From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search


Music of CubaGuajeo_header_cell_0_0_0
General topicsGuajeo_header_cell_0_1_0
Specific formsGuajeo_header_cell_0_3_0
Religious musicGuajeo_header_cell_0_4_0 Guajeo_cell_0_4_1
Traditional musicGuajeo_header_cell_0_5_0 Guajeo_cell_0_5_1
Media and performanceGuajeo_header_cell_0_6_0
Music awardsGuajeo_header_cell_0_7_0 Beny Moré AwardGuajeo_cell_0_7_1
Nationalistic and patriotic songsGuajeo_header_cell_0_8_0
National anthemGuajeo_header_cell_0_9_0 La BayamesaGuajeo_cell_0_9_1
Regional musicGuajeo_header_cell_0_10_0

A guajeo (Anglicized pronunciation: wa-hey-yo) is a typical Cuban ostinato melody, most often consisting of arpeggiated chords in syncopated patterns. Guajeo_sentence_0

Some musicians only use the term guajeo for ostinato patterns played specifically by a tres, piano, an instrument of the violin family, or saxophones. Guajeo_sentence_1

Piano guajeos are one of the most recognizable elements of modern-day salsa. Guajeo_sentence_2

Piano guajeos are also known as montunos in North America, or tumbaos in the contemporary Cuban dance music timba. Guajeo_sentence_3

History Guajeo_section_0

The guajeo shares rhythmic, melodic and harmonic similarities with the short ostinato figures played on marimbas, lamellophones, and string instruments in sub-Saharan Africa. Guajeo_sentence_4

The guajeo is a seamless blend of African and European musical sensibilities, and was first played as accompaniment on the tres in the Afro-Cuban son and related music. Guajeo_sentence_5

The tres is a Cuban guitar-like instrument, consisting of three sets of double strings. Guajeo_sentence_6

Changüí Guajeo_section_1

The guajeo emerged in Cuba during the 19th century, in the genres known as changüí and son. Guajeo_sentence_7

The following changüí tres guajeo consists of all offbeats. Guajeo_sentence_8

Son Guajeo_section_2

The rhythmic pattern of the following "generic" guajeo is used in many different songs. Guajeo_sentence_9

Note that the first measure consists of all offbeats. Guajeo_sentence_10

The figure can begin in the first measure, or the second measure, depending upon the structure of the song. Guajeo_sentence_11

Son montuno Guajeo_section_3

In the late 1930s Arsenio Rodríguez took the pivotal step of replacing the guitar with the piano in the son conjunto. Guajeo_sentence_12

The piano has ever since, been a staple of Cuban popular music, and its "offspring" salsa. Guajeo_sentence_13

Clave Guajeo_section_4

Clave motif Guajeo_section_5

3-2 clave Guajeo_section_6

Most guajeos have a binary structure, with a specific alignment to the guide pattern known as clave. Guajeo_sentence_14

As Kevin Moore explains: "There are two common ways that the three-side is expressed in Cuban popular music. Guajeo_sentence_15

The first to come into regular use, which David Peñalosa calls 'clave motif,' is based on the decorated version of the three-side of the clave rhythm." Guajeo_sentence_16

The following guajeo example is based on a clave motif. Guajeo_sentence_17

The three-side (first measure) consists of the tresillo variant known as cinquillo. Guajeo_sentence_18

Because the chord progression begins on the three-side, this guajeo is said to be in a three-two clave sequence. Guajeo_sentence_19

2-3 clave Guajeo_section_7

A chord progression can begin on either side of clave. Guajeo_sentence_20

"One" can therefore be on either the three-side, or the two-side, because the harmonic progression, rather than the rhythmic progression is the primary referent. Guajeo_sentence_21

When a chord progression begins on the two-side of clave, the music is said to be in two-three clave. Guajeo_sentence_22

The following guajeo is based on the clave motif in a two-three sequence. Guajeo_sentence_23

The cinquillo rhythm is now in the second measure. Guajeo_sentence_24

Offbeat/onbeat motif Guajeo_section_8

3-2 clave Guajeo_section_9

Moore: "By the 1940s [there was] a trend toward the use of what Peñalosa calls the 'offbeat/onbeat motif.' Guajeo_sentence_25

