Gymnasium (school)

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This article is about the type of school. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_0

For the indoor sports facility, see Gym. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_1

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_2

In its current meaning, it usually refers to secondary schools focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_3

Before the 20th century, the system of gymnasiums was a widespread feature of educational systems throughout many countries of central, north, eastern and southern Europe. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_4

The word "γυμνάσιον" (gymnasion) was first used in Ancient Greece, in the sense of a place for both physical and intellectual education of young men. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_5

The latter meaning of a place of intellectual education persisted in many European languages (including Greek, German, the Nordic languages, Dutch, Polish, Czech, Slovak and Russian); whereas in English and Spanish, instead, the former meaning of a place for physical education was retained, in the colloquial, abbreviated form "gym". Gymnasium (school)_sentence_6

School structure Gymnasium (school)_section_0

The gymnasium is a secondary school which prepares the student for higher education at a university. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_7

They are thus meant for the more academically minded students, who are sifted out at about the age of 10–13. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_8

In addition to the usual curriculum, students of a gymnasium often study Latin and Ancient Greek. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_9

Some gymnasiums provide general education, while others have a specific focus. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_10

(This also differs from country to country.) Gymnasium (school)_sentence_11

The four traditional branches are: Gymnasium (school)_sentence_12

Gymnasium (school)_unordered_list_0

  • humanities (specialising in classical languages, such as Latin and Greek)Gymnasium (school)_item_0_0
  • modern languages (students are required to study at least three languages)Gymnasium (school)_item_0_1
  • mathematics and physical sciencesGymnasium (school)_item_0_2
  • economics and other social sciences (students are required to study economics, world history, social studies and business informatics)Gymnasium (school)_item_0_3

Curricula differ from school to school but generally include literature, mathematics, informatics, physics, chemistry, biology, geography, art (as well as crafts and design), music, history, philosophy, civics/citizenship, social sciences, and several foreign languages. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_13

Schools concentrate not only on academic subjects, but also on producing well-rounded individuals, so physical education and religion or ethics are compulsory, even in non-denominational schools which are prevalent. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_14

For example, the German constitution guarantees the separation of church and state, so although religion or ethics classes are compulsory, students may choose to study a specific religion or none at all. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_15

Today, a number of other areas of specialization exist, such as gymnasiums specializing in economics, technology or domestic sciences. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_16

In some countries, there is a notion of progymnasium, which is equivalent to beginning classes of the full gymnasium, with the rights to continue education in a gymnasium. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_17

Here, the prefix pro- is equivalent to pre-, indicating that this curriculum precedes normal gymnasium studies. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_18

History Gymnasium (school)_section_1

In the German-speaking, Central, Nordic, Benelux (Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg) and Baltic European countries, this meaning for "gymnasium" (that is a secondary school preparing the student for higher education at a university) has been the same at least since the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_19

The term was derived from the classical Greek word "γυμνάσιον" (gymnasion), which was originally applied to an exercising ground in ancient Athens. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_20

Here teachers gathered and gave instruction between the hours devoted to physical exercises and sports, and thus the term became associated with and came to mean an institution of learning. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_21

This use of the term did not prevail among the Romans, but was revived during the Renaissance in Italy, and from there passed into the Netherlands and Germany during the 15th century. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_22

In 1538, Johannes Sturm founded at Strasbourg the school which became the model of the modern German gymnasium. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_23

In 1812, a Prussian regulation ordered all schools with the right to send their students to the university to bear the name of gymnasium. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_24

By the 20th century, this practice was followed in almost the entire Austrian-Hungarian, German, and Russian Empires. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_25

In the modern era, many countries which have gymnasiums were once part of these three empires. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_26

By country Gymnasium (school)_section_2

Albania Gymnasium (school)_section_3

In Albania a gymnasium (Albanian: Gjimnaz) education takes three years following a compulsory nine-year elementary education and ending with a final aptitude test called Albanian: Matura Shtetërore. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_27

The final test is standardized at the state level and serves as an entrance qualification for universities. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_28

