Grassland

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"Greensward" redirects here. Grassland_sentence_0

For park plan, see Central Park. Grassland_sentence_1

This article is about the landscape of grasslands, a common vegetation type. Grassland_sentence_2

For other uses, see Grassland (disambiguation). Grassland_sentence_3

Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae). Grassland_sentence_4

However, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs. Grassland_sentence_5

Grasslands occur naturally on all continents except Antarctica and are found in most ecoregions of the Earth. Grassland_sentence_6

Furthermore, grasslands are one of the largest biomes on earth and dominate the landscape worldwide. Grassland_sentence_7

They cover 31-43% of the Earth's land area. Grassland_sentence_8

There are different types of grasslands: natural grasslands, semi-natural grasslands, and agricultural grasslands. Grassland_sentence_9

Definitions Grassland_section_0

There are a variety of definitions for "grasslands": Grassland_sentence_10

Grassland_unordered_list_0

  • "...any plant community, including harvested forages, in which grasses and/or legumes make up the dominant vegetation."Grassland_item_0_0
  • "...terrestrial ecosystems dominated by herbaceous and shrub vegetation, and maintained by fire, grazing, drought and/or freezing temperatures." (Pilot Assessment of Global Ecosystems, 2000)Grassland_item_0_1
  • "A region with sufficient average annual precipitation (25-75 cm) to support grass..." (Stiling, 1999)Grassland_item_0_2

Semi-natural grasslands are a very common subcategory of the grasslands biome. Grassland_sentence_11

These can be defined as: Grassland_sentence_12

Grassland_unordered_list_1

  • Grassland existing as a result of human activity (mowing or livestock grazing), where environmental conditions and the species pool are maintained by natural processes.Grassland_item_1_3

They can also be described as the following: Grassland_sentence_13

Grassland_unordered_list_2

  • "Semi-natural grasslands are one of the world's most biodiverse habitats on a small spatial scales."Grassland_item_2_4
  • "Semi-natural grasslands belong to the most species rich ecosystems in the world."Grassland_item_2_5
  • "...have been formed over the course of centuries through extensive grazing and mowing."Grassland_item_2_6
  • „...without the use of pesticides or fertilisers in modern time“Grassland_item_2_7

There are many diiferent types types of semi-natural grasslands, e.g. hay meadows. Grassland_sentence_14

Types of grassland Grassland_section_1

Classifications of grasslands Grassland_section_2

Grassland types by Schimper (1898, 1903): Grassland_sentence_15

Grassland_unordered_list_3

  • Meadow (hygrophilous or tropophilous grassland)Grassland_item_3_8
  • Steppe (xerophilous grassland)Grassland_item_3_9
  • Savannah (xerophilous grassland containing isolated trees)Grassland_item_3_10

Grassland types by Ellenberg and Mueller-Dombois (1967): Grassland_sentence_16

Formation-class V. Terrestrial herbaceous communities Grassland_sentence_17

Grassland_ordered_list_4

  1. Savannas and related grasslands (tropical or subtropical grasslands and parklands)Grassland_item_4_11
  2. Steppes and related grasslands (e.g. North American "prairies" etc.)Grassland_item_4_12
  3. Meadows, pastures or related grasslandsGrassland_item_4_13
  4. Sedge swamps and flushesGrassland_item_4_14
  5. Herbaceous and half-woody salt swampsGrassland_item_4_15
  6. Forb vegetationGrassland_item_4_16

Grassland types by Laycock (1979): Grassland_sentence_18

Grassland_ordered_list_5

  1. Tallgrass (true) prairieGrassland_item_5_17
  2. Shortgrass prairieGrassland_item_5_18
  3. Mixed-grass prairieGrassland_item_5_19
  4. Shrub steppeGrassland_item_5_20
  5. Annual grasslandGrassland_item_5_21
  6. Desert (arid) grasslandGrassland_item_5_22
  7. High mountain grasslandGrassland_item_5_23

General grassland types Grassland_section_3

Tropical and subtropical Grassland_section_4

These grasslands can be classified as the tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas and shrublands biome. Grassland_sentence_19

The rainfall level for that grassland type is between 90-150 centimeters per year. Grassland_sentence_20

Grasses and scattered trees are common for that ecoregion, as well as large mammals, such as wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and zebra (Equus zebra). Grassland_sentence_21

Notable tropical and subtropical grasslands include the Llanos grasslands of South America. Grassland_sentence_22

