Green Party of England and Wales

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Green Party of England and Wales_table_infobox_0

Green Party of England and WalesGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_0_0
LeaderGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_1_0 Jonathan Bartley and Siân Berry (collective leadership)Green Party of England and Wales_cell_0_1_1
Deputy LeaderGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_2_0 Amelia WomackGreen Party of England and Wales_cell_0_2_1
Member of ParliamentGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_3_0 Caroline LucasGreen Party of England and Wales_cell_0_3_1
ChairGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_4_0 Liz ReasonGreen Party of England and Wales_cell_0_4_1
FoundedGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_5_0 July 1990 (1990-07)Green Party of England and Wales_cell_0_5_1
Preceded byGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_6_0 Green Party (UK)Green Party of England and Wales_cell_0_6_1
HeadquartersGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_7_0 The Biscuit Factory

Unit 215 J Block 100 Clements Road London SE16 4DGGreen Party of England and Wales_cell_0_7_1

Youth wingGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_8_0 Young Greens of England and WalesGreen Party of England and Wales_cell_0_8_1
LGBT wingGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_9_0 LGBTIQA+ GreensGreen Party of England and Wales_cell_0_9_1
Membership (2019)Green Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_10_0 50,000Green Party of England and Wales_cell_0_10_1
IdeologyGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_11_0 Green politics

Eco-socialism Progressivism Pro-EuropeanismGreen Party of England and Wales_cell_0_11_1

Political positionGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_12_0 Left-wingGreen Party of England and Wales_cell_0_12_1
European affiliationGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_13_0 European Green PartyGreen Party of England and Wales_cell_0_13_1
International affiliationGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_14_0 Global GreensGreen Party of England and Wales_cell_0_14_1
ColoursGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_15_0 GreenGreen Party of England and Wales_cell_0_15_1
Devolved branchesGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_16_0 Wales Green Party

London Green PartyGreen Party of England and Wales_cell_0_16_1

House of CommonsGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_17_0 1 / 573Green Party of England and Wales_cell_0_17_1
House of LordsGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_18_0 2 / 794Green Party of England and Wales_cell_0_18_1
London AssemblyGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_19_0 2 / 25Green Party of England and Wales_cell_0_19_1
Senedd Cymru – Welsh ParliamentGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_20_0 0 / 60Green Party of England and Wales_cell_0_20_1
Local government in England and WalesGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_21_0 382 / 18,560Green Party of England and Wales_cell_0_21_1
WebsiteGreen Party of England and Wales_header_cell_0_22_0

The Green Party of England and Wales (GPEW; Welsh: Plaid Werdd Cymru a Lloegr, often simply the Green Party or Greens) is a green, left-wing political party in England and Wales. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_0

Headquartered in London, its co-leaders have been Siân Berry and Jonathan Bartley since September 2018. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_1

The Green Party has one representative in the House of Commons and two in the House of Lords. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_2

It also has numerous councillors in the UK local government and two members of the London Assembly. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_3

The party's ideology combines environmentalism with left-wing economic policies, including well-funded, locally controlled public services. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_4

It advocates a steady-state economy with regulated capitalism, and supports proportional representation. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_5

It also takes a progressive approach to social policies such as civil liberties, animal rights, LGBT rights, and drug policy reform. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_6

The party also believes strongly in non-violence, universal basic income, a living wage, and democratic participation. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_7

They comprise various regional divisions, including the semi-autonomous Wales Green Party. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_8

Internationally, the party is affiliated to the Global Greens and the European Green Party. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_9

The Green Party of England and Wales was established in 1990 alongside the Scottish Green Party and the Green Party in Northern Ireland through the division of the pre-existing Green Party, a group that had initially been established as the PEOPLE Party in 1973. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_10

The party went through centralising reforms spearheaded by the Green 2000 group in early 1990, and also sought to emphasise growth in local governance, doing so throughout 1990. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_11

In 2010, the party gained its first Member of Parliament (MP) in former leader Caroline Lucas, who represents the constituency of Brighton Pavilion. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_12

History Green Party of England and Wales_section_0

Main article: History of the Green Party of England and Wales Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_13

