Guild

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For other uses, see Guild (disambiguation). Guild_sentence_0

A guild /ɡɪld/ is an association of artisans and merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area. Guild_sentence_1

The earliest types of guild formed as confraternities of tradesmen, normally operating in a single city and covering a single trade. Guild_sentence_2

They were organized in a manner something between a professional association, a trade union, a cartel, and a secret society. Guild_sentence_3

They sometimes depended on grants of letters patent from a monarch or other ruler to enforce the flow of trade to their self-employed members, and to retain ownership of tools and the supply of materials, but were generally regulated by the city government. Guild_sentence_4

A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the constructed and used as guild meeting-places. Guild_sentence_5

Guild members found guilty of cheating on the public would be fined or banned from the guild. Guild_sentence_6

Typically the key "privilege" was that only guild members were allowed to sell their goods or practice their skill within the city. Guild_sentence_7

There might be controls on minimum or maximum prices, hours of trading, numbers of apprentices, and many other things. Guild_sentence_8

As well as reducing free competition, but sometimes maintaining a good quality of work, often these rules made it difficult or impossible for women, immigrants to the city, and non-Christians to run businesses working in the trade. Guild_sentence_9

An important result of the guild framework was the emergence of universities at Bologna (established in 1088), Oxford (at least since 1096) and Paris (c. 1150); they originated as guilds of students (as at Bologna) or of masters (as at Paris). Guild_sentence_10

History of guilds Guild_section_0

Early guild-like associations Guild_section_1

A type of guild was known in Roman times. Guild_sentence_11

Known as collegium, collegia or corpus, these were organised groups of merchants who specialised in a particular craft and whose membership of the group was voluntary. Guild_sentence_12

One such example is the corpus naviculariorum, the college of long-distance shippers based at Rome's La Ostia port. Guild_sentence_13

The Roman guilds failed to survive the collapse of the Roman Empire. Guild_sentence_14

In medieval cities, craftsmen tended to form associations based on their trades, confraternities of textile workers, masons, carpenters, carvers, glass workers, each of whom controlled secrets of traditionally imparted technology, the "arts" or "mysteries" of their crafts. Guild_sentence_15

Usually the founders were free independent master craftsmen who hired apprentices. Guild_sentence_16

Post-classical guild Guild_section_2

There were several types of guilds, including the two main categories of merchant guilds and craft guilds but also the frith guild and religious guild. Guild_sentence_17

Guilds arose beginning in the High Middle Ages as craftsmen united to protect their common interests. Guild_sentence_18

In the German city of Augsburg craft guilds are mentioned in the Towncharter of 1156. Guild_sentence_19

The continental system of guilds and merchants arrived in England after the Norman Conquest, with incorporated societies of merchants in each town or city holding exclusive rights of doing business there. Guild_sentence_20

In many cases they became the governing body of a town. Guild_sentence_21

For example, London's Guildhall became the seat of the Court of Common Council of the City of London Corporation, the world's oldest continuously elected local government, whose members to this day must be Freemen of the city. Guild_sentence_22

The Freedom of the City, effective from the Middle Ages until 1835, gave the right to trade, and was only bestowed upon members of a Guild or Livery. Guild_sentence_23

Early egalitarian communities called "guilds" were denounced by Catholic clergy for their "conjurations" — the binding oaths sworn among the members to support one another in adversity, kill specific enemies, and back one another in feuds or in business ventures. Guild_sentence_24

The occasion for these oaths were drunken banquets held on December 26, the pagan feast of Jul (Yule)—in 858, West Francian Bishop Hincmar sought vainly to Christianise the guilds. Guild_sentence_25

In the Early Middle Ages, most of the Roman craft organisations, originally formed as religious confraternities, had disappeared, with the apparent exceptions of stonecutters and perhaps glassmakers, mostly the people that had local skills. Guild_sentence_26

Gregory of Tours tells a miraculous tale of a builder whose art and techniques suddenly left him, but were restored by an apparition of the Virgin Mary in a dream. Guild_sentence_27