Today, the offbeat/onbeat motif method is much more common." Guajeo_sentence_26

With this type of guajeo motif, the three-side of clave is expressed with all offbeats. Guajeo_sentence_27

The following I IV V IV progression is in a three-two clave sequence. Guajeo_sentence_28

It begins with an offbeat pick-up on the pulse immediately before beat 1. Guajeo_sentence_29

With some guajeos, offbeats at the end of the two-side, or onbeats at the end of the three-side serve as pick-ups leading into the next measure (when clave is written in two measures). Guajeo_sentence_30

2-3 clave Guajeo_section_10

This guajeo is in two-three clave because it begins on the downbeat, emphasizing the onbeat quality of the two-side. Guajeo_sentence_31

The figure has the same exact harmonic sequence as the previous example, but rhythmically, the attack-point sequence of the two measures is reversed. Guajeo_sentence_32

Most salsa music is in two-three clave, and most salsa piano guajeos are based on the two-three onbeat/offbeat motif. Guajeo_sentence_33

Ponchando Guajeo_section_11

Ponchando is a term for a type of non-arpeggiated guajeo using block chords. Guajeo_sentence_34

The sequence of attack-points is emphasized, rather than a sequence of different pitches. Guajeo_sentence_35

As a form of accompaniment it can be played in a strictly repetitive fashion or as a varied motif akin to jazz comping. Guajeo_sentence_36

Clave is written in two measures. Guajeo_sentence_37

This ponchando pattern is familiar to many as Santana's "Oye Como Va". Guajeo_sentence_38

Moore states: "Hip fans will often flaunt their knowledge by pointing out that the song was originally recorded by Tito Puente in 1963, and before that by Arcaño y sus Maravillas as "Chanchullo" in 1957, but it goes all the way back to Cachao's "Rareza de Melitón" in 1942. Guajeo_sentence_39

Moñas Guajeo_section_12

A moña is a horn guajeo, which can be written or improvised. Guajeo_sentence_40

A section of layered, contrapuntal horn guajeos is also referred to sometimes as a moña. Guajeo_sentence_41

Moñas differ from typical rhythm section guajeos in that they often will rest for a beat or two within their cycle. Guajeo_sentence_42

Those beats within a measure not sounded by the moña are often "filled" by a chorus, or counter moña. Guajeo_sentence_43

What's known as the Cuban típico style of soloing on trombone draws upon the technique of stringing together moña variations. Guajeo_sentence_44

The following example shows five different variants of a 2–3 trombone moña improvised by José Rodrígues on "Bilongo" (c. 1969), performed by Eddie Palmieri. Guajeo_sentence_45

The examples are written in cut-time (2/2); there are two main beats per measure. Guajeo_sentence_46

Moña 1 sounds every stroke of 2–3 clave except the first stroke of the three-side. Guajeo_sentence_47

Melodic variety is created by transposing the module in accordance to the harmonic sequence, as Rick Davies observes in his detailed analysis of the first moña: Guajeo_sentence_48

Piano Guajeo_section_13

Son montuno Guajeo_section_14

When the piano was added to the son conjunto, the harmonic possibilities were widened, facilitating the adaptation of jazz chords into guajeos in the 1940s. Guajeo_sentence_49

As Rebeca Mauleón points out though, the main "role of the pianist in Afro-Cuban music is a more rhythmic one." Guajeo_sentence_50

The piano guajeos of Arsenio Rodríguez's group were innovative for their binary rhythmic structure, reflecting clave. Guajeo_sentence_51

The piano guajeo for "Dame un cachito pa' huele" (1946) completely departs from both the generic son guajeo and the song's melody. Guajeo_sentence_52

The pattern marks the clave by accenting the backbeat on the two-side. Guajeo_sentence_53

Moore observes: "Like so many aspects of Arsenio's music, this miniature composition is decades ahead of its time. Guajeo_sentence_54

It would be forty years before groups began to consistently apply this much creative variation at the guajeo level of the arranging process" (2009: 41). Guajeo_sentence_55

Voicings Guajeo_section_15

The typical voicings for piano guajeos is octaves. Guajeo_sentence_56

Sonny Bravo explains: Guajeo_sentence_57

Mambo Guajeo_section_16

In the late 1940s Dámaso Pérez Prado popularized the mambo, a genre which had been by that time, evolving for a decade. Guajeo_sentence_58

