5_1 The Black KeysPhonograph record_cell_1_5_2 21Phonograph record_cell_1_5_3 AdelePhonograph record_cell_1_5_4
5Phonograph record_cell_1_6_0 Sigh No MorePhonograph record_cell_1_6_1 Mumford & SonsPhonograph record_cell_1_6_2 LonerismPhonograph record_cell_1_6_3 Tame ImpalaPhonograph record_cell_1_6_4
6Phonograph record_cell_1_7_0 BloomPhonograph record_cell_1_7_1 Beach HousePhonograph record_cell_1_7_2 TempestPhonograph record_cell_1_7_3 Bob DylanPhonograph record_cell_1_7_4
7Phonograph record_cell_1_8_0 For Emma Forever AgoPhonograph record_cell_1_8_1 Bon IverPhonograph record_cell_1_8_2 BloomPhonograph record_cell_1_8_3 Beach HousePhonograph record_cell_1_8_4
8Phonograph record_cell_1_9_0 Boys & GirlsPhonograph record_cell_1_9_1 Alabama ShakesPhonograph record_cell_1_9_2 An Awesome WavePhonograph record_cell_1_9_3 Alt-JPhonograph record_cell_1_9_4
9Phonograph record_cell_1_10_0 21Phonograph record_cell_1_10_1 AdelePhonograph record_cell_1_10_2 Go-Go BootsPhonograph record_cell_1_10_3 Drive-By TruckersPhonograph record_cell_1_10_4
10Phonograph record_cell_1_11_0 Bon IverPhonograph record_cell_1_11_1 Bon IverPhonograph record_cell_1_11_2 The WallPhonograph record_cell_1_11_3 Pink FloydPhonograph record_cell_1_11_4

Less common recording formats Phonograph record_section_31

CX Phonograph record_section_32

In 1981, CBS released the CX format, downward compatible for higher dynamic range and noise reduction. Phonograph record_sentence_500

VinylVideo Phonograph record_section_33

VinylVideo was a 45 RPM format to store a low resolution black and white video on record. Phonograph record_sentence_501

See also Phonograph record_section_34

Phonograph record_unordered_list_3

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: record.