Greater Manchester

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article is about the metropolitan county in North West England. Greater Manchester_sentence_0

For the metropolitan area, see Greater Manchester Built-up Area. Greater Manchester_sentence_1

Greater Manchester_table_infobox_0

Greater ManchesterGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_0_0
Sovereign stateGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_1_0 United KingdomGreater Manchester_cell_0_1_1
Constituent countryGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_2_0 EnglandGreater Manchester_cell_0_2_1
RegionGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_3_0 North WestGreater Manchester_cell_0_3_1
EstablishedGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_4_0 1 April 1974Greater Manchester_cell_0_4_1
Established byGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_5_0 Local Government Act 1972Greater Manchester_cell_0_5_1
Time zoneGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_6_0 UTC±00:00 (Greenwich Mean Time)Greater Manchester_cell_0_6_1
Summer (DST)Greater Manchester_header_cell_0_7_0 UTC+01:00 (British Summer Time)Greater Manchester_cell_0_7_1
Members of ParliamentGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_8_0 List of MPsGreater Manchester_cell_0_8_1
PoliceGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_9_0 Greater Manchester PoliceGreater Manchester_cell_0_9_1
Ceremonial countyLord LieutenantSir Warren James SmithHigh SheriffEamonn O'Neal (2020–21)Area1,276 km (493 sq mi)   Ranked39th of 48Population (mid-2019 est.)2,812,569   Ranked3rd of 48Density2,204/km (5,710/sq mi)Ethnicity

Metropolitan countyGovernment Type Combined authority


Greater Manchester Combined Authority


Andy Burnham (L)ONS code2AGSS codeE11000001NUTSUKD3WebsiteDistricts Districts of Greater Manchester Metropolitan districtsDistrictsGreater Manchester_cell_0_10_0

Lord LieutenantGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_11_0 Sir Warren James SmithGreater Manchester_cell_0_11_1
High SheriffGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_12_0 Eamonn O'Neal (2020–21)Greater Manchester_cell_0_12_1
AreaGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_13_0 1,276 km (493 sq mi)Greater Manchester_cell_0_13_1
RankedGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_14_0 39th of 48Greater Manchester_cell_0_14_1
Population (mid-2019 est.)Greater Manchester_header_cell_0_15_0 2,812,569Greater Manchester_cell_0_15_1
RankedGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_16_0 3rd of 48Greater Manchester_cell_0_16_1
DensityGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_17_0 2,204/km (5,710/sq mi)Greater Manchester_cell_0_17_1
EthnicityGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_18_0 Greater Manchester_cell_0_18_1
GovernmentGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_19_0 Type

Combined authority


Greater Manchester Combined Authority


Andy Burnham (L)Greater Manchester_cell_0_19_1

ONS codeGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_20_0 2AGreater Manchester_cell_0_20_1
GSS codeGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_21_0 E11000001Greater Manchester_cell_0_21_1
NUTSGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_22_0 UKD3Greater Manchester_cell_0_22_1
WebsiteGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_23_0 Greater Manchester_cell_0_23_1
DistrictsGreater Manchester_header_cell_0_24_0 Greater Manchester_cell_0_24_1

Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; the third largest in England after Greater London and the West Midlands. Greater Manchester_sentence_2

It encompasses one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom and comprises ten metropolitan boroughs: Bolton, Bury, Oldham, Rochdale, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Wigan, and the cities of Manchester and Salford. Greater Manchester_sentence_3

Greater Manchester was created on 1 April 1974, as a result of the Local Government Act 1972, and designated a functional city region on 1 April 2011. Greater Manchester_sentence_4

Greater Manchester spans 493 square miles (1,277 km), which roughly covers the territory of the Greater Manchester Built-up Area, the second most populous urban area in the UK. Greater Manchester_sentence_5

Though geographically landlocked, it is connected to the sea by the Manchester Ship Canal which is still open to shipping in Salford and Trafford. Greater Manchester_sentence_6

Greater Manchester sits within the historic counties of Lancashire, Cheshire, Yorkshire and Derbyshire and borders the ceremonial counties of Cheshire (to the south-west and south), Derbyshire (to the south-east), West Yorkshire (to the north-east), Lancashire (to the north) and Merseyside (to the west). Greater Manchester_sentence_7

There is a mix of high-density urban areas, suburbs, semi-rural and rural locations in Greater Manchester, but land use is mostly urban—the product of concentric urbanisation and industrialisation which occurred mostly during the 19th century when the region flourished as the global centre of the cotton industry. Greater Manchester_sentence_8

It has a focused central business district, formed by Manchester city centre and the adjoining parts of Salford and Trafford, but Greater Manchester is also a polycentric county with ten metropolitan districts, each of which has at least one major town centre and outlying suburbs. Greater Manchester_sentence_9

Greater Manchester is governed by the Greater Manchester Combined Authority (GMCA), which consists of political leaders from each of the ten metropolitan borough councils, plus a directly elected mayor, with responsibility for economic development, regeneration and transport. Greater Manchester_sentence_10

Andy Burnham is the inaugural Mayor of Greater Manchester, elected in 2017. Greater Manchester_sentence_11

For the 12 years following 1974, the county had a two-tier system of local government; district councils shared power with the Greater Manchester County Council. Greater Manchester_sentence_12

The county council was abolished in 1986 and so its districts (the metropolitan boroughs) effectively became unitary authority areas. Greater Manchester_sentence_13

However, the metropolitan county continued to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference, and as a ceremonial county, with a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Greater Manchester_sentence_14

Several county-wide services were co-ordinated through the Association of Greater Manchester Authorities between 1985 and 2011. Greater Manchester_sentence_15

Before the creation of the metropolitan county, the name SELNEC was used for the area, from the initials of "South East Lancashire North East Cheshire". Greater Manchester_sentence_16

Greater Manchester is an amalgamation of 70 former local government districts from the former administrative counties of Lancashire, Cheshire, the West Riding of Yorkshire and eight independent county boroughs. Greater Manchester_sentence_17

Since deindustrialisation in the mid-20th century, Greater Manchester has emerged as a major centre for services, media and digital industries, and is renowned for guitar and dance music and its association football teams. Greater Manchester_sentence_18

History Greater Manchester_section_0

See also: History of Manchester Greater Manchester_sentence_19

Origins Greater Manchester_section_1

Although Greater Manchester was not created until 1974, the history of its constituent settlements goes back centuries. Greater Manchester_sentence_20

There is evidence of Iron Age habitation, particularly at Mellor, and Celtic activity in a settlement named Chochion, believed to have been an area of Wigan settled by the Brigantes. Greater Manchester_sentence_21

Stretford was also part of the land believed to have been occupied by the Celtic Brigantes tribe, and lay on their border with the Cornovii on the southern side of the River Mersey. Greater Manchester_sentence_22

The remains of 1st-century forts at Castlefield in Manchester, and Castleshaw Roman fort in Saddleworth, are evidence of Roman occupation. Greater Manchester_sentence_23

Much of the region was omitted from the Domesday Book of 1086; Redhead states that this was because only a partial survey was taken, rather than sparsity of population. Greater Manchester_sentence_24

During the Middle Ages, much of what became Greater Manchester lay within the hundred of Salfordshire – an ancient division of the county of Lancashire. Greater Manchester_sentence_25

Salfordshire encompassed several parishes and townships, some of which, like Rochdale, were important market towns and centres of England's woollen trade. Greater Manchester_sentence_26

The development of what became Greater Manchester is attributed to a shared tradition of domestic flannel and fustian cloth production, which encouraged a system of cross-regional trade. Greater Manchester_sentence_27

In the late 18th century, the Industrial Revolution transformed the local domestic system; mechanisation enabled the industrialisation of the region's textile trade, triggering rapid growth in the cotton industry and expansion in ancillary trades. Greater Manchester_sentence_28

Infrastructure such as rows of terraced housing, factories and roads were constructed to house labour, transport goods, and produce cotton goods on an industrial scale for a global market. Greater Manchester_sentence_29

The townships in and around Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by a boom in industrial textile production and processing. Greater Manchester_sentence_30

This population increase resulted in the "vigorous concentric growth" of a conurbation between Manchester and an arc of surrounding mill towns, formed from a steady accretion of houses, factories and transport infrastructure. Greater Manchester_sentence_31

Places such as Bury, Oldham and Bolton played a central economic role nationally, and by the end of the 19th century had become some of the most important and productive cotton-producing towns in the world. Greater Manchester_sentence_32

However, it was Manchester that was the most populous settlement, a major city, the world's largest marketplace for cotton goods, and the natural centre of its region. Greater Manchester_sentence_33

By 1835 "Manchester was without challenge the first and greatest industrial city in the world"; and by 1848 urban sprawl had fused the city to its surrounding towns and hinterland to form a single continuous conurbation. Greater Manchester_sentence_34

The conurbation was "a Victorian metropolis, achieving its commercial peak during 1890–1915". Greater Manchester_sentence_35

In the 1910s, local government reforms to administer this conurbation as a single entity were proposed. Greater Manchester_sentence_36

In the 18th century, German traders had coined the name Manchesterthum to cover the region in and around Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_37

However, the English term "Greater Manchester" did not appear until the 19th century. Greater Manchester_sentence_38

One of its first known recorded uses was in planning documents for the Manchester Ship Canal dated 1883, referring to "Manchester, Salford and the Out-Townships". Greater Manchester_sentence_39

Use in a municipal context appeared in a 1914 report submitted in response to what was considered to have been the successful creation of the County of London in 1889. Greater Manchester_sentence_40

The report suggested that a county should be set up to recognise the "Manchester known in commerce", and referred to the areas that formed "a substantial part of South Lancashire and part of Cheshire, comprising all municipal boroughs and minor authorities within a radius of eight or nine miles of Manchester". Greater Manchester_sentence_41

In his 1915 book Cities in Evolution, urban planner Sir Patrick Geddes wrote "far more than Lancashire realises, is growing up another Greater London". Greater Manchester_sentence_42

Most of Greater Manchester lies within the ancient county boundaries of Lancashire; those areas south of the Mersey and Tame are historically in Cheshire. Greater Manchester_sentence_43

The Saddleworth area and a small part of Mossley are historically part of Yorkshire and in the south-east a small part in Derbyshire. Greater Manchester_sentence_44