These can be either public (state-run, tuition-free) or private (fee-paying). Gymnasium (school)_sentence_29

The subjects taught are mathematics, Albanian language, one to three foreign languages, history, geography, computer science, the natural sciences (biology, chemistry, physics), history of art, music, philosophy, logic, physical education and the social sciences (sociology, ethics, psychology, politics and economy). Gymnasium (school)_sentence_30

The gymnasium is generally viewed as a destination for the best performing students and as the type of school that serves primarily to prepare students for university, while other students go to technical/vocational schools. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_31

Therefore, gymnasiums often base their admittance criteria on an entrance exam, elementary school grades or some combination of the two. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_32

Austria Gymnasium (school)_section_4

In Austria the Gymnasium has two stages, from the age of 11 to 14, and from 15 to 18, concluding with Matura. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_33

Historically, three types existed. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_34

The Humanistisches Gymnasium focuses on Ancient Greek and Latin. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_35

The Neusprachliches Gymnasium puts its focus on actively spoken languages. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_36

The usual combination is English, French and Latin; sometimes French can be swapped with another foreign language (like Italian, Spanish or Russian). Gymnasium (school)_sentence_37

The Realgymnasium emphasises the sciences. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_38

In the last few decades, more autonomy has been granted to schools, and various types have been developed, focusing on sports, music or economics, for example. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_39

Belarus Gymnasium (school)_section_5

In Belarus, gymnasium is the highest variant of secondary education, which provides advanced knowledge in various subjects. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_40

The number of years of instruction at a Gymnasium is 12, which is different from usual secondary education (11 years). Gymnasium (school)_sentence_41

However, it is possible to cover all required credits in 11 years, by taking additional subjects each semester. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_42

In Belarus, gymnasium is generally viewed as a destination for the best performing students and as the type of school that serves primarily to prepare students for university. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_43

Czech Republic and Slovakia Gymnasium (school)_section_6

See also: Education in Slovakia § Secondary education Gymnasium (school)_sentence_44

In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, gymnázium (also spelled gymnasium) is a type of school that provides secondary education. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_45

Gymnázium leads to the maturita exam. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_46

There are different types of gymnázium distinguished by the length of study. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_47

In the Czech Republic there is eight-year, six-year and four-year types, and in Slovakia there are eight-year and four-year types, of which the latter is most common. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_48

In both countries, there are also bilingual (Czech or Slovak with English, French, Spanish, Italian or German) and private gymnáziums. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_49

Germany Gymnasium (school)_section_7

Main article: Gymnasium (Germany) Gymnasium (school)_sentence_50

German gymnasiums are selective schools. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_51

They offer the most academically promising youngsters a quality education that is free in all state-run schools (and generally not above €50/month cost in Church-run schools, though there are some expensive private schools). Gymnasium (school)_sentence_52

Gymnasiums may expel students who academically under-perform their classmates or behave in a way that is often seen as undesirable and unacceptable. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_53

Historically, the German Gymnasium also included in its overall accelerated curriculum post-secondary education at college level and the degree awarded substituted for the bachelor's degree (Baccalaureate) previously awarded by a college or university so that universities in Germany became exclusively graduate schools. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_54

In the United States, the German Gymnasium curriculum was used at a number of prestigious universities, such as the University of Michigan, as a model for their undergraduate college programs. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_55

Pupils study subjects such as German, mathematics, physics, chemistry, geography, biology, arts, music, physical education, religion, history and civics/citizenship/social sciences and computer science. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_56

They are also required to study at least two foreign languages. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_57

The usual combinations are English and French or English and Latin, although many schools make it possible to combine English with another language, most often Spanish, Ancient Greek, or Russian. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_58

Religious education classes are a part of the curricula of all German schools, yet not compulsory; a student or their parents or guardians can conscientiously object to taking them, in which case the student (along with those whose religion is not being taught in the school) is taught ethics. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_59

In state schools, a student who is not baptized into either the Catholic or Protestant faiths is allowed to choose which of these classes to take. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_60

The only exception to this is in the state of Berlin, where the subject ethics is mandatory for all students and (Christian) religious studies can only be chosen additionally. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_61