Michel Rouche remarks that the story speaks for the importance of practically transmitted journeymanship. Guild_sentence_28

In France, guilds were called corps de métiers. Guild_sentence_29

According to Viktor Ivanovich Rutenburg, "Within the guild itself there was very little division of labour, which tended to operate rather between the guilds. Guild_sentence_30

Thus, according to Étienne Boileau's Book of Handicrafts, by the mid-13th century there were no less than 100 guilds in Paris, a figure which by the 14th century had risen to 350." Guild_sentence_31

There were different guilds of metal-workers: the farriers, knife-makers, locksmiths, chain-forgers, nail-makers, often formed separate and distinct corporations; the armourers were divided into helmet-makers, escutcheon-makers, harness-makers, harness-polishers, etc. Guild_sentence_32

In Catalan towns, specially at Barcelona, guilds or gremis were a basic agent in the society: a shoemakers' guild is recorded in 1208. Guild_sentence_33

In England, specifically in the City of London Corporation, more than 110 guilds, referred to as livery companies, survive today, with the oldest more than a thousand years old. Guild_sentence_34

Other groups, such as the Worshipful Company of Tax Advisers, have been formed far more recently. Guild_sentence_35

Membership in a livery company is expected for individuals participating in the governance of The City, as the Lord Mayor and the Remembrancer. Guild_sentence_36

The guild system reached a mature state in Germany circa 1300 and held on in German cities into the 19th century, with some special privileges for certain occupations remaining today. Guild_sentence_37

In the 15th century, Hamburg had 100 guilds, Cologne 80, and Lübeck 70. Guild_sentence_38

The latest guilds to develop in Western Europe were the gremios of Spain: e.g., Valencia (1332) or Toledo (1426). Guild_sentence_39

Not all city economies were controlled by guilds; some cities were "free." Guild_sentence_40

Where guilds were in control, they shaped labor, production and trade; they had strong controls over instructional capital, and the modern concepts of a lifetime progression of apprentice to craftsman, and then from journeyman eventually to widely recognized master and grandmaster began to emerge. Guild_sentence_41

In order to become a master, a journeyman would have to go on a three-year voyage called journeyman years. Guild_sentence_42

The practice of the journeyman years still exists in Germany and France. Guild_sentence_43

As production became more specialized, trade guilds were divided and subdivided, eliciting the squabbles over jurisdiction that produced the paperwork by which economic historians trace their development: The metalworking guilds of Nuremberg were divided among dozens of independent trades in the boom economy of the 13th century, and there were 101 trades in Paris by 1260. Guild_sentence_44

In Ghent, as in Florence, the woolen textile industry developed as a congeries of specialized guilds. Guild_sentence_45

The appearance of the European guilds was tied to the emergent money economy, and to urbanization. Guild_sentence_46

Before this time it was not possible to run a money-driven organization, as commodity money was the normal way of doing business. Guild_sentence_47

The guild was at the center of European handicraft organization into the 16th century. Guild_sentence_48

In France, a resurgence of the guilds in the second half of the 17th century is symptomatic of Louis XIV and Jean Baptiste Colbert's administration's concerns to impose unity, control production, and reap the benefits of transparent structure in the shape of efficient taxation. Guild_sentence_49

The guilds were identified with organizations enjoying certain privileges (letters patent), usually issued by the king or state and overseen by local town business authorities (some kind of chamber of commerce). Guild_sentence_50

These were the predecessors of the modern patent and trademark system. Guild_sentence_51

The guilds also maintained funds in order to support infirm or elderly members, as well as widows and orphans of guild members, funeral benefits, and a 'tramping' allowance for those needing to travel to find work. Guild_sentence_52

As the guild system of the City of London declined during the 17th century, the Livery Companies transformed into mutual assistance fraternities along such lines. Guild_sentence_53