The areas that were incorporated into Greater Manchester in 1974 previously formed parts of the administrative counties of Cheshire, Lancashire, the West Riding of Yorkshire and of eight independent county boroughs. Greater Manchester_sentence_45

By the early 1970s, this system of demarcation was described as "archaic" and "grossly inadequate to keep pace both with the impact of motor travel, and with the huge increases in local government responsibilities". Greater Manchester_sentence_46

The Manchester Evening Chronicle brought to the fore the issue of "regional unity" for the area in April 1935 under the headline "Greater Manchester – The Ratepayers' Salvation". Greater Manchester_sentence_47

It reported on the "increasing demands for the exploration of the possibilities of a greater merger of public services throughout Manchester and the surrounding municipalities". Greater Manchester_sentence_48

The issue was frequently discussed by civic leaders in the area at that time, particularly those from Manchester and Salford. Greater Manchester_sentence_49

The Mayor of Salford pledged his support to the idea, stating that he looked forward to the day when "there would be a merging of the essential services of Manchester, Salford, and the surrounding districts constituting Greater Manchester." Greater Manchester_sentence_50

Proposals were halted by the Second World War, though in the decade after it, the pace of proposals for local government reform for the area quickened. Greater Manchester_sentence_51

In 1947, Lancashire County Council proposed a three "ridings" system to meet the changing needs of the county of Lancashire, including those for Manchester and surrounding districts. Greater Manchester_sentence_52

Other proposals included the creation of a Manchester County Council, a directly elected regional body. Greater Manchester_sentence_53

In 1951, the census in the UK began reporting on South East Lancashire as a homogeneous conurbation. Greater Manchester_sentence_54

Redcliffe-Maud Report Greater Manchester_section_2

Further information: Redcliffe-Maud Report Greater Manchester_sentence_55

The Local Government Act 1958 designated the south east Lancashire area (which, despite its name, included part of north east Cheshire), a Special Review Area. Greater Manchester_sentence_56

The Local Government Commission for England presented draft recommendations, in December 1965, proposing a new county based on the conurbation surrounding and including Manchester, with nine most-purpose boroughs corresponding to the modern Greater Manchester boroughs (excluding Wigan). Greater Manchester_sentence_57

The review was abolished in favour of the Royal Commission on Local Government before issuing a final report. Greater Manchester_sentence_58

The Royal Commission's 1969 report, known as the Redcliffe-Maud Report, proposed the removal of much of the then existing system of local government. Greater Manchester_sentence_59

The commission described the system of administering urban and rural districts separately as outdated, noting that urban areas provided employment and services for rural dwellers, and open countryside was used by town dwellers for recreation. Greater Manchester_sentence_60

The commission considered interdependence of areas at many levels, including travel-to-work, provision of services, and which local newspapers were read, before proposing a new administrative metropolitan area. Greater Manchester_sentence_61

The area had roughly the same northern boundary as today's Greater Manchester (though included Rossendale), but covered much more territory from Cheshire (including Macclesfield, Warrington, Alderley Edge, Northwich, Middlewich, Wilmslow and Lymm), and Derbyshire (the towns of New Mills, Whaley Bridge, Glossop and Chapel-en-le-Frith – a minority report suggested that Buxton be included). Greater Manchester_sentence_62

The metropolitan area was to be divided into nine metropolitan districts, based on Wigan, Bolton, Bury/Rochdale, Warrington, Manchester (including Salford and Old Trafford), Oldham, Altrincham, Stockport and Tameside. Greater Manchester_sentence_63

The report noted "The choice even of a label of convenience for this metropolitan area is difficult". Greater Manchester_sentence_64

Seven years earlier, a survey prepared for the British Association intended to define the "South-East Lancashire conurbation" noted that "Greater Manchester it is not ... One of its main characteristics is the marked individuality of its towns, ... all of which have an industrial and commercial history of more than local significance". Greater Manchester_sentence_65

The term Selnec (or SELNEC) was already in use as an abbreviation for south east Lancashire and north east Cheshire; Redcliffe-Maud took this as "the most convenient term available", having modified it to south east Lancashire, north east and central Cheshire. Greater Manchester_sentence_66

Following the Transport Act 1968, in 1969 the SELNEC Passenger Transport Executive (an authority to co-ordinate and operate public transport in the region) was set up, covering an area smaller than the proposed Selnec, and different again to the eventual Greater Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_67

Compared with the Redcliffe-Maud area, it excluded Macclesfield, Warrington, and Knutsford but included Glossop and Saddleworth in the West Riding of Yorkshire. Greater Manchester_sentence_68

It excluded Wigan, which was both in the Redcliffe-Maud area and in the eventual Greater Manchester (but had not been part of the 1958 act's review area). Greater Manchester_sentence_69

Redcliffe-Maud's recommendations were accepted by the Labour-controlled government in February 1970. Greater Manchester_sentence_70

Although the Redcliffe-Maud Report was rejected by the Conservative government after the 1970 general election, there was a commitment to local government reform, and the need for a metropolitan county centred on the conurbation surrounding Manchester was accepted. Greater Manchester_sentence_71

The new government's original proposal was much smaller than the Redcliffe-Maud Report's Selnec, with areas such as Winsford, Northwich, Knutsford, Macclesfield and Glossop retained by their original counties to ensure their county councils had enough revenue to remain competitive (Cheshire County Council would have ceased to exist). Greater Manchester_sentence_72

Other late changes included the separation of the proposed Bury/Rochdale authority (retained from the Redcliffe-Maud report) into the Metropolitan Borough of Bury and the Metropolitan Borough of Rochdale. Greater Manchester_sentence_73

Bury and Rochdale were originally planned to form a single district (dubbed "Botchdale" by local MP Michael Fidler) but were divided into separate boroughs. Greater Manchester_sentence_74

To re-balance the districts, the borough of Rochdale took Middleton from Oldham. Greater Manchester_sentence_75

During the passage of the bill, the towns of Whitworth, Wilmslow and Poynton successfully objected to their incorporation in the new county. Greater Manchester_sentence_76

Greater Manchester_table_general_1

post-1974Greater Manchester_header_cell_1_0_0 pre-1974Greater Manchester_header_cell_1_0_2
Metropolitan countyGreater Manchester_header_cell_1_1_0 Metropolitan boroughGreater Manchester_header_cell_1_1_1 County boroughsGreater Manchester_header_cell_1_1_2 Non-county boroughsGreater Manchester_header_cell_1_1_3 Urban districtsGreater Manchester_header_cell_1_1_4 Rural districtsGreater Manchester_header_cell_1_1_5
Greater Manchester is an amalgamation of 70 former local government districts, including eight county boroughs and 16 municipal boroughs.Greater Manchester_cell_1_2_0 BuryGreater Manchester_cell_1_2_1 BuryGreater Manchester_cell_1_2_2 Prestwich  RadcliffeGreater Manchester_cell_1_2_3 Ramsbottom  Tottington  WhitefieldGreater Manchester_cell_1_2_4 Greater Manchester_cell_1_2_5
BoltonGreater Manchester_cell_1_3_0 BoltonGreater Manchester_cell_1_3_1 FarnworthGreater Manchester_cell_1_3_2 Blackrod  Horwich  Kearsley  Little Lever  Turton  WesthoughtonGreater Manchester_cell_1_3_3 Greater Manchester_cell_1_3_4
ManchesterGreater Manchester_cell_1_4_0 ManchesterGreater Manchester_cell_1_4_1 Greater Manchester_cell_1_4_2 Greater Manchester_cell_1_4_3 RingwayGreater Manchester_cell_1_4_4
OldhamGreater Manchester_cell_1_5_0 OldhamGreater Manchester_cell_1_5_1 Greater Manchester_cell_1_5_2 Chadderton  Crompton  Failsworth  Lees  Royton  SaddleworthGreater Manchester_cell_1_5_3 Greater Manchester_cell_1_5_4
RochdaleGreater Manchester_cell_1_6_0 RochdaleGreater Manchester_cell_1_6_1 Middleton  HeywoodGreater Manchester_cell_1_6_2 Littleborough  Milnrow  WardleGreater Manchester_cell_1_6_3 Greater Manchester_cell_1_6_4
SalfordGreater Manchester_cell_1_7_0 SalfordGreater Manchester_cell_1_7_1 Eccles  Swinton and PendleburyGreater Manchester_cell_1_7_2 Irlam  WorsleyGreater Manchester_cell_1_7_3 Greater Manchester_cell_1_7_4
StockportGreater Manchester_cell_1_8_0 StockportGreater Manchester_cell_1_8_1 Greater Manchester_cell_1_8_2 Bredbury and Romiley  Cheadle and Gatley  Hazel Grove and Bramhall  MarpleGreater Manchester_cell_1_8_3 Greater Manchester_cell_1_8_4
TamesideGreater Manchester_cell_1_9_0 Greater Manchester_cell_1_9_1 Ashton-under-Lyne  Dukinfield  Hyde  Mossley  StalybridgeGreater Manchester_cell_1_9_2 Audenshaw  Denton  Droylsden  LongendaleGreater Manchester_cell_1_9_3 Greater Manchester_cell_1_9_4
TraffordGreater Manchester_cell_1_10_0 Greater Manchester_cell_1_10_1 Altrincham  Sale  StretfordGreater Manchester_cell_1_10_2 Bowdon  Hale  UrmstonGreater Manchester_cell_1_10_3 BucklowGreater Manchester_cell_1_10_4
WiganGreater Manchester_cell_1_11_0 WiganGreater Manchester_cell_1_11_1 LeighGreater Manchester_cell_1_11_2 Abram  Ashton in Makerfield  Aspull  Atherton  Billinge and Winstanley  Hindley  Ince-in-Makerfield  Golborne  Orrell  Standish-with-Langtree  TyldesleyGreater Manchester_cell_1_11_3 WiganGreater Manchester_cell_1_11_4

1974–1997 Greater Manchester_section_3

The Local Government Act 1972 reformed local government in England by creating a system of two-tier metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties and districts throughout the country. Greater Manchester_sentence_77

The act formally established Greater Manchester on 1 April 1974, although Greater Manchester County Council (GMCC) had been running since elections in 1973. Greater Manchester_sentence_78

The leading article in The Times on the day the Local Government Act came into effect noted that the "new arrangement is a compromise which seeks to reconcile familiar geography which commands a certain amount of affection and loyalty, with the scale of operations on which modern planning methods can work effectively". Greater Manchester_sentence_79

Frangopulo noted that the creation of Greater Manchester "was the official unifying of a region which, through history and tradition, had forged for itself over many centuries bonds ... between the communities of town and village, each of which was the embodiment of the character of this region". Greater Manchester_sentence_80

The name Greater Manchester was adopted, having been favoured over Selnec following public consultation, despite opposition claiming that "Greater Manchester [...] is a myth. Greater Manchester_sentence_81

An abomination. Greater Manchester_sentence_82

A travesty. Greater Manchester_sentence_83

". Greater Manchester_sentence_84

By January 1974, a joint working party representing Greater Manchester had drawn up its county Structure Plan, ready for implementation by the Greater Manchester County Council. Greater Manchester_sentence_85

The plan set out objectives for the forthcoming metropolitan county. Greater Manchester_sentence_86

The highest priority was to increase the quality of life for its inhabitants by improving the county's physical environment and cultural facilities which had suffered following deindustrialisation—much of Greater Manchester's basic infrastructure dated from its 19th-century growth, and was unsuited to modern lifestyles. Greater Manchester_sentence_87

Other objectives were to reverse the trend of depopulation in central-Greater Manchester, to invest in country parks to improve the region's poor reputation on leisure facilities, and to improve the county's transport infrastructure and patterns. Greater Manchester_sentence_88

Because of political objection, particularly from Cheshire, Greater Manchester covered only the inner, urban 62 of the 90 former districts that the Royal Commission had outlined as an effective administrative metropolitan area. Greater Manchester_sentence_89

In this capacity, GMCC found itself "planning for an arbitrary metropolitan area ... abruptly truncated to the south", and so had to negotiate several land-use, transport and housing projects with its neighbouring county councils. Greater Manchester_sentence_90

However a "major programme of environmental action" by GMCC broadly succeeded in reversing social deprevation in its inner city slums. Greater Manchester_sentence_91

Leisure and recreational successes included the Greater Manchester Exhibition Centre (better known as the G-Mex centre and now branded Manchester Central), a converted former railway station in Manchester city centre used for cultural events, and GMCC's creation of five new country parks within its boundaries. Greater Manchester_sentence_92

GMCC was, however, criticised for being too Manchester-centric by representatives from the outer suburbs. Greater Manchester_sentence_93

Unlike the other counties created by the Act, Greater Manchester was never adopted as a postal county by the Royal Mail. Greater Manchester_sentence_94

A review in 1973 noted that "Greater Manchester" would be unlikely to be adopted because of confusion with the Manchester post town. Greater Manchester_sentence_95

The component areas of Greater Manchester therefore retained their pre-1974 postal counties until 1996, when the counties were abolished. Greater Manchester_sentence_96

A decade after they were established, the mostly Labour-controlled metropolitan county councils and the Greater London Council (GLC) had several high-profile clashes with the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher, with regards overspending and high rates charging. Greater Manchester_sentence_97

Government policy on the issue was considered throughout 1982, and the Conservative Party put a "promise to scrap the metropolitan county councils" and the GLC, in their manifesto for the 1983 general election. Greater Manchester_sentence_98

Greater Manchester County Council was abolished on 31 March 1986 under the Local Government Act 1985. Greater Manchester_sentence_99

That the metropolitan county councils were controlled by the Labour Party led to accusations that their abolition was motivated by party politics: the general secretary of the National Association of Local Government Officers described it as a "completely cynical manoeuvre". Greater Manchester_sentence_100

Most of the functions of GMCC were devolved to the ten Greater Manchester metropolitan district councils, though functions such as emergency services and public transport were taken over by joint boards and continued to be run on a county-wide basis. Greater Manchester_sentence_101

The Association of Greater Manchester Authorities (AGMA) was established to continue much of the county-wide services of the county council. Greater Manchester_sentence_102

The metropolitan county continues to exist in law, and as a geographic frame of reference, for example as a NUTS 2 administrative division for statistical purposes within the European Union. Greater Manchester_sentence_103

Although having been a Lieutenancy area since 1974, Greater Manchester was included as a ceremonial county by the Lieutenancies Act 1997 on 1 July 1997. Greater Manchester_sentence_104

Combined Authority Greater Manchester_section_4

Further information: Greater Manchester Statutory City Region and Greater Manchester Combined Authority Greater Manchester_sentence_105

In 1998, the people of Greater London voted in a referendum in favour of establishing a new Greater London Authority, with mayor and an elected chamber for the county. Greater Manchester_sentence_106

The New Local Government Network proposed the creation of a new Manchester City Region based on Greater Manchester and other metropolitan counties as part of on-going reform efforts, while a report released by the Institute for Public Policy Research's Centre for Cities proposed the creation of two administrative city regions based on Manchester and Birmingham. Greater Manchester_sentence_107

In July 2007, The Treasury published its Review of sub-national economic development and regeneration, which stated that the government would allow those city regions that wished to work together to form a statutory framework for city regional activity, including powers over transport, skills, planning and economic development. Greater Manchester_sentence_108

In January 2008, AGMA suggested that a formal government structure be created to cover Greater Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_109

The issue resurfaced in June 2008 with regards to proposed congestion charging in Greater Manchester; Sir Richard Leese (leader of Manchester City Council) said "I've come to the conclusion that [a referendum on congestion charging should be held] because we don't have an indirectly or directly elected body for Greater Manchester that has the power to make this decision". Greater Manchester_sentence_110

On 14 July 2008 the ten local authorities in Greater Manchester agreed to a strategic and integrated cross-county Multi-Area Agreement; a voluntary initiative aimed at making district councils "work together to challenge the artificial limits of boundaries" in return for greater autonomy from the central government of the UK. Greater Manchester_sentence_111

A referendum on the Greater Manchester Transport Innovation Fund was held in December 2008, in which voters "overwhelmingly rejected" plans for public transport improvements linked to a peak-time weekday-only congestion charge. Greater Manchester_sentence_112

Following a bid from AGMA highlighting the potential benefits in combatting the financial crisis of 2007–2008, it was announced in the 2009 United Kingdom Budget that Greater Manchester and the Leeds City Region would be awarded Statutory City Region Pilot status, allowing (if they desired) for their constituent district councils to pool resources and become statutory Combined Authorities with powers comparable to the Greater London Authority. Greater Manchester_sentence_113

The stated aim of the pilot was to evaluate the contributions to economic growth and sustainable development by Combined Authorities. Greater Manchester_sentence_114

The Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009 enabled the creation of a Combined Authority for Greater Manchester with devolved powers on public transport, skills, housing, regeneration, waste management, carbon neutrality and planning permission, pending approval from the ten councils. Greater Manchester_sentence_115

Such strategic matters would be decided on via an enhanced majority rule voting system involving ten members appointed from among the councillors of the metropolitan boroughs (one representing each borough with each council nominating one substitute) without the input of central government. Greater Manchester_sentence_116

The ten district councils of Greater Manchester approved the creation of the Greater Manchester Combined Authority (GMCA) on 29 March 2010, and submitted final recommendations for a constitution to the Department for Communities and Local Government and the Department for Transport. Greater Manchester_sentence_117

On 31 March 2010 the Communities Secretary John Denham approved the constitution and launched a 15-week public consultation on the draft bill together with the approved constitution. Greater Manchester_sentence_118

Following requests by the Association of Greater Manchester Authorities, which was superseded by the GMCA, the new authority came into being on 1 April 2011. Greater Manchester_sentence_119

On the same day, the Transport for Greater Manchester Committee was also formed from a pool of 33 councillors allocated by council population (roughly one councillor per 75,000 residents) to scrutinise the running of Greater Manchester's transport bodies and their finances, approve the decisions and policies of said bodies and form strategic policy recommendations or projects for the approval of the Combined Authority. Greater Manchester_sentence_120

On 3 November 2014, George Osborne, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, announced that there would be an eleventh member of the GMCA – a directly elected Mayor of Greater Manchester, with "powers over transport, housing, planning and policing" from 2017. Greater Manchester_sentence_121

Geography Greater Manchester_section_5

Main articles: Geography of Greater Manchester, List of places in Greater Manchester, and List of Greater Manchester settlements by population Greater Manchester_sentence_122

Greater Manchester is a landlocked county spanning 493 square miles (1,277 km). Greater Manchester_sentence_123

The Pennines rise to the north and east of the county with the West Pennine Moors in the northwest, the South Pennines in the northeast and the Peak District in the east. Greater Manchester_sentence_124

Several coalfields (mainly sandstones and shales) lie in the west of the county while the Cheshire Plain fringes the south. Greater Manchester_sentence_125

The rivers Mersey, Irwell and Tame run through Greater Manchester, all of which rise in the Pennines. Greater Manchester_sentence_126

Other rivers traverse the region as tributaries to the major rivers, including the Douglas, the Irk, and the Roch. Greater Manchester_sentence_127

Black Chew Head is the highest point in Greater Manchester which forms part of the Peak District National Park, rising 1,778 feet (542 m) above sea-level, within the parish of Saddleworth. Greater Manchester_sentence_128

Greater Manchester is characterised by dense urban and industrial development, which includes centres of commerce, finance, retail and administration, as well as commuter suburbs and housing, interspersed with transport infrastructure such as light rail, roads and motorway, and canals. Greater Manchester_sentence_129

There is a mix of high density urban areas, suburbs, semi-rural and rural locations in Greater Manchester, but land use is mostly urban. Greater Manchester_sentence_130

The built environment of Greater Manchester utilises red brick and sandstone prominently as a building material, alongside structures composed of modern materials, high-rise towers, and landmark 19th-, 20th- and 21st-century buildings in the city and town centres. Greater Manchester_sentence_131

Manchester city centre is the commercial and geographic heart of Greater Manchester, and with the adjoining parts of Salford and Trafford, is defined as Greater Manchester's "Regional Centre" for purposes of urban planning and public transport. Greater Manchester_sentence_132