Temperate Grassland_section_5

Mid-latitude grasslands, including the prairie and Pacific grasslands of North America, the Pampas of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, calcareous downland, and the steppes of Europe. Grassland_sentence_23

They are classified with temperate savannas and shrublands as the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. Grassland_sentence_24

Temperate grasslands are the home to many large herbivores, such as bison, gazelles, zebras, rhinoceroses, and wild horses. Grassland_sentence_25

Carnivores like lions, wolves, cheetahs and leopards are also found in temperate grasslands. Grassland_sentence_26

Other animals of this region include deer, prairie dogs, mice, jack rabbits, skunks, coyotes, snakes, foxes, owls, badgers, blackbirds, grasshoppers, meadowlarks, sparrows, quails, hawks and hyenas. Grassland_sentence_27

Flooded Grassland_section_6

Grasslands that are flooded seasonally or year-round, like the Everglades of Florida, the Pantanal of Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay or the Esteros del Ibera in Argentina, are classified with flooded savannas as the flooded grasslands and savannas biome and occur mostly in the tropics and subtropics. Grassland_sentence_28

The species that live in these grasslands are well adapted to the hydrologic regimes and soil conditions. Grassland_sentence_29

The Everglades - the world's largest rain-fed flooded grassland - is rich in 11,000 species of seed-bearing plants, 25 species of orchids, 300 bird species, and 150 fish species. Grassland_sentence_30

Water-meadows are grasslands that are deliberately flooded for short periods. Grassland_sentence_31

Montane Grassland_section_7

High-altitude grasslands located on high mountain ranges around the world, like the Páramo of the Andes Mountains. Grassland_sentence_32

They are part of the montane grasslands and shrublands biome and can be tropical, subtropical, and temperate. Grassland_sentence_33

The plants and animals, that can be found in the tropical montane, are able to adapt to cool, wet conditions as well as intense sunlight. Grassland_sentence_34

Tundra grasslands Grassland_section_8

Similar to montane grasslands, polar Arctic tundra can have grasses, but high soil moisture means that few tundras are grass-dominated today. Grassland_sentence_35

However, during the Pleistocene glacial periods (commonly referred to as ice ages), a grassland known as steppe-tundra or mammoth steppe occupied large areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Grassland_sentence_36

These areas were very cold and arid and featured sub-surface permafrost (hence tundra) but were nevertheless productive grassland ecosystems supporting a wide variety of fauna. Grassland_sentence_37

As the temperature increased and the climate became wetter at the beginning of the Holocene much of the mammoth steppe transitioned to forest, while the drier parts in central Eurasia remained as a grassland, becoming the modern Eurasian steppe. Grassland_sentence_38

Desert and xeric Grassland_section_9

Also called desert grasslands, they are composed of sparse grassland ecoregions located in the deserts and xeric shrublands biome. Grassland_sentence_39

Temperature extremes and low amount of rainfall characterise these kinds of grasslands. Grassland_sentence_40

Therefore, plants and animals are well adapted to minimize water loss. Grassland_sentence_41

Evolutionary history Grassland_section_10

The graminoids are among the most versatile life forms. Grassland_sentence_42

They became widespread toward the end of the Cretaceous period, and coprolites of fossilized dinosaur feces have been found containing phytoliths of a variety of grasses that include grasses that are related to modern rice and bamboo. Grassland_sentence_43

The appearance of mountains in the western United States during the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, a period of some 25 million years, created a continental climate favorable to the evolution of grasslands. Grassland_sentence_44

Around 5 million years ago during the Late Miocene in the New World and the Pliocene in the Old World, the first true grasslands occurred. Grassland_sentence_45

Existing forest biomes declined, and grasslands became much more widespread. Grassland_sentence_46

It is known that grasslands have existed in Europe throughout the Pleistocene (the last 1.8 million years). Grassland_sentence_47

Following the Pleistocene ice ages (with their glacials and interglacials), grasslands expanded in the hotter, drier climates, and began to become the dominant land feature worldwide. Grassland_sentence_48

Since the grasslands have existed for over 1.8 million years, there is high variability. Grassland_sentence_49

For example steppe-tundra dominated in Northern and Central Europe whereas a higher amount of xerothermic grasslands occurred in the Mediterranean area. Grassland_sentence_50

Within temperate Europe, the range of types is quite wide and also became unique due to the exchange of species and genetic material between different biomes. Grassland_sentence_51

The semi-natural grasslands probably first appeared with the human starting farming. Grassland_sentence_52