European guilds imposed long standardized periods of apprenticeship, and made it difficult for those lacking the capital to set up for themselves or without the approval of their peers to gain access to materials or knowledge, or to sell into certain markets, an area that equally dominated the guilds' concerns. Guild_sentence_54

These are defining characteristics of mercantilism in economics, which dominated most European thinking about political economy until the rise of classical economics. Guild_sentence_55

The guild system survived the emergence of early capitalists, which began to divide guild members into "haves" and dependent "have-nots". Guild_sentence_56

The civil struggles that characterize the 14th-century towns and cities were struggles in part between the greater guilds and the lesser artisanal guilds, which depended on piecework. Guild_sentence_57

"In Florence, they were openly distinguished: the Arti maggiori and the Arti minori—already there was a popolo grasso and a popolo magro". Guild_sentence_58

Fiercer struggles were those between essentially conservative guilds and the merchant class, which increasingly came to control the means of production and the capital that could be ventured in expansive schemes, often under the rules of guilds of their own. Guild_sentence_59

German social historians trace the Zunftrevolution, the urban revolution of guildmembers against a controlling urban patriciate, sometimes reading into them, however, perceived foretastes of the class struggles of the 19th century. Guild_sentence_60

In the countryside, where guild rules did not operate, there was freedom for the entrepreneur with capital to organize cottage industry, a network of cottagers who spun and wove in their own premises on his account, provided with their raw materials, perhaps even their looms, by the capitalist who took a share of the profits. Guild_sentence_61

Such a dispersed system could not so easily be controlled where there was a vigorous local market for the raw materials: wool was easily available in sheep-rearing regions, whereas silk was not. Guild_sentence_62

Organization Guild_section_3

In Florence, Italy, there were seven to twelve "greater guilds" and fourteen "lesser guilds" the most important of the greater guilds was that for judges and notaries, who handled the legal business of all the other guilds and often served as an arbitrator of disputes. Guild_sentence_63

Other greater guilds include the wool, silk, and the money changers' guilds. Guild_sentence_64

They prided themselves on a reputation for very high-quality work, which was rewarded with premium prices. Guild_sentence_65

The guilds fined members who deviated from standards. Guild_sentence_66

Other greater guilds included those of doctors, druggists, and furriers. Guild_sentence_67

Among the lesser guilds, were those for bakers, saddle makers, ironworkers and other artisans. Guild_sentence_68

They had a sizable membership, but lacked the political and social standing necessary to influence city affairs. Guild_sentence_69

The guild was made up by experienced and confirmed experts in their field of handicraft. Guild_sentence_70

They were called master craftsmen. Guild_sentence_71

Before a new employee could rise to the level of mastery, he had to go through a schooling period during which he was first called an apprentice. Guild_sentence_72

After this period he could rise to the level of journeyman. Guild_sentence_73

Apprentices would typically not learn more than the most basic techniques until they were trusted by their peers to keep the guild's or company's secrets. Guild_sentence_74

Like journey, the distance that could be travelled in a day, the title 'journeyman' derives from the French words for 'day' (jour and journée) from which came the middle English word journei. Guild_sentence_75

Journeymen were able to work for other masters, unlike apprentices, and generally paid by the day and were thus day labourers. Guild_sentence_76

After being employed by a master for several years, and after producing a qualifying piece of work, the apprentice was granted the rank of journeyman and was given documents (letters or certificates from his master and/or the guild itself) which certified him as a journeyman and entitled him to travel to other towns and countries to learn the art from other masters. Guild_sentence_77

These journeys could span large parts of Europe and were an unofficial way of communicating new methods and techniques, though by no means all journeymen made such travels — they were most common in Germany and Italy, and in other countries journeymen from small cities would often visit the capital. Guild_sentence_78

After this journey and several years of experience, a journeyman could be received as master craftsman, though in some guilds this step could be made straight from apprentice. Guild_sentence_79

This would typically require the approval of all masters of a guild, a donation of money and other goods (often omitted for sons of existing members), and the production of a so-called "masterpiece,' which would illustrate the abilities of the aspiring master craftsman; this was often retained by the guild. Guild_sentence_80

The medieval guild was established by charters or letters patent or similar authority by the city or the ruler and normally held a monopoly on trade in its craft within the city in which it operated: handicraft workers were forbidden by law to run any business if they were not members of a guild, and only masters were allowed to be members of a guild. Guild_sentence_81

Before these privileges were legislated, these groups of handicraft workers were simply called 'handicraft associations'. Guild_sentence_82

The town authorities might be represented in the guild meetings and thus had a means of controlling the handicraft activities. Guild_sentence_83

This was important since towns very often depended on a good reputation for export of a narrow range of products, on which not only the guild's, but the town's, reputation depended. Guild_sentence_84

Controls on the association of physical locations to well-known exported products, e.g. wine from the Champagne and Bordeaux regions of France, tin-glazed earthenwares from certain cities in Holland, lace from Chantilly, etc., helped to establish a town's place in global commerce — this led to modern trademarks. Guild_sentence_85

In many German and Italian cities, the more powerful guilds often had considerable political influence, and sometimes attempted to control the city authorities. Guild_sentence_86

In the 14th century, this led to numerous bloody uprisings, during which the guilds dissolved town councils and detained patricians in an attempt to increase their influence. Guild_sentence_87

In fourteenth-century north-east Germany, people of Wendish, i.e. Slavic, origin were not allowed to join some guilds. Guild_sentence_88

According to Wilhelm Raabe, "down into the eighteenth century no German guild accepted a Wend." Guild_sentence_89

Fall of the guilds Guild_section_4

Ogilvie (2004) argues that guilds negatively affected quality, skills, and innovation. Guild_sentence_90

Through what economists now call "rent-seeking" they imposed deadweight losses on the economy. Guild_sentence_91

Ogilvie argues they generated limited positive externalities and notes that industry began to flourish only after the guilds faded away. Guild_sentence_92

Guilds persisted over the centuries because they redistributed resources to politically powerful merchants. Guild_sentence_93

On the other hand, Ogilvie agrees, guilds created "social capital" of shared norms, common information, mutual sanctions, and collective political action. Guild_sentence_94

This social capital benefited guild members, even as it arguably hurt outsiders. Guild_sentence_95

The guild system became a target of much criticism towards the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century. Guild_sentence_96

Critics argued that they hindered free trade and technological innovation, technology transfer and business development. Guild_sentence_97

According to several accounts of this time, guilds became increasingly involved in simple territorial struggles against each other and against free practitioners of their arts. Guild_sentence_98

Two of the most outspoken critics of the guild system were Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Adam Smith, and all over Europe a tendency to oppose government control over trades in favour of laissez-faire free market systems grew rapidly and made its way into the political and legal systems. Guild_sentence_99

Many people who participated in the French Revolution saw guilds as a last remnant of feudalism. Guild_sentence_100

The Le Chapelier Law of 1791 abolished the guilds in France. Guild_sentence_101

Smith wrote in The Wealth of Nations (Book I, Chapter X, paragraph 72): Guild_sentence_102

Karl Marx in his Communist Manifesto also criticized the guild system for its rigid gradation of social rank and the relation of oppressor/oppressed entailed by this system. Guild_sentence_103

It was the 18th and 19th centuries that saw the beginning of the low regard in which some people hold the guilds to this day. Guild_sentence_104

In part due to their own inability to control unruly corporate behavior, the tide of public opinion turned against the guilds. Guild_sentence_105

Because of industrialization and modernization of the trade and industry, and the rise of powerful nation-states that could directly issue patent and copyright protections — often revealing the trade secrets — the guilds' power faded. Guild_sentence_106

After the French Revolution they gradually fell in most European nations over the course of the 19th century, as the guild system was disbanded and replaced by laws that promoted free trade. Guild_sentence_107

As a consequence of the decline of guilds, many former handicraft workers were forced to seek employment in the emerging manufacturing industries, using not closely guarded techniques formerly protected by guilds, but rather the standardized methods controlled by corporations. Guild_sentence_108

Interest in the medieval guild system was revived during the late 19th century, among far right circles. Guild_sentence_109

Fascism in Italy (among other countries) implemented corporatism, operating at the national rather than city level, to try to imitate the corporatism of the Middle Ages. Guild_sentence_110

Influence of guilds Guild_section_5

Economic consequences Guild_section_6

The economic consequences of guilds have led to heated debates among economic historians. Guild_sentence_111

On the one side, scholars say that since merchant guilds persisted over long periods they must have been efficient institutions (since inefficient institutions die out). Guild_sentence_112

Others say they persisted not because they benefited the entire economy but because they benefited the owners, who used political power to protect them. Guild_sentence_113

Ogilvie (2011) says they regulated trade for their own benefit, were monopolies, distorted markets, fixed prices, and restricted entrance into the guild. Guild_sentence_114

Ogilvie (2008) argues that their long apprenticeships were unnecessary to acquire skills, and their conservatism reduced the rate of innovation and made the society poorer. Guild_sentence_115

She says their main goal was rent seeking, that is, to shift money to the membership at the expense of the entire economy. Guild_sentence_116

Epstein and Prak's book (2008) rejects Ogilvie's conclusions. Guild_sentence_117

Specifically, Epstein argues that guilds were cost-sharing rather than rent-seeking institutions. Guild_sentence_118

They located and matched masters and likely apprentices through monitored learning. Guild_sentence_119

Whereas the acquisition of craft skills required experience-based learning, he argues that this process necessitated many years in apprenticeship. Guild_sentence_120

The extent to which guilds were able to monopolize markets is also debated. Guild_sentence_121

Women in guilds Guild_section_7

For the most part, medieval guilds limited women's participation, and usually only the widows and daughters of known masters were allowed in. Guild_sentence_122

Even if a woman entered a guild, she was excluded from guild offices. Guild_sentence_123

It's important to note that while this was the overarching practice, there were guilds and professions that did allow women's participation, and that the Medieval era was an ever-changing, mutable society—especially considering that it spanned hundreds of years and many different cultures. Guild_sentence_124

There were multiple accounts of women's participation in guilds in England and the Continent. Guild_sentence_125

In a study of London silkwomen of the 15th century by Marian K. Dale, she notes that medieval women could inherit property, belong to guilds, manage estates, and run the family business if widowed. Guild_sentence_126

The Livre des métiers de Paris (Book of Trades of Paris) was compiled by Étienne Boileau, the Grand Provost of Paris under King Louis IX. Guild_sentence_127

It documents that 5 out of 110 Parisian guilds were female monopolies, and that only a few guilds systematically excluded women. Guild_sentence_128

Boileau notes that some professions were also open to women: surgeons, glass-blowers, chain-mail forgers. Guild_sentence_129

Entertainment guilds also had a significant number of women members. Guild_sentence_130

John, Duke of Berry documents payments to female musicians from Le Puy, Lyons, and Paris. Guild_sentence_131

Women did have problems with entering healers' guilds, as opposed to their relative freedom in trade or craft guilds. Guild_sentence_132

Their status in healers' guilds were often challenged. Guild_sentence_133

The idea that medicine should only be practice by men was supported by some religious and secular authorities at the time. Guild_sentence_134

It is believed that the Inquisition and witch hunts throughout the ages contributed to the lack of women in medical guilds. Guild_sentence_135

Modern Guild_section_8

Professional organizations replicate guild structure and operation. Guild_sentence_136

Professions such as architecture, engineering, geology, and land surveying require varying lengths of apprenticeships before one can gain a "professional" certification. Guild_sentence_137

These certifications hold great legal weight: most states make them a prerequisite to practicing there. Guild_sentence_138

Thomas W. Malone champions a modern variant of the guild structure for modern "e-lancers", professionals who do mostly telework for multiple employers. Guild_sentence_139

Insurance including any professional liability, intellectual capital protections, an ethical code perhaps enforced by peer pressure and software, and other benefits of a strong association of producers of knowledge, benefit from economies of scale, and may prevent cut-throat competition that leads to inferior services undercutting prices. Guild_sentence_140

And, as with historical guilds, such a structure will resist foreign competition. Guild_sentence_141

The free software community has from time to time explored a guild-like structure to unite against competition from Microsoft, e.g. Advogato assigns journeyer and master ranks to those committing to work only or mostly on free software. Guild_sentence_142

Europe Guild_section_9

In many European countries guilds have experienced a revival as local trade organizations for craftsmen, primarily in traditional skills. Guild_sentence_143

They may function as forums for developing competence and are often the local units of a national employer's organisation. Guild_sentence_144

In the City of London, the ancient guilds survive as livery companies, all of which play a ceremonial role in the city's many customs. Guild_sentence_145

The City of London livery companies maintain strong links with their respective trade, craft or profession, some still retain regulatory, inspection or enforcement roles. Guild_sentence_146

The senior members of the City of London Livery Companies (known as liverymen) elect the sheriffs and approve the candidates for the office of Lord Mayor of London. Guild_sentence_147

Guilds also survive in many other towns and cities the UK including in Preston, Lancashire, as the Preston Guild Merchant where among other celebrations descendants of burgesses are still admitted into membership. Guild_sentence_148

With the City of London livery companies, the UK has over 300 extant guilds and growing. Guild_sentence_149

In 1878 the London livery companies established the City and Guilds of London Institute the forerunner of the engineering school (still called City and Guilds College) at Imperial College London. Guild_sentence_150

The aim of the City and Guilds of London Institute was the advancement of technical education. Guild_sentence_151

As of 2013 "City and Guilds" operates as an examining and accreditation body for vocational, managerial and engineering qualifications from entry-level craft and trade skills up to post-doctoral achievement. Guild_sentence_152

A separate organisation, the City and Guilds of London Art School has also close ties with the London livery companies and is involved in the training of master craftworkers in stone and wood carving, as well as fine artists. Guild_sentence_153

In Germany there are no longer any Zünfte (or Gilden – the terms used were rather different from town to town), nor any restriction of a craft to a privileged corporation. Guild_sentence_154

However, under one other of their old names albeit a less frequent one, Innungen, guilds continue to exist as private member clubs with membership limited to practitioners of particular trades or activities. Guild_sentence_155

These clubs are corporations under public law, albeit the membership is voluntary; the president normally comes from the ranks of master-craftsmen and is called Obermeister ("master-in-chief"). Guild_sentence_156

Journeymen elect their own representative bodies, with their president having the traditional title of Altgesell (senior journeyman). Guild_sentence_157

There are also "craft chambers" (Handwerkskammern), which have less resemblance to ancient guilds in that they are organized for all crafts in a certain region, not just one. Guild_sentence_158

In them membership is mandatory, and they serve to establish self-governance of the crafts. Guild_sentence_159

India Guild_section_10

In India there are Students Guild, Indian Engineers Guild, Safety Guild and other various Professional Associations are common like Indian medical Association, Indian Engineers, Indian Dental Association, United nurses Association, etc. Guild_sentence_160

Most of them use Union, Association or Society as suffix. Guild_sentence_161

North America Guild_section_11

In the United States guilds exist in several fields. Guild_sentence_162

Often, they are better characterized as a labor union — for example, The Newspaper Guild is a labor union for journalists and other newspaper workers, with over 30,000 members in North America. Guild_sentence_163

In the film and television industry, guild membership is generally a prerequisite for working on major productions in certain capacities. Guild_sentence_164

The Screen Actors Guild, Directors Guild of America, Writers Guild of America, East, Writers Guild of America, West and other profession-specific guilds have the ability to exercise strong control in the cinema of the United States as a result of a rigid system of intellectual-property rights and a history of power-brokers also holding guild membership (e.g., DreamWorks founder Steven Spielberg was, and is, a DGA member). Guild_sentence_165

These guilds maintain their own contracts with production companies to ensure a certain number of their members are hired for roles in each film or television production, and that their members are paid a minimum of guild "scale," along with other labor protections. Guild_sentence_166

These guilds set high standards for membership, and exclude professional actors, writers, etc. who do not abide by the strict rules for competing within the film and television industry in America. Guild_sentence_167

Real-estate brokerage offers an example of a modern American guild system. Guild_sentence_168

Signs of guild behavior in real-estate brokerage include: standard pricing (6% of the home price), strong affiliation among all practitioners, self-regulation (see National Association of Realtors), strong cultural identity (the Realtor brand), little price variation with quality differences, and traditional methods in use by all practitioners. Guild_sentence_169

In September 2005 the U.S. Department of Justice filed an antitrust lawsuit against the National Association of Realtors, challenging NAR practices that (the DOJ asserted) prevent competition from practitioners who use different methods. Guild_sentence_170

The DOJ and the Federal Trade Commission in 2005 advocated against state laws, supported by NAR, that disadvantage new kinds of brokers. Guild_sentence_171

U.S. v. National Assoc. Guild_sentence_172

of Realtors, Civil Action No. Guild_sentence_173

05C-5140 (N.D. Ill. Sept. 7, 2005). Guild_sentence_174

The practice of law in the United States also exemplifies modern guilds at work. Guild_sentence_175

Every state maintains its own bar association, supervised by that state's highest court. Guild_sentence_176

The court decides the criteria for entering and staying in the legal profession. Guild_sentence_177

In most states, every attorney must become a member of that state's bar association in order to practice law. Guild_sentence_178

State laws forbid any person from engaging in the unauthorized practice of law and practicing attorneys are subject to rules of professional conduct that are enforced by the state's high court. Guild_sentence_179

Medical associations comparable to guilds include the state Medical Boards, the American Medical Association, and the American Dental Association. Guild_sentence_180

Medical licensing in most states requires specific training, tests and years of low-paid apprenticeship (internship and residency) under harsh working conditions. Guild_sentence_181

Even qualified international or out-of-state doctors may not practice without acceptance by the local medical guild (Medical board). Guild_sentence_182

Similarly, nurses and physicians' practitioners have their own guilds. Guild_sentence_183

A doctor cannot work as a physician's assistant unless (s)he separately trains, tests and apprentices as one. Guild_sentence_184

Australia Guild_section_12

Australia is home to several Guilds the most notable of which is The Pharmacy Guild of Australia, created in 1928 as the Federated Pharmaceutical Services Guild of Australia, which serves "5800 community pharmacies," while also providing training and standards for the country's pharmacists. Guild_sentence_185

Australia's other Guilds include, among others, the Australian Director's Guild, representing the country's directors, documentary makers and animators, the Australian Writer's Guild, the (a fraternity of independent butchers) which provides links to resources like Australian meat standards and a guide to different beef cuts, and , a craft guild focusing on female artists. Guild_sentence_186

In fiction Guild_section_13

Guild_unordered_list_0

  • In the Dune universe an organization known as the Spacing Guild controls the means of interstellar travel and thus wields great power.Guild_item_0_0
  • In video games, guilds are used as associations of players or characters with similar interests, such as dungeons, crafting, or PVP (player vs player) combat.Guild_item_0_1
  • In The Mandalorian there is a bounty hunter guild.Guild_item_0_2
  • In Terry Pratchett's Discworld novels, the guilds of the city of Ankh-Morpork and their political interplay with the city patrician feature prominently.Guild_item_0_3
  • In The Venture Brothers, most super-villains in the series belong to The Guild of Calamitous Intent, which regulates their menacing activities towards their respective protagonists, while also shielding said villains from criminal prosecution. Much of the show's storyline revolves around politics within the Guild.Guild_item_0_4

See also Guild_section_14

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guild.