Political and economic ties between the city centre and neighbouring Salford and Trafford have strengthened with the shift from town and district centres to metropolitan-level centres in England, and this area's high-rise landmark buildings provide a visual orientation point of reference as a central business district. Greater Manchester_sentence_133

However, Greater Manchester is also a polycentric county with ten metropolitan districts, each of which has a major town centre – and in some cases more than one – and many smaller settlements. Greater Manchester_sentence_134

The major towns encircle Manchester city centre, and between them are smaller towns (such as Denton, Middleton and Failsworth) which are suburban to both the Regional Centre and the major town centres. Greater Manchester_sentence_135

Combined, these factors make Greater Manchester the most complex "polycentric functional urban region" in the UK outside London. Greater Manchester_sentence_136

Greater Manchester_table_general_2

Metropolitan boroughGreater Manchester_header_cell_2_0_0 Administrative centreGreater Manchester_header_cell_2_0_2 Other componentsGreater Manchester_header_cell_2_0_3
BuryGreater Manchester_cell_2_1_0 Greater Manchester_cell_2_1_1 BuryGreater Manchester_cell_2_1_2 Prestwich, Radcliffe, Ramsbottom, Tottington, WhitefieldGreater Manchester_cell_2_1_3
BoltonGreater Manchester_cell_2_2_0 Greater Manchester_cell_2_2_1 BoltonGreater Manchester_cell_2_2_2 Blackrod, Farnworth, Horwich, Kearsley, Little Lever, South Turton, WesthoughtonGreater Manchester_cell_2_2_3
ManchesterGreater Manchester_cell_2_3_0 Greater Manchester_cell_2_3_1 ManchesterGreater Manchester_cell_2_3_2 Blackley, Cheetham Hill, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Didsbury, Ringway, Withington, WythenshaweGreater Manchester_cell_2_3_3
OldhamGreater Manchester_cell_2_4_0 Greater Manchester_cell_2_4_1 OldhamGreater Manchester_cell_2_4_2 Chadderton, Shaw and Crompton, Failsworth, Lees, Royton, SaddleworthGreater Manchester_cell_2_4_3
RochdaleGreater Manchester_cell_2_5_0 Greater Manchester_cell_2_5_1 RochdaleGreater Manchester_cell_2_5_2 Heywood, Littleborough, Middleton, Milnrow, Newhey, WardleGreater Manchester_cell_2_5_3
SalfordGreater Manchester_cell_2_6_0 Greater Manchester_cell_2_6_1 SwintonGreater Manchester_cell_2_6_2 Eccles, Clifton, Little Hulton, Walkden, Worsley, Salford, Irlam, Pendlebury, Cadishead, Patricroft, MontonGreater Manchester_cell_2_6_3
StockportGreater Manchester_cell_2_7_0 Greater Manchester_cell_2_7_1 StockportGreater Manchester_cell_2_7_2 Bramhall, Bredbury, Cheadle, Gatley, Hazel Grove, Marple, Romiley WoodleyGreater Manchester_cell_2_7_3
TamesideGreater Manchester_cell_2_8_0 Greater Manchester_cell_2_8_1 Ashton-under-LyneGreater Manchester_cell_2_8_2 Audenshaw, Denton, Droylsden, Dukinfield, Hyde, Longdendale, Mossley, StalybridgeGreater Manchester_cell_2_8_3
TraffordGreater Manchester_cell_2_9_0 Greater Manchester_cell_2_9_1 StretfordGreater Manchester_cell_2_9_2 Altrincham, Bowdon, Hale, Sale, Urmston, PartingtonGreater Manchester_cell_2_9_3
WiganGreater Manchester_cell_2_10_0 Greater Manchester_cell_2_10_1 WiganGreater Manchester_cell_2_10_2 Abram, Ashton-in-Makerfield, Aspull, Astley, Atherton, Bryn, Golborne, Higher End, Hindley, Ince-in-Makerfield, Leigh, Orrell, Shevington, Standish, Tyldesley, WinstanleyGreater Manchester_cell_2_10_3

The Greater Manchester Built-up Area is the conurbation or continuous urban area based around Greater Manchester, as defined by the Office for National Statistics. Greater Manchester_sentence_137

In 2011, it had an estimated population of 2,553,379, making it the second most populous built-up area in the UK, and occupied an area of 630.3 square kilometres (243.4 sq mi) at the time of the 2011 census. Greater Manchester_sentence_138

The European Union designate the conurbation as a single homogonous urban city region. Greater Manchester_sentence_139

The Built-up Area includes most of Greater Manchester, omitting areas of countryside and small villages, as well as noncontiguous urban towns such as Wigan and Marple. Greater Manchester_sentence_140

Outside the boundary of Greater Manchester it includes several adjacent areas of settlement and a few outliers connected to the urban sprawl by ribbon development, such as Wilmslow and Alderley Edge in Cheshire, Glossop and Hadfield in Derbyshire, and Whitworth in Lancashire. Greater Manchester_sentence_141

This conurbation forms part of a megalopolis of 9.4 million across northern England. Greater Manchester_sentence_142

Climate Greater Manchester_section_6

Greater Manchester experiences a temperate maritime climate, like most of the British Isles, with relatively cool summers and mild winters. Greater Manchester_sentence_143

The county's average annual rainfall is 806.6 millimetres (31.76 in) compared to the UK average of 1,125.0 millimetres (44.29 in), and its mean rain days are 140.4 mm (5.53 in) per annum, compared to the UK average of 154.4 mm (6.08 in). Greater Manchester_sentence_144

The mean temperature is slightly above average for the United Kingdom. Greater Manchester_sentence_145

Greater Manchester has a relatively high humidity level, which lent itself to the optimised and breakage-free textile manufacturing process that took place around the county. Greater Manchester_sentence_146

Snowfall is not common in the built up areas because of the urban warming effect but the West Pennine Moors in the northwest, South Pennines in the northeast and Peak District in the east receive more snow, and roads leading out of the county can be closed due to heavy snowfall. Greater Manchester_sentence_147

They include the A62 road via Standedge, the Pennine section of the M62 and the A57, Snake Pass, towards Sheffield. Greater Manchester_sentence_148

At the most southern point of Greater Manchester, Woodford's Met Office weather station recorded a temperature of −17.6 °C (0.3 °F) on 8 January 2010. Greater Manchester_sentence_149

Flora and fauna Greater Manchester_section_7

See also: List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Greater Manchester and North West Green Belt Greater Manchester_sentence_150

Contrary to its reputation for urban sprawl, Greater Manchester has green belt constraining urban drift, and a "wide and varied range" of wildlife and natural habitats. Greater Manchester_sentence_151

For instance, the wooded valleys of Bolton, Bury and Stockport, the moorlands north and east of Rochdale, Oldham and Stalybridge, and the reed beds between Wigan and Leigh, harbour flora and fauna of national importance. Greater Manchester_sentence_152

Mature woodland, scrubland, grassland, high moorland, mossland, agricultural land, lakes, wetlands, river valleys, embankments, urban parks and suburban gardens are habitats found in Greater Manchester which further contribute to biodiversity. Greater Manchester_sentence_153

The Greater Manchester Ecology Unit classifies Sites of Biological Importance. Greater Manchester_sentence_154

The 21 Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) in Greater Manchester, and the 12.1 square miles (31 km) of common land in Greater Manchester are of particular interest to organisations such as the Greater Manchester Local Record Centre, the Greater Manchester Biodiversity Project and the Manchester Field Club, which are dedicated to wildlife conservation and the preservation of the region's natural history. Greater Manchester_sentence_155

Among the SSSIs are Astley and Bedford Mosses which form a network of ancient peat bog on the fringe of Chat Moss, which in turn, at 10.6 square miles (27 km) comprises the largest area of prime farmland in Greater Manchester and contains the largest block of semi-natural woodland in the county. Greater Manchester_sentence_156

The Wigan Flashes, such as those at Pennington Flash Country Park, are the by-product of coal mining, where subsidence has led to waterbodies collecting in the resulting hollows which form an important reed bed resource in Greater Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_157

Opened in 1979, Sale Water Park is a 152-acre (62 ha) area of countryside and parkland in Sale which includes a 52-acre (21 ha) artificial lake by the River Mersey. Greater Manchester_sentence_158

Clover, sorrel, nettle and thistle are common, and grow wild in Greater Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_159

Common heather (Calluna vulgaris) dominates the uplands, such as Saddleworth Moor, which lies within the South Pennines and Dark Peak area of the Peak District National Park. Greater Manchester_sentence_160

The Rochdale Canal harbours floating water-plantain (Luronium natams), a nationally endangered aquatic plant. Greater Manchester_sentence_161

In 2002, Plantlife International launched its County Flowers campaign, asking members of the public to nominate and vote for a wild flower emblem for their county. Greater Manchester_sentence_162

Common cottongrass (Eriophorum angustifolium), a plant with fluffy white plumes native to wet hollows on high moors, was announced as the county flower of Greater Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_163

The house sparrow, starling, and blackbird are among the most populous bird species in Greater Manchester; magpie and feral pigeon are common and breed in habitats across the county. Greater Manchester_sentence_164

The South Pennines support internationally important numbers of golden plover, curlew, merlin and twite. Greater Manchester_sentence_165

Governance Greater Manchester_section_8

Main articles: Mayor of Greater Manchester and Greater Manchester Combined Authority Greater Manchester_sentence_166

See also: List of civil parishes in Greater Manchester and High Sheriff of Greater Manchester Greater Manchester_sentence_167

The Greater Manchester Combined Authority (GMCA) is the top-tier administrative body for the local governance of Greater Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_168

It was established on 1 April 2011 as a pilot combined authority, unique to local government in the United Kingdom. Greater Manchester_sentence_169

Upon formation, it consisted of ten indirectly elected members, each a directly elected councillor from one of the ten metropolitan boroughs that comprise Greater Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_170

The authority derives most of its powers from the Local Government Act 2000 and Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009, and replaced a range of single-purpose joint boards and quangos in 2011, to provide a formal administrative authority for Greater Manchester with powers over public transport, skills, housing, regeneration, waste management, carbon neutrality and planning permission. Greater Manchester_sentence_171

Functional executive bodies, such as Transport for Greater Manchester, are responsible for delivery of services in these areas. Greater Manchester_sentence_172

On 3 November 2014, the Devolution to the Greater Manchester Combined Authority agreement was signed to pass further powers and responsibilities, as well as the establishment of an elected Mayor of Greater Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_173

From April 2016, Greater Manchester became the first area of England to "get full control of its health spending" with a devolution deal which unites the region's health and social care systems under one budget under the control of local leaders, including Greater Manchester's new directly elected mayor. Greater Manchester_sentence_174

On 4 May 2017, Labour politician Andy Burnham was elected as the inaugural mayor, joining the GMCA as its eleventh member and serving as its leader. Greater Manchester_sentence_175

Beneath the GMCA are the ten councils of Greater Manchester's ten districts, which are Bolton, Bury, the City of Manchester, Oldham, Rochdale, the City of Salford, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford and Wigan. Greater Manchester_sentence_176

These district councils have the greatest powers over public services, and control matters such as council tax, education provision, social housing, libraries and healthcare. Greater Manchester_sentence_177

Eight of the ten metropolitan boroughs were named after the eight former county boroughs that now compose the largest centres of population and greater historical and political prominence. Greater Manchester_sentence_178

As an example, the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport is centred on the town of Stockport, a former county borough, but includes other smaller settlements, such as Cheadle, Gatley, and Bramhall. Greater Manchester_sentence_179

The names of two of the metropolitan boroughs were given a neutral name because, at the time they were created, there was no agreement on the town to be put forward as the administrative centre and neither had a county borough. Greater Manchester_sentence_180

These boroughs are Tameside and Trafford, centred on Ashton-under-Lyne and Stretford, respectively, and are named with reference to geographical and historical origins. Greater Manchester_sentence_181

The lowest formal tier of local government in Greater Manchester are the parish councils, which cover the various civil parishes in Greater Manchester, and have limited powers over upkeep, maintenance and small grants. Greater Manchester_sentence_182

For the first 12 years after the county was created in 1974, Greater Manchester had a two-tier system of local government, and the metropolitan borough councils shared power with the Greater Manchester County Council. Greater Manchester_sentence_183

The Greater Manchester County Council, a strategic authority based in what is now Westminster House off Piccadilly Gardens, comprised 106 members drawn from the ten metropolitan boroughs of Greater Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_184

It was a sub-regional body running regional services such as transport, strategic planning, emergency services and waste disposal. Greater Manchester_sentence_185

In 1986, along with the five other metropolitan county councils and the Greater London Council, the Greater Manchester County Council was abolished, and most of its powers were devolved to the boroughs. Greater Manchester_sentence_186

Between 1986 and 2011, the boroughs were effectively unitary authority areas, but opted to co-operate voluntarily under the Association of Greater Manchester Authorities (AGMA), which served to create a co-ordinated county-wide approach to issues of common interest to Greater Manchester, such as public transport and the shared labour market, as well as making representations to central government and the European Union. Greater Manchester_sentence_187

Although used as a "successful brand", Greater Manchester's politics have been characterised by "entrenched localism and related rivalries", historically resistant to regionalism. Greater Manchester_sentence_188

The major towns in Greater Manchester retain a "fierce independence", meaning Greater Manchester is administered using "inter-municipal coordination" on a broadly voluntary basis. Greater Manchester_sentence_189

That eight of the ten borough councils have (for the most part) been Labour-controlled since 1986, has helped maintain this informal co-operation between the districts at a county-level. Greater Manchester_sentence_190

After the abolition of the county council, the ten authorities of Greater Manchester co-operated voluntarily on policy issues like Local Transport Plans as well as funding the Greater Manchester County Record Office, and local services were administered by statutory joint boards. Greater Manchester_sentence_191

Now under the direction of the Greater Manchester Combined Authority, these joint boards are Transport for Greater Manchester (TfGM) which is responsible for planning and co-ordinating public transport across the county; the Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service, who are administered by a joint Fire and Rescue Authority; and the Greater Manchester Waste Disposal Authority. Greater Manchester_sentence_192

These joint boards are made up of councillors appointed from each of the ten boroughs (except the Waste Disposal Authority, which does not include the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan). Greater Manchester_sentence_193

Greater Manchester Police was formerly overseen by a joint police authority, but was briefly overseen by the Greater Manchester Police and Crime Commissioner from 2012 until the functions of that office were subsumed into the new regional mayoralty upon its creation in 2017. Greater Manchester_sentence_194

The ten borough councils are joint-owners of the Manchester Airport Group which controls Manchester Airport and three other UK airports. Greater Manchester_sentence_195

Other services are directly funded and managed by the local councils. Greater Manchester_sentence_196

Greater Manchester is a ceremonial county with its own Lord-Lieutenant who is the personal representative of the monarch. Greater Manchester_sentence_197

The Local Government Act 1972 provided that the whole of the area to be covered by the new metropolitan county of Greater Manchester would also be included in the Duchy of Lancaster – extending the duchy to include areas which are historically in the counties of Cheshire and the West Riding of Yorkshire. Greater Manchester_sentence_198

Until 31 March 2005, Greater Manchester's Keeper of the Rolls was appointed by the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster; they are now appointed by the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain. Greater Manchester_sentence_199

The first Lord Lieutenant of Greater Manchester was Sir William Downward who held the title from 1974 to 1988. Greater Manchester_sentence_200

The current Lord Lieutenant is Warren James Smith. Greater Manchester_sentence_201

As a geographic county, Greater Manchester is used by the government (via the Office for National Statistics) for the gathering of county-wide statistics, and organising and collating general register and census material. Greater Manchester_sentence_202

In terms of representation in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, Greater Manchester is divided into 27 parliamentary constituencies. Greater Manchester_sentence_203

Most of Greater Manchester is controlled by the Labour Party, and is generally considered a Labour stronghold. Greater Manchester_sentence_204

At the 2019 general election in Greater Manchester, Labour won 18 seats and the Conservatives won 9. Greater Manchester_sentence_205

Demography Greater Manchester_section_9

Main articles: Demography of Greater Manchester and List of Greater Manchester settlements by population Greater Manchester_sentence_206

Greater Manchester has a population of 2,812,569 (mid-2018 estimate), making it the third most populous county in England after Greater London and the West Midlands and the highest ever for the county. Greater Manchester_sentence_207

The demonym of Greater Manchester is "Greater Mancunian". Greater Manchester_sentence_208

The Manchester accent and dialect, native to Manchester, is common in the city and adjacent areas, but gives way to "slower, deeper accents" towards Greater Manchester's fringes and suburbs. Greater Manchester_sentence_209

Greater Manchester is home to a diverse population and is a multicultural agglomeration with an ethnic minority population comprising 8.5% of the total population in 2001. Greater Manchester_sentence_210

In 2008, there were over 66 refugee nationalities in the county. Greater Manchester_sentence_211

At the 2001 UK census, 74.2% of Greater Manchester's residents were Christian, 5.0% Muslim, 0.9% Jewish, 0.7% Hindu, 0.2% Buddhist, and 0.1% Sikh. Greater Manchester_sentence_212

11.4% had no religion, 0.2% had an alternative religion and 7.4% did not state their religion. Greater Manchester_sentence_213

This is similar to the rest of the country, although the proportions of Muslims and Jews are nearly twice the national average. Greater Manchester_sentence_214

It contains the Heaton Park Hebrew Congregation, a large Ashkenazi Orthodox synagogue in North Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_215

Greater Manchester is covered by the Roman Catholic Dioceses of Salford and Shrewsbury, and the Archdiocese of Liverpool. Greater Manchester_sentence_216

Most of Greater Manchester is part of the Anglican Diocese of Manchester, apart from Wigan which lies within the Diocese of Liverpool. Greater Manchester_sentence_217

Following the deindustrialisation of Greater Manchester in the mid-20th century, there was a significant economic and population decline in the region, particularly in Manchester and Salford. Greater Manchester_sentence_218

Vast areas of low-quality squalid terraced housing that were built throughout the Victorian era were found to be in a poor state of repair and unsuited to modern needs; many inner-city districts suffered from chronic social deprivation and high levels of unemployment. Greater Manchester_sentence_219

Slum clearance and the increased building of social housing overspill estates by Salford and Manchester City Councils lead to a decrease in population in central Greater Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_220

During the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s, the population of Greater Manchester declined by over 8,000 inhabitants a year. Greater Manchester_sentence_221

While Manchester's population shrank by about 40% during this time (from 766,311 in 1931 to 452,000 in 2006), the total population of Greater Manchester decreased by only 8%. Greater Manchester_sentence_222

Greater Manchester's housing stock comprises a variety of types. Greater Manchester_sentence_223

Manchester city centre is noted for its high-rise apartments, while Salford has some of the tallest and most densely populated tower block estates in Europe. Greater Manchester_sentence_224

Saddleworth has stone-built properties, including farmhouses and converted weavers' cottages. Greater Manchester_sentence_225

Throughout Greater Manchester, rows of terraced houses are common, most of them built during the Victorian and Edwardian periods. Greater Manchester_sentence_226

House prices and labour markets differ in Greater Manchester between north and south, such that in the 2000s, the Housing Market Renewal Initiative identified Manchester, Salford, Rochdale and Oldham as areas with terraced housing unsuited to modern needs. Greater Manchester_sentence_227

In contrast, towns and villages in southern Greater Manchester, from Bramhall through Woodford to Altrincham constitute an arc of wealthy commuter towns. Greater Manchester_sentence_228

Altrincham in particular, with its neighbours Bowdon and Hale, forms a "stockbroker belt, with well-appointed dwellings in an area of sylvan opulence". Greater Manchester_sentence_229

Education Greater Manchester_section_10

See also: List of schools in Greater Manchester Greater Manchester_sentence_230

Greater Manchester has five universities: the Manchester Metropolitan University, the University of Bolton, the University of Law, the University of Manchester and the University of Salford. Greater Manchester_sentence_231

Together with the Royal Northern College of Music they had a combined population of students of 101,165 in 2007 – the third highest number in England behind Greater London (360,890) and the West Midlands (140,980), and the thirteenth highest in England per head of population. Greater Manchester_sentence_232

The majority of students are concentrated on Oxford Road in Manchester, Europe's largest urban higher education precinct. Greater Manchester_sentence_233

As of 2010, further education in Greater Manchester is co-ordinated by the Greater Manchester Colleges Group, a joint venture composed of an association of 24 colleges in the region. Greater Manchester_sentence_234

Primary and secondary education within Greater Manchester are the responsibility of the constituent boroughs which form local education authorities and administer schools. Greater Manchester_sentence_235

The county has several independent schools such as Bolton School, Bury Grammar School, Manchester Grammar School, Oldham Hulme Grammar School, St Bede's College , Stockport Grammar School and Chethams School of Music. Greater Manchester_sentence_236

Economy Greater Manchester_section_11

See also: List of companies based in Greater Manchester and Economy of Manchester Greater Manchester_sentence_237

Much of Greater Manchester's wealth was generated during the Industrial Revolution, particularly textile manufacture. Greater Manchester_sentence_238

The world's first cotton mill was built in the town of Royton, and the county encompasses several former mill towns. Greater Manchester_sentence_239

An Association for Industrial Archaeology publication describes Greater Manchester as "one of the classic areas of industrial and urban growth in Britain, the result of a combination of forces that came together in the 18th and 19th centuries: a phenomenal rise in population, the appearance of the specialist industrial town, a transport revolution, and weak local lordship". Greater Manchester_sentence_240

Much of the county was at the forefront of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution and into the early-20th century; Peter Smith, Baron Smith of Leigh, chair of the Greater Manchester Combined Authority said "clearly, all of the Greater Manchester area was once at the heart of a very vibrant [textiles] industry", represented by former textile mills found throughout the county. Greater Manchester_sentence_241

The territory that makes up Greater Manchester experienced a rapid decline of these traditional sectors, partly during the Lancashire Cotton famine brought on by the American Civil War, but mainly as part of the post-war economic depression and deindustrialization of Britain that occurred during the 20th century. Greater Manchester_sentence_242

Considerable industrial restructuring has helped the region to recover from deindustrialisation and the demise of the mass production of textiles. Greater Manchester_sentence_243

Historically, the docks at Salford Quays were an industrial port, though are now (following a period of disuse) a commercial and residential area which includes the Imperial War Museum North and The Lowry theatre and exhibition centre. Greater Manchester_sentence_244

The BBC is now established in their new home at MediaCityUK, at Salford Quays. Greater Manchester_sentence_245

This is home to BBC North West, several BBC departments, including BBC Sport, Blue Peter and, since April 2012, BBC Breakfast. Greater Manchester_sentence_246

Rochdale and Manchester are connected to the history of the cooperative movement; the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers (an early consumer co-operative) was founded in Rochdale in 1844, and The Co-operative Group, the UK's largest mutual business and North West England's biggest company, is headquartered at One Angel Square in central Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_247

Despite this economic diversification, as of November 2012, government plans are under development to revive textile production in Greater Manchester, and restore it as the national home of British textile manufacture. Greater Manchester_sentence_248

Today, Greater Manchester is the economic centre of the North West region of England and is the largest sub-regional economy in the UK outside London and South East England. Greater Manchester_sentence_249

Greater Manchester represents more than £42 billion of the UK regional GVA, more than Wales, Northern Ireland or North East England. Greater Manchester_sentence_250

Manchester city centre, the central business district of Greater Manchester, is a major centre of trade and commerce and provides Greater Manchester with a global identity, specialist activities and employment opportunities; similarly, the economy of the city centre is dependent upon the rest of the county for its population as an employment pool, skilled workforce and for its collective purchasing power. Greater Manchester_sentence_251

Manchester today is a centre of the arts, the media, higher education and commerce. Greater Manchester_sentence_252

In a poll of British business leaders published in 2006, Manchester was regarded as the best place in the UK to locate a business. Greater Manchester_sentence_253

A report commissioned by Manchester Partnership, published in 2007, showed Manchester to be the "fastest-growing city" economically. Greater Manchester_sentence_254

It is the third most visited city in the United Kingdom by foreign visitors and is now often considered to be the second city of the UK. Greater Manchester_sentence_255

The Trafford Centre is one of the largest shopping centres in the United Kingdom, and is located within the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford. Greater Manchester_sentence_256

At the 2001 UK census, there were 1,805,315 residents of Greater Manchester aged 16 to 74. Greater Manchester_sentence_257

The economic activity of these people was 40.3% in full-time employment, 11.3% in part-time employment, 6.7% self-employed, 3.5% unemployed, 5.1% students without jobs, 2.6% students with jobs, 13.0% retired, 6.1% looking after home or family, 7.8% permanently sick or disabled and 3.5% economically inactive for other reasons. Greater Manchester_sentence_258

The figures follow the national trend, although the percentage of self-employed people is below the national average of 8.3%. Greater Manchester_sentence_259

The proportion of unemployment in the county varies, with the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport having the lowest at 2.0% and Manchester the highest at 7.9%. Greater Manchester_sentence_260

In 2001, of the 1,093,385 residents of Greater Manchester in employment, the industry of employment was: 18.4% retail and wholesale; 16.7% manufacturing; 11.8% property and business services; 11.6% health and social work; 8.0% education; 7.3% transport and communications; 6.7% construction; 4.9% public administration and defence; 4.7% hotels and restaurants; 4.1% finance; 0.8% electricity, gas, and water supply; 0.5% agriculture; and 4.5% other. Greater Manchester_sentence_261

This was roughly in line with national figures, except for the proportion of jobs in agriculture which is only about a third of the national average of 1.5%, due to the overwhelmingly urban, built-up land use of Greater Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_262

Greater Manchester_table_general_3

Regional gross value added by the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester at current basic prices. Figures are in millions of British pounds sterling.Greater Manchester_table_caption_3
YearGreater Manchester_header_cell_3_0_0 Gross Value AddedGreater Manchester_header_cell_3_0_1 Growth (%)Greater Manchester_header_cell_3_0_2
2002Greater Manchester_cell_3_1_0 36,029Greater Manchester_cell_3_1_1 3.9%Greater Manchester_cell_3_1_2
2003Greater Manchester_cell_3_2_0 38,094Greater Manchester_cell_3_2_1 5.7%Greater Manchester_cell_3_2_2
2004Greater Manchester_cell_3_3_0 41,538Greater Manchester_cell_3_3_1 9.0%Greater Manchester_cell_3_3_2
2005Greater Manchester_cell_3_4_0 43,042Greater Manchester_cell_3_4_1 3.6%Greater Manchester_cell_3_4_2
2006Greater Manchester_cell_3_5_0 44,089Greater Manchester_cell_3_5_1 6.2%Greater Manchester_cell_3_5_2
2007Greater Manchester_cell_3_6_0 47,975Greater Manchester_cell_3_6_1 5.0%Greater Manchester_cell_3_6_2
2008Greater Manchester_cell_3_7_0 47,894Greater Manchester_cell_3_7_1 −0.2%Greater Manchester_cell_3_7_2
2009Greater Manchester_cell_3_8_0 48,634Greater Manchester_cell_3_8_1 1.5%Greater Manchester_cell_3_8_2
2010Greater Manchester_cell_3_9_0 49,722Greater Manchester_cell_3_9_1 2.2%Greater Manchester_cell_3_9_2
2011Greater Manchester_cell_3_10_0 49,461Greater Manchester_cell_3_10_1 −0.5%Greater Manchester_cell_3_10_2
2012Greater Manchester_cell_3_11_0 50,991Greater Manchester_cell_3_11_1 3.1%Greater Manchester_cell_3_11_2

Transport Greater Manchester_section_12

Main article: Transport for Greater Manchester Greater Manchester_sentence_263

See also: Transport in Manchester, Manchester Airport, Manchester Metrolink, and List of railway stations in Greater Manchester Greater Manchester_sentence_264

Public transport services in Greater Manchester are co-ordinated by Transport for Greater Manchester (TfGM), a public body with powers between those of a passenger transport executive and Transport for London, established as SELNEC PTE in 1969 in accordance with the Transport Act 1968. Greater Manchester_sentence_265

The original SELNEC Passenger Transport Executive was renamed as the Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive (GMPTE) when taken over by the Greater Manchester County Council on 1 April 1974 to co-ordinate public transport modes within the new county. Greater Manchester_sentence_266

The council had overall responsibility for strategic planning and all policy decisions covering public transport (such as bus and rail services) and highways. Greater Manchester_sentence_267

GMPTE's purpose was to secure the provision of a completely integrated and efficient system of passenger transport for Greater Manchester on behalf of the county council. Greater Manchester_sentence_268

In 1977, it was noted as the largest authority for public transport in the United Kingdom after London Transport. Greater Manchester_sentence_269

GMPTE was renamed as Transport for Greater Manchester in April 2011 when it became a functional body of the Greater Manchester Combined Authority and obtained powers additional to those of a regular passenger transport executive from central government. Greater Manchester_sentence_270

Greater Manchester lies at the heart of the North West transport network. Greater Manchester_sentence_271

Much of the infrastructure converges at Manchester city centre with the Manchester Inner Ring Road, an amalgamation of several major roads, circulating the city centre. Greater Manchester_sentence_272

The county is the only place in the UK to have a fully orbital motorway, the M60, which passes through all of the boroughs except Bolton and Wigan. Greater Manchester_sentence_273

Greater Manchester has a higher percentage of the motorway network than any other county in the country, and according to the Guinness Book of World Records, it has the most traffic lanes side by side (17), spread across several parallel carriageways (M61 at Linnyshaw in Walkden, close to the M60 interchange). Greater Manchester_sentence_274

Greater Manchester's 85 miles (137 km) of motorway network saw 5.8 billion vehicle kilometres in 2002 – about 6% of the UK's total, or 89,000 vehicles a day. Greater Manchester_sentence_275

The A580 "East Lancs" road is a primary A road that connects Manchester and Salford with Liverpool. Greater Manchester_sentence_276

It was the UK's first purpose-built intercity highway and was officially opened by George V on 18 July 1934. Greater Manchester_sentence_277

Throughout 2008, there were proposals for congestion charging in Greater Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_278

Unlike the London scheme, two cordons would have been used, one covering the main urban core of the Greater Manchester Urban Area and another covering Manchester city centre. Greater Manchester_sentence_279

Metrolink is Greater Manchester's light rail system, which began operating in 1992. Greater Manchester_sentence_280

Principally used for suburban commuting, as of December 2020 the 57-mile (92 km) long network consists of eight lines which radiate from Manchester city centre and terminate at Altrincham, Ashton-under-Lyne, Bury, East Didsbury, Eccles, Media City UK, Manchester Airport, Rochdale and Intu Trafford Centre. Greater Manchester_sentence_281

The system is owned by TfGM and operated and maintained under contract by a Keolis / Amey consortium. Greater Manchester_sentence_282

Greater Manchester has a heavy rail network of 142 route miles (229 km) with 98 stations, forming a central hub to the North West rail network. Greater Manchester_sentence_283

Train services are provided by private operators and run on the national rail network which is owned and managed by Network Rail. Greater Manchester_sentence_284

There is an extensive bus network which radiates from Manchester city centre. Greater Manchester_sentence_285

The largest providers are Diamond Bus North West, First Greater Manchester, Go North West and Stagecoach Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_286

An extensive canal network also remains from the Industrial Revolution. Greater Manchester_sentence_287

Manchester Airport, which is the third busiest in the United Kingdom, serves the county and wider region with flights to more worldwide destinations than any other airport in the UK. Greater Manchester_sentence_288

Since June 2007 it has served 225 routes. Greater Manchester_sentence_289

The airport handled 21.06  million passengers in 2008. Greater Manchester_sentence_290

The three modes of public surface transport in the area are heavily used. Greater Manchester_sentence_291

19.7 million rail journeys were made in the then GMPTE-supported area in the 2005/2006 financial year – an increase of 9.4% over 2004/2005; there were 19.9 million journeys on Metrolink; and the bus system carried 219.4 million passengers. Greater Manchester_sentence_292

Sport Greater Manchester_section_13

See also: Sport in Manchester and List of football clubs in Greater Manchester Greater Manchester_sentence_293

Manchester hosted the 2002 Commonwealth Games which was, at a cost of £200M for the sporting facilities and a further £470M for local infrastructure, by far the biggest and most expensive sporting event held in the UK and the first to be an integral part of urban regeneration. Greater Manchester_sentence_294

A mix of new and existing facilities were used. Greater Manchester_sentence_295

New amenities included the Manchester Aquatics Centre, Bolton Arena, the National Squash Centre, and the City of Manchester Stadium. Greater Manchester_sentence_296

The Manchester Velodrome was built as part of the Manchester bid for the 2000 Summer Olympics. Greater Manchester_sentence_297

After the Commonwealth Games the City of Manchester Stadium was converted for football use, and the adjacent warm-up track upgraded to become the Manchester Regional Arena. Greater Manchester_sentence_298

Other facilities continue to be used by elite athletes. Greater Manchester_sentence_299

Cambridge Policy Consultants estimate 4,500 full-time jobs as a direct consequence, and Grattan points to other long-term benefits accruing from publicity and the improvement of the area's image. Greater Manchester_sentence_300

Association football is "woven into the cultural fabric of Greater Manchester", by way of its numerous football clubs – two of which play in the Premier League – which draw support, visitors and economic benefits to Greater Manchester valued at £330 million per year as of 2013. Greater Manchester_sentence_301

The Manchester Football Association is the sport's governing body in Greater Manchester, and is committed to its promotion and development. Greater Manchester_sentence_302

Manchester United F.C. are one of the world's best-known football teams, and in 2008 and 2017 Forbes estimated that they were the world's richest club. Greater Manchester_sentence_303

They have won the League Championship a record twenty times (most recently in 2012–2013), the FA Cup twelve times, the Football League Cup five times and have been European Champions three times. Greater Manchester_sentence_304

Their Old Trafford ground has hosted the FA Cup Final, England international matches and the 2003 UEFA Champions League Final between Juventus and A.C. Greater Manchester_sentence_305 Milan. Greater Manchester_sentence_306

Manchester City F.C. moved from Maine Road to the City of Manchester Stadium after the 2002 Commonwealth Games. Greater Manchester_sentence_307

They have won the league championship six times (most recently in 2018–19), the FA Cup six times and the Football League Cup seven times. Greater Manchester_sentence_308

In addition, Wigan Athletic F.C. are one of the county's younger sides, and won their first major trophy in 2013, defeating Manchester City F.C. in the FA Cup final. Greater Manchester_sentence_309

They currently play in the Championship. Greater Manchester_sentence_310

Other professional clubs in the area include Bolton Wanderers F.C. and Rochdale A.F.C. Greater Manchester_sentence_311

playing in League One, as well as Oldham Athletic A.F.C. Greater Manchester_sentence_312

and Salford City F.C. in League Two. Greater Manchester_sentence_313

Greater Manchester also has clubs in the National League North including Stockport County F.C. and F.C United of Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_314

In rugby league, Wigan Warriors and Salford Red Devils compete in the Super League, the top-level professional rugby league football club competition in Europe. Greater Manchester_sentence_315

Wigan have won the Super League/Rugby Football League Championship twenty–one times, the Challenge Cup nineteen times, and the World Club Challenge three times. Greater Manchester_sentence_316

Leigh Centurions, Swinton Lions, Oldham R.L.F.C. Greater Manchester_sentence_317

and Rochdale Hornets play in the second tier Championship. Greater Manchester_sentence_318

There is also a large network of junior/community rugby league clubs across the metropolitan area which act as feeder teams to the elite sides, the most notable being Manchester Rangers. Greater Manchester_sentence_319

In rugby union, Stockport's Sale Sharks compete in the Guinness Premiership, and won the league in 2006. Greater Manchester_sentence_320

Whitefield based Sedgley Park RUFC compete in National Division One, Manchester RUFC in National Division Two and Wigan side Orrell R.U.F.C. Greater Manchester_sentence_321

in National Division Three North. Greater Manchester_sentence_322

Lancashire County Cricket Club began as Manchester Cricket Club and represents the (ancient) county of Lancashire. Greater Manchester_sentence_323

Lancashire contested the original 1890 County Championship. Greater Manchester_sentence_324

The team has won the County Championship nine times, most recently in 2011. Greater Manchester_sentence_325

Their Old Trafford ground, near the football stadium of the same name, regularly hosts test matches. Greater Manchester_sentence_326

Possibly the most famous took place in 1956, when Jim Laker took a record nineteen wickets in the fourth test against Australia. Greater Manchester_sentence_327

Cheshire County Cricket Club are a minor counties club who sometimes play in the south of the county. Greater Manchester_sentence_328

The Kirkmanshulme Lane stadium in Belle Vue is the home to top-flight speedway team the Belle Vue Aces and regular greyhound racing. Greater Manchester_sentence_329

Professional ice hockey returned to the area in early 2007 with the opening of a purpose-designed rink in Altrincham, the Altrincham Ice Dome, to host the Manchester Phoenix. Greater Manchester_sentence_330

Their predecessor, Manchester Storm, went out of business in 2002 because of financial problems that led to them being unable to pay players' wages or the rent for the Manchester Arena in which they played. Greater Manchester_sentence_331

Horse racing has taken place at several sites in the county. Greater Manchester_sentence_332

The two biggest courses were both known as Manchester Racecourse – though neither was within the boundaries of Manchester – and ran from the 17th century until 1963. Greater Manchester_sentence_333

Racing was at Kersal Moor until 1847 when the racecourse at Castle Irwell was opened. Greater Manchester_sentence_334

In 1867 racing was moved to New Barnes, Weaste, until the site was vacated (for a hefty price) in 1901 to allow an expansion to Manchester Docks. Greater Manchester_sentence_335

The land is now home to Dock 9 of the re-branded Salford Quays. Greater Manchester_sentence_336

Racing then moved back to Castle Irwell which later staged a Classic – the 1941 St. Greater Manchester_sentence_337 Leger – and was home to the Lancashire Oaks (nowadays run at Haydock Park) and the November Handicap, which was traditionally the last major race of the flat season. Greater Manchester_sentence_338

Through the late 50s and early 60s the track saw Scobie Breasley and Lester Piggott annually battle out the closing acts of the jockey's title until racing ceased on 7 November 1963. Greater Manchester_sentence_339

The Greater Manchester Athletics Association is the governing body of athletics in Greater Manchester, and organises events and competitions within Greater Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_340

The Greater Manchester Marathon is a long-distance running event along a 26-mile and 385-yard course throughout the borough of Trafford. Greater Manchester_sentence_341

Professional athletics takes place at the Regional Athletics Arena in Sportcity, which has hosted numerous national trials, Robin Park in Wigan, Longford Park in Stretford (home to Trafford Athletic Club), Woodbank Stadium in Stockport (home to Stockport Harriers) and the Cleavleys Track in Winton (home to Salford Harriers). Greater Manchester_sentence_342

As of 2008, new sports facilities including a 10,000 capacity stadium and athletics venue are being constructed at Leigh Sports Village. Greater Manchester_sentence_343

The Greater Manchester Community Basketball Club is an association which represents Greater Manchester in basketball. Greater Manchester_sentence_344

It supports a variety of teams, including Manchester Magic. Greater Manchester_sentence_345

The Greater Manchester County Crown Green Bowling Association appoints Junior, Senior and Veteran teams to represent Greater Manchester in the sport of bowls. Greater Manchester_sentence_346

Founded by Greater Manchester's ten district councils in 1996, GreaterSport is the County Sports Partnership for Greater Manchester which works closely with the sports and physical activity sectors and coordinates events such as the Greater Manchester Youth Games. Greater Manchester_sentence_347

The Greater Manchester Sports Fund aims to ensure that people in Greater Manchester aged 12–21 competing in any kind of sport, irrespective of background, are able to obtain grants of up to £750 so that they can better fulfil their potential. Greater Manchester_sentence_348

Culture Greater Manchester_section_14

Art, tourism, culture and sport provide 16% of employment in Greater Manchester, with the proportion highest in Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_349

In 2014, Will Straw remarked that "Greater Manchester is a creative powerhouse", recognised for its cultural output in areas such as association football, media and digital content, and guitar and dance music. Greater Manchester_sentence_350

Cuisine Greater Manchester_section_15

There are several delicacies native to Greater Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_351

Savoury dishes include black pudding, a blood sausage typically associated with Bury and Bury Market; pasty barm, a combined pasty-barm cake created in Bolton; and rag pudding, a suet pastry pudding from Oldham filled with steak and onion and steamed in a cloth or wrapper to cook; the Manchester egg was introduced in 2010. Greater Manchester_sentence_352

Sweet dishes include Eccles cake — native to Eccles — a small round flaky pastry cake filled with currants, sugar and spice; Manchester tart, a baked tart which consists of a shortcrust pastry shell spread with raspberry jam, covered with a custard filling and topped with flakes of coconut; and Uncle Joe's Mint Balls, traditional sweet mild mints manufactured in Wigan since their inception in 1898. Greater Manchester_sentence_353

Vimto and Tizer are soft drinks invented in Manchester in 1908 and 1924 respectively. Greater Manchester_sentence_354

Boddingtons is a bitter developed in Manchester and promoted as the "Cream of Manchester" in a popular 1990s advertising campaign credited with raising the city's profile. Greater Manchester_sentence_355

The Greater Manchester Campaign for Real Ale is a branch of the national Campaign for Real Ale, an advocacy group that supports, promotes and preserves the beer and drinks industry, and recognising outstanding venues with awards; The Nursery in Heaton Norris was its National Pub of the Year in 2001, and The Baum in Rochdale was its National Pub of the Year in 2012. Greater Manchester_sentence_356

The Manchester Food and Drink Festival was launched in 1997 as an urban beverage and gastronomy fair, principally held in Manchester city centre with further events throughout Greater Manchester; smaller separate local events include the Prestwich Food and Drink Festival, the annual World Pie Eating Championship in Wigan, and the annual Ramsbottom Chocolate Festival. Greater Manchester_sentence_357

As of 2012, Greater Manchester has no Michelin-starred restaurants, but three eateries in the Bib Gourmand category. Greater Manchester_sentence_358

Galleries, museums and exhibitions Greater Manchester_section_16

The Greater Manchester Museums Group (GMMG) is a partnership of eight of the ten Museum Services in Greater Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_359

Its exhibition centres include: Gallery Oldham, which has in the past featured work by Pablo Picasso; Salford Museum and Art Gallery, a local museum with a recreated Victorian street; and Bolton Museum, which houses material from private collectors, including geological specimens from the estate of Caroline Birley. Greater Manchester_sentence_360

Separate from the GMMG is The Lowry at Salford Quays, which has a changing display of L. Greater Manchester_sentence_361 S. Lowry's work alongside travelling exhibitions. Greater Manchester_sentence_362

Manchester Art Gallery is a major provincial art gallery noted for its collection of Pre-Raphaelite art and housed in a Grade I listed building by Charles Barry. Greater Manchester_sentence_363

Greater Manchester's museums showcase the county's industrial and social heritage. Greater Manchester_sentence_364

The Hat Works in Stockport is the UK's only museum dedicated to the hatting industry; the museum moved in 2000 to a Grade II listed Victorian mill, previously a hat factory. Greater Manchester_sentence_365

The Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester, amongst other displays, charts the rise of science and industry and especially the part Manchester played in its development; the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council described the displays as "pre-eminent collections of national and international importance". Greater Manchester_sentence_366

Urbis began its life as a museum of the modern city, which attempted to explain the effects and experiences of life in the city. Greater Manchester_sentence_367

It was then transformed into an exhibition centre, which had its most successful year in 2006. Greater Manchester_sentence_368

Urbis entered its third phase since opening in 2012 as the National Football Museum. Greater Manchester_sentence_369

Stockport Air Raid Shelters uses a mile of tunnels, built to accommodate 6,500 people, to illustrate life in the Second World War's air raid shelters. Greater Manchester_sentence_370

The Imperial War Museum North in Trafford Park is one of the Imperial War Museum's five branches. Greater Manchester_sentence_371

Alongside exhibitions of war machinery are displays describing how people's lives are affected by war. Greater Manchester_sentence_372

The Museum of Transport in Manchester, which opened in 1979, has one of the largest collections of vehicles in the country. Greater Manchester_sentence_373

The People's History Museum is "the national centre for the collection, conservation, interpretation and study of material relating to the history of working people in Britain". Greater Manchester_sentence_374

The Pankhurst Museum is based in the early feminist Emmeline Pankhurst's former home and includes a parlour laid out in contemporary style. Greater Manchester_sentence_375

Manchester United, Manchester City, and Lancashire CCC all have dedicated museums illustrating their histories. Greater Manchester_sentence_376

Wigan Pier, best known from George Orwell's book The Road to Wigan Pier, was the name of a wharf on the Leeds and Liverpool Canal in Wigan. Greater Manchester_sentence_377

The name has been reused to describe an industrial-based visitor attraction, partly closed for redevelopment as of 2008. Greater Manchester_sentence_378

Media, film and television Greater Manchester_section_17

The Greater Manchester Film Festival was launched in 2012. Greater Manchester_sentence_379

It is an international film festival designed to capitalise on Greater Manchester's "huge strengths in film and television, along with its growing media presence". Greater Manchester_sentence_380

MediaCityUK, a host venue of the Greater Manchester Film Festival, is a 200-acre (81 ha) mixed-use property development site at Salford Quays; its principal tenants are mass media organisations such as ITV Granada and the BBC. Greater Manchester_sentence_381

One of Greater Manchester's most lucrative and acclaimed television exports is Coronation Street, which is a televised soap opera set in Weatherfield, a fictional borough of Greater Manchester, inspired by life in Salford. Greater Manchester_sentence_382

Created by Tony Warren, Coronation Street was first broadcast on 9 December 1960, making it the world's longest-running TV soap opera in production. Greater Manchester_sentence_383

It has been filmed in Manchester at Granada Studios since its inception, but filming is now done at a new set at MediaCityUK. Greater Manchester_sentence_384

A local television station for Greater Manchester, Channel M, was launched in February 2000, carrying a wide range of local programming, including news, sport and entertainment programming. Greater Manchester_sentence_385

Following severe cutbacks to its local production amid heavy losses, the station ceased broadcasting in April 2012. Greater Manchester_sentence_386

A smaller-scale local TV station, That's Manchester, began broadcasting in May 2015. Greater Manchester_sentence_387

The Manchester Evening News is a regional daily newspaper covering Greater Manchester, published every day except Sunday. Greater Manchester_sentence_388

It is owned by Reach plc and produced by MEN Media. Greater Manchester_sentence_389

It sells around 81,000 copies a day and gives away nearly 100,000, making it the market leader in Greater Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_390

The paper was first published in 1868 by Mitchell Henry as part of his parliamentary election campaign for the Manchester constituency. Greater Manchester_sentence_391

MEN Media "dominates Greater Manchester", reaching 7 out of 10 adults each week within the region through its portfolio of products which also includes the Oldham Advertiser, the Rochdale Observer, and the Salford Advertiser. Greater Manchester_sentence_392

Music, theatre and performing arts Greater Manchester_section_18

Greater Manchester has the highest number of theatre seats per head of population outside London. Greater Manchester_sentence_393

Most, if not all, of the larger theatres are subsidised by local authorities or the North West Regional Arts Board. Greater Manchester_sentence_394

The Royal Exchange Theatre formed in the 1970s out of a peripatetic group staging plays at venues such as at the University [of Manchester] Theatre and the Apollo Theatre. Greater Manchester_sentence_395

A season in a temporary stage in the former Royal Exchange, Manchester was followed by funding for a theatre in the round, which opened in 1976. Greater Manchester_sentence_396

The Lowry — Greater Manchester's most visited tourist attraction — houses two theatres, used by travelling groups in all the performing arts. Greater Manchester_sentence_397

The Opera House is a 1,900-seat venue hosting travelling productions, often musicals just out of the West End. Greater Manchester_sentence_398

Its sister venue, The Palace, hosts generally similar shows. Greater Manchester_sentence_399

The Oldham Playhouse, one of the older theatres in the region, helped launch the careers of Stan Laurel and Charlie Chaplin. Greater Manchester_sentence_400

Its productions are described by the 2007 CityLife guide as 'staunchly populist' – and popular. Greater Manchester_sentence_401

There are many other venues scattered throughout the county, of all types and sizes. Greater Manchester_sentence_402

Greater Manchester has four professional orchestras, all based in Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_403

The Hallé Orchestra is the UK's oldest symphony orchestra (and the fourth oldest in the world), supports a choir and a youth orchestra, and releases its recordings on its own record label. Greater Manchester_sentence_404

The Hallé is based at the Bridgwater Hall but often tours, typically giving 70 performances "at home" and 40 on tour. Greater Manchester_sentence_405

The BBC Philharmonic Orchestra, one of five BBC orchestras, can trace its history back to the early days of radio broadcasting in 1926. Greater Manchester_sentence_406

As of 2008 it is based at the BBC's Oxford Road studios, but is expected to move to MediaCityUK in Salford. Greater Manchester_sentence_407

The Manchester Camerata and the Northern Chamber Orchestra are smaller, though still professional, organisations. Greater Manchester_sentence_408

The main classical venue is the 2,341-seat Bridgewater Hall in Manchester, opened in 1996 at a cost of £42m. Greater Manchester_sentence_409

Manchester is also a centre for musical education, via the Royal Northern College of Music and Chetham's School of Music. Greater Manchester_sentence_410

The Manchester Arena seats over 21,000, and is the largest indoor arena in Europe. Greater Manchester_sentence_411

It has been voted International Venue of the Year, and for several years was the most popular venue in the world. Greater Manchester_sentence_412

The sports grounds in the county also host large pop concerts. Greater Manchester_sentence_413

A new flexible, large-scale cultural, arts, and exhibition space named The Factory is to be built on the former site of Granada Studios in central Manchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_414

It is named with reference to Factory Records, a Manchester-based independent record label, founded in 1978 by Tony Wilson and Alan Erasmus. Greater Manchester_sentence_415

Factory Records – which featured acts such as Joy Division, New Order, and the Happy Mondays — and The Haçienda, served as a catalyst in the late-1980s for a blending of alternative rock, psychedelic rock and electronic dance music known as Madchester. Greater Manchester_sentence_416

Greater Manchester continues to be associated with guitar and dance music. Greater Manchester_sentence_417

See also Greater Manchester_section_19

Greater Manchester_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Manchester.