A similar situation is found in Brandenburg where the subject life skills, ethics, and religious education (Lebensgestaltung, Ethik, Religionskunde, LER) is the primary subject but parents/guardians or students older than 13 can choose to replace it with (Christian) religious studies or take both. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_62

The intention behind LER is that students should get an objective insight on questions of personal development and ethics as well as on the major world religions. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_63

For younger students nearly the entire curriculum of a Gymnasium is compulsory; in higher years additional subjects are available and some of the hitherto compulsory subjects can be dropped, but the choice is not as wide as in other school systems, such as US high schools. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_64

Although some specialist Gymnasiums have English or French as the language of instruction, at most Gymnasiums lessons (apart from foreign language courses) are conducted in Standard German. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_65

The number of years of instruction at a Gymnasium differs between the states. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_66

It varies between six and seven years in Berlin and Brandenburg (primary school is six years in both as opposed to four years in the rest of Germany) and eight in Bavaria, Hesse and Baden-Württemberg among others. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_67

While in Saxony and Thuringia students have never been taught more than eight years in Gymnasium (by default), nearly all states now conduct the Abitur examinations, which complete the Gymnasium education, after 12 years of primary school and Gymnasium combined. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_68

In addition, some states still or again offer a 13-year curriculum leading to the Abitur. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_69

These final examinations are now centrally drafted and controlled (Zentralabitur) in all German states except for Rhineland-Palatinate and provide a qualification to attend any German university. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_70

Italy Gymnasium (school)_section_8

In Italy originally the Ginnasio indicated a typology of five-year junior high school (age 11 to 16) and preparing to the three year Classical Lyceum (age 16 to 19), a high school focusing on classical studies and humanities. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_71

After the school reform that unified the junior high school system, the term Ginnasio stayed to indicate the first two year of Liceo Classico, now five years long. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_72

An Italian high school student who enrolls in Liceo Classico follows this study path: Quarta Ginnasio (gymnasium fourth year, age 14), Quinta Ginnasio (gymnasium fifth year, age 15), Prima Liceo (lyceum first year, age 16), Seconda Liceo (lyceum second year, age 17) and Terza Liceo (lyceum third year, age 18). Gymnasium (school)_sentence_73

Some Gymnasium (school)_sentence_74

Netherlands Gymnasium (school)_section_9

In the Netherlands, gymnasium is the highest variant of secondary education, offering the academically most promising youngsters (top 5%) a quality education that is in most cases free (and in other cases at low cost). Gymnasium (school)_sentence_75

It consists of six years, after 8 years (including kindergarten) of primary school, in which pupils study the same subjects as their German counterparts, with the addition of compulsory Ancient Greek, Latin and Klassieke Culturele Vorming (Classical Cultural Education), history of the Ancient Greek and Roman culture and literature. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_76

Schools have some freedom in choosing their specific curriculum, with for example Spanish, Philosophy and Technasium, a very technical and highly demanding course, being available as final exams. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_77

Usually schools will have all classes mandatory in switching combinations for the first three or so years (with the exception of Technasium which is a free choice from the second year onward), after which students will choose their subjects in the directions of Economics and Society, Culture and Society, Nature and Health, Nature and Technology or Technology. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_78

The equivalent without classical languages is called Atheneum, and gives access to the same university studies (although some extra classes are needed when starting a degree in classical languages or theology). Gymnasium (school)_sentence_79

All are government-funded. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_80

See Voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs for the full article on Dutch "preparatory scientific education". Gymnasium (school)_sentence_81

Nordic and Baltic countries Gymnasium (school)_section_10

In Denmark, Estonia, the Faroe Islands, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Latvia, Norway and Sweden, gymnasium consists of three years, usually starting at the year the students turn 16 years old after nine or ten years of primary school. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_82

In Lithuania the gymnasium usually consists of four years of schooling starting at the age of 15–16, the last year roughly corresponding to the first year of college. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_83

In the Nordic countries, education is meant to be free. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_84