Origins (1972–1990) Green Party of England and Wales_section_1

The Green Party of England and Wales has its origins in the PEOPLE Party, which was founded in Coventry, Warwickshire, in February 1972. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_14

It was renamed to The Ecology Party in 1975 and, in 1985, changed again to the Green Party. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_15

In 1989, the party's Scottish branch split to establish the independent Scottish Green Party, with an independent Green Party in Northern Ireland developing shortly after, leaving the branches in England and Wales to form their own party. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_16

The Green Party of England and Wales is registered with the Electoral Commission, only as "the Green Party." Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_17

In the 1989 European Parliament elections, the Green Party polled 15% of the vote with 2.3 million votes, the best performance of a "green" party in a nationwide election. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_18

This election gave the Green Party the third-largest share of the vote after the Conservative and Labour parties, although because of the first-past-the-post voting system, it failed to gain a seat. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_19

Many say the success of the party is due to increased respect for environmentalism and the effects of the development boom in southern England in the late 1980s. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_20

Early years (1990–2008) Green Party of England and Wales_section_2

Seeking to capitalize on the Greens' success in the EP elections, a group named Green 2000 was established in July 1990, arguing for an internal reorganization of the party in order to develop it into an active electoral force capable of securing seats in the House of Commons. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_21

Its proposed reforms included a more centralized structure, the replacement of the existing party council with a smaller party executive, and the establishment of delegate voting at party conferences. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_22

Many party members opposed the reforms, believing that they would undermine the party's internal democracy and, amid the arguments, various vital members were dismissed or resigned from the Greens. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_23

Although Green 2000 proposals were defeated at the party's 1990 conference, they were overwhelmingly carried at their 1991 conference, resulting in an internal restructuring of the party. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_24

Between the end of 1990 and mid-1992, the party lost over half its members, with those polled indicating that frustration over a lack of clear and effective party leadership was a significant reason in their decision. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_25

The party fielded more candidates than it had ever done before in the 1992 general election but performed poorly. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_26

In 1993, the party adopted its "Basis for Renewal" program in an attempt to bring together conflicting factions and thus saved the party from bankruptcy and potential demise. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_27

The party sought to escape its reputation as an environmentalist single-issue party by placing greater emphasis on social policies. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_28

Recognizing their poor performance in the 1992 national elections, the party decided to focus on gaining support in local elections, targeting wards where there was a pre-existing support base of Green activists. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_29

In 1993, future party leader and MP Caroline Lucas gained a seat in Oxfordshire County Council, with other gains following in the 1995 and 1996 local elections. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_30

The Greens sought to build alliances with other parties in the hope of gaining representation at the parliamentary level. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_31

In Wales, the Greens endorsed Plaid Cymru candidate Cynog Dafis in the 1992 general election, having worked with him on several environmental initiatives. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_32

For the 1997 general election, the Ceredigion branch of the Greens endorsed Cynog Dafis as a joint Plaid Cymru/Green candidate, but this generated controversy with the party, with critics believing it improper to build an alliance with a party that did not share all of the Greens' views. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_33

In April 1995, the Green National Executive ruled that the party should withdraw from this alliance due to ideological differences. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_34

As the Labour Party shifted to the political center under the leadership of Tony Blair and his New Labour project, the Greens sought to gain the support of the party's disaffected leftists. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_35

During the 1999 European Parliament elections, the first to be held in the UK using proportional representation, the Greens gained their first Members of the European Parliament (MEPs), Lucas (South East England) and Jean Lambert (London). Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_36

At the inaugural London Assembly Elections in 2000, the party gained 11% of the vote and returned three Assembly Members (AMs). Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_37

Although this dropped to two following the 2004 London Assembly elections, the Green AMs proved vital in passing the annual budget of former Mayor Ken Livingstone. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_38

At the 2001 general election, they polled 0.7% of the vote and gained no seats. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_39

At the 2004 European Parliamentary elections, the party returned 2 MEPs the same as in 1999; overall, the party polled 1,033,093 votes. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_40