So for the use of agriculture, forests got cleared in Europe. Grassland_sentence_53

Ancient meadows and pastures were the parts that were suitable for cultivation. Grassland_sentence_54

The semi-natural grasslands were formed from these areas. Grassland_sentence_55

The removal of the plants by the grazing animals and later the mowing farmers led to co-existence of other plant species around. Grassland_sentence_56

In the following, the biodiversity of the plants evolve. Grassland_sentence_57

Also, the species that already lived there adapted to the new conditions. Grassland_sentence_58

Most of the grassland areas have been turned to arable fields and disappeared again. Grassland_sentence_59

Nowadays, semi-natural grasslands are rather located in areas that are unsuitable for agricultural farming. Grassland_sentence_60

Ecology Grassland_section_11

Biodiversity and conservation Grassland_section_12

Grasslands dominated by unsown wild-plant communities ("unimproved grasslands") can be called either natural or "semi-natural" habitat. Grassland_sentence_61

Although their plant communities are natural, their maintenance depends upon anthropogenic activities such as grazing and cutting regimes. Grassland_sentence_62

The semi-natural grasslands contain many species of wild plants, including grasses, sedges, rushes, and herbs; 25 plant-species per 100 square centimeters can be found. Grassland_sentence_63

A European record that was found on a meadow in Estonia described 76 species of plants in one square meter. Grassland_sentence_64

Chalk downlands in England can support over 40 species per square meter. Grassland_sentence_65

In many parts of the world, few examples have escaped agricultural improvement (fertilizing, weed killing, plowing, or re-seeding). Grassland_sentence_66

For example, original North American prairie grasslands or lowland wildflower meadows in the UK are now rare and their associated wild flora equally threatened. Grassland_sentence_67

Associated with the wild-plant diversity of the "unimproved" grasslands is usually a rich invertebrate fauna; there are also many species of birds that are grassland "specialists", such as the snipe and the little bustard. Grassland_sentence_68

Due to semi-natural grasslands being referred to as one of the most-species rich ecosystems in the world and essential habitat for many specialists, also including pollinators, there are many approaches to conservation activities lately. Grassland_sentence_69

Agriculturally improved grasslands, which dominate modern intensive agricultural landscapes, are usually poor in wild plant species due to the original diversity of plants having been destroyed by cultivation and by the use of fertilizers. Grassland_sentence_70

Almost 90% of the European semi-natural grasslands do not exist anymore due to political and economic reasons. Grassland_sentence_71

This loss only took place during the 20th century. Grassland_sentence_72

The ones in Western and Central Europe have almost disappeared completely. Grassland_sentence_73

There are a few left in Northern Europe. Grassland_sentence_74

Unfortunately, a large amount of red-listed species are specialists of semi-natural grasslands and are affected by the landscape change due to agriculture of the last century. Grassland_sentence_75

The original wild-plant communities having been replaced by sown monocultures of cultivated varieties of grasses and clovers, such as perennial ryegrass and white clover. Grassland_sentence_76

In many parts of the world, "unimproved" grasslands are one of the most threatened types of habitat, and a target for acquisition by wildlife conservation groups or for special grants to landowners who are encouraged to manage them appropriately. Grassland_sentence_77

Vegetation Grassland_section_13

Grassland vegetation can vary considerably depending on the grassland type and on how strong it is affected by human impact. Grassland_sentence_78

Dominant trees for the semi-natural grassland are Quercus robur, Betula pendula and Coryplus avellana and many kinds of herbs. Grassland_sentence_79

In chalk grassland, the plants can vary from height to very short. Grassland_sentence_80

Quite tall grasses can be found in North American tallgrass prairie, South American grasslands, and African savanna. Grassland_sentence_81

Woody plants, shrubs or trees may occur on some grasslands – forming savannas, scrubby grassland or semi-wooded grassland, such as the African savannas or the Iberian deheza. Grassland_sentence_82

As flowering plants and trees, grasses grow in great concentrations in climates where annual rainfall ranges between 500 and 900 mm (20 and 35 in). Grassland_sentence_83

The root systems of perennial grasses and forbs form complex mats that hold the soil in place. Grassland_sentence_84

Fauna Grassland_section_14

Grasslands support the greatest aggregations of large animals on earth, including jaguars, African wild dogs, pronghorn, black-footed ferret, plains bison, mountain plover, African elephant, Sunda tiger, black rhino, white rhino, savanna elephant, greater one-horned rhino, Indian elephant and swift fox. Grassland_sentence_85

