Central !Kung

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Central !Kung_table_infobox_0

Central ǃKungCentral !Kung_header_cell_0_0_0
Native toCentral !Kung_header_cell_0_1_0 NamibiaCentral !Kung_cell_0_1_1
RegionCentral !Kung_header_cell_0_2_0 GrootfonteinCentral !Kung_cell_0_2_1
Language familyCentral !Kung_header_cell_0_3_0 KxʼaCentral !Kung_cell_0_3_1
DialectsCentral !Kung_header_cell_0_4_0 Central !Kung_cell_0_4_1
Language codesCentral !Kung_header_cell_0_5_0
ISO 639-3Central !Kung_header_cell_0_6_0 None (mis)Central !Kung_cell_0_6_1
GlottologCentral !Kung_header_cell_0_7_0 Central !Kung_cell_0_7_1

Central ǃKung (Central ǃXun), or Central Ju, is a language of the ǃKung dialect cluster, spoken in a small area of northern Namibia: Neitsas, in Grootfontein district, and Gaub, in Tsumeb district. Central !Kung_sentence_0

It is frequently reported as Grootfontein ǃXuun, as most work has been done in Grootfontein. Central !Kung_sentence_1

An identifying feature of Central ǃKung is a fifth series of clicks that are often retroflex. Central !Kung_sentence_2

While Northern (Northwestern) and Southern (Southeastern) ǃKung are not mutually intelligible, it is not yet clear to what extent Central ǃKung is intermediate between them or intelligible with either. Central !Kung_sentence_3

Dialects Central !Kung_section_0

Two dialects are identified as being Central ǃKung based on grammatical features: Central !Kung_sentence_4

Central !Kung_description_list_0

  • (C1) Gaub (Tsumeb district, N Namibia)Central !Kung_item_0_0
  • (C2) Neitsas (Grootfontein district, N Namibia)Central !Kung_item_0_1

In addition, the ǃKung dialects of Tsintsabis, Leeunes and Mangetti (different from Mangetti Dune) have retroflex clicks and so may belong here, though no grammatical information is available to classify them. Central !Kung_sentence_5

In Grootfontein ǃKung words which Doke (1926) and others have described as having retroflex clicks, Vedder (1910/1911) described a second series of lateral clicks in Gaub ǃKung. Central !Kung_sentence_6

Phonology Central !Kung_section_1

Grootfontein ǃKung is unusual in having true retroflex clicks, which are subapical for some speakers and have lateral release, as in the word for 'water', [‼̬ˡú] (provisionally written g‼ú). Central !Kung_sentence_7

There are thus five places of articulation in Grootfontein clicks, /ǃ ǀ ǁ ǂ ‼/. Central !Kung_sentence_8

These come in eight series, here represented with the retroflex articulation: Central !Kung_sentence_9

Central !Kung_description_list_1

Otherwise, the Grootfontein inventory is similar to that of Ekoka ǃKung, except that it lacks the (pre)voiced affricates dχ, dʒ, dʒʼ, dʃχʼ. Central !Kung_sentence_10

The Grootfontein ǃKung language has a relatively large phonological inventory: Central !Kung_sentence_11