Pérez Prado moved to Mexico City in 1948 and started his own band, where he composed and recorded his most famous mambos. Guajeo_sentence_59

While in Mexico, Pérez Prado earned the title El Rey del Mambo ('King of the Mambo'), and he appeared in several Mexican films. Guajeo_sentence_60

Pérez Prado's recordings were meant for the Latin American and U.S. Latino markets, but some of his most celebrated mambos, such as "Mambo No. Guajeo_sentence_61

5" quickly "crossed-over" in the United States. Guajeo_sentence_62

A "mambo craze" swept North America in the 1950s. Guajeo_sentence_63

Descarga Guajeo_section_17

The right hand of the "Tanga" piano guajeo is another example of a ponchando pattern. Guajeo_sentence_64

"Tanga" was initially a descarga (Cuban jam session) with jazz solos superimposed, spontaneously composed by Mario Bauzá at a rehearsal (May 29, 1943). Guajeo_sentence_65

Descargas were the "laboratories" where instrumentalists honed their skill of soloing in-clave. Guajeo_sentence_66

"Tanga" was, over time, arranged with more complexity, and is generally considered the first original Latin jazz, or more correctly Afro-Cuban jazz tune. Guajeo_sentence_67

The following example is in the style of a 1949 recording by Machito, with René Hernández on piano. Guajeo_sentence_68

Jazz Guajeo_section_18

Guajeo motifs Guajeo_section_19

Guajeos or guajeo fragments are commonly used motifs in Latin jazz melodies. Guajeo_sentence_69

For example, the A section of "Sabor" is a 2–3 onbeat/offbeat guajeo, minus some notes. Guajeo_sentence_70

Jazz voicings Guajeo_section_20

Just as guajeo patterns entered jazz, jazz harmonies were in turn, adopted into the piano guajeos of dance music. Guajeo_sentence_71

The exchange between Cuban popular music styles and jazz became a two-way street. Guajeo_sentence_72

Chachachá Guajeo_section_21

The chachachá can be thought of as a rare "de-Africanizing" step in Cuban popular music's trajectory in the mid-20th century because it involves unison singing, instead of call-and-response. Guajeo_sentence_73

Mozambique Guajeo_section_22

Cuban-style Guajeo_section_23

Pello el Afrokán's mozambique was the first post‐revolution Cuban popular dance genre (1963). Guajeo_sentence_74

It was the first Cuban popular music to systematically use rumba clave as its guide pattern. Guajeo_sentence_75

Although the rhythm shares many characteristics with Sub-Saharan African music traditions, it does not have anything to do with music from the African nation of Mozambique. Guajeo_sentence_76

The Cuban mozambique features conga drums, bombos (bass drums), cowbells, and trombones. Guajeo_sentence_77

See: , and Pello's mozambique "María Caracoles" was recorded by Carlos Santana. Guajeo_sentence_78

In terms of density and the way it marks the clave, the "María Caracoles" guajeo is closer in style to a bass tumbao than to a typical piano guajeo. Guajeo_sentence_79

New York-style Guajeo_section_24

In New York City during the 1960s Eddie Palmieri created a rhythm called mozambique that was inspired by Pello's invention of the same name. Guajeo_sentence_80

While both rhythms are based on conga de comparsa, they are in fact, two separate, distinct rhythms that do not share any common parts. Guajeo_sentence_81

[See: .] Guajeo_sentence_82

Even the clave patterns are different; Pello's rhythm uses rumba clave, while the Palmieri version uses son clave. Guajeo_sentence_83

Pello's mozambiques are, for the most part, in major keys. Guajeo_sentence_84

Palmieri's mozambiques are mostly in minor keys. Guajeo_sentence_85

However, both groups primarily use chord progressions in a 2-3 clave sequence, and a trombone horn section. Guajeo_sentence_86

The following piano guajeo is in the New York mozambique style. Guajeo_sentence_87

Mauleón makes the point that since the Cuban mozambique originally began in what was essentially a percussion ensemble with trombones, there is no set piano part for the rhythm. Guajeo_sentence_88

It is worth noting that while Pello created specific percussion parts for his mozambique, the only specific percussion part in the New York style is the bell pattern. Guajeo_sentence_89