This includes not only primary school, but most gymnasiums and universities as well. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_85

Furthermore, to help decrease the heritage of historic social injustice, all countries except Iceland have universal grants for students. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_86

However, entrance is competitive and based on merit. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_87

In Denmark (see also Gymnasium (Denmark)), there are four kinds of gymnasiums: STX (Regular Examination Programme), HHX (Higher Business Examination Programme), HTX (Higher Technical Examination Programme) and HF (Higher Preparatory Examination Programme). Gymnasium (school)_sentence_88

HF is only two years, instead of the three required for STX, HHX, and HTX. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_89

All four type of gymnasiums theoretically gives the same eligibility for university. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_90

However, because of different subjects offered, students may be better qualified in an area of further study. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_91

E.g. HHX students have subjects that make them more eligible for studies such as business studies or economics at university. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_92

There is also EUX, which takes four years and ends with both the STX exam and status as a journeyman of a craft. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_93

Compared to the somewhat equivalent A-levels in the UK, Danish gymnasia have more mandatory subjects. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_94

The subjects are divided into levels, where A-levels run through all three years, B-levels two years and C-levels one year (apart from PE which exists as a C-level lasting tree years). Gymnasium (school)_sentence_95

In Sweden, there are two different kinds of branches of studies: the first branch focuses on giving a vocational education while the second branch focuses on giving preparation for higher education. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_96

While students from both branches can go on to study at a university, students of the vocational branch graduate with a degree within their attended program. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_97

There are 18 national programs, 12 vocational and 6 preparatory. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_98

In the Faroe Islands, there are also four kinds of gymnasiums, which are the equivalents of the Danish programmes: Studentaskúli (equivalent to STX), Handilsskúli (HHX), Tekniski skúli (HTX) and HF (HF). Gymnasium (school)_sentence_99

Studentaskúli and HF are usually located at the same institutions as can be seen in the name of the institute in Eysturoy: Studentaskúlin og HF-skeiðið í Eysturoy. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_100

In Greenland, there is a single kind of gymnasium, Den Gymnasiale Uddannelse (Ilinniarnertuunngorniarneq), that replaced the earlier Greenlandic Secondary Education Programme (GU), the Greenland Higher Commercial Examination Programme (HHX) and the Greenland education to Higher Technical Examination Programme (HTX), which were based on the Danish system. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_101

This programme allows a more flexible Greenland gymnasium, where students based on a common foundation course can choose between different fields of study that meets the individual student's abilities and interests. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_102

The course is offered in Aasiaat, Nuuk, Sisimiut and Qaqortoq, with one in Ilulissat to be opened in 2015, latest in 2016 if approved by Inatsisartut. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_103

In Finland, the admissions to gymnasiums are competitive, the accepted people comprising 51% of the age group. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_104

The gymnasiums concludes with the matriculation examination, an exam whose grades are the main criteria for university admissions. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_105

Switzerland Gymnasium (school)_section_11

In Switzerland, gymnasia (Gymnasien, gymnases) are selective schools that provide a three- to six-year (depending on the canton) course of advanced secondary education intended to prepare students to attend university. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_106

They conclude with a nationally standardized exam, the maturité or Maturität, often shortened to "Matura or Matur", which if passed allows students to attend a Swiss university. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_107

The gymnasia are operated by the cantons of Switzerland, and accordingly in many cantons they are called Kantonsschule (cantonal school). Gymnasium (school)_sentence_108

Former Yugoslav countries Gymnasium (school)_section_12

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, and Slovenia, a gymnasium education takes four years following a compulsory eight or nine-year elementary education and ending with a final aptitude test called Matura. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_109

In these countries the final test is standardized at the state level and can serve as an entrance qualification for universities. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_110

There are both public (state-run and tuition-free) and private (fee-paying) gymnasium schools in these countries. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_111

The subjects taught are mathematics, the native language, one to three foreign languages, history, geography, informatics (computers), the natural sciences (biology, chemistry, physics), history of art, music, philosophy, logic, physical education and the social sciences (sociology, ethics or religious education, psychology, politics and economy). Gymnasium (school)_sentence_112

Religious studies are optional. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_113

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Serbia and North Macedonia, Latin is also a mandatory subject in all gymnasiums, just as Ancient Greek is, with Latin, in a certain type of gymnasiums called Classical Gymnasiums (klasična gimnazija). Gymnasium (school)_sentence_114

In all of the countries, the gymnasium (Gimnazija/Gjimnazi) is generally viewed as a destination for best-performing students and as the type of school that serves primarily to prepare students for university studies, while other students go to technical/vocational schools. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_115

Therefore, gymnasiums often base their admittance criteria on an entrance exam, elementary school grades or a combination of the two. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_116

Countries with gymnasium Gymnasium (school)_section_13

Gymnasium (school)_unordered_list_1

  • Albania: Gjimnazi 3 Years, after 9 years (4 years primary school and 5 years lower high school) of education, ends with Matura Shtetërore at the age of 18.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_4
  • Argentina: Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires, 6 years; Rafael Hernández National College of La Plata, 5 years (formerly 6 years), after 7 years of primary school; and Gymnasium UNT 8 years, ends at the age of 18.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_5
  • Austria: 8 years, after 4 years of primary school; or 4 years, after primary school and 4 years of Hauptschule; ending in matura at the age 18.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_6
  • Belarus: 7 years, after 4 years of primary school.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_7
  • Belgium: 6 years, starting at age 11/13, after 6 years of primary school, ends at the age of 18 where students progress to a university.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_8
  • Bolivia: Deutsche Schule Mariscal Braun La Paz, 6 years, ends with Abitur.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_9
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina: 4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 9 years in elementary school, ends with MaturaGymnasium (school)_item_1_10
  • Brazil: Humboldt Schule of São Paulo is a German school in São Paulo. There are more Gymnasiums in the country and some of them receive resources from the German government.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_11
  • Bulgaria: 5 years, after 7 years of primary school. Currently graduation after passing at least two Maturas.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_12
  • Colombia: Gimnasio Campestre (all-male, traditional and conservative Pre-K to 11th grade private school located in Bogotá, Colombia).Gymnasium (school)_item_1_13
  • Croatia: 4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 8 years in elementary school, five different educational tracks: opća gimnazija (general education), klasična gimnazija (focused on Latin and Ancient Greek), jezična gimnazija (focused on modern languages), prirodoslovna gimnazija (biology, chemistry, physics) and prirodoslovno-matematička gimnazija (mathematics, physics and computer science), ends with Matura. Students of all tracks have compulsory classes in Latin and English as well as in at least one additional foreign language (most commonly German, Italian, Spanish and French).Gymnasium (school)_item_1_14
  • Cyprus: 3 years, starting at age 12 and following 6 years of elementary school. Compulsory for all students. Followed by the non-mandatory Lyceum (ages 15–18) for students with academic aspirations or Secondary Technical and Vocational Lyceum TVE for students who prefer vocational training. After successfully completing the program, students of TVE are awarded a School Leaving Certificate, which is recognized as equivalent to a Lyceum School Leaving Certificate (three-grade Senior Secondary School).Gymnasium (school)_item_1_15
  • Czech Republic: 4 years, starting at age 15 or 16; 6 years, starting at age 13 or 14 (not usual); 8 years, starting at age 11 or 12; all ending in matura.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_16
  • Denmark: 3 years (4 years for athletes who are part of the Team Danmark elite sports program, or musicians who have chosen MGK ("Musical Elementary Course")), usually starting after 10 or 11 years of primary school. This is more like a prep school or the first years of college than high school. Everyone is eligible to go to a US high school, but you have to be deemed competent to get into a gymnasium. (For more information, see Gymnasium (Denmark).) Gymnasium is also available in an intensive 2-year program leading to the Højere Forberedelseseksamen ("Higher Preparatory Exam").Gymnasium (school)_item_1_17
  • Estonia: 3 years, after 9 years of primary school.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_18
  • Faroe Islands: 3 years, usually starting after 9 or 10 years of primary school. The system is similar to the Danish system. A gymnasium level education is also available in an intensive 2-year programme leading to Hægri fyrireikingarpróvtøka ("Higher Preparatory Exam").Gymnasium (school)_item_1_19
  • Finland: lukio (educational language is Finnish) or gymnasium (educational language is Swedish) takes 2–5 years (most students spend 3 years), after 9 years of primary school (Finnish: peruskoulu, Swedish: grundskola); lukio starts usually in the autumn of the year when the student turns 16 and ends with abitur after passing the matriculation examination; lukio is not compulsory and its entrance is competitive.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_20
  • France: the French equivalent of a gymnasium is called a lycée (3 years, after 5 years of primary school and 4 years of secondary school, age 15/18). The last year (called terminale) ends with passing the baccalauréat, an examination to enter university.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_21
  • Germany: formerly 8–9 years depending on the state – now being changed to 8 years nationwide, starting at 5th (at age 11), Abitur in 12th or 13th grade; for more information, see Gymnasium (Germany).Gymnasium (school)_item_1_22
  • Greece: 3 years, starting at age 12 after 6 years of primary school. Compulsory for all children, it is followed by the non-mandatory Geniko Lykeio (Γενικό Λύκειο), (Lyceum, ages 15–18), or the Vocational Lyceum (EPAL). The EPAL School Leaving Certificate is recognized equally as a Senior Secondary School Leaving Certificate (high school).Gymnasium (school)_item_1_23
  • Hungary: 4/6/8 years, starting after 8/6 /4 years of primary school, ends with Matura; see Education in HungaryGymnasium (school)_item_1_24
  • {{vanchor|Iceland usually 3–4 years, starting at age 15 or 16 after 10 years of elementary school.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_25
  • Israel: five schools termed "gymnasium" located in Tel Aviv, Rishon LeZion, Jerusalem and Haifa.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_26
  • Italy: ginnasio is the name of the two first years of Liceo ClassicoGymnasium (school)_item_1_27
  • Kyrgyzstan: 7 years, after 5 years of primary schoolGymnasium (school)_item_1_28
  • Latvia: 3 years, after 9 years of primary schoolGymnasium (school)_item_1_29
  • Liechtenstein: ends with MaturaGymnasium (school)_item_1_30
  • Lithuania: gimnazija – usually 4 years: 2 years of basic school after 4 years of basic school and 2 years of secondary school, sometimes 8 years: 6 of basic school and 2 of secondary school, 12 years in rural areas or in art/music gymnasiums.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_31
  • Luxembourg: usually 7 years, starting at age 12–13 after 6 years of primary school.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_32
  • Montenegro: 4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 8 years in elementary school, 3 years for those who went in the elementary for 9 years; ends with Matura.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_33
  • Netherlands: 6 years, starting at age 11–13, after 8 years of primary school. Prepares for admission to university. Gymnasia in the Netherlands have compulsory classes in Ancient Greek and Latin; the same high level secondary school without the classical languages is called "VWO" (Atheneum).Gymnasium (school)_item_1_34
  • Norway: the traditional but now discontinued gymnasium led to the completion of examen artium. This has now been succeeded by a 2, 3, or 4-year program (videregående skole), depending on course path taken, starting at the age of 15/16, culminating with an exam that qualifies for university matriculation (studiekompetanse).Gymnasium (school)_item_1_35
  • Poland: gimnazjum was the name of the 3-year Polish compulsory middle school, starting at age of 12 or 13, following 6 years of primary school. Gimnazjum ended with a standardized test. Further education was encouraged but optional, consisting of either 3-year liceum, 4-year technikum, or 2 to 3 years of vocational school (potentially followed by a supplementary liceum or technikum). In 2017 Poland reverted to a compulsory 8-year primary school, optionally followed by a 4-year liceum, a 5-year technikum, or 2 to 3 years of vocational school.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_36
  • Romania: 4 years, starting at age 10 ends with Diploma de Capacitate at the age of 14. Primary education lasts for four years. Secondary education consists in: 1) lower secondary school education organized in Gymnasium for grades 5 to 8 and lower cycle of high school or arts and trades schools (vocational) for grades 9 and 10; 2) upper secondary school education organized in Ciclul superior al liceului for grades 11, 12 and 13 followed, if necessary, by an additional high school year for those who want to move from vocational training (grade 10) to upper secondary school education. High school education (lower cycle of high school and upper secondary school education) offers three different orientations (academic, technological, specialization).Gymnasium (school)_item_1_37
  • RussiaGymnasium (school)_item_1_38
    • Imperial Russia: since 1726, 8 years since 1871. Women's gymnasiums since 1862; 7 years plus an optional 8th for specialisation in pedagogy. Progymnasiums: equivalent to 4 first years of gymnasium.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_39
    • Russian Federation: full 11 or 6–7 years after primary school. Nowadays there are very few schools in Russia which in their teaching principles and curriculum resemble the prerevolutionalry tradition of Classical Gymnasium. The notable exception is the St Petersburg Classical Gymnasium where Latin, Ancient Greek and Mathematics are three core subjects. In majority of other cases Russian Gymnasiums are schools specialised in a certain subject (or several subjects) in the humanities (e.g. ).Gymnasium (school)_item_1_40
  • Serbia: 4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 8 years in elementary/primary school. There are three most common types of gymnasiums: 1) general gymnasium (општа гимназија) which offers broad education in all sciences; 2) natural sciences (природно-математички смер); and 3) social studies (друштвено-језички смер), available all over Serbia, and a few specialised ones, e.g. mathematics (математичка гимназија) – only one in all of Serbia, in Belgrade; sports (спортска гиманзија) – just two in Serbia; language (филолошка гимназија) – a total of four in Serbia; and military gymnasium (војна гимназија) – only one in all of Serbia. In the end, everyone has a final exam – a Matura. Completion of the Gymnasium is a prerequisite for enrollment into a university. English and another foreign language (from the selection of German, French, Russian (most common languages), Italian or Spanish (far less common) or Chinese and Japanese (only philological gymnasiums have these two) in addition to the mother tongue, and in case of minorities also Serbian) are compulsory throughout.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_41
  • Slovakia: 4 years starting at age 15 after completing 9 years of elementary school (more common); 8 years starting at age 11 after completing 5 years of elementary school; both end with Maturita.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_42
  • Slovenia: 4 years, starting at age 14/15; ends with Matura.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_43
  • South Africa: Paul Roos Gymnasium is a well-known gymnasium for boys in the town of Stellenbosch. The school is a boarding school, based on the classic British boarding schools, however it was more influenced by the Protestant faith, hence the German Gymnasium. Foreign languages such as French, German, Mandarin and Latin are studied, Afrikaans and English are compulsory. School in South Africa: 5 years, starting at age 13/14, at a secondary institution, after 7 years of primary school, ends with Matric.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_44
  • Sweden: Upper secondary school in Sweden lasts for three years (formerly four years on some programmes). "Gymnasium" is the word used to describe this stage of the education system in Sweden. The National Agency of Education has decided that gymnasium is equivalent to the international upper secondary school. The gymnasium is optional and follows after nine years in elementary school. However, the Swedish term högskola ("high school") may cause some confusion. In Swedish it is used almost synonymously with "university", with the only difference being that universities have the right to issue doctoral examinations. In the case of technical universities, these could also be called högskola even when they have right to issue doctoral examinations (e.g. Chalmers tekniska högskola (officially named a "Technical University" in English), Lunds tekniska högskola (Faculty of Engineering, Lund University), Kungliga tekniska högskolan ("Royal Institute of Technology")). A högskola is often located in cities with lower population, except for the technical ones that can be found also in the largest cities.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_45
  • Switzerland: usually 4 years after 9 years of compulsory schooling (primary and secondary I); it is also possible to attend a so-called Langzeitgymnasium which lasts 6 years, following a six-year primary schooling; the Gymnasium ends with Matura at the age of 18/19.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_46
  • Ukraine: 8 years, starting after 4 years of primary school.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_47
  • United Kingdom: historically, grammar schools have been the English equivalent of the gymnasium, selecting pupils on the basis of academic ability (usually through the 11+ entrance examination in year 6, at the age of 10 or 11) and educating them with the assumption that they would go on to study at a university; such schools were largely phased out from 1965 under the Wilson and Heath governments and less than 5% of pupils now attend the remaining 146 grammar schools. The UK therefore no longer has a widespread equivalent of the gymnasium. The exception is Northern Ireland and some parts of England comprising the counties of Buckinghamshire, Lincolnshire and Kent which have retained the system. Grammar schools are also to be found in some London boroughs, North Yorkshire, Essex, Lancashire, Warwickshire and Devon in varying degrees. Many private, fee-paying independent schools, including all those commonly referred to as "public" schools, seek to fulfill a similar role to the state grammar school if the scholar has the ability (and thus to the gymnasium in other countries) and, most importantly, the money to attend them.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_48
  • United StatesGymnasium (school)_item_1_49
    • Public school: As school districts continue to experiment with educational styles, the magnet school has become a popular type of high school. Boston Latin School, and Central High School in Philadelphia, are both the oldest public schools in the country, and the oldest magnet schools. As the concept has not become entrenched in the various American educational systems, due partly to the federal—rather than unitary—style of education in the United States, the term may vary among states.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_50
    • Private school: The equivalent among private schools is the preparatory school.Gymnasium (school)_item_1_51

Final degree Gymnasium (school)_section_14

Depending on country, the final degree (if any) is called Abitur, Artium, Diploma, Matura, Maturita or Student and it usually opens the way to professional schools directly. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_117

However, these degrees are occasionally not fully accredited internationally, so students wanting to attend a foreign university often have to submit to further exams to be permitted access to them. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_118

Relationship with other education facilities Gymnasium (school)_section_15

In countries like Austria, most university faculties only accept students from secondary schools that last four years (rather than three). Gymnasium (school)_sentence_119

This includes all Gymnasium students but only a part of vocational high schools, in effect making Gymnasium the preferred choice for all pupils aiming for university diplomas. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_120

In Germany, other types of secondary school are called Realschule, Hauptschule and Gesamtschule. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_121

These are attended by about two thirds of the students and the first two are practically unknown in other parts of the world. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_122

A Gesamtschule largely corresponds to a British or American comprehensive school. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_123

However, it offers the same school-leaving certificates as the other three types—the Hauptschulabschluss (school-leaving certificate of a Hauptschule after 9th grade or in Berlin and North Rhine-Westphalia after 10th grade), the Realschulabschluss (also called Mittlere Reife, school-leaving certificate of a Realschule after 10th Grade) and Abitur (also called Hochschulreife, school-leaving certificate after 12th Grade). Gymnasium (school)_sentence_124

Students who graduate from Hauptschule or Realschule may continue their schooling at a vocational school until they have full job qualifications. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_125

It is also possible to get an erweiterter Realschulabschluss after 10th grade that allows the students to continue their education at the Oberstufe of a gymnasium and get an Abitur. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_126

There are two types of vocational school in Germany: the Berufsschule, a part-time vocational school and a part of Germany's dual education system, and the Berufsfachschule, a full-time vocational school outside the dual education system. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_127

Students who graduate from a vocational school and students who graduate with a good grade point average from a Realschule can continue their schooling at another type of German secondary school, the , a vocational high school. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_128

The school leaving exam of this type of school, the Fachhochschulreife, enables the graduate to start studying at a Fachhochschule (polytechnic) and in Hesse also at a university within the state. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_129

Students who have graduated from vocational school and have been working in a job for at least three years can go to Berufsoberschule to get either a Fachabitur (meaning they may go to university, but they can only study the subjects belonging to the "branch" (economical, technical, social) they studied in at Berufschule) after one year, or the normal Abitur (after two years), which gives them complete access to universities. Gymnasium (school)_sentence_130

See also Gymnasium (school)_section_16

Gymnasium (school)_unordered_list_2

Explanatory notes Gymnasium (school)_section_17

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: (school).