Grazing animals, herd animals, and predators in grasslands, like lions and cheetahs live in the grasslands of the African savanna. Grassland_sentence_86

Mites, insect larvaenematodes, and earthworms inhabit deep soil, which can reach 6 meters underground in undisturbed grasslands on the richest soils of the world. Grassland_sentence_87

These invertebrates, along with symbiotic fungi, extend the root systems, break apart hard soil, enrich it with urea and other natural fertilizers, trap minerals and water and promote growth. Grassland_sentence_88

Some types of fungi make the plants more resistant to insect and microbial attacks. Grassland_sentence_89

Grassland in all its form supports a vast variety of mammals, reptiles, birds, and insects. Grassland_sentence_90

Typical large mammals include the blue wildebeest, American bison, giant anteater, and Przewalski's horse. Grassland_sentence_91

Threats Grassland_section_15

Grasslands are very sensitive to disturbances, such as people hunting and killing key species, or plowing the land to make more space for farms. Grassland_sentence_92

To feed a growing human population, most of the world's grasslands, including the American prairies, are converted from natural landscapes to fields of corn, wheat or other crops. Grassland_sentence_93

Grasslands that have remained largely intact thus far, like East African savannas, are in danger of being lost to agriculture. Grassland_sentence_94

The plants and animals that live in grasslands are connected through an unlimited web of interactions. Grassland_sentence_95

But the removal of key species—such as buffalo and prairie dogs within the American West—and introduction of invasive species, like cane toads in northern Australia, have disrupted the balance in these ecosystems and damaged a number of other species. Grassland_sentence_96

Grasslands are home to a number of the foremost magnificent animals on the planet—elephants, bison, lions—and hunters have found them to be enticing prey. Grassland_sentence_97

But when hunting isn't controlled or is conducted illegally, species can become extinct. Grassland_sentence_98

Effects of climate change Grassland_section_16

Grasslands often occur in areas with annual precipitation is between 600 mm (24 in) and 1,500 mm (59 in) and average mean annual temperatures ranges from −5 and 20 °C. Grassland_sentence_99

However, some grasslands occur in colder (−20 °C) and hotter (30 °C) climatic conditions. Grassland_sentence_100

Grassland can exist in habitats that are frequently disturbed by grazing or fire, as such disturbance prevents the encroachment of woody species. Grassland_sentence_101

Species richness is particularly high in grasslands of low soil fertility such as serpentine barrens and calcareous grasslands, where woody encroachment is prevented as low nutrient levels in the soil may inhibit the growth of forest and shrub species. Grassland_sentence_102

Another common predicament often experienced by the ill-fated grassland creatures is the constant burning of plants, fueled by oxygen and many expired photosynthesizing organisms, with the lack of rain pushing this problem to further heights. Grassland_sentence_103

When not limited by other factors, increasing CO2 concentration in the air increases plant growth, similarly as water use efficiency, which is very important in drier regions. Grassland_sentence_104

However, the advantages of elevated CO2 are limited by factors including water availability and available nutrients, particularly nitrogen. Grassland_sentence_105

Thus effects of elevated CO2 on plant growth will vary with local climate patterns, species adaptations to water limitations, and nitrogen availability. Grassland_sentence_106

Studies indicate that nutrient depletion may happen faster in drier regions, and with factors like plant community composition and grazing. Grassland_sentence_107

Nitrogen deposition from air pollutants and increased mineralization from higher temperatures can increase plant productivity, but increases are often among a discount in biodiversity as faster-growing plants outcompete others. Grassland_sentence_108

A study of a California grassland found that global change may speed reductions in diversity and forb species are most prone to this process. Grassland_sentence_109

Human impact and economic importance Grassland_section_17

The grasslands we see today have an extensive history of human activity and disturbance. Grassland_sentence_110

Grassland vegetation is often a plagioclimax; it remains dominant in a particular area usually due to grazing, cutting, or natural or man-made fires, all discouraging colonization by and survival of tree and shrub seedlings. Grassland_sentence_111

Some of the world's largest expanses of grassland are found in the African savanna, and these are maintained by wild herbivores as well as by nomadic pastoralists and their cattle, sheep or goats. Grassland_sentence_112

Grasslands have an impact on climate change by slower decomposition rates of litter compared to forest environments. Grassland_sentence_113