Consonants Central !Kung_section_2

Central !Kung_table_general_1

Grootfontein ǃKung consonant inventoryCentral !Kung_table_caption_1
Central !Kung_header_cell_1_0_0 LabialCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_0_2 AlveolarCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_0_3 Post- alveolarCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_0_4 PalatalCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_0_5 VelarCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_0_6 UvularCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_0_7 GlottalCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_0_8
PlosiveCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_1_0 voicelessCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_1_1 pCentral !Kung_cell_1_1_2 tCentral !Kung_cell_1_1_3 t̠ʰCentral !Kung_cell_1_1_4 Central !Kung_cell_1_1_5 kCentral !Kung_cell_1_1_6 Central !Kung_cell_1_1_7 ʔCentral !Kung_cell_1_1_8
vl. aspiratedCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_2_0 Central !Kung_cell_1_2_1 Central !Kung_cell_1_2_2 Central !Kung_cell_1_2_3 Central !Kung_cell_1_2_4 Central !Kung_cell_1_2_5 Central !Kung_cell_1_2_6 Central !Kung_cell_1_2_7
voicedCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_3_0 bCentral !Kung_cell_1_3_1 dCentral !Kung_cell_1_3_2 Central !Kung_cell_1_3_3 Central !Kung_cell_1_3_4 ɡCentral !Kung_cell_1_3_5 Central !Kung_cell_1_3_6 Central !Kung_cell_1_3_7
vd. aspiratedCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_4_0 Central !Kung_cell_1_4_1 Central !Kung_cell_1_4_2 Central !Kung_cell_1_4_3 Central !Kung_cell_1_4_4 ɡʰCentral !Kung_cell_1_4_5 Central !Kung_cell_1_4_6 Central !Kung_cell_1_4_7
prenasalCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_5_0 (ᵐb)Central !Kung_cell_1_5_1 (ⁿd)Central !Kung_cell_1_5_2 Central !Kung_cell_1_5_3 Central !Kung_cell_1_5_4 (ᵑɡ)Central !Kung_cell_1_5_5 Central !Kung_cell_1_5_6 Central !Kung_cell_1_5_7
FricativeCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_6_0 Central !Kung_cell_1_6_2 Central !Kung_cell_1_6_3 ʃCentral !Kung_cell_1_6_4 Central !Kung_cell_1_6_5 Central !Kung_cell_1_6_6 χCentral !Kung_cell_1_6_7 ɦCentral !Kung_cell_1_6_8
AffricateCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_7_0 voicelessCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_7_1 Central !Kung_cell_1_7_2 Central !Kung_cell_1_7_3 Central !Kung_cell_1_7_4 Central !Kung_cell_1_7_5 Central !Kung_cell_1_7_6 Central !Kung_cell_1_7_7 Central !Kung_cell_1_7_8
aspiratedCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_8_0 Central !Kung_cell_1_8_1 Central !Kung_cell_1_8_2 tʃʰCentral !Kung_cell_1_8_3 Central !Kung_cell_1_8_4 Central !Kung_cell_1_8_5 Central !Kung_cell_1_8_6 Central !Kung_cell_1_8_7
ejectiveCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_9_0 Central !Kung_cell_1_9_1 Central !Kung_cell_1_9_2 tʃʼCentral !Kung_cell_1_9_3 Central !Kung_cell_1_9_4 Central !Kung_cell_1_9_5 Central !Kung_cell_1_9_6 Central !Kung_cell_1_9_7
NasalCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_10_0 voicedCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_10_1 mCentral !Kung_cell_1_10_2 nCentral !Kung_cell_1_10_3 Central !Kung_cell_1_10_4 ɲCentral !Kung_cell_1_10_5 ŋCentral !Kung_cell_1_10_6 Central !Kung_cell_1_10_7 Central !Kung_cell_1_10_8
aspiratedCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_11_0 Central !Kung_cell_1_11_1 Central !Kung_cell_1_11_2 Central !Kung_cell_1_11_3 Central !Kung_cell_1_11_4 Central !Kung_cell_1_11_5 Central !Kung_cell_1_11_6 Central !Kung_cell_1_11_7
LateralCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_12_0 Central !Kung_cell_1_12_2 lCentral !Kung_cell_1_12_3 Central !Kung_cell_1_12_4 Central !Kung_cell_1_12_5 Central !Kung_cell_1_12_6 Central !Kung_cell_1_12_7 Central !Kung_cell_1_12_8
ApproximantCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_13_0 wCentral !Kung_cell_1_13_2 Central !Kung_cell_1_13_3 Central !Kung_cell_1_13_4 jCentral !Kung_cell_1_13_5 Central !Kung_cell_1_13_6 Central !Kung_cell_1_13_7 Central !Kung_cell_1_13_8
ClustersCentral !Kung_header_cell_1_14_0
Plain + /χ/Central !Kung_cell_1_15_0 Central !Kung_cell_1_15_2 Central !Kung_cell_1_15_3 tʃχCentral !Kung_cell_1_15_4 Central !Kung_cell_1_15_5 Central !Kung_cell_1_15_6 Central !Kung_cell_1_15_7 Central !Kung_cell_1_15_8
Plain + /χʼ/Central !Kung_cell_1_16_0 Central !Kung_cell_1_16_2 Central !Kung_cell_1_16_3 Central !Kung_cell_1_16_4 Central !Kung_cell_1_16_5 kχʼCentral !Kung_cell_1_16_6 Central !Kung_cell_1_16_7 Central !Kung_cell_1_16_8

Central !Kung_table_general_2

Grootfontein ǃKung click consonant inventoryCentral !Kung_table_caption_2
Central !Kung_header_cell_2_0_0 DentalCentral !Kung_header_cell_2_0_1 AlveolarCentral !Kung_header_cell_2_0_2 RetroflexCentral !Kung_header_cell_2_0_3 PalatalCentral !Kung_header_cell_2_0_4 LateralCentral !Kung_header_cell_2_0_5
VoicelessCentral !Kung_header_cell_2_1_0 ǀCentral !Kung_cell_2_1_1 ǃCentral !Kung_cell_2_1_2 Central !Kung_cell_2_1_3 ǂCentral !Kung_cell_2_1_4 ǁCentral !Kung_cell_2_1_5
Vl. AspiratedCentral !Kung_header_cell_2_2_0 ǀʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_2_1 ǃʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_2_2 ‼ʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_2_3 ǂʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_2_4 ǁʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_2_5
VoicedCentral !Kung_header_cell_2_3_0 ᶢǀCentral !Kung_cell_2_3_1 ᶢǃCentral !Kung_cell_2_3_2 ᶢ‼Central !Kung_cell_2_3_3 ᶢǂCentral !Kung_cell_2_3_4 ᶢǁCentral !Kung_cell_2_3_5
Vd. AspiratedCentral !Kung_header_cell_2_4_0 ᶢǀʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_4_1 ᶢǃʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_4_2 ᶢ‼ʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_4_3 ᶢǂʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_4_4 ᶢǁʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_4_5
NasalCentral !Kung_header_cell_2_5_0 ᵑǀCentral !Kung_cell_2_5_1 ᵑǃCentral !Kung_cell_2_5_2 ᵑ‼Central !Kung_cell_2_5_3 ᵑǂCentral !Kung_cell_2_5_4 ᵑǁCentral !Kung_cell_2_5_5
Nl. AspiratedCentral !Kung_header_cell_2_6_0 ᵑǀʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_6_1 ᵑǃʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_6_2 ᵑ‼ʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_6_3 ᵑǂʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_6_4 ᵑǁʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_6_5
FortisCentral !Kung_header_cell_2_7_0 Central !Kung_cell_2_7_1 ᵏǃCentral !Kung_cell_2_7_2 Central !Kung_cell_2_7_3 Central !Kung_cell_2_7_4 ᵏǁCentral !Kung_cell_2_7_5
EjectiveCentral !Kung_header_cell_2_8_0 ǀʼCentral !Kung_cell_2_8_1 ǃʼCentral !Kung_cell_2_8_2 ‼ʼCentral !Kung_cell_2_8_3 ǂʼCentral !Kung_cell_2_8_4 ǁʼCentral !Kung_cell_2_8_5
Ej. AspiratedCentral !Kung_header_cell_2_9_0 ǀʼʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_9_1 ǃʼʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_9_2 ‼ʼʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_9_3 ǂʼʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_9_4 ǁʼʰCentral !Kung_cell_2_9_5
ClustersCentral !Kung_header_cell_2_10_0
Plain + /χ/Central !Kung_cell_2_11_0 ǀχCentral !Kung_cell_2_11_1 ǃχCentral !Kung_cell_2_11_2 ‼χCentral !Kung_cell_2_11_3 ǂχCentral !Kung_cell_2_11_4 ǁχCentral !Kung_cell_2_11_5
Plain + /χʼ/Central !Kung_cell_2_12_0 ǀχʼCentral !Kung_cell_2_12_1 ǃχʼCentral !Kung_cell_2_12_2 ‼χʼCentral !Kung_cell_2_12_3 ǂχʼCentral !Kung_cell_2_12_4 ǁχʼCentral !Kung_cell_2_12_5
Voiced + /χʼ/Central !Kung_cell_2_13_0 ᶢǀχʼCentral !Kung_cell_2_13_1 ᶢǃχʼCentral !Kung_cell_2_13_2 ᶢ‼χʼCentral !Kung_cell_2_13_3 ᶢǂχʼCentral !Kung_cell_2_13_4 ᶢǁχʼCentral !Kung_cell_2_13_5

Vowels Central !Kung_section_3

Five vowel sounds in the ǃKung languages are realized as [i e a o u]. Central !Kung_sentence_12

The sounds may be articulated with nasalisation [ĩ ẽ ã õ ũ], breathy voice [iʱ eʱ aʱ oʱ uʱ], or pharyngealisation [iˤ eˤ aˤ oˤ uˤ]. Central !Kung_sentence_13

Some nasal vowels with diacritics may have combinations such as breathy + nasal [ãʱ õʱ], and pharyngeal + nasal [ãˤ õˤ ũˤ]. Central !Kung_sentence_14

Sample Central !Kung_section_4

Following are sample sentences in Central ǃKung. Central !Kung_sentence_15

Central !Kung_description_list_2

  • mí má kȍhà hŋ́ gǀȕì ō ǁȁhìn-ā ō hȁ ō gǀè gù ǀxūúnnuCentral !Kung_item_2_3

Central !Kung_description_list_3

  • I must see the hyena to tell it to come catch the crocodile lying thereCentral !Kung_item_3_4

Central !Kung_description_list_4

  • mtícē kwá bà ǀōā kē gǀè-ā g‼ȍhòCentral !Kung_item_4_5

Central !Kung_description_list_5

  • why didn't you come to work?Central !Kung_item_5_6

Central !Kung_description_list_6

  • hȁ má kò kē ǁȁn̏ kú cŋ̏ djūí kā hȁ ǁàȅ-ā tí kē TB ǁ'à-ān tíCentral !Kung_item_6_7

Central !Kung_description_list_7

  • he was not supposed to drink beer anymore because he had tuberculosis [lit. he was held by TB sickness]Central !Kung_item_7_8

Central !Kung_description_list_8

  • hȁ má kò ǁáúlè ǃxōCentral !Kung_item_8_9

Central !Kung_description_list_9

  • he is supposed to hunt elephants but he didn'tCentral !Kung_item_9_10

Central !Kung_description_list_10

  • mí má kā ǁàȅ nǃùm̀ kā ŋ̄ŋ̀ kā-è cālā n‼á'm̀ g‼à è-tcāCentral !Kung_item_10_11

Central !Kung_description_list_11

  • I hold this rock so that it cannot fall down and kill us.Central !Kung_item_11_12


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central !Kung.