Pilón Guajeo_section_25

One unique aspect of the pilón is the use of simultaneous piano and electric guitar guajeos. Guajeo_sentence_90

Rhythmically, the guitar plays a much simpler form of the piano part. Guajeo_sentence_91

The following example is written in 4/4 rather than cut-time. Guajeo_sentence_92

"Changüí '68" Guajeo_section_26

Songo Guajeo_section_27

Juan Formel's initial songo experiments in Los Van Van used piano guajeos with an on-beat feel, as a way of simulating rock. Guajeo_sentence_93

On "Con el bate de aluminio" (1979), the right hand plays steady onbeats, sounding a rock‐influenced imi – bVII – bVI chord progression. Guajeo_sentence_94

Timba Guajeo_section_28

The Cuban jazz pianist Gonzalo Rubalcaba developed a technique of pattern and harmonic displacement in the 1980s, which was adopted into timba guajeos in the 1990s. Guajeo_sentence_95

The following guajeo for Issac Delgado's "La temática" (1997) demonstrates some of the innovations of timba piano. Guajeo_sentence_96

A series of repeated octaves invoke a characteristic metric ambiguity. Guajeo_sentence_97

The following guajeo (or piano tumbao), created by Iván "Melón" Lewis is from "No me mires a los ojos" (Issac Delgado 1995). Guajeo_sentence_98

It is a prime example of one of the most critical timba piano innovations—the idea that the piano tumbao be a “hook” by which the song can be identified and that contributes greatly to the song’s popularity. Guajeo_sentence_99

There are three places where the left hand adds an extra note between two right hand notes, a technique never used before in timba, which has become a major timba piano innovation. Guajeo_sentence_100

Melón was the first to use it as a central part of his style. Guajeo_sentence_101

Lewis's piano guajeo on Delgado's "La temática" incorporates the technique of pattern displacement. Guajeo_sentence_102

A series of repeated octaves invoke a characteristic metric ambiguity (Moore 2010: pt. Guajeo_sentence_103

4. Guajeo_sentence_104

96-108). Guajeo_sentence_105

Layered guajeos Guajeo_section_29

Diablo Guajeo_section_30

Arsenio Rodríguez introduced the idea of layered guajeos—an interlocking structure consisting of multiple contrapuntal parts. Guajeo_sentence_106

The concept, which he began developing in his conjunto in 1934, reached full maturity in 1938. Guajeo_sentence_107

This aspect of the son's modernization can be thought of as a matter of "re-Africanizing" the music. Guajeo_sentence_108

Helio Orovio recalls: "Arsenio once said his trumpets played figurations the 'Oriente' tres-guitarists played during the improvisational part of el son" (1992: 11). Guajeo_sentence_109

The "Oriente" is the name given to the eastern end of Cuba, where the son was born. Guajeo_sentence_110

It is common practice for treseros to play a series of guajeo variations during their solos. Guajeo_sentence_111

Perhaps it was only natural then that it was Rodríguez the tres master, who conceived of the idea of layering these variations on top of each other. Guajeo_sentence_112

The following example is from the "diablo" section of Rodríguez's son montuno "Kile, Kike y Chocolate" (1950). Guajeo_sentence_113

The excerpt consists of four interlocking guajeos: piano (bottom line), tres (second line), 2nd and 3rd trumpets (third line), and 1st trumpet (fourth line). Guajeo_sentence_114

2-3 Clave is shown for reference (top line). Guajeo_sentence_115

Notice that the piano plays a single celled (single measure) guajeo, while the other guajeos are two-celled. Guajeo_sentence_116

It is common practice to combine single and double-celled guajeos in Afro-Cuban music. Guajeo_sentence_117

Chachachá Guajeo_section_31

Orquesta Aragón creatively juxtaposed a counter violin guajeo over the piano on "No me molesto" (1955). Guajeo_sentence_118

Here is another example of guajeo counterpoint (1957). Guajeo_sentence_119

The violins echo the E – F – F# piano figure. Guajeo_sentence_120

The bass plays a chachachá figure that would be used extensively in timba during the 1990s. Guajeo_sentence_121

Moñas Guajeo_section_32

One very effective technique used in mambos and descargas is the use of layered, varying moñas. Guajeo_sentence_122

The trumpet and trombone moñas shown below ("Bilongo") can be repeated verbatim, or altered. Guajeo_sentence_123