Herbaceous (non-wooded) vegetation dominates grasslands and, unlike forests, carbon is stored in the roots and soil underground. Grassland_sentence_114

Furthermore, this above-ground biomass carbon is relatively short-lived due to grazing, fire, and senescence. Grassland_sentence_115

In contrast, grassland species have an extensive fibrous root system, with grasses often accounting for 60-80% of the biomass carbon in this ecosystem. Grassland_sentence_116

This underground biomass can extend several meters below the surface and store abundant carbon into the soil, resulting in deep, fertile soils with high organic matter content. Grassland_sentence_117

For this reason, soil carbon accounts for about 81% of the total ecosystem carbon in grasslands. Grassland_sentence_118

The close link between soil carbon and underground biomass leads to similar responses of these carbon pools to fluctuations in annual precipitation and temperature on a broad spatial scale. Grassland_sentence_119

Because plant productivity is limited by grassland precipitation, carbon stocks are highest in regions where precipitation is heaviest, such as the high grass prairie in the humid temperate region of the United States. Grassland_sentence_120

Similarly, as annual temperatures rise, grassland carbon stocks decrease due to increased evapotranspiration. Grassland_sentence_121

Grasslands have suffered large losses of organic carbon due to soil disturbances, vegetation degradation, fires, erosion, nutrient deficiencies, and water shortages. Grassland_sentence_122

The type, frequency and intensity of the disturbance can play a key role in the soil organic carbon (SOC) balance of grasslands. Grassland_sentence_123

Bedrock, irrigation practices, soil acidification, liming, and pasture management can all have potential impacts on grassland organic carbon stocks. Grassland_sentence_124

Grasslands may occur naturally or as a result of human activity. Grassland_sentence_125

Hunting cultures around the world often set regular fires to maintain and extend grasslands and prevent fire-intolerant trees and shrubs from taking hold. Grassland_sentence_126

The tallgrass prairies in the U.S. Grassland_sentence_127 Midwest may have been extended eastward into Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio by human agency. Grassland_sentence_128

Much grassland in northwest Europe developed after the Neolithic Period when people gradually cleared the forest to create areas for raising their livestock. Grassland_sentence_129

Land cover has always changed during the years. Grassland_sentence_130

The following relates to the changes between 1960 and 2015. Grassland_sentence_131

There has been a decrease in semi-natural grasslands and an increase in areas with arable land, forest and land used for infrastructure and buildings. Grassland_sentence_132

The line style and relative thickness of the lines indicates the percentage of the total area that changed. Grassland_sentence_133

Changes less than 1% and land-cover classes with all changes less than 1% (i.e. semi-natural wetlands and water) are not included. Grassland_sentence_134

In 1960 most of the land, 49.7%, was covered with forest and there was also more semi-natural grassland (18.8%) than arable land (15.8%). Grassland_sentence_135

In 2015 this has changed drastically. Grassland_sentence_136

The forest cover has increased (50.8%) and arable land has also increased (20.4%), but the semi-natural grassland cover has decreased. Grassland_sentence_137

Although it still covers a large area of the earth (10.6%). Grassland_sentence_138

A quarter of semi-natural grassland was lost through intensification, i.e. it was converted into arable or pasture land and forests. Grassland_sentence_139

It is more likely that intensification will occur in flat semi-natural grasslands, especially if the soil is fertile. Grassland_sentence_140

On the other hand, grasslands, where the land is drought-prone or less productive, are more likely to persist as semi-natural grasslands than grasslands with fertile soil and low gradient of the terrain. Grassland_sentence_141

Furthermore, the accessibility of the land is also important, as it is then easier to fertilize, for example. Grassland_sentence_142

For instance, if it is located near a road. Grassland_sentence_143

With the development of technology, it is becoming increasingly easy to cultivate land with a steeper gradient, to the detriment of grasslands. Grassland_sentence_144

The management of grasslands is also changing permanently. Grassland_sentence_145

There is increased use of mineral fertilizers, furthermore borders and field edges are removed to enlarge fields and leveling the terrain to facilitate the use of agricultural machinery. Grassland_sentence_146

The professional study of dry grasslands falls under the category of rangeland management, which focuses on ecosystem services associated with the grass-dominated arid and semi-arid rangelands of the world. Grassland_sentence_147

Rangelands account for an estimated 70% of the earth's landmass; thus, many cultures including those of the United States are indebted to the economics that the world's grasslands have to offer, from producing grazing animals, tourism, ecosystems services such as clean water and air, and energy extraction. Grassland_sentence_148

Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands ecoregions Grassland_section_18

The grassland ecoregions of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome are: Grassland_sentence_149

Grassland_table_general_0

Afrotropical temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublandsGrassland_header_cell_0_0_0
Al Hajar montane woodlandsGrassland_cell_0_1_0 Oman, United Arab EmiratesGrassland_cell_0_1_1
Amsterdam and Saint-Paul Islands temperate grasslandsGrassland_cell_0_2_0 Amsterdam Island, Saint-Paul IslandGrassland_cell_0_2_1
Tristan da Cunha–Gough Islands shrub and grasslandsGrassland_cell_0_3_0 Tristan da Cunha, Gough IslandGrassland_cell_0_3_1

Grassland_table_general_1

Australasian temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublandsGrassland_header_cell_1_0_0
Canterbury-Otago tussock grasslandsGrassland_cell_1_1_0 New ZealandGrassland_cell_1_1_1
Eastern Australia mulga shrublandsGrassland_cell_1_2_0 AustraliaGrassland_cell_1_2_1
Southeast Australia temperate savannaGrassland_cell_1_3_0 AustraliaGrassland_cell_1_3_1

Grassland_table_general_2

Nearctic temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublandsGrassland_header_cell_2_0_0
California Central Valley grasslandsGrassland_cell_2_1_0 United StatesGrassland_cell_2_1_1
Canadian aspen forests and parklandsGrassland_cell_2_2_0 Canada, United StatesGrassland_cell_2_2_1
Central and Southern mixed grasslandsGrassland_cell_2_3_0 United StatesGrassland_cell_2_3_1
Central forest-grasslands transitionGrassland_cell_2_4_0 United StatesGrassland_cell_2_4_1
Central tall grasslandsGrassland_cell_2_5_0 United StatesGrassland_cell_2_5_1
Columbia PlateauGrassland_cell_2_6_0 United StatesGrassland_cell_2_6_1
Edwards Plateau savannaGrassland_cell_2_7_0 United StatesGrassland_cell_2_7_1
Flint Hills tall grasslandsGrassland_cell_2_8_0 United StatesGrassland_cell_2_8_1
Montana valley and foothill grasslandsGrassland_cell_2_9_0 United StatesGrassland_cell_2_9_1
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslandsGrassland_cell_2_10_0 United StatesGrassland_cell_2_10_1
Northern mixed grasslandsGrassland_cell_2_11_0 Canada, United StatesGrassland_cell_2_11_1
Northern short grasslandsGrassland_cell_2_12_0 Canada, United StatesGrassland_cell_2_12_1
Northern tall grasslandsGrassland_cell_2_13_0 Canada, United StatesGrassland_cell_2_13_1
Palouse grasslandsGrassland_cell_2_14_0 United StatesGrassland_cell_2_14_1
Texas blackland prairiesGrassland_cell_2_15_0 United StatesGrassland_cell_2_15_1
Western short grasslandsGrassland_cell_2_16_0 United StatesGrassland_cell_2_16_1

Grassland_table_general_3

Neotropical temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublandsGrassland_header_cell_3_0_0
Argentine EspinalGrassland_cell_3_1_0 ArgentinaGrassland_cell_3_1_1
Argentine MonteGrassland_cell_3_2_0 ArgentinaGrassland_cell_3_2_1
Humid PampasGrassland_cell_3_3_0 Argentina, UruguayGrassland_cell_3_3_1
Patagonian grasslandsGrassland_cell_3_4_0 ArgentinaGrassland_cell_3_4_1
Patagonian steppeGrassland_cell_3_5_0 ArgentinaGrassland_cell_3_5_1
Semi-arid PampasGrassland_cell_3_6_0 ArgentinaGrassland_cell_3_6_1

