Haitians

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Haitians_table_infobox_0

Haitians Haïtiens / AyisyenHaitians_table_caption_0
Total populationHaitians_header_cell_0_0_0
Regions with significant populationsHaitians_header_cell_0_1_0
United StatesHaitians_header_cell_0_2_0 929,074Haitians_cell_0_2_1
Dominican RepublicHaitians_header_cell_0_3_0 800,000Haitians_cell_0_3_1
CubaHaitians_header_cell_0_4_0 300,000Haitians_cell_0_4_1
ChileHaitians_header_cell_0_5_0 185,865Haitians_cell_0_5_1
CanadaHaitians_header_cell_0_6_0 165,095 (2016)Haitians_cell_0_6_1
BahamasHaitians_header_cell_0_7_0 80,000Haitians_cell_0_7_1
FranceHaitians_header_cell_0_8_0 62 448Haitians_cell_0_8_1
BrazilHaitians_header_cell_0_9_0 51,124 (2016)Haitians_cell_0_9_1
GuyanaHaitians_header_cell_0_10_0 33,500Haitians_cell_0_10_1
VenezuelaHaitians_header_cell_0_11_0 30,000Haitians_cell_0_11_1
DominicaHaitians_header_cell_0_12_0 7,600Haitians_cell_0_12_1
Turks and Caicos IslandsHaitians_header_cell_0_13_0 6,900Haitians_cell_0_13_1
MexicoHaitians_header_cell_0_14_0 5000 (2017)Haitians_cell_0_14_1
SurinameHaitians_header_cell_0_15_0 4,000Haitians_cell_0_15_1
SwitzerlandHaitians_header_cell_0_16_0 4,000 (2018)Haitians_cell_0_16_1
U.S. Virgin IslandsHaitians_header_cell_0_17_0 1,673Haitians_cell_0_17_1
BelgiumHaitians_header_cell_0_18_0 1,500-2,000Haitians_cell_0_18_1
Cayman IslandsHaitians_header_cell_0_19_0 1,500Haitians_cell_0_19_1
United KingdomHaitians_header_cell_0_20_0 1,000Haitians_cell_0_20_1
EcuadorHaitians_header_cell_0_21_0 1,000Haitians_cell_0_21_1
ArubaHaitians_header_cell_0_22_0 1,000Haitians_cell_0_22_1
ArgentinaHaitians_header_cell_0_23_0 600Haitians_cell_0_23_1
NetherlandsHaitians_header_cell_0_24_0 594Haitians_cell_0_24_1
PeruHaitians_header_cell_0_25_0 477 (2007)Haitians_cell_0_25_1
SpainHaitians_header_cell_0_26_0 335Haitians_cell_0_26_1
ItalyHaitians_header_cell_0_27_0 262Haitians_cell_0_27_1
AustriaHaitians_header_cell_0_28_0 52Haitians_cell_0_28_1
AustraliaHaitians_header_cell_0_29_0 25Haitians_cell_0_29_1
LanguagesHaitians_header_cell_0_30_0
ReligionHaitians_header_cell_0_31_0
Related ethnic groupsHaitians_header_cell_0_32_0

Haitians (French: Haïtiens, Haitian Creole: Ayisyen) are the citizens of Haiti and the descendants in the diaspora through direct parentage. Haitians_sentence_0

An ethno-national group, Haitians generally comprise the modern descendants of self-liberated Africans in the Caribbean territory historically referred to as Saint-Domingue. Haitians_sentence_1

This includes the mulatto minority who denote corresponding European ancestry, notably from French settlers. Haitians_sentence_2

By virtue of historical distinction, the vast majority of Haitians share and identify with this common African lineage, though a small number are descendants of contemporary immigrants from the Levant who sought refuge in the island nation during World War I and World War II. Haitians_sentence_3

Definitions Haitians_section_0

Main article: History of Haitian nationality and citizenship Haitians_sentence_4

According to the Constitution of Haiti, a Haitian citizen is: Haitians_sentence_5

Haitians_unordered_list_0

  • Anyone, regardless of where they are born, is considered Haitian if either their mother or father is a native-born citizen of Haiti. A person born in Haiti could automatically receive citizenship.Haitians_item_0_0
  • A foreigner living in Haiti who has had a continuous period of Haitian residence for five years can apply for citizenship and will have the right to vote, but is not eligible to hold public office until five years after their date of naturalization, excluding those offices reserved for native-born Haitians by Constitutional law.Haitians_item_0_1

Dual citizenship Haitians_section_1

The Haitian Constitution of 2012 re-legalizes dual citizenship, allowing for Haitians living abroad to own land and run for Haitian political office (except for offices of president, prime minister, senator or member of the lower house of Parliament). Haitians_sentence_6

Ethnic groups Haitians_section_2

Haiti's population is mostly of African descent (5% are of mixed African and other ancestry), though people of many different ethnic and national backgrounds have settled and impacted the country, such as Poles (Polish legion), Jews, Arabs (from the Arab diaspora), Chinese, Indians, Spanish, Germans (18th century and World War I), Italians, and French, most marrying into the majority black populace and in turn yielding mixed race children (many of whom are prominent in Haitian society). Haitians_sentence_7

Languages Haitians_section_3

Further information: Haitian French and Haitian Creole Haitians_sentence_8

The official languages of Haiti are French and Haitian Creole. Haitians_sentence_9

Traditionally, the two languages served different functions, with Haitian Creole the informal everyday language of all the people, regardless of social class, and French the language of formal situations: schools, newspapers, the law and the courts, and official documents and decrees. Haitians_sentence_10

However, because the vast majority of Haitians speak only Creole, there have been efforts in recent years to expand its use. Haitians_sentence_11

In 1979, a law was passed that permitted Creole to be the language of instruction, and the Constitution of 1983 gave Creole the status of a national language. Haitians_sentence_12

However, it was only in 1987 that the Constitution granted official status to Creole. Haitians_sentence_13

Culture Haitians_section_4

Migration Haitians_section_5

In 1998, a World Bank estimation claimed that approximately 800,000 Haitian citizens were residents of Dominican Republic. Haitians_sentence_14

By 2001, approximately 15,000 Haitians had migrated to Dominican Republic to work in sugar mills. Haitians_sentence_15

Haitians workers also migrated to other countries such as the United States, France, Canada, the Bahamas and other Caribbean Islands. Haitians_sentence_16

In 2006, Approximately 800,000 Haitians resided in the United States (especially in the Miami and New York City areas), 60,000 Haitians were living in France (especially Paris) 40,000 in Canada (especially Montreal) while 80,000 were dispersed between the Bahamas and other Caribbean Islands.The Haitian migration has greatly hindered the development of Haiti in comparison to other countries. Haitians_sentence_17

Some of the country's most skilled individuals have migrated elsewhere; an estimated 70 percent of Haiti’s skilled human resources have left Haiti. Haitians_sentence_18

In the 2010 U.S. Census, 907,790 citizens identified as Haitian immigrants or with their primary ancestry being Haitian. Haitians_sentence_19

An increase of just over 100,000 Haitians from 2006. Haitians_sentence_20

The confiscation of property, massacres, and prosecution caused the upper and middle class of Haiti to migrate to more developed countries in Europe and the United States. Haitians_sentence_21

Haitians Haitians_section_6

Main article: List of Haitians Haitians_sentence_22

See also Haitians_section_7

Haitians_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haitians.