Improvisation is within a framework of repetition and the melodic contour of the moñas. Guajeo_sentence_124

In this way, multiple instrumentalists can improvise simultaneously while reinforcing the rhythmic/melodic momentum of the rhythm section. Guajeo_sentence_125

The next moña layers are from the descarga "Guatacando" (1968). Guajeo_sentence_126

The trumpet figure is one clave in length, while the trombone figure is two claves. Guajeo_sentence_127

This is a classic example of how moñas are layered. Guajeo_sentence_128

The trombone Moña consists of two parts, a call-and-response structure. Guajeo_sentence_129

The trumpet moña begins on the last note of first half of the trombone moña. Guajeo_sentence_130

The second half of the trombone moña begins on the pulse (subdivision) immediately following the last note of the trumpet moña. Guajeo_sentence_131

Songo Guajeo_section_33

"Fallaste al sacar" (1982) by Los Van Van is an example of creative guajeo counterpoint. Guajeo_sentence_132

Moore states: "Pupy's arrangement pushes the envelope ... by expanding the violin part from the usual sparse rhythmic loop to a long and constantly varying melody, pitted against an almost equally inventive piano [guajeo]. Guajeo_sentence_133

The violin part is active and creative enough to stand alone as a mambo section, but it is used as the underpinning for an equally complex and interesting coro. Guajeo_sentence_134

The violin part could also be nicely adapted for use in a 1990s‐style timba piano [guajeo]." Guajeo_sentence_135

On Los Van Van v. 6 (1980) Juan Formell took the unusual step of adding trombones to his charanga format. Guajeo_sentence_136

Orquesta Revé did the same during the time. Guajeo_sentence_137

"Tú tranquilo" has four interlocking guajeos: two keyboards, violins, and trombones. Guajeo_sentence_138

Timba Guajeo_section_34

Many timba bands use two keyboards. Guajeo_sentence_139

The following example shows two simultaneous guajeo parts for Issac Delgado's "Por qué paró" (1995), as played by Melón Lewis (1st keyboard), and Pepe Rivero (2nd keyboard). Guajeo_sentence_140

R&B, funk, and rock Guajeo_section_35

New Orleans has a long history of absorbing Afro-Cuban musical influences, going back at least to the mid-19th century. Guajeo_sentence_141

The Cuban influence was exceptionally strong in the Crescent City during the late 1940s and early 1950s, when rhythm & blues (R&B) was first forming. Guajeo_sentence_142

The unique style of R&B that emerged from New Orleans during this period played a pivotal role in the development of funk and the rock guitar riff. Guajeo_sentence_143

Professor Longhair Guajeo_section_36

In the 1940s New Orleans pianist "Professor Longhair" (Henry Roeland Byrd) was playing with Caribbean musicians, listening a lot to Perez Prado's mambo records, and absorbing and experimenting with it all. Guajeo_sentence_144

He was especially enamored with Cuban music. Guajeo_sentence_145

Michael Campbell states: "Rhythm and blues influenced by Afro-Cuban music first surfaced in New Orleans. Guajeo_sentence_146

Professor Longhair's influence was ... far reaching. Guajeo_sentence_147

Longhair's style was known locally as rumba-boogie. Guajeo_sentence_148

Alexander Stewart states that Longhair was a key figure bridging the worlds of boogie woogie and the new style of rhythm and blues." Guajeo_sentence_149

In his composition "Misery," Longhair plays a habanera-like figure in his left hand. Guajeo_sentence_150

The deft use of triplets in the right hand is a characteristic of Longhair's style. Guajeo_sentence_151


  • Guajeo_item_0_0

Tresillo, the habanera, and related African-based single-celled figures have long been heard in the left hand part of piano compositions by New Orleans musicians, for example—Louis Moreau Gottschalk ("Souvenirs From Havana" 1859), and Jelly Roll Morton ("The Crave" 1910). Guajeo_sentence_152

One of Longhair's great contributions was the adaptation of two-celled, clave-based patterns in New Orleans blues. Guajeo_sentence_153

Campbell: "In several of his early recordings, Professor Longhair blended Afro-Cuban rhythms with rhythm and blues. Guajeo_sentence_154

The most explicit is "Longhair's Blues Rhumba," where he overlays a straightforward blues with a clave rhythm. Guajeo_sentence_155