Grassland_table_general_4

Palearctic temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublandsGrassland_header_cell_4_0_0
Al-Hajar foothill xeric woodlands and shrublandsGrassland_cell_4_1_0 Oman, United Arab EmiratesGrassland_cell_4_1_1
Al-Hajar montane woodlands and shrublandsGrassland_cell_4_2_0 Oman, United Arab EmiratesGrassland_cell_4_2_1
Alai-Western Tian Shan steppeGrassland_cell_4_3_0 Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, UzbekistanGrassland_cell_4_3_1
Altai steppe and semi-desertGrassland_cell_4_4_0 KazakhstanGrassland_cell_4_4_1
Central Anatolian steppeGrassland_cell_4_5_0 TurkeyGrassland_cell_4_5_1
Daurian forest steppeGrassland_cell_4_6_0 China, Mongolia, RussiaGrassland_cell_4_6_1
Eastern Anatolian montane steppeGrassland_cell_4_7_0 Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, TurkeyGrassland_cell_4_7_1
Emin Valley steppeGrassland_cell_4_8_0 China, KazakhstanGrassland_cell_4_8_1
Faroe Islands boreal grasslandsGrassland_cell_4_9_0 Faroe Islands, DenmarkGrassland_cell_4_9_1
Gissaro-Alai open woodlandsGrassland_cell_4_10_0 Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, UzbekistanGrassland_cell_4_10_1
Kazakh forest steppeGrassland_cell_4_11_0 Kazakhstan, RussiaGrassland_cell_4_11_1
Kazakh steppeGrassland_cell_4_12_0 Kazakhstan, RussiaGrassland_cell_4_12_1
Kazakh UplandsGrassland_cell_4_13_0 KazakhstanGrassland_cell_4_13_1
Mongolian-Manchurian grasslandGrassland_cell_4_14_0 China, Mongolia, RussiaGrassland_cell_4_14_1
Pontic steppeGrassland_cell_4_15_0 Kazakhstan, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine, BulgariaGrassland_cell_4_15_1
Sayan Intermontane steppeGrassland_cell_4_16_0 RussiaGrassland_cell_4_16_1
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppeGrassland_cell_4_17_0 Mongolia, RussiaGrassland_cell_4_17_1
South Siberian forest steppeGrassland_cell_4_18_0 RussiaGrassland_cell_4_18_1
Syrian xeric grasslands and shrublandsGrassland_cell_4_19_0 Iraq, Jordan, SyriaGrassland_cell_4_19_1
Tian Shan foothill arid steppeGrassland_cell_4_20_0 China, Kazakhstan, KyrgyzstanGrassland_cell_4_20_1

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands ecoregions Grassland_section_19

Grassland_table_general_5

Afrotropical tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublandsGrassland_header_cell_5_0_0
Angolan miombo woodlandsGrassland_cell_5_1_0 AngolaGrassland_cell_5_1_1
Angolan mopane woodlandsGrassland_cell_5_2_0 Angola, NamibiaGrassland_cell_5_2_1
Ascension scrub and grasslandsGrassland_cell_5_3_0 Ascension IslandGrassland_cell_5_3_1
Central Zambezian miombo woodlandsGrassland_cell_5_4_0 Angola, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Tanzania, ZambiaGrassland_cell_5_4_1
East Sudanian savannaGrassland_cell_5_5_0 Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Sudan, UgandaGrassland_cell_5_5_1
Eastern miombo woodlandsGrassland_cell_5_6_0 Mozambique, TanzaniaGrassland_cell_5_6_1
Guinean forest-savanna mosaicGrassland_cell_5_7_0 Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Senegal, TogoGrassland_cell_5_7_1
Itigi-Sumbu thicketGrassland_cell_5_8_0 Tanzania, ZambiaGrassland_cell_5_8_1
Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlandsGrassland_cell_5_9_0 Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, ZimbabweGrassland_cell_5_9_1
Mandara Plateau mosaicGrassland_cell_5_10_0 Cameroon, NigeriaGrassland_cell_5_10_1
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thicketsGrassland_cell_5_11_0 Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan, UgandaGrassland_cell_5_11_1
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaicGrassland_cell_5_12_0 Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, UgandaGrassland_cell_5_12_1
Sahelian Acacia savannaGrassland_cell_5_13_0 Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Sudan, SudanGrassland_cell_5_13_1
Serengeti volcanic grasslandsGrassland_cell_5_14_0 Kenya, TanzaniaGrassland_cell_5_14_1
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thicketsGrassland_cell_5_15_0 Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, SomaliaGrassland_cell_5_15_1
South Arabian fog woodlands, shrublands, and duneGrassland_cell_5_16_0 Oman, Saudi Arabia, YemenGrassland_cell_5_16_1
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thicketsGrassland_cell_5_17_0 Kenya, TanzaniaGrassland_cell_5_17_1
Southern Africa bushveldGrassland_cell_5_18_0 Botswana, South Africa, ZimbabweGrassland_cell_5_18_1
Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaicGrassland_cell_5_19_0 Angola, Democratic Republic of the CongoGrassland_cell_5_19_1
Southern miombo woodlandsGrassland_cell_5_20_0 Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, ZimbabweGrassland_cell_5_20_1
Southwest Arabian montane woodlands and grasslandsGrassland_cell_5_21_0 Saudi Arabia, YemenGrassland_cell_5_21_1
Saint Helena scrub and woodlandsGrassland_cell_5_22_0 Saint HelenaGrassland_cell_5_22_1
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaicGrassland_cell_5_23_0 Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, UgandaGrassland_cell_5_23_1
West Sudanian savannaGrassland_cell_5_24_0 Benin, Burkina Faso, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea,Mali, Ivory Coast, Niger, Nigeria, SenegalGrassland_cell_5_24_1
Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaicGrassland_cell_5_25_0 Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the CongoGrassland_cell_5_25_1
Western Zambezian grasslandsGrassland_cell_5_26_0 Angola, ZambiaGrassland_cell_5_26_1
Zambezian and mopane woodlandsGrassland_cell_5_27_0 Botswana, eSwatini (Swaziland), Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, ZimbabweGrassland_cell_5_27_1
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlandsGrassland_cell_5_28_0 Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, ZimbabweGrassland_cell_5_28_1

Grassland_table_general_6

Australasian tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublandsGrassland_header_cell_6_0_0
Arnhem Land tropical savannaGrassland_cell_6_1_0 AustraliaGrassland_cell_6_1_1
Brigalow tropical savannaGrassland_cell_6_2_0 AustraliaGrassland_cell_6_2_1
Cape York Peninsula tropical savannaGrassland_cell_6_3_0 AustraliaGrassland_cell_6_3_1
Carpentaria tropical savannaGrassland_cell_6_4_0 AustraliaGrassland_cell_6_4_1
Einasleigh Uplands savannaGrassland_cell_6_5_0 AustraliaGrassland_cell_6_5_1
Kimberley tropical savannaGrassland_cell_6_6_0 AustraliaGrassland_cell_6_6_1
Mitchell grass downsGrassland_cell_6_7_0 AustraliaGrassland_cell_6_7_1
Trans-Fly savanna and grasslandsGrassland_cell_6_8_0 Indonesia, Papua New GuineaGrassland_cell_6_8_1
Victoria Plains tropical savannaGrassland_cell_6_9_0 AustraliaGrassland_cell_6_9_1

Grassland_table_general_7

Indomalayan tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublandsGrassland_header_cell_7_0_0
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslandsGrassland_cell_7_1_0 Bhutan, India, NepalGrassland_cell_7_1_1

Grassland_table_general_8

Nearctic tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublandsGrassland_header_cell_8_0_0
Western Gulf coastal grasslandsGrassland_cell_8_1_0 Mexico, United StatesGrassland_cell_8_1_1

Grassland_table_general_9

Neotropical tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublandsGrassland_header_cell_9_0_0
Beni savannaGrassland_cell_9_1_0 BoliviaGrassland_cell_9_1_1
Campos rupestresGrassland_cell_9_2_0 BrazilGrassland_cell_9_2_1
CerradoGrassland_cell_9_3_0 Bolivia, Brazil, ParaguayGrassland_cell_9_3_1
Clipperton Island shrub and grasslandsGrassland_cell_9_4_0 Clipperton Island is an overseas territory of FranceGrassland_cell_9_4_1
Córdoba montane savannaGrassland_cell_9_5_0 ArgentinaGrassland_cell_9_5_1
Guianan savannaGrassland_cell_9_6_0 Brazil, Guyana, VenezuelaGrassland_cell_9_6_1
Gran ChacoGrassland_cell_9_7_0 Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, BoliviaGrassland_cell_9_7_1
LlanosGrassland_cell_9_8_0 Venezuela, ColombiaGrassland_cell_9_8_1
Uruguayan savannaGrassland_cell_9_9_0 Argentina, Brazil, UruguayGrassland_cell_9_9_1

Grassland_table_general_10

Oceanian tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublandsGrassland_header_cell_10_0_0
Hawaiian tropical high shrublandsGrassland_cell_10_1_0 HawaiʻiGrassland_cell_10_1_1
Hawaiian tropical low shrublandsGrassland_cell_10_2_0 HawaiʻiGrassland_cell_10_2_1
Northwestern Hawaii scrubGrassland_cell_10_3_0 Hawaiʻi, Midway AtollGrassland_cell_10_3_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grassland.