In the 2005 general election, the party gained over 1% of the vote for the first time and polled over 10% in the constituencies of Brighton Pavilion and Lewisham Deptford. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_41

This growth was due in part to the increasing public visibility of the party as well as growth in support for smaller parties in the UK. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_42

Caroline Lucas (2008–2012) Green Party of England and Wales_section_3

In November 2007, the party held an internal referendum to decide on whether it should replace its use of two "principal speakers", one male and the other female, with the more conventional roles of "leader" and "deputy leader"; the motion passed with 73% of the vote. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_43

In September 2008, the party then elected its first leader, Caroline Lucas, with Adrian Ramsay elected deputy leader. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_44

In the party's first election with Lucas as leader, it retained both its MEPs in the 2009 European elections. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_45

In the 2010 general election, the party returned its first MP. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_46

Lucas was returned as MP for the seat of Brighton Pavilion. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_47

Following the election, Keith Taylor succeeded her as MEP for South East England. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_48

They also saved their deposit in Hove, and Brighton Kemptown. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_49

In the 2011 local government elections in England and Wales, the Green Party in Brighton and Hove took minority control of the City Council by winning 23 seats, 5 short of an overall majority. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_50

At the 2012 local government elections, the Green Party gained 5 seats and retained both AMs at the 2012 London Assembly election. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_51

At the 2012 London mayoral election the party's candidate Jenny Jones finished third and lost her deposit. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_52

Natalie Bennett (2012–2016) Green Party of England and Wales_section_4

In May 2012, Lucas announced that she would not seek re-election to the post of party leader. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_53

In September, Natalie Bennett was elected party leader and Will Duckworth deputy leader in the leadership election took place. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_54

The 2013 local government elections saw overall gains of 5 seats. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_55

The party returned representation for the first time on the councils of Cornwall, Devon, and Essex. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_56

At the local government elections the following year, the Greens gained 18 seats overall. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_57

In London, the party won four seats, a gain of two, holding seats in Camden and Lewisham, and gaining seats in Islington and Lambeth. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_58

At the 2014 European elections, the Green Party finished fourth, above the Liberal Democrats, winning over 1.2 million votes. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_59

The party also increased its European Parliament representation, gaining one seat in the South West England region. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_60

In September 2014, the Green Party held its 2014 leadership elections. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_61

Incumbent leader Bennett ran uncontested and retained her status as a party leader. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_62

The election also saw a change in the elective format for the position of deputy leader. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_63

The party opted to elect two, gender-balanced deputy leaders, instead of one. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_64

Amelia Womack and Shahrar Ali won the two positions, succeeding former deputy leader Duckworth. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_65

In the 2010 general election, the Green Party contested roughly 50% of seats. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_66

The party announced in October 2014 that Green candidates would be standing for parliament in at least 75% of constituencies in the 2015 general election. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_67

Following its rapid increase in membership and support, the Green Party also announced it was targeting twelve key seats for the 2015 general election: its one current seat, Brighton Pavilion, held by Lucas since 2010, Norwich South, a Liberal Democrat seat where June 2014 polling put the Greens in second place behind Labour, Bristol West, another Liberal Democrat seat, where they targeted the student vote, St. Ives, where they received an average of 18% of the vote in county elections, Sheffield Central, Liverpool Riverside, Oxford East, Solihull, Reading East, and three more seats with high student populations – York Central, Cambridge, and Holborn and St. Pancras, where leader Bennett stood as the candidate. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_68

In December 2014, the Green Party announced that it had more than doubled its overall membership from 1 January that year to 30,809. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_69

This reflected the increase seen in opinion polls in 2014, with Green Party voting intentions trebling from 2–3% at the start of the year, to 7–8% at the end of the year, on many occasions, coming in fourth place with YouGov's national polls, ahead of the Liberal Democrats, and gaining over 25% of the vote with 18 to 24-year-olds. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_70

This rapid increase in support for the party is referred to by media as the "Green Surge". Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_71

The hashtag "#GreenSurge" has also been popular on social media (such as Twitter) from Green Party members and supporters and, as of 15 January 2015, the combined Green Party membership in the UK stood at 44,713; greater than the number of members of UKIP (at 41,943), and the Liberal Democrats (at 44,576). Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_72

Views subsequently fell back as the 2015 general election opinion polls arrived: a Press Association poll of polls on 3 April, for example, put the Greens fifth with 5.4%. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_73

However, membership statistics continued to surge with the party attaining 60,000 in England and Wales that April. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_74

In the 2015 general election, Lucas was re-elected in Brighton Pavilion with an increased majority and, while failing to gain any additional seats, the Greens received their highest-ever vote share (over 1.1 million votes), and increased their national share of the vote from 1% to 3.8%. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_75

Overnight, the membership numbers increased to over 63,000. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_76

However, they lost 9 out of their 20 seats on the Brighton and Hove council, losing minority control. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_77

Nationwide, the Greens increased their share of councillors, gaining an additional 10 council seats while failing to gain overall control of any individual council. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_78

Lucas and Bartley (2016–2018) Green Party of England and Wales_section_5

On 15 May 2016, Bennett announced she would not be standing for re-election in the party's biennial leadership election due to take place in the summer. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_79

Former leader Lucas and Jonathan Bartley announced two weeks later that they intended to stand for leadership as a job share arrangement. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_80

Nominations closed at the end of June, with the campaign period taking place in July and voting period in August and the results announced at the party's Autumn Conference in Birmingham from 2–4 September. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_81

It was announced on 4 September that Lucas and Bartley would become the party's leaders in a job share. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_82

Lucas first suggested "progressive pacts" to work on a number of issues including combating climate change and for electoral reform, following the results of the 2015 general election. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_83

She then reiterated the call alongside Bartley as they announced their plan to share the leadership of the party. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_84

Following the vote to leave the European Union in June 2016, Bennett published an open letter, calling for an "anti-Brexit alliance" potentially comprising Labour, the Liberal Democrats and Plaid Cymru to stand in a future snap election in English and Welsh seats. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_85

The Green Party stood in 457 seats in the 2017 general election, securing 1.6% of the overall vote, and an average of 2.2% in seats it stood in. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_86

While it was a disappointing result after the 2015 success, this was still the second-best Green result in a general election, and Brighton Pavilion remained Green with an increased majority. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_87

On 30 May 2018, Lucas announced she would not seek re-election in the 2018 Green Party of England and Wales leadership election and would stand down as co-leader. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_88

On 1 June 2018 Bartley announced a co-leadership bid alongside Siân Berry, former candidate for the Mayor of London in 2008 and 2016. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_89

Bartley and Berry (2018–) Green Party of England and Wales_section_6

Bartley and Berry were elected as co-leaders in September 2018, winning 6,279 of 8,329 votes. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_90

In the 2019 local elections, the Green Party secured their best ever local election result, more than doubling their number of council seats from 178 to 372 councillors. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_91

This success was followed by a similarly successful European election where Greens won (including Scottish Greens and the Green Party in Northern Ireland) over two million votes for the first time since 1989, securing 7 MEPs, up from 3. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_92

This included winning seats for the first time in the East of England, North West England, West Midlands and Yorkshire & the Humber. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_93

The membership also saw another climb in 2019, returning to 50,000 members in September. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_94

In September 2020, it was announced that Bartley and Berry had won re-election for another two-year term, which they are currently serving. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_95

Ideology and policy Green Party of England and Wales_section_7

Sociologist Chris Rootes stated that the Green Party took "the left-libertarian" vote, while Dennison and Goodwin characterised it as reflecting "libertarian-universalistic values". Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_96

The party wants an end to big government – which they see as hindering open and transparent democracy – and want to limit the power of big business – which, they argue, upholds the unsustainable trend of globalisation, and is detrimental to local trade and economies. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_97

There have been allegations of factionalism and infighting in the Green Party between liberal, socialist, and anarchist factions. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_98

The Green Party publishes a party platform: a full set of its policies, as approved by successive party conferences, collectively entitled Policies for a Sustainable Society (originally The Manifesto for a Sustainable Society before February 2010). Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_99

Manifesto Green Party of England and Wales_section_8

The party publishes a manifesto for each of its election campaigns. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_100

In their 2015 Election Manifesto, for the 2015 general election, the Greens outlined many new policies, including a Robin Hood tax on banks, and a new 60% tax on those earning over £150,000. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_101

In their 2019 Manifesto, the party outlined their key policies including remaining in and transforming the EU, investing in public services, simplifying income tax and increasing the rate of corporation tax to 24%. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_102

The 2019 Manifesto has four key pillars: remain and transform, grow democracy, the green quality of life guarantee, the new deal for tax and spend. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_103

Remain and transform advocates for Britain to remain within the European Union and an increase in cross-border cooperation. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_104

Grow democracy aims to revolutionise the current voting system and rebalance government power, specifically through lowering the voting age to 16 and redefining the jurisdiction of local governments. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_105

The green quality of life guarantee addresses social issues such as housing, the National Health Service, education, countryside conservation, discrimination, crime, drug reform and animal rights. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_106

A major proposal within this section is a universal basic income. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_107

The new deal for tax and spend outlines the party's economic policies including simplifying income tax, making big business pay its fair share, supporting small business and ending wasteful spending. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_108

Economic policy Green Party of England and Wales_section_9

The Green Party believes in "an economy that works for all". Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_109

This includes radical steps to eliminate poverty with ambitious social policies such as increasing the minimum wage in line with the living wage. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_110

They also want to introduce a four-day working week; many economists say this will result in stagnant economic growth, while others say it would boost productivity and growth as Mondays and Fridays are the least productive days in the week. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_111

In November 2019, the Greens pledged to introduce a universal basic income by 2025, which will give every adult in the United Kingdom (unemployed or not) at least £89 a week (with additional payments to those facing barriers to work, including disabled people and single parents). Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_112

This is in order to tackle poverty, give people financial security, give people more freedom of choice to cut their working hours, start a green new business, take part in the community, or improve their own well being. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_113

The policy also aims to tackle the rising levels of automation that threaten to put millions out of work and fundamentally change British industry. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_114

The Green Party wants to raise corporation tax from the current 19% to a higher amount, this is designed to generate more government revenue and insure large corporations do not become too powerful. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_115

The party wants to end subsidies for fossil fuels and replace them with subsidies for renewable energy sources such as wind, solar power and tidal power. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_116

Investment in green energy could potentially create more jobs and boost the economy or it might result in stagnant growth. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_117

The environmental economic policy also includes a Green deal that the Green Party say will generate new jobs and reduce Britain's energy costs. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_118

The Green Party wants to increase Britain's development and its position on the Human Development Index and free time index. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_119

They believe that uncontrolled economic growth has contributed to pollution and global warming and that more steps should be taken to ensure that growth is sustainable and keeps environmental damage to a minimum. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_120

Environmental policy Green Party of England and Wales_section_10

The party states that it would phase out fossil fuel-based power generation, and would work toward closing coal-fired power stations as soon as possible. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_121

The Green Party would also remove subsidies for nuclear power within ten years and work towards phasing out nuclear energy. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_122

The party aims for the UK to become carbon neutral. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_123

The Green Party Manifesto states: Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_124

The Green Party wants to set up an environmental protection committee to ensure the protection of habitats and to enhance biodiversity. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_125

Foreign policy and defence Green Party of England and Wales_section_11

Since at least 1992, the party has emphasised unilateral nuclear disarmament and called for the rejection of the Trident nuclear programme of nuclear weapons in the United Kingdom. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_126

To campaign for the latter, it has teamed up with the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, Plaid Cymru, and the Scottish National Party. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_127

Former Leader Natalie Bennett has advocated replacing the UK Army with a "home defence force", according to The Telegraph. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_128

"In the long term, it would take the UK out of NATO." Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_129

The party has opposed the invasion of Iraq, NATO-led military intervention in Libya and British involvement in Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_130

The party campaigns for the rights of indigenous people around the world and argues for greater autonomy for these individuals. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_131

Furthermore, they support the granting of compensation and justice for historical wrongs, and that the reappropriation of lands and resources should be granted to certain nations and peoples. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_132

The party also believes that the canceling of international debt should take place immediately and any financial assistance should be in the form of grants and not loans, limiting debt service payments to 10% of export earnings per year. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_133

The Green Party advocate for a less "bully boy culture" from the Western world and more self-sustainability in terms of food and energy policy on a global level, with aid, only being given to countries as a last resort in order to prevent them from being indebted to their donors. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_134

Amid the toughening rhetoric surrounding immigration at the 2015 general election, the Greens issued mugs emblazoned with the slogan "Standing Up For Immigrants". Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_135

They claimed to offer a "genuine alternative" to the views of the mainstream parties by promoting the removal of restrictions on the number of foreign students, abolishing rules on family migration, and promoting further rights for asylum seekers. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_136

Drug policy Green Party of England and Wales_section_12

The Green Party has an official drugs group, for drugs policy and research. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_137

The party wants to end the prohibition of drugs and create a system of legal regulation in order to minimise the harms associated with drug use as well as the harms associated with its production and supply. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_138

The party's view is that people have always used drugs and there will always be people that will use them, and therefore focus should be on minimising the harms associated with drug use and tackling the causes of why people take drugs (e.g. poverty, isolation, mental illness, physical illness, and psychological trauma). Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_139

This sits alongside the party's belief that adults should be free to make informed decisions about their own drug consumption, while this freedom is also balanced with the government's responsibility to protect individuals and society from harm. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_140

The party considers the drugs issue to be a health issue, rather than a criminal one. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_141

The party also supports opening overdose prevention centres in towns and cities in order to prevent fatal overdoses, the transmission of HIV, hepatitis C and other illnesses, as well as offering a place for drug users to access health and treatment services. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_142

The party supports devolving the decision-making on whether to open these sites to police, health services and local authorities. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_143

Ian Barnett from the Green Party says that: "The Policy of 'War on Drugs' has clearly failed. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_144

We need a different approach to the control and misuse of drugs." Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_145

However, the party does aim to minimise drug use due to the negative effects on the individual and society at large. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_146

Sexual orientation and gender identity Green Party of England and Wales_section_13

The stated aim of the sexual orientation and gender identity group within the party, known as LGBTIQA+ Greens, is to raise awareness on LGBTIQA+ rights and issues affecting the broader LGBTIQA+ community, as well as broader Green politics. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_147

The 2015 and 2017 general election manifestos contained policies on all teachers to be trained on LGBTIQA+ issues (such as "providing mandatory HIV, sex, and relationships education – age appropriate and LGBTIQA+-inclusive – in all schools from primary level onwards"), on reforming the system of pensions, on ending the "spousal veto" and on "mak[ing] equal marriage truly equal". Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_148

Bennett has also voiced support for polygamy and polyamorous relationships. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_149

The Green Party supports same-sex marriage and, on Brighton and Hove City Council, considered expelling Christina Summers in 2012 due to opposition to same-sex marriage legislation on religious grounds. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_150

Transport Green Party of England and Wales_section_14

The Green party has called for "A People's Transport System" to help deal with the issues not just to the planet but to local communities as well. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_151

The Green Party has an official transport working group, aimed at helping to draw up policies to be voted on at the conference. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_152

The party also aims to prioritise accessibility to transport and create equal access irrespective of age, wealth or disability. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_153

The party also wants to reduce the total distance people travel and travel journey lengths by encouraging the development and retention of local facilities. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_154

It also seeks to reduce the environmental impacts of transport, partly through encouraging transport that makes use of sustainable and replaceable resources. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_155

The party would also implement a hierarchy of transport that would need to be followed by all levels of government: Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_156

Green Party of England and Wales_ordered_list_0

  1. Walking and disabled access.Green Party of England and Wales_item_0_0
  2. Cycling.Green Party of England and Wales_item_0_1
  3. Public transport (trains, light rail/trams, buses and ferries) and rail and water-borne freight.Green Party of England and Wales_item_0_2
  4. Light goods vehicles, taxis and low powered motorcycles.Green Party of England and Wales_item_0_3
  5. Private motorised transport (cars & high powered motorcycles).Green Party of England and Wales_item_0_4
  6. Heavy goods vehicles.Green Party of England and Wales_item_0_5
  7. Aeroplanes.Green Party of England and Wales_item_0_6