According to Dr. Guajeo_sentence_156 John (Malcolm John "Mac" Rebennack, Jr.), the Professor "put funk into music ... Longhair's thing had a direct bearing I'd say on a large portion of the funk music that evolved in New Orleans." Guajeo_sentence_157

The guajeo-like piano part for the Professor Longhair rumba-boogie "Mardi Gras in New Orleans" (1949), employs the 2–3 clave onbeat/offbeat motif. Guajeo_sentence_158

2-3 clave is written above the piano excerpt for reference. Guajeo_sentence_159

Johnny Otis Guajeo_section_37

Johnny Otis released the R&B mambo "Mambo Boogie" in January 1951, featuring congas, maracas, claves, and mambo saxophone guajeos in a blues progression. Guajeo_sentence_160

This is a syncopated, but straight subdivision feel of Cuban music (as opposed to swung subdivisions). Guajeo_sentence_161

Alexander Stewart states that this popular feel was passed along from "New Orleans—through James Brown's music, to the popular music of the 1970s," adding: "The singular style of rhythm & blues that emerged from New Orleans in the years after World War II played an important role in the development of funk. Guajeo_sentence_162

In a related development, the underlying rhythms of American popular music underwent a basic, yet generally unacknowledged transition from triplet or shuffle feel to even or straight eighth notes. Guajeo_sentence_163

Concerning funk motifs, Stewart states: "This model, it should be noted, is different from a time line (such as clave and tresillo) in that it is not an exact pattern, but more of a loose organizing principle." Guajeo_sentence_164

James Brown Guajeo_section_38

The onbeat/offbeat motif is the basis for a great deal of funk music. Guajeo_sentence_165

Blues scales give these rhythmic figures their own distinct quality. Guajeo_sentence_166

The main guitar riff for James Brown's "Bring It Up" is an example of an onbeat/offbeat motif. Guajeo_sentence_167

Rhythmically, the pattern is similar to the typical Cuban guajeo structure, but tonally, it is unmistakably funky. Guajeo_sentence_168

Bongos are used on the 1967 version. Guajeo_sentence_169

The rhythm is slightly swung. Guajeo_sentence_170

"Ain't It Funky Now" has a 2–3 guitar riff (c. late 1960s). Guajeo_sentence_171

"Give It Up or Turnit a Loose" (1969) has a similarly funky 2–3 structure. Guajeo_sentence_172

The tonal structure has a bare bones simplicity, emphasizing the pattern of attack-points. Guajeo_sentence_173

Beatles Guajeo_section_39

The onbeat/offbeat motif has been a part of rock 'n' roll since the inception of that genre. Guajeo_sentence_174

The guitar riff of the Beatles' "I Feel Fine" is built on the onbeat/offbeat motif. Guajeo_sentence_175

It fits perfectly with 2–3 clave. Guajeo_sentence_176

Today, the 2–3 onbeat/offbeat motif is a staple of North American popular music, even popular music worldwide. Guajeo_sentence_177

It is a motif that originated in sub-Saharan Africa, arrived in the United States in the form of Afro-Cuban music, was absorbed, and reconstituted, then spread globally in the form of rock 'n' roll. Guajeo_sentence_178

African electric guitar: reinterpreting Afro-Cuban guajeos Guajeo_section_40

Cuban music has been popular in sub-Saharan Africa since the mid 20th century. Guajeo_sentence_179

To the Africans, clave-based Cuban popular music sounded both familiar and exotic. Guajeo_sentence_180

The Encyclopedia of Africa v. 1. states: Guajeo_sentence_181

Banning Eyre distills down the Congolese guitar style to this skeletal figure, where clave is sounded by the bass notes (notated with downward stems). Guajeo_sentence_182

Congolese "rumba" Guajeo_section_41

Congolese bands started doing Cuban covers and singing the lyrics phonetically. Guajeo_sentence_183

Eventually they created their own original Cuban-like compositions, with lyrics sung in French or Lingala, a lingua franca of the western Congo region. Guajeo_sentence_184

The Africans adapted guajeos to electric guitars, and gave them their own regional flavor. Guajeo_sentence_185

The Congolese called this new music rumba, although it was really based on the son. Guajeo_sentence_186

