Grateful Dead

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This article is about the rock band. Grateful Dead_sentence_0

For the folktale, see Grateful dead (folklore). Grateful Dead_sentence_1

Grateful Dead_table_infobox_0

Grateful DeadGrateful Dead_header_cell_0_0_0
Background informationGrateful Dead_header_cell_0_1_0
OriginGrateful Dead_header_cell_0_2_0 San Francisco, California, U.S.Grateful Dead_cell_0_2_1
GenresGrateful Dead_header_cell_0_3_0 RockGrateful Dead_cell_0_3_1
Years activeGrateful Dead_header_cell_0_4_0 1965–1995Grateful Dead_cell_0_4_1
LabelsGrateful Dead_header_cell_0_5_0 Grateful Dead_cell_0_5_1
Associated actsGrateful Dead_header_cell_0_6_0 Grateful Dead_cell_0_6_1
WebsiteGrateful Dead_header_cell_0_7_0 Grateful Dead_cell_0_7_1
Past membersGrateful Dead_header_cell_0_9_0 Grateful Dead_cell_0_9_1

The Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in Palo Alto, California. Grateful Dead_sentence_2

The band is known for its eclectic style, which fused elements of rock, folk, country, jazz, bluegrass, blues, gospel, and psychedelic rock; for live performances of lengthy instrumental jams; and for its devoted fan base, known as "Deadheads". Grateful Dead_sentence_3

"Their music", writes Lenny Kaye, "touches on ground that most other groups don't even know exists." Grateful Dead_sentence_4

These various influences were distilled into a diverse and psychedelic whole that made the Grateful Dead "the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world". Grateful Dead_sentence_5

The band was ranked 57th by Rolling Stone magazine in its The Greatest Artists of All Time issue. Grateful Dead_sentence_6

The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994 and a recording of their May 8, 1977 performance at Cornell University's Barton Hall was added to the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress in 2012. Grateful Dead_sentence_7

The Grateful Dead has sold more than 35 million albums worldwide. Grateful Dead_sentence_8

The Grateful Dead was founded in the San Francisco Bay Area amid the rise of the counterculture of the 1960s. Grateful Dead_sentence_9

The founding members were Jerry Garcia (lead guitar, vocals), Bob Weir (rhythm guitar, vocals), Ron "Pigpen" McKernan (keyboards, harmonica, vocals), Phil Lesh (bass, vocals), and Bill Kreutzmann (drums). Grateful Dead_sentence_10

Members of the Grateful Dead had played together in various San Francisco bands, including Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions and the Warlocks. Grateful Dead_sentence_11

Lesh was the last member to join the Warlocks before they became the Grateful Dead; he replaced Dana Morgan Jr., who had played bass for a few gigs. Grateful Dead_sentence_12

Drummer Mickey Hart and non-performing lyricist Robert Hunter joined in 1967. Grateful Dead_sentence_13

With the exception of McKernan, who died in 1973, and Hart, who took time off from 1971 to 1974, the core of the band stayed together for its entire 30-year history. Grateful Dead_sentence_14

The other official members of the band are Tom Constanten (keyboards; 1968–1970), John Perry Barlow (nonperforming lyricist; 1971–1995), Keith Godchaux (keyboards; 1971–1979), Donna Godchaux (vocals; 1972–1979), Brent Mydland (keyboards, vocals; 1979–1990), and Vince Welnick (keyboards, vocals; 1990–1995). Grateful Dead_sentence_15

Bruce Hornsby (accordion, piano, vocals) was a touring member from 1990 to 1992, as well as a guest with the band on occasion before and after the tours. Grateful Dead_sentence_16

After the death of Garcia in 1995, former members of the band, along with other musicians, toured as the Other Ones in 1998, 2000, and 2002, and the Dead in 2003, 2004, and 2009. Grateful Dead_sentence_17

In 2015, the four surviving core members marked the band's 50th anniversary in a series of concerts that were billed as their last performances together. Grateful Dead_sentence_18

There have also been several spin-offs featuring one or more core members, such as Dead & Company, Furthur, the Rhythm Devils, Phil Lesh and Friends, RatDog, and Billy & the Kids. Grateful Dead_sentence_19

Formation (1965–1966) Grateful Dead_section_0

The Grateful Dead began their career as The Warlocks, a group formed in early 1965 from the remnants of a Palo Alto, California jug band called Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions. Grateful Dead_sentence_20

The band's first show was at Magoo's Pizza Parlor located at 639 Santa Cruz Avenue in suburban Menlo Park, on May 5, 1965. Grateful Dead_sentence_21

They continued playing bar shows, like Frenchy's Bikini-A-Go-Go in Hayward and, importantly, five sets a night, five nights a week, for six weeks, at the In Room in Belmont as the Warlocks, but quickly changed the band's name after finding out that a different band called The Warlocks had put out a record under the same name. Grateful Dead_sentence_22

(The Velvet Underground also had to change their name from the Warlocks.) Grateful Dead_sentence_23

The first show under the name Grateful Dead was in San Jose on December 4, 1965, at one of Ken Kesey's Acid Tests. Grateful Dead_sentence_24

Earlier demo tapes have survived, but the first of over 2,000 concerts known to have been recorded by the band's fans was a show at the Fillmore Auditorium in San Francisco on January 8, 1966. Grateful Dead_sentence_25

Later that month, the Grateful Dead played at the Trips Festival, a three-day psychedelic rock weekend party/event produced by Ken Kesey, Stewart Brand, and Ramon Sender, that, in conjunction with the Merry Pranksters, brought together the nascent hippie movement for the first time. Grateful Dead_sentence_26

The name "Grateful Dead" was chosen from a dictionary. Grateful Dead_sentence_27

According to Phil Lesh, "[Jerry Garcia] picked up an old Britannica World Language Dictionary ... [and] ... Grateful Dead_sentence_28

In that silvery elf-voice he said to me, 'Hey, man, how about the Grateful Dead?'" Grateful Dead_sentence_29

The definition there was "the soul of a dead person, or his angel, showing gratitude to someone who, as an act of charity, arranged their burial". Grateful Dead_sentence_30

According to Alan Trist, director of the Grateful Dead's music publisher company Ice Nine, Garcia found the name in the Funk & Wagnalls Folklore Dictionary, when his finger landed on that phrase while playing a game of Fictionary. Grateful Dead_sentence_31

In the Garcia biography Captain Trips, author Sandy Troy states that the band was smoking the psychedelic DMT at the time. Grateful Dead_sentence_32

The term "grateful dead" appears in folktales from a variety of cultures. Grateful Dead_sentence_33

Other supporting personnel who signed on early included Rock Scully, who heard of the band from Kesey and signed on as manager after meeting them at the Big Beat Acid Test; Stewart Brand, "with his side show of taped music and slides of Indian life, a multimedia presentation" at the Big Beat and then, expanded, at the Trips Festival; and Owsley Stanley, the "Acid King" whose LSD supplied the tests and who, in early 1966, became the band's financial backer, renting them a house on the fringes of Watts (Los Angeles) and buying them sound equipment. Grateful Dead_sentence_34

"We were living solely off of Owsley's good graces at that time. Grateful Dead_sentence_35

... [His] trip was he wanted to design equipment for us, and we were going to have to be in sort of a lab situation for him to do it", said Garcia. Grateful Dead_sentence_36

Main career (1967–1995) Grateful Dead_section_1

One of the group's earliest major performances in 1967 was the Mantra-Rock Dance—a musical event held on January 29, 1967, at the Avalon Ballroom by the San Francisco Hare Krishna temple. Grateful Dead_sentence_37

The Grateful Dead performed at the event along with the Hare Krishna founder Bhaktivedanta Swami, poet Allen Ginsberg, bands Moby Grape and Big Brother and the Holding Company with Janis Joplin, donating proceeds to the Krishna temple. Grateful Dead_sentence_38

The band's first LP, The Grateful Dead, was released on Warner Brothers in 1967. Grateful Dead_sentence_39

Classically trained trumpeter Phil Lesh performed on bass guitar. Grateful Dead_sentence_40

Bob Weir, the youngest original member of the group, played rhythm guitar. Grateful Dead_sentence_41

Ron "Pigpen" McKernan played keyboards and harmonica until shortly before his death in 1973 at the age of 27. Grateful Dead_sentence_42

Garcia, Weir, and McKernan shared the lead vocal duties more or less equally; Lesh only sang a few leads, but his tenor was a key part of the band's three-part vocal harmonies. Grateful Dead_sentence_43

Bill Kreutzmann played drums, and in September 1967 was joined by a second drummer, New York City native Mickey Hart, who also played a wide variety of other percussion instruments. Grateful Dead_sentence_44

1970 included tour dates in New Orleans, Louisiana, where the band performed at The Warehouse for two nights. Grateful Dead_sentence_45

On January 31, 1970, the local police raided their hotel on Bourbon Street, and arrested and charged a total of 19 people with possession of various drugs. Grateful Dead_sentence_46

The second night's concert was performed as scheduled after bail was posted. Grateful Dead_sentence_47

Eventually, the charges were dismissed, except those against sound engineer Owsley Stanley, who was already facing charges in California for manufacturing LSD. Grateful Dead_sentence_48

This event was later memorialized in the lyrics of the song "Truckin'", a single from American Beauty which reached number 64 on the charts. Grateful Dead_sentence_49

Mickey Hart took time off from the Grateful Dead beginning in February 1971, leaving Kreutzmann once again as the sole percussionist. Grateful Dead_sentence_50

Hart rejoined the Grateful Dead for good in October 1974. Grateful Dead_sentence_51

Tom "TC" Constanten was added as a second keyboardist from 1968 to 1970, while Pigpen also played various percussion instruments and sang. Grateful Dead_sentence_52

After Constanten's departure, Pigpen reclaimed his position as sole keyboardist. Grateful Dead_sentence_53

Less than two years later, in late 1971, Pigpen was joined by another keyboardist, Keith Godchaux, who played grand piano alongside Pigpen's Hammond B-3 organ. Grateful Dead_sentence_54

In early 1972, Keith's wife, Donna Jean Godchaux, joined the Grateful Dead as a backing vocalist. Grateful Dead_sentence_55

Following the Grateful Dead's "Europe '72" tour, Pigpen's health had deteriorated to the point that he could no longer tour with the band. Grateful Dead_sentence_56

His final concert appearance was June 17, 1972, at the Hollywood Bowl, in Los Angeles; he died on March 8, 1973 of complications from liver damage. Grateful Dead_sentence_57

The death of Pigpen did not slow the band down, and they continued with their new members. Grateful Dead_sentence_58

They soon formed their own record group, Grateful Dead Records. Grateful Dead_sentence_59

Later that year, they released their next studio album, the jazz-influenced Wake of the Flood. Grateful Dead_sentence_60

It became their biggest commercial success thus far. Grateful Dead_sentence_61

Meanwhile, capitalizing on Flood's success, the band soon went back to the studio, and the next year, 1974, released another album, From the Mars Hotel. Grateful Dead_sentence_62

Not long after that album's release however, the Dead decided to take a hiatus from live touring. Grateful Dead_sentence_63

Before embarking on the hiatus, the band performed a series of five concerts at the Winterland Ballroom in San Francisco in October 1974. Grateful Dead_sentence_64

The concerts were filmed, and Garcia compiled the footage into The Grateful Dead Movie, a feature-length concert film that would be released in 1977. Grateful Dead_sentence_65

In September 1975, the Dead released their eighth studio album, Blues for Allah. Grateful Dead_sentence_66

They resumed touring in June 1976. Grateful Dead_sentence_67

That same year, they signed with Arista Records. Grateful Dead_sentence_68

Their new contract soon produced Terrapin Station in 1977. Grateful Dead_sentence_69

The band's tour in the spring of that year is held in high regard by their fans, and their concert of May 8 at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York is often considered to be one of the best performances of their career. Grateful Dead_sentence_70

Keith and Donna Jean Godchaux left the band in February 1979. Grateful Dead_sentence_71

Following the departure of the Godchauxs, Brent Mydland joined as keyboardist and vocalist and was considered "the perfect fit". Grateful Dead_sentence_72

The Godchauxs then formed the Heart of Gold Band before Keith died in a car accident in 1980. Grateful Dead_sentence_73

Mydland was the keyboardist for the Grateful Dead for 11 years until his death by narcotics overdose in July 1990, becoming the third keyboardist to die. Grateful Dead_sentence_74

Shortly after Mydland found his place in the early 1980s, Garcia's health began to decline. Grateful Dead_sentence_75

His drug habits caused him to lose his liveliness on stage. Grateful Dead_sentence_76

After beginning to curtail his opiate usage in 1985 gradually, Garcia slipped into a diabetic coma for several days in July 1986. Grateful Dead_sentence_77

After he recovered, the band released In the Dark in July 1987, which became their best selling studio album and produced their only top-10 single, "Touch of Grey". Grateful Dead_sentence_78

Also that year, the group toured with Bob Dylan, as heard on the album Dylan & the Dead. Grateful Dead_sentence_79

Mydland died after the summer tour in 1990 and Vince Welnick, former keyboardist for the Tubes, joined as a band member, while Bruce Hornsby, who had a successful career with his band the Range, joined as a touring member. Grateful Dead_sentence_80

Both performed on keyboards and vocals—Welnick until the band's end, and Hornsby mainly from 1990 to 1992. Grateful Dead_sentence_81

The Grateful Dead performed their final concert on July 9, 1995 at Soldier Field in Chicago. Grateful Dead_sentence_82

Aftermath (1995 to present) Grateful Dead_section_2

See also: Reunions of the Grateful Dead Grateful Dead_sentence_83

Jerry Garcia died on August 9, 1995. Grateful Dead_sentence_84

A few months after Garcia's death, the remaining members of the Grateful Dead decided to disband. Grateful Dead_sentence_85

Since that time, there have been a number of reunions by the surviving members involving various combinations of musicians. Grateful Dead_sentence_86

Additionally, the former members have also begun or continued individual projects. Grateful Dead_sentence_87

In 1998, Bob Weir, Phil Lesh, and Mickey Hart, along with several other musicians, formed a band called the Other Ones, and performed a number of concerts that year, releasing a live album, The Strange Remain, the following year. Grateful Dead_sentence_88

In 2000, the Other Ones toured again, this time with Kreutzmann but without Lesh. Grateful Dead_sentence_89

After taking another year off, the band toured again in 2002 with Lesh. Grateful Dead_sentence_90

That year, the Other Ones then included all four living former Grateful Dead members who had been in the band for most or all of its history. Grateful Dead_sentence_91

At different times the shifting lineup of the Other Ones also included guitarists Mark Karan, Steve Kimock, and Jimmy Herring, keyboardists Bruce Hornsby, Jeff Chimenti, and Rob Barraco, saxophonist Dave Ellis, drummer John Molo, bassist Alphonso Johnson, and vocalist Susan Tedeschi. Grateful Dead_sentence_92

In 2003, the Other Ones, still including Weir, Lesh, Hart, and Kreutzmann, changed their name to the Dead. Grateful Dead_sentence_93

The Dead toured the United States in 2003, 2004 and 2009. Grateful Dead_sentence_94

The band's lineups included Jimmy Herring and Warren Haynes on guitar, Jeff Chimenti and Rob Barraco on keyboards, and Joan Osborne on vocals. Grateful Dead_sentence_95

In 2008, members of the Dead played two concerts, called "Deadheads for Obama" and "Change Rocks". Grateful Dead_sentence_96

Following the 2009 Dead tour, Lesh and Weir formed the band Furthur, which debuted in September 2009. Grateful Dead_sentence_97

Joining Lesh and Weir in Furthur were John Kadlecik (guitar), Jeff Chimenti (keyboards), Joe Russo (drums), Jay Lane (drums), Sunshine Becker (vocals), and Zoe Ellis (vocals). Grateful Dead_sentence_98

Lane and Ellis left the band in 2010, and vocalist Jeff Pehrson joined later that year. Grateful Dead_sentence_99

Furthur disbanded in 2014. Grateful Dead_sentence_100

In 2010, Hart and Kreutzmann re-formed the Rhythm Devils, and played a summer concert tour. Grateful Dead_sentence_101

Since 1995, the former members of the Grateful Dead have also pursued solo music careers. Grateful Dead_sentence_102

Both Bob Weir & RatDog and Phil Lesh and Friends have performed many concerts and released several albums. Grateful Dead_sentence_103

Mickey Hart and Bill Kreutzmann have also each released a few albums. Grateful Dead_sentence_104

Hart has toured with his world music percussion ensemble Planet Drum as well as the Mickey Hart Band. Grateful Dead_sentence_105

Kreutzmann has led several different bands, including BK3, 7 Walkers (with Papa Mali), and Billy & the Kids. Grateful Dead_sentence_106

Donna Godchaux has returned to the music scene, with the Donna Jean Godchaux Band, and Tom Constanten also continues to write and perform music. Grateful Dead_sentence_107

All of these groups continue to play Grateful Dead music. Grateful Dead_sentence_108

In October 2014, it was announced that Martin Scorsese would produce a documentary film about the Grateful Dead, to be directed by Amir Bar-Lev. Grateful Dead_sentence_109

David Lemieux supervised the musical selection, and Weir, Hart, Kreutzmann, and Lesh agreed to new interviews for the film. Grateful Dead_sentence_110

Bar-Lev's four-hour documentary, titled Long Strange Trip, was released in 2017. Grateful Dead_sentence_111

"Fare Thee Well" Grateful Dead_section_3

Main article: Fare Thee Well: Celebrating 50 Years of the Grateful Dead Grateful Dead_sentence_112

In 2015, Weir, Lesh, Kreutzmann, and Hart reunited for five concerts called "Fare Thee Well: Celebrating 50 Years of the Grateful Dead". Grateful Dead_sentence_113

The shows were performed on June 27 and 28 at Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara, California, and on July 3, 4 and 5 at Soldier Field in Chicago. Grateful Dead_sentence_114

The band stated that this would be the final time that Weir, Lesh, Hart, and Kreutzmann would perform together. Grateful Dead_sentence_115

They were joined by Trey Anastasio of Phish on guitar, Jeff Chimenti on keyboards, and Bruce Hornsby on piano. Grateful Dead_sentence_116

Demand for tickets was very high. Grateful Dead_sentence_117

The concerts were simulcast via various media. Grateful Dead_sentence_118

The Chicago shows have been released as a box set of CDs and DVDs. Grateful Dead_sentence_119

Dead & Company Grateful Dead_section_4

Main article: Dead & Company Grateful Dead_sentence_120

In the fall of 2015, Mickey Hart, Bill Kreutzmann and Bob Weir joined with guitarist John Mayer, keyboardist Jeff Chimenti, and bassist Oteil Burbridge to tour in a band called Dead & Company. Grateful Dead_sentence_121

Mayer recounts that in 2011 he was listening to Pandora and happened upon the Grateful Dead song "Althea", and that soon Grateful Dead music was all he would listen to. Grateful Dead_sentence_122

The band has played three tours, and is currently on a fourth: October–December 2015, June–July 2016, and May–July 2017. Grateful Dead_sentence_123

Summer Tour 2019 was announced in November 2018 and began in May 2019. Grateful Dead_sentence_124

On December 27 and 28, they played at The Forum in Inglewood (Los Angeles), California as part of their "Fun Run" tour. Grateful Dead_sentence_125

On December 30 and 31, they played in their hometown of San Francisco at the Chase Center, featuring a bi-plane that descended from the ceiling of the Chase Center carrying the daughters of Jerry Garcia, Trixie Garcia and her half-sister, Ken Kesey's daughter Sunshine Kesey, dropping rose petals on the audience as they toured the arena. Grateful Dead_sentence_126

Barlow died in 2018 and Hunter in 2019. Grateful Dead_sentence_127

Musical style Grateful Dead_section_5

The Grateful Dead formed during the era when bands such as the Beatles, the Beach Boys and the Rolling Stones were dominating the airwaves. Grateful Dead_sentence_128

"The Beatles were why we turned from a jug band into a rock 'n' roll band", said Bob Weir. Grateful Dead_sentence_129

"What we saw them doing was impossibly attractive. Grateful Dead_sentence_130

I couldn't think of anything else more worth doing." Grateful Dead_sentence_131

Former folk-scene star Bob Dylan had recently put out a couple of records featuring electric instrumentation. Grateful Dead_sentence_132

Grateful Dead members have said that it was after attending a concert by the touring New York City band the Lovin' Spoonful that they decided to "go electric" and look for a dirtier sound. Grateful Dead_sentence_133

Jerry Garcia and Bob Weir (each of whom had been immersed in the American folk music revival of the late 1950s and early 1960s), were open-minded to electric guitars. Grateful Dead_sentence_134

The Grateful Dead's early music (in the mid-1960s) was part of the process of establishing what "psychedelic music" was, but theirs was essentially a "street party" form of it. Grateful Dead_sentence_135

They developed their "psychedelic" playing as a result of meeting Ken Kesey in Palo Alto, California, and subsequently becoming the house band for the Acid Tests he staged. Grateful Dead_sentence_136

They did not fit their music to an established category such as pop rock, blues, folk rock, or country & western. Grateful Dead_sentence_137

Individual tunes within their repertoire could be identified under one of these stylistic labels, but overall their music drew on all of these genres and, more frequently, melded several of them. Grateful Dead_sentence_138

Bill Graham said of the Grateful Dead, "They're not the best at what they do, they're the only ones that do what they do." Grateful Dead_sentence_139

Often (both in performance and on recording) the Dead left room for exploratory, spacey soundscapes. Grateful Dead_sentence_140

Their live shows, fed by an improvisational approach to music, were different from most touring bands. Grateful Dead_sentence_141

While rock and roll bands often rehearse a standard set, played with minor variations, the Grateful Dead did not prepare in this way. Grateful Dead_sentence_142

Garcia stated in a 1966 interview, "We don't make up our sets beforehand. Grateful Dead_sentence_143

We'd rather work off the tops of our heads than off a piece of paper." Grateful Dead_sentence_144

They maintained this approach throughout their career. Grateful Dead_sentence_145

For each performance, the band drew material from an active list of a hundred or so songs. Grateful Dead_sentence_146

The 1969 live album Live/Dead did capture the band in-form, but commercial success did not come until Workingman's Dead and American Beauty, both released in 1970. Grateful Dead_sentence_147

These records largely featured the band's laid-back acoustic musicianship and more traditional song structures. Grateful Dead_sentence_148

With their rootsy, eclectic stylings, particularly evident on the latter two albums, the band pioneered the hybrid Americana genre. Grateful Dead_sentence_149

As the band and its sound matured over thirty years of touring, playing, and recording, each member's stylistic contribution became more defined, consistent, and identifiable. Grateful Dead_sentence_150

Lesh, who was originally a classically trained trumpet player with an extensive background in music theory, did not tend to play traditional blues-based bass forms, but more melodic, symphonic and complex lines, often sounding like a second lead guitar. Grateful Dead_sentence_151

Weir, too, was not a traditional rhythm guitarist, but tended to play jazz-influenced, unique inversions at the upper end of the Dead's sound. Grateful Dead_sentence_152

The two drummers, Mickey Hart and Kreutzmann, developed a unique, complex interplay, balancing Kreutzmann's steady beat with Hart's interest in percussion styles outside the rock tradition. Grateful Dead_sentence_153

Hart incorporated an 11-count measure to his drumming, bringing a dimension to the band's sound that became an important part of its style. Grateful Dead_sentence_154

Garcia's lead lines were fluid, supple and spare, owing a great deal of their character to his training in fingerpicking and banjo. Grateful Dead_sentence_155

The band's primary lyricists, Robert Hunter and John Perry Barlow, commonly used themes involving love and loss, life and death, gambling and murder, beauty and horror, chaos and order, God and other religious themes, travelling and touring. Grateful Dead_sentence_156

In a retrospective, The New Yorker described Hunter's verses as "elliptical, by turns vivid and gnomic", which were often "hippie poetry about roses and bells and dew", and critic Robert Christgau described them as "American myths" that later gave way to "the old karma-go-round". Grateful Dead_sentence_157

Merchandising and representation Grateful Dead_section_6

Hal Kant was an entertainment industry attorney who specialized in representing musical groups. Grateful Dead_sentence_158

He spent 35 years as principal lawyer and general counsel for the Grateful Dead, a position in the group that was so strong that his business cards with the band identified his role as "Czar". Grateful Dead_sentence_159

Kant brought the band millions of dollars in revenue through his management of the band's intellectual property and merchandising rights. Grateful Dead_sentence_160

At Kant's recommendation, the group was one of the few rock 'n roll pioneers to retain ownership of their music masters and publishing rights. Grateful Dead_sentence_161

In 2006, the Grateful Dead signed a ten-year licensing agreement with Rhino Entertainment to manage the band's business interests including the release of musical recordings, merchandising, and marketing. Grateful Dead_sentence_162

The band retained creative control and kept ownership of its music catalog. Grateful Dead_sentence_163

A Grateful Dead video game titled Grateful Dead Game – The Epic Tour was released in April 2012 and was created by Curious Sense. Grateful Dead_sentence_164

Sponsorship of 1992 Lithuanian Olympic Basketball Team Grateful Dead_section_7

After Lithuania gained its independence from the USSR, the country announced its withdrawal from the 1992 Olympics due to the lack of any money to sponsor participants. Grateful Dead_sentence_165

But NBA star Šarūnas Marčiulionis, a native Lithuanian basketball star, wanted to help his native team to compete. Grateful Dead_sentence_166

His efforts resulted in a call from representatives of the Grateful Dead who set up a meeting with the band members. Grateful Dead_sentence_167

The band agreed to fund transportation costs for the team (about five thousand dollars) along with Grateful Dead design for the basketball jerseys and shorts for the team to wear in the competition. Grateful Dead_sentence_168

The Lithuanian basketball team won the bronze medal in the 1992 Olympics and the Lithuanian basketball/Grateful Dead T-shirts became part of pop culture, especially in Lithuania. Grateful Dead_sentence_169

The incident was covered by the documentary The Other Dream Team. Grateful Dead_sentence_170

Live performances Grateful Dead_section_8

The Grateful Dead toured constantly throughout their career, playing more than 2,300 concerts. Grateful Dead_sentence_171

They promoted a sense of community among their fans, who became known as "Deadheads", many of whom followed their tours for months or years on end. Grateful Dead_sentence_172

Around concert venues, an impromptu communal marketplace known as 'Shakedown Street' was created by Deadheads to serve as centers of activity where fans could buy and sell anything from grilled cheese sandwiches to home-made t-shirts and recordings of Grateful Dead concerts. Grateful Dead_sentence_173

In their early career, the band also dedicated their time and talents to their community, the Haight-Ashbury area of San Francisco, making available free food, lodging, music, and health care to all. Grateful Dead_sentence_174

It has been said that the band performed "more free concerts than any band in the history of music". Grateful Dead_sentence_175

With the exception of 1975, when the band was on hiatus and played only four concerts together, the Grateful Dead performed many concerts every year, from their formation in April 1965, until July 9, 1995. Grateful Dead_sentence_176

Initially all their shows were in California, principally in the San Francisco Bay Area and in or near Los Angeles. Grateful Dead_sentence_177

They also performed, in 1965 and 1966, with Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters, as the house band for the Acid Tests. Grateful Dead_sentence_178

They toured nationally starting in June 1967 (their first foray to New York), with a few detours to Canada, Europe and three nights at the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt in 1978. Grateful Dead_sentence_179

They appeared at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967, the Woodstock Festival in 1969 and the Festival Express train tour across Canada in 1970. Grateful Dead_sentence_180

They were scheduled to appear as the final act at the infamous Altamont Free Concert on December 6, 1969 after the Rolling Stones but withdrew after security concerns. Grateful Dead_sentence_181

"That's the way things went at Altamont—so badly that the Grateful Dead, prime organizers and movers of the festival, didn't even get to play", staff at Rolling Stone magazine wrote in a detailed narrative on the event. Grateful Dead_sentence_182

Their first UK performance was at the Hollywood Music Festival in 1970. Grateful Dead_sentence_183

Their largest concert audience came in 1973 when they played, along with the Allman Brothers Band and the Band, before an estimated 600,000 people at the Summer Jam at Watkins Glen. Grateful Dead_sentence_184

The 1998 edition of the Guinness Book of World Records recognized them with a listing under the heading, "most rock concerts performed" (2,318 concerts). Grateful Dead_sentence_185

They played to an estimated total of 25 million people, more than any other band, with audiences of up to 80,000 attending a single show. Grateful Dead_sentence_186

Many of these concerts were preserved in the band's tape vault, and several dozen have since been released on CD and as downloads. Grateful Dead_sentence_187

The Dead were known for the tremendous variation in their setlists from night to night—the list of songs documented to have been played by the band exceeds 500. Grateful Dead_sentence_188

The band has released four concert videos under the name View from the Vault. Grateful Dead_sentence_189

In the 1990s, the Grateful Dead earned a total of $285 million in revenue from their concert tours, the second-highest during the 1990s, with the Rolling Stones earning the most. Grateful Dead_sentence_190

This figure is representative of tour revenue through 1995, as touring stopped after the death of Jerry Garcia. Grateful Dead_sentence_191

In a 1991 PBS documentary, segment host Buck Henry attended an August 1991 concert at Shoreline Amphitheatre and gleaned some information from some band members about the Grateful Dead phenomenon and its success. Grateful Dead_sentence_192

At the time, Jerry Garcia stated, "We didn't really invent the Grateful Dead, the crowd invented the Grateful Dead, you know what I mean? Grateful Dead_sentence_193

We were sort of standing in line, and uh, it's gone way past our expectations, way past, so it's, we've been going along with it to see what it's gonna do next." Grateful Dead_sentence_194

Furthermore, Mickey Hart stated, "This is one of the last places in America that you can really have this kind of fun, you know, considering the political climate and so forth." Grateful Dead_sentence_195

Hart also stated that "the transformative power of the Grateful Dead is really the essence of it; it's what it can do to your consciousness. Grateful Dead_sentence_196

We're more into transportation than we are into music, per se, I mean, the business of the Grateful Dead is transportation." Grateful Dead_sentence_197

One of the band's largest concerts took place just months before Garcia's death — at their outdoor show with Bob Dylan in Highgate, Vermont on June 15, 1995. Grateful Dead_sentence_198

The crowd was estimated to be over 90,000; overnight camping was allowed and about a third of the audience got in without having purchased a ticket. Grateful Dead_sentence_199

Their numerous studio albums were generally collections of new songs that they had first played in concert. Grateful Dead_sentence_200

The band was also famous for its extended musical improvisations, having been described as having never played the same song the same way twice. Grateful Dead_sentence_201

Their concert sets often blended songs, one into the next (a segue). Grateful Dead_sentence_202

Concert sound systems Grateful Dead_section_9

The Wall of Sound was a large sound system designed specifically for the band. Grateful Dead_sentence_203

The band was never satisfied with the house system anywhere they played. Grateful Dead_sentence_204

After the Monterey Pop Festival, the band's crew 'borrowed' some of the other performers' sound equipment and used it to host some free shows in San Francisco. Grateful Dead_sentence_205

In their early days, soundman Owsley "Bear" Stanley designed a public address (PA) and monitor system for them. Grateful Dead_sentence_206

Stanley was the Grateful Dead's soundman for many years; he was also one of the largest suppliers of LSD. Grateful Dead_sentence_207

Stanley's sound systems were delicate and finicky, and frequently brought shows to a halt with technical breakdowns. Grateful Dead_sentence_208

After Stanley went to jail for manufacturing LSD in 1970, the group briefly used house PAs, but found them to be even less reliable than those built by their former soundman. Grateful Dead_sentence_209

On February 2, 1970, the group contacted Bob Heil to use his system. Grateful Dead_sentence_210

In 1971, the band purchased their first solid-state sound system from Alembic Inc Studios. Grateful Dead_sentence_211

Because of this, Alembic would play an integral role in the research, development, and production of the Wall of Sound. Grateful Dead_sentence_212

The band also welcomed Dan Healy into the fold on a permanent basis that year. Grateful Dead_sentence_213

Healy would mix the Grateful Dead's live sound until 1993. Grateful Dead_sentence_214

Following Jerry Garcia's death and the band's breakup in 1995, their current sound system was inherited by Dave Matthews Band. Grateful Dead_sentence_215

Dave Matthews Band debuted the sound system April 30, 1996 at the first show of their 1996 tour in Richmond, Virginia. Grateful Dead_sentence_216

Tapes Grateful Dead_section_10

Like several other bands during this time, the Grateful Dead allowed their fans to record their shows. Grateful Dead_sentence_217

For many years the tapers set up their microphones wherever they could, and the eventual forest of microphones became a problem for the sound crew. Grateful Dead_sentence_218

Eventually, this was solved by having a dedicated taping section located behind the soundboard, which required a special "tapers" ticket. Grateful Dead_sentence_219

The band allowed sharing of tapes of their shows, as long as no profits were made on the sale of their show tapes. Grateful Dead_sentence_220

Sometimes the sound crew would allow the tapers to connect directly to the soundboard, which created exceptional recordings. Grateful Dead_sentence_221

Recently, there have been some disputes over which recordings could host on their site. Grateful Dead_sentence_222

Although all the recordings are hosted at present, the soundboard recordings can only be streamed and not downloaded. Grateful Dead_sentence_223

Of the approximately 2,350 shows the Grateful Dead played, almost 2,200 were taped, and most of these are available online. Grateful Dead_sentence_224

The band began collecting and cataloging tapes early on and Dick Latvala was their keeper. Grateful Dead_sentence_225

"Dick's Picks" is named after Latvala. Grateful Dead_sentence_226

After his death in 1999, David Lemieux gradually took the post. Grateful Dead_sentence_227

Concert set lists from a subset of 1,590 Grateful Dead shows were used to perform a comparative analysis between how songs were played in concert and how they are listened online by members. Grateful Dead_sentence_228

In their book Marketing Lessons from the Grateful Dead: What Every Business Can Learn From the Most Iconic Band in History, David Meerman Scott and Brian Halligan identify the taper section as a crucial contributor to increasing the Grateful Dead's fan base. Grateful Dead_sentence_229

Artwork Grateful Dead_section_11

Over the years, a number of iconic images have come to be associated with the Grateful Dead. Grateful Dead_sentence_230

Many of these images originated as artwork for concert posters or album covers. Grateful Dead_sentence_231

Grateful Dead_description_list_0

  • Skull and Roses: The skull and roses design was composed by Alton Kelley and Stanley Mouse, who added lettering and color, respectively, to a black and white drawing by Edmund Joseph Sullivan. Sullivan's drawing was an illustration for a 1913 edition of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. Earlier antecedents include the custom of exhibiting the relic skulls of Christian martyrs decorated with roses on their feast days. The rose is an attribute of Saint Valentine, who according to one legend, was martyred by decapitation. Accordingly, in Rome, at the church dedicated to him, the observance of his feast day included the display of his skull surrounded by roses. Kelley and Mouse's design originally appeared on a poster for the September 16 and 17, 1966, Dead shows at the Avalon Ballroom. Later, it was used as the cover for the album Grateful Dead (1971). The album is sometimes referred to as Skull and Roses.Grateful Dead_item_0_0

Grateful Dead_description_list_1

  • Jester: Another icon of the Dead is a skeleton dressed as a jester and holding a lute. This image was an airbrush painting, created by Stanley Mouse in 1972. It was originally used for the cover of The Grateful Dead Songbook.Grateful Dead_item_1_1

Grateful Dead_description_list_2

  • "Dancing" Bears: A series of stylized bears who appear to be dancing was drawn by Bob Thomas as part of the back cover for the album History of the Grateful Dead, Volume One (Bear's Choice) (1973). Thomas reported that he based the bears on a lead sort from an unknown font. The bear is a reference to Owsley "Bear" Stanley, who recorded and produced the album. Bear himself wrote, "the bears on the album cover are not really 'dancing'. I don't know why people think they are; their positions are quite obviously those of a high-stepping march."Grateful Dead_item_2_2

Grateful Dead_description_list_3

  • Steal Your Face Skull: Perhaps the best-known Grateful Dead art icon is a red, white, and blue skull with a lightning bolt through it. The lightning bolt skull can be found on the cover of the album Steal Your Face (1976), and the image is sometimes known by that name. It was designed by Owsley Stanley and artist Bob Thomas, and was originally used as a logo to mark the band's equipment.Grateful Dead_item_3_3

Grateful Dead_description_list_4

  • Dancing Terrapins: The two dancing terrapins first appeared on the cover of the album Terrapin Station (1977). They were drawn by Kelley and Mouse, based on a drawing by Heinrich Kley. Since then these turtles have become one of the Grateful Dead's most recognizable logos.Grateful Dead_item_4_4

Grateful Dead_description_list_5

  • Uncle Sam Skeleton: The Uncle Sam skeleton was devised by Gary Gutierrez as part of the animation for The Grateful Dead Movie (1977). The image combines the Grateful Dead skeleton motif with the character of Uncle Sam, a reference to the then-recently written song "U.S. Blues", which plays during the animation.Grateful Dead_item_5_5

Deadheads Grateful Dead_section_12

Main article: Deadhead Grateful Dead_sentence_232

Fans and enthusiasts of the band are commonly referred to as Deadheads. Grateful Dead_sentence_233

While the origin of the term may be unclear, Dead Heads were made canon by the notice placed inside the Skull and Roses (1971) album by manager Jon McIntire: Grateful Dead_sentence_234

Many of the Dead Heads would go on tour with the band. Grateful Dead_sentence_235

As a group, the Dead Heads were considered very mellow. Grateful Dead_sentence_236

"I'd rather work nine Grateful Dead concerts than one Oregon football game," Police Det. Grateful Dead_sentence_237

Rick Raynor said. Grateful Dead_sentence_238

"They don't get belligerent like they do at the games." Grateful Dead_sentence_239

Donation of archives Grateful Dead_section_13

On April 24, 2008, members Bob Weir and Mickey Hart, along with Nion McEvoy, CEO of Chronicle Books, UC Santa Cruz chancellor George Blumenthal, and UC Santa Cruz librarian Virginia Steel, held a press conference announcing UCSC's McHenry Library would be the permanent home of the Grateful Dead Archive, which includes a complete archival history from 1965 to the present. Grateful Dead_sentence_240

The archive includes correspondence, photographs, fliers, posters, and several other forms of memorabilia and records of the band. Grateful Dead_sentence_241

Also included are unreleased videos of interviews and TV appearances that will be installed for visitors to view, as well as stage backdrops and other props from the band's concerts. Grateful Dead_sentence_242

Blumenthal stated at the event, "The Grateful Dead Archive represents one of the most significant popular cultural collections of the 20th century; UC Santa Cruz is honored to receive this invaluable gift. Grateful Dead_sentence_243

The Grateful Dead and UC Santa Cruz are both highly innovative institutions—born the same year—that continue to make a major, positive impact on the world." Grateful Dead_sentence_244

Guitarist Bob Weir stated "We looked around, and UC Santa Cruz seems the best possible home. Grateful Dead_sentence_245

If you ever wrote the Grateful Dead a letter, you'll probably find it there!" Grateful Dead_sentence_246

Professor of music Fredric Lieberman was the key contact between the band and the university, who let the university know about the search for a home for the archive, and who had collaborated with Mickey Hart on three books in the past, Planet Drum (1990), Drumming at the Edge of Magic (1991), and Spirit into Sound (2006). Grateful Dead_sentence_247

The first large-scale exhibition of materials from the Grateful Dead Archive was mounted at the New-York Historical Society in 2010. Grateful Dead_sentence_248

Awards Grateful Dead_section_14

In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked the Grateful Dead No. Grateful Dead_sentence_249

57 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Grateful Dead_sentence_250

On February 10, 2007, the Grateful Dead received a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Grateful Dead_sentence_251

The award was accepted on behalf of the band by Mickey Hart and Bill Kreutzmann. Grateful Dead_sentence_252

In 2011, a recording of the Grateful Dead's May 8, 1977, concert at Cornell University's Barton Hall was selected for induction into the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress. Grateful Dead_sentence_253

Twelve members of the Grateful Dead (the eleven official performing members plus Robert Hunter) were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994, and Bruce Hornsby was their presenter. Grateful Dead_sentence_254

Members Grateful Dead_section_15

Main article: List of Grateful Dead members Grateful Dead_sentence_255

Lead guitarist Jerry Garcia was often viewed both by the public and the media as the leader or primary spokesperson for the Grateful Dead, but was reluctant to be perceived that way, especially since he and the other group members saw themselves as equal participants and contributors to their collective musical and creative output. Grateful Dead_sentence_256

Garcia, a native of San Francisco, grew up in the Excelsior District. Grateful Dead_sentence_257

One of his main influences was bluegrass music, and he also performed—on banjo, one of his other great instrumental loves, along with the pedal steel guitar—in bluegrass bands, notably Old & In the Way with mandolinist David Grisman. Grateful Dead_sentence_258

Bruce Hornsby never officially joined the band full-time because of his other commitments, but he did play keyboards at most Dead shows between September 1990 and March 1992, and sat in with the band over 100 times in all between 1988 and 1995. Grateful Dead_sentence_259

He added several Dead songs to his own live shows and Jerry Garcia referred to him as a "floating member" who could come and go as he pleased. Grateful Dead_sentence_260

Robert Hunter and John Perry Barlow were the band's primary lyricists, starting in 1967 and 1971, respectively, and continuing until the band's dissolution. Grateful Dead_sentence_261

Hunter collaborated mostly with Garcia and Barlow mostly with Weir, though each wrote with other band members as well. Grateful Dead_sentence_262

Both are listed as official members at, the band's website, alongside the performing members. Grateful Dead_sentence_263

Barlow was the only member not inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Grateful Dead_sentence_264

Discography Grateful Dead_section_16

Main article: Grateful Dead discography Grateful Dead_sentence_265

See also: Unfinished Grateful Dead album Grateful Dead_sentence_266

See also Grateful Dead_section_17

Grateful Dead_unordered_list_6

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Dead.