One of the flagship and long-standing policies in this field is returning the railways to public ownership along with renationalising other forms of transport. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_157

The party opposes High Speed 2 (HS2), in favour of alternative transport strategies. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_158

The party regards the planned railway line from London to Birmingham as a waste of tax payers money and environmentally destructive. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_159

The party is, however, in favour of high speed rail in principle, as a means of challenging short haul domestic flights, provided projects meet strict criteria. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_160

The party wishes to instead use the £billions invested in HS2 on more sustainable infrastructure projects, such as upgrading and improving local public transport. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_161

Tuition fees Green Party of England and Wales_section_15

The party supports scrapping university and further education fees. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_162

It supports all courses in further education being provided free at the point of use. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_163

According to the Green Party: Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_164

Governance Green Party of England and Wales_section_16

Global governance Green Party of England and Wales_section_17

The party campaigns for greater accountability in global governance, with the United Nations made up of elected representatives and more regional representation, as opposed to the current nation-based setup. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_165

They want democratic control of the global economy with the World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund and World Bank reformed, democratised or even replaced. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_166

The party also wishes to prioritise social and environmental sustainability as a global policy. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_167

National governance Green Party of England and Wales_section_18

The party advocates ending the first past the post voting system for UK parliamentary elections and replacing it with a form of proportional representation. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_168

The Green Party states that they believe there is "no place in government for the hereditary principle". Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_169

The party supports the separation of church and state. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_170

It advocates that the Church of England be disestablished from the British state and become self-governing. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_171

The party supported Scottish independence in the 2014 Scottish independence referendum. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_172

European Union Green Party of England and Wales_section_19

The party supported the 2016 referendum on the United Kingdom's membership of the European Union, calling it "a vital opportunity to create a more democratic and accountable Europe, with a clearer purpose for the future". Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_173

The party has criticised the Common Agricultural Policy, the Common Fisheries Policy and the "excessive influence" of the European Commission in comparison to the European Council and European Parliament, describing it as "undemocratic and unaccountable". Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_174

The party favoured a "three yeses" approach to Europe: "yes to a referendum, yes to major EU reform and yes to staying in a reformed Europe". Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_175

Bennett also added that: Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_176

Organisation Green Party of England and Wales_section_20

Member groups Green Party of England and Wales_section_21

There are a number of member groups affiliated to the Green Party. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_177

The youth wing of the Green Party, the Young Greens of England and Wales, has developed independently from around 2002 and is for all Green Party members aged up to 30 years old. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_178

There is no lower age limit. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_179

The Young Greens have their own constitution, national committee, campaigns and meetings, and have become an active presence at Green Party Conferences and election campaigns. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_180

There are now many Young Greens groups on UK university, college and higher-education institution campuses. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_181

Many Green Party councillors are Young Greens, as are some members of GPEx and other internal party organs. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_182

Other groups: Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_183

Green Party of England and Wales_unordered_list_1

  • Greens for Animal ProtectionGreen Party of England and Wales_item_1_7
  • Greens of ColourGreen Party of England and Wales_item_1_8
  • Green Party WomenGreen Party of England and Wales_item_1_9
  • LGBTIQA+ GreensGreen Party of England and Wales_item_1_10
  • Green Party Disability GroupGreen Party of England and Wales_item_1_11
  • Green Party Trade Union GroupGreen Party of England and Wales_item_1_12
  • Green SeniorsGreen Party of England and Wales_item_1_13

Membership and finances Green Party of England and Wales_section_22

According to accounts filed with the Electoral Commission, for the year ending 31 December 2010, the party had an income of £770,495 with expenditure of £889,867. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_184

Membership increased rapidly in 2014, more than doubling in that year. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_185

On 15 January 2015, the Green Party claimed that the combined membership of the UK Green Parties (Green Party of England and Wales, Scottish Green Party, and Green Party in Northern Ireland) had risen to 43,829 members, surpassing UKIP's membership of 41,966, and making it the third-largest UK-wide political party in the UK in terms of membership. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_186

On 14 January 2015, UK newspaper The Guardian had reported that membership of the combined UK Green Parties was closing on those of UKIP and the Liberal Democrats, but noted that it lagged behind that of the Scottish National Party (SNP), which has a membership of 92,187 members but is not a UK-wide party. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_187

Membership of the party peaked at over 67,000 members in the summer of 2015 after the general election, but has since declined subsequent to Jeremy Corbyn becoming leader of the Labour Party. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_188

Support base Green Party of England and Wales_section_23

According to political scientist Sarah Birch, the Green Party draws support from "a wide spectrum of the population". Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_189

In 1995, sociologist Chris Rootes stated that the Green Party "appeals disproportionately to younger, highly educated professional people", although he noted that this support base was "not predominantly urban". Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_190

In 2009, Birch noted that the Green's strongest areas of support were Labour-held seats in university towns or urban areas with relatively large student populations. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_191

She noted that there were also strong correlations between areas of high Green support and high percentages of people who define themselves as having no religion. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_192

Birch noted that sociological polling revealed a "strong relationship" between individuals having voted for the Liberal Democrats in the past and holding favourable views of the Green Party, noting that the two groups were competing for "similar sorts of voters". Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_193

Electoral representation Green Party of England and Wales_section_24

Main article: Green Party of England and Wales election results Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_194

The party has one Member of Parliament, two Members of the House of Lords and two Members of the London Assembly. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_195

House of Commons Green Party of England and Wales_section_25

Brighton Pavilion was the Green Party's first and only parliamentary seat to date, won at the 2010 general election and held in 2015, 2017 and 2019. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_196

As with other small parties, representation at the House of Commons has been hindered by the first-past-the-post voting system, meaning the party is highly under-represented; it received 835,579 votes accounting for 2.7% of total votes, but only 0.2%, or one, seat. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_197

House of Lords Green Party of England and Wales_section_26

The party's first life peer was Tim Beaumont, who defected from the Liberal Democrat group of peers in 1999, spoke frequently in the house and died in 2008. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_198

Baroness Jenny Jones became the next peer, 2013–present. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_199

Former party leader Baroness Natalie Bennett joined her in 2019. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_200

She was appointed on the back of continued strong election results for the party, through Theresa May's resignation honours list. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_201

European Parliament Green Party of England and Wales_section_27

Since the first UK election to the European Parliament with proportional representation, in June 1999, the Green Party of England and Wales has had representation in the European Parliament. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_202

From 1999 to 2010, the two MEPs were Jean Lambert (London) and Lucas (South East England). Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_203

In 2010, on election to the House of Commons, Lucas resigned her seat and was succeeded by Keith Taylor. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_204

In May 2014, Taylor and Lambert held their seats, and were joined by Molly Scott Cato who was elected in the South West region, increasing the number of Green Party Members of the European Parliament to three for the first time. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_205

In May 2019, this number rose to seven: Scott Ainslie (London), Ellie Chowns (West Midlands), Gina Dowding (North West England), Magid Magid (Yorkshire and the Humber), Alexandra Phillips (South East England), Catherine Rowett (East of England), and the re-elected Scott Cato. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_206

Local government Green Party of England and Wales_section_28

The party has representation at local government level in England. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_207

The party has limited representation on most councils on which it is represented. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_208

From the early 1990s until 2009, the number of Green local councillors rose from zero to over 100 and was in minority control of Brighton and Hove City Council from 2011 to 2015. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_209

At the 2019 United Kingdom local elections a record number of Green Party candidates were elected, with many being the first Green candidates elected to their councils. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_210

The Party now has 372 councillors and is part of 9 council coalitions and supports a further coalition. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_211

In July 2020 the Green Party again took minority control of Brighton and Hove City Council following the collapse of the Labour Party minority administration. Green Party of England and Wales_sentence_212

See also Green Party of England and Wales_section_29

Green Party of England and Wales_unordered_list_2


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green Party of England and Wales.