The following example is from the Congolese "rumba" "Passi ya boloko" by Franco (Luambo Makiadi) and O.K. Jazz (c. mid-1950s). Guajeo_sentence_187

The bass is playing a tresillo-based tumbao, typical of son montuno. Guajeo_sentence_188

The rhythm guitar plays all of the offbeats, the exact pattern of the rhythm guitar in Cuban son. Guajeo_sentence_189

According to the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, the lead guitar part "recalls the blue-tinged guitar solos heard in bluegrass and rockabilly music of the 1950s, with its characteristic insistence on the opposition of the major-third and minor-third degrees of the scale." Guajeo_sentence_190

Congolese soukous Guajeo_section_42

The guitar-based music gradually spread out from the Congo, increasingly taking on local sensibilities. Guajeo_sentence_191

This process eventually resulted in the establishment of several different distinct regional genres, such as soukous. Guajeo_sentence_192

Some African guitar genres such as Zimbabwean chimurenga (created by Thomas Mapfumo), are a direct adaptation of traditional ostinatos, in this case mbira music. Guajeo_sentence_193

Most genres though, maintain to some degree, a guajeo template upon which indigenous elements were grafted. Guajeo_sentence_194

Congolese soukous is an example of the latter case. Guajeo_sentence_195

The horn guajeos of Cuban popular music were adapted by soukous guitars. Guajeo_sentence_196

In a densely textured seben section of a soukous song (below), the three interlocking guitar parts are reminiscent of the Cuban practice of layering guajeos. Guajeo_sentence_197

Ghanaian and Nigerian highlife Guajeo_section_43

Highlife was the most popular genre in Ghana and Nigeria during the 1960s. Guajeo_sentence_198

This arpeggiated highlife guitar part is essentially a guajeo. Guajeo_sentence_199

The rhythmic pattern is known in Cuba as baqueteo. Guajeo_sentence_200

The pattern of attack-points is nearly identical to the 3-2 clave motif guajeo shown earlier in this article. Guajeo_sentence_201

The bell pattern known in Cuba as clave, is indigenous to Ghana and Nigeria, and is used in highlife. Guajeo_sentence_202

Nigerian afrobeat Guajeo_section_44

Afrobeat is a combination of traditional Yoruba music, highlife, jazz, and funk, popularised in Africa in the 1970s. Guajeo_sentence_203

The Nigerian multi-instrumentalist and bandleader Fela Kuti, who gave it its name, used it to revolutionise musical structure as well as the political context in his native Nigeria. Guajeo_sentence_204

Kuti coined the term "afrobeat" upon his return from a U.S. tour with his group Nigeria '70 (formerly Koola Lobitos). Guajeo_sentence_205

The following afrobeat guitar part is a variant of the 2-3 onbeat/offbeat motif. Guajeo_sentence_206

Even the melodic contour is guajeo-based. Guajeo_sentence_207

2-3 clave is shown above the guitar for reference only. Guajeo_sentence_208

The clave pattern is not ordinarily played in afrobeat. Guajeo_sentence_209

Cuban popular music played a major role in the development of many contemporary genres of African popular music. Guajeo_sentence_210

John Storm Roberts states: "It was the Cuban connection ... that provided the major and enduring influences—the ones that went deeper than earlier imitation or passing fashion. Guajeo_sentence_211

The Cuban connection began very early and was to last at least twenty years, being gradually absorbed and re-Africanized." Guajeo_sentence_212

The re-working of Afro-Cuban rhythmic patterns by Africans brings the rhythms full circle. Guajeo_sentence_213

The re-working of the harmonic patterns reveals a striking difference in perception. Guajeo_sentence_214

The I IV V IV harmonic progression, so common in Cuban music, is heard in pop music all across the African continent, thanks to the influence of Cuban music. Guajeo_sentence_215

Those chords move in accordance with the basic tenets of Western music theory. Guajeo_sentence_216

However, as Gerhard Kubik points out, performers of African popular music do not necessarily perceive these progressions in the same way: "The harmonic cycle of C-F-G-F [I-IV-V-IV] prominent in Congo/Zaire popular music simply cannot be defined as a progression from tonic to subdominant to dominant and back to subdominant (on which it ends) because in the performer's appreciation they are of equal status, and not in any hierarchical order as in Western music." Guajeo_sentence_217

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: