From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

For other uses, see Hajj (disambiguation). Hajj_sentence_0


StatusHajj_header_cell_0_1_0 ActiveHajj_cell_0_1_1
FrequencyHajj_header_cell_0_2_0 AnnualHajj_cell_0_2_1
Location(s)Hajj_header_cell_0_3_0 Makkah (Saudi Arabia)Hajj_cell_0_3_1
CoordinatesHajj_header_cell_0_4_0 Hajj_cell_0_4_1
CountryHajj_header_cell_0_5_0 Saudi ArabiaHajj_cell_0_5_1
AttendanceHajj_header_cell_0_6_0 2,489,406 (2019)

(10,000 limit in 2020 due to COVID-19)Hajj_cell_0_6_1

The Hajj (/hædʒ/; Arabic: حَجّ‎ Ḥaǧǧ ""; sometimes also spelled Hadj, Hadji or Haj in English) is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest city for Muslims. Hajj_sentence_1

Hajj is a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence. Hajj_sentence_2

In Islamic terminology, Hajj is a pilgrimage made to the Kaaba, the "House of God", in the sacred city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. Hajj_sentence_3

It is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, alongside Shahadah, Salat, Zakat and Sawm. Hajj_sentence_4

The Hajj is a demonstration of the solidarity of the Muslim people, and their submission to God (Allah). Hajj_sentence_5

The word Hajj means "to attend a journey", which connotes both the outward act of a journey and the inward act of intentions. Hajj_sentence_6

The rites of pilgrimage are performed over five to six days, extending from the 8th to the 12th or 13th of Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar. Hajj_sentence_7

Because the Islamic calendar is lunar and the Islamic year is about eleven days shorter than the Gregorian year, the Gregorian date of Hajj changes from year to year. Hajj_sentence_8

In 2020 AD (1441 AH), Dhu al-Hijjah extends from 22 July to 19 August. Hajj_sentence_9

The Hajj is associated with the life of Islamic prophet Muhammad from the 7th century AD, but the ritual of pilgrimage to Mecca is considered by Muslims to stretch back thousands of years to the time of Abraham. Hajj_sentence_10

During Hajj, pilgrims join processions of millions of people, who simultaneously converge on Mecca for the week of the Hajj, and perform a series of rituals: each person walks counter-clockwise seven times around the Kaaba (a cube-shaped building and the direction of prayer for Muslims), trots (walks briskly) back and forth between the hills of Safa and Marwah seven times, then drinks from the Zamzam Well, goes to the plains of Mount Arafat to stand in vigil, spends a night in the plain of Muzdalifa, and performs symbolic stoning of the devil by throwing stones at three pillars. Hajj_sentence_11

After the sacrifice of an animal (can be accomplished by using a voucher (see below)), the Pilgrims then are required to either shave or trim their heads (male) or trim the ends of their hair (female). Hajj_sentence_12

A celebration of the three-day global festival of Eid al-Adha proceeds thereafter. Hajj_sentence_13

Muslims may also undertake an Umrah (Arabic: عُمرَة‎), or "lesser pilgrimage" to Mecca at other times of the year. Hajj_sentence_14

But this is not a substitute for the Hajj and Muslims are still obligated to perform the Hajj at some other point in their lifetime if they have the means to do so. Hajj_sentence_15

According to the official published statistics between 2000 and 2019, the average number of attendees is 2,269,145 per year, in which 1,564,710 come from outside Saudi Arabia and 671,983 are local. Hajj_sentence_16

The year 2012 marks the highest number of participants with 3,161,573. Hajj_sentence_17

In June 2020, while not cancelling the Hajj outright, the Saudi Government announced that they would only welcome "very limited numbers" of pilgrims who are residents of Saudi Arabia due to the global COVID-19 pandemic. Hajj_sentence_18

Etymology Hajj_section_0

The letter in Arabic: حج‎ [ħædʒ, ħæɡ similar to the Hebrew: חג‎ ḥag [χaɡ, which means "holiday", from the triliteral Semitic root . Hajj_sentence_19

The meaning of the verb is "to circle, to go around". Hajj_sentence_20

Judaism uses circumambulation in the Hakafot ritual during Hoshanah Rabbah at the end of the Festival of Sukkot and on Simchat Torah; traditionally, Jewish brides circumambulate their grooms during the wedding ceremony under the chuppah. Hajj_sentence_21

From this custom, the root was borrowed for the familiar meaning of holiday, celebration and festivity. Hajj_sentence_22

In the Temple, every festival would bring a sacrificial feast. Hajj_sentence_23

Similarly in Islam, the person who commits the Hajj to Mecca has to circle around the Kaaba and to offer sacrifices. Hajj_sentence_24

History Hajj_section_1

Main article: History of Hajj Hajj_sentence_25

The present pattern of Hajj was established by Muhammad. Hajj_sentence_26

However, according to the Quran, elements of Hajj trace back to the time of Abraham. Hajj_sentence_27

According to Islamic tradition, Abraham was ordered by God to leave his wife Hajar and his son Ishmael alone in the desert of ancient Mecca. Hajj_sentence_28

In search of water, Hajara desperately ran seven times between the two hills of Safa and Marwah but found none. Hajj_sentence_29

Returning in despair to Ishmael, she saw the baby scratching the ground with his leg and a water fountain sprang forth underneath his foot. Hajj_sentence_30

Later, Abraham was commanded to build the Kaaba (which he did with the help of Ishmael) and to invite people to perform pilgrimage there. Hajj_sentence_31

The Quran refers to these incidents in verses and . Hajj_sentence_32

It is said that the archangel Gabriel brought the Black Stone from Heaven to be attached to the Kaaba. Hajj_sentence_33

In pre-Islamic Arabia, a time known as jahiliyyah, the Kaaba became surrounded by pagan idols. Hajj_sentence_34

In 630 AD, Muhammad led his followers from Medina to Mecca, cleansed the Kaaba by destroying all the pagan idols, and then consecrated the building to God. Hajj_sentence_35

In 632 AD, Muhammad performed his only and last pilgrimage with a large number of followers, and instructed them on the rites of Hajj. Hajj_sentence_36

It was from this point that Hajj became one of the five pillars of Islam. Hajj_sentence_37

During medieval times, pilgrims would gather in the big cities of Syria, Egypt, and Iraq to go to Mecca in groups and caravans comprising tens of thousands of pilgrims, often under state patronage. Hajj_sentence_38

Hajj caravans, particularly with the advent of the Mamluk Sultanate and its successor, the Ottoman Empire, were escorted by a military force accompanied by physicians under the command of an amir al-hajj. Hajj_sentence_39

This was done to protect the caravan from Bedouin robbers or natural hazards, and to ensure that the pilgrims were supplied with the necessary provisions. Hajj_sentence_40

Muslim travelers like Ibn Jubayr and Ibn Battuta have recorded detailed accounts of Hajj-travels of medieval time. Hajj_sentence_41

The caravans followed well-established routes called in Arabic darb al-hajj, lit. Hajj_sentence_42

"pilgrimage road", which usually followed ancient routes such as the King's Highway. Hajj_sentence_43

Timing of Hajj Hajj_section_2

The date of Hajj is determined by the Islamic calendar (known as Haji calendar or AH), which is based on the lunar year. Hajj_sentence_44

Every year, the events of Hajj take place in a ten-day period, starting on 1 and ending on 10 Dhu al-Hijjah, the twelfth and last month of the Islamic calendar. Hajj_sentence_45

Among these ten days, the 9th Dhul-Hijjah is known as Day of Arafah, and this day is called the day of Hajj. Hajj_sentence_46

Because the Islamic calendar is lunar and the Islamic year is about eleven days shorter than the Gregorian year, the Gregorian date for Hajj changes from year to year. Hajj_sentence_47

Thus, each year in the Gregorian calendar, the pilgrimage starts eleven days (sometimes ten days) earlier. Hajj_sentence_48

This makes it possible for the Hajj season to fall twice in one Gregorian year, and it does so every 33 years. Hajj_sentence_49

The last time this phenomenon occurred was 2006. Hajj_sentence_50

The table below shows the Gregorian dates of Hajj of recent years (the dates correspond to 9 Dhul-Hijjah of Hijri calendar). Hajj_sentence_51

Prospective dates are approximate: Hajj_sentence_52


AHHajj_header_cell_1_0_0 Gregorian dateHajj_header_cell_1_0_1
1432Hajj_cell_1_1_0 2011, 5 NovemberHajj_cell_1_1_1
1433Hajj_cell_1_2_0 2012, 25 OctoberHajj_cell_1_2_1
1434Hajj_cell_1_3_0 2013, 14 OctoberHajj_cell_1_3_1
1435Hajj_cell_1_4_0 2014, 3 OctoberHajj_cell_1_4_1
1436Hajj_cell_1_5_0 2015, 23 SeptemberHajj_cell_1_5_1
1437Hajj_cell_1_6_0 2016, 11 SeptemberHajj_cell_1_6_1
1438Hajj_cell_1_7_0 2017, 31 AugustHajj_cell_1_7_1
1439Hajj_cell_1_8_0 2018, 20 AugustHajj_cell_1_8_1
1440Hajj_cell_1_9_0 2019, 10 AugustHajj_cell_1_9_1
1441Hajj_cell_1_10_0 2020, 30 JulyHajj_cell_1_10_1
1442Hajj_cell_1_11_0 2021, 19 JulyHajj_cell_1_11_1
1443Hajj_cell_1_12_0 2022, 8 JulyHajj_cell_1_12_1

Rites Hajj_section_3

Fiqh literature describes in detail the manners of carrying out the rites of Hajj, and pilgrims generally follow handbooks and expert guides to successfully fulfill the requirements of Hajj. Hajj_sentence_53

In performing the rites of Hajj, the pilgrims not only follow the model of Muhammad, but also commemorate the events associated with Abraham. Hajj_sentence_54

Ihram Hajj_section_4

Ihram is the name given to the special spiritual state, state of holiness, which marks the start of the ritual of Hajj for each person. Hajj_sentence_55

Ihram is initiated upon the arrival to the Miqat or prior to reaching it, depending on where they have come from. Hajj_sentence_56

When a pilgrims enter into the state of Ihram, they are required to abstain from certain actions. Hajj_sentence_57

While in state of ihram, males are required to wear two white seamless cloths, with one wrapped around the waist reaching below the knee and the other draped over the left shoulder and tied at the right side. Hajj_sentence_58

For females this involves wearing ordinary dress that fulfills the Islamic condition of public dress with hands and face uncovered;. Hajj_sentence_59

Other prohibitions include refraining from clipping the nails, shaving any part of the body, having sexual relations; using perfumes, damaging plants, killing animals, covering head (for men) or the face and hands (for women); getting married; or carrying weapons. Hajj_sentence_60

The Ihram is meant to show equality of all pilgrims in front of God, with no difference between the rich and the poor. Hajj_sentence_61

Donning such unsewn white garments entirely is believed to distance man from material ostentation, and engross him in a world of purity and spirituality, since clothes are believed to show individuality and distinction and create superficial barriers that separate individuals. Hajj_sentence_62

The garments of Ihram are seen as the antithesis of that individualism. Hajj_sentence_63

Ihram clothing is also a reminder of shrouds worn after death. Hajj_sentence_64

First day of Hajj: 8th Dhu al-Hijjah Hajj_section_5

On the 8th Dhu al-Hijjah, the pilgrims are reminded of their duties. Hajj_sentence_65

They again don the Ihram garments and confirm their intention to make the pilgrimage. Hajj_sentence_66

The prohibitions of Ihram start now. Hajj_sentence_67

Tarwiyah Day Hajj_section_6

The 8th day of Dhu al-Hijjah coincides with the Tarwiyah Day. Hajj_sentence_68

The name of Tarwiyah refers to a narration of Ja'far al-Sadiq. Hajj_sentence_69

He described the reason that there was any water at Mount Arafat in the 8th day of Dhu al-Hijjah. Hajj_sentence_70

If pilgrims wanted to stay at Arafat, he would have prepared water from Mecca and carried it by themselves there. Hajj_sentence_71

So they told each other drink enough. Hajj_sentence_72

Finally, this day called Tarwiyah that means to quench thirst in the Arabic language. Hajj_sentence_73

Tarwiyah Day is the first day of Hajj ritual. Hajj_sentence_74

Also at this day, Husayn ibn Ali began to go to Karbala from Mecca. Hajj_sentence_75

Muhammad nominated to Tarwiyah Day as one of the four chosen days. Hajj_sentence_76

Tawaf and sa'ay Hajj_section_7

The ritual of Tawaf involves walking seven times counterclockwise around the Kaaba. Hajj_sentence_77

Upon arriving at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (Arabic: المَسجِد الحَرَام‎, The Sacred Mosque), pilgrims perform an arrival tawaf either as part of Umrah or as a welcome tawaf. Hajj_sentence_78

During tawaf, pilgrims also include Hateem – an area at the north side of the Kaaba – inside their path. Hajj_sentence_79

Each circuit starts with the kissing or touching of the Black Stone. Hajj_sentence_80

also point to the stone and recite a prayer. Hajj_sentence_81

(Hajar al- Aswad). Hajj_sentence_82

If kissing or touching the stone is not possible because of crowds, pilgrims may simply point towards the stone with their hand on each circuit. Hajj_sentence_83

Eating is not permitted but the drinking of water is permitted and encouraged, because of the risk of dehydration. Hajj_sentence_84

Men are encouraged to perform the first three circuits at a hurried pace, known as Ramal, and the following four at a more leisurely pace. Hajj_sentence_85

The completion of Tawaf is followed by two Rakaat prayers at the Place of Abraham (Muqam Ibrahim), a site near the Kaaba inside the mosque. Hajj_sentence_86

However, again because of large crowds during the days of Hajj, they may instead pray anywhere in the mosque. Hajj_sentence_87

After prayer, pilgrims also drink water from the Zamzam well, which is made available in coolers throughout the Mosque. Hajj_sentence_88

Although the circuits around the Kaaba are traditionally done on the ground level, Tawaf is now also performed on the first floor and roof of the mosque because of the large crowds. Hajj_sentence_89

This rite is said to be the manifestation of Tawhid, the Oneness of God. Hajj_sentence_90

The heart and soul of the pilgrim should move around Kaaba, the symbol of the House of God, in a way that no worldly attraction distracts him from this path. Hajj_sentence_91

Only Tawhid should attract him. Hajj_sentence_92

Tawaf also represents Muslims' unity. Hajj_sentence_93

During Tawaf, everyone encircles Kaaba collectively. Hajj_sentence_94

Tawaf is followed by sa'ay, running or walking seven times between the hills of Safa and Marwah, located near the Kaaba. Hajj_sentence_95

Previously in the open air, the place is now entirely enclosed by the Sacred Mosque, and can be accessed via air-conditioned tunnels. Hajj_sentence_96

Pilgrims are advised to walk the circuit, though two green pillars mark a short section of the path where they run. Hajj_sentence_97

There is also an internal "express lane" for elderly or disabled people. Hajj_sentence_98

After sa'ay, male pilgrims shave or trim their hair and women generally clip a portion of their hair, which completes the Umrah. Hajj_sentence_99


  • Hajj_item_0_0
  • Hajj_item_0_1
  • Hajj_item_0_2

Mina Hajj_section_8

After the morning prayer on the 8th of Dhu al-Hijjah, the pilgrims proceed to Mina where they spend the whole day and offer noon (Note: On Friday, Friday Prayer is Offered, instead of Dhuhr Prayer, at Mina), afternoon, evening, and night prayers. Hajj_sentence_100

The next morning after morning prayer, they leave Mina to go to Arafat. Hajj_sentence_101

Second day: 9th Dhu al-Hijjah Hajj_section_9

The 9th Dhul-Hijjah is known as Day of Arafah, and this day is called the Day of Hajj. Hajj_sentence_102

Arafat Hajj_section_10

Main article: Day of Arafah Hajj_sentence_103

On 9th Dhu al-Hijjah before noon, pilgrims arrive at Arafat, a barren and plain land some 20 kilometres (12 mi) east of Mecca, where they stand in contemplative vigil: they offer supplications, repent on and atone for their past sins, and seek the mercy of God, and listen to the sermon from the Islamic scholars who deliver it from near Jabal al-Rahmah (The Mount of Mercy) from where Muhammad is said to have delivered his last sermon. Hajj_sentence_104

Lasting from noon through sunset, this is known as 'standing before God' (wuquf), one of the most significant rites of Hajj. Hajj_sentence_105

At Masjid al-Namirah, pilgrims offer noon and afternoon prayers together at noontime. Hajj_sentence_106

A pilgrim's Hajj is considered invalid if they do not spend the afternoon on Arafat. Hajj_sentence_107

Muzdalifah Hajj_section_11

Pilgrims must leave Arafat for Muzdalifah after sunset without praying maghrib (sunset) prayer at Arafat. Hajj_sentence_108

Muzdalifah is an area between Arafat and Mina. Hajj_sentence_109

Upon reaching there, pilgrims perform Maghrib and Isha prayer jointly, spend the night praying and sleeping on the ground with open sky, and gather pebbles for the next day's ritual of the stoning of the Devil (Shaytan). Hajj_sentence_110

Third day: 10th Dhu al-Hijjah Hajj_section_12

After returning from Muzdalifah, the Pilgrims spend the night at Mina. Hajj_sentence_111

Ramy al-Jamarat Hajj_section_13

Main article: Stoning of the Devil Hajj_sentence_112

Back at Mina, the pilgrims perform symbolic stoning of the devil (Ramy al-Jamarat) by throwing seven stones from sunrise to sunset at only the largest of the three pillars, known as Jamrat al-Aqabah. Hajj_sentence_113

The remaining two pillars (jamarah) are not stoned on this day. Hajj_sentence_114

These pillars are said to represent Satan. Hajj_sentence_115

Pilgrims climb ramps to the multi-levelled Jamaraat Bridge, from which they can throw their pebbles at the jamarat. Hajj_sentence_116

Because of safety reasons, in 2004 the pillars were replaced by long walls, with catch basins below to collect the pebbles. Hajj_sentence_117

Animal Hajj_section_14

After the casting of stones, animals are slaughtered to commemorate the story of Ibrahim and Ismael. Hajj_sentence_118

Traditionally the pilgrims slaughtered the animal themselves or oversaw the slaughtering. Hajj_sentence_119

Today many pilgrims buy a sacrifice voucher in Mecca before the greater Hajj begins, which allows an animal to be slaughtered in the name of God (Allah) on the 10th, without the pilgrim being physically present. Hajj_sentence_120

Modern abattoirs complete the processing of the meat, which is then sent as a charity to poor people around the world. Hajj_sentence_121

At the same time as the sacrifices occur at Mecca, Muslims worldwide perform similar sacrifices, in a three-day global festival called Eid al-Adha. Hajj_sentence_122

Hair removal Hajj_section_15

After sacrificing an animal, another important rite of Hajj is shaving head or trimming hair (known as Halak). Hajj_sentence_123

All male pilgrims shave their head or trim their hair on the day of Eid al Adha and women pilgrims cut the tips of their hair. Hajj_sentence_124

Tawaf Ziyarat Hajj_section_16

On the same or the following day, the pilgrims re-visit the Sacred Mosque in Mecca for another tawaf, known as Tawaf al-Ifadah, an essential part of Hajj. Hajj_sentence_125

It symbolizes being in a hurry to respond to God and show love for Him, an obligatory part of the Hajj. Hajj_sentence_126

The night of the 10th is spent back at Mina. Hajj_sentence_127

Fourth day: 11th Dhu al-Hijjah Hajj_section_17

Starting from noon to sunset on the 11 Dhu al-Hijjah (and again the following day), the pilgrims again throw seven pebbles at each of the three pillars in Mina. Hajj_sentence_128

This is commonly known as the "Stoning of the Devil". Hajj_sentence_129

Fifth day: 12th Dhu al-Hijjah Hajj_section_18

On 12 Dhu al-Hijjah, the same process of the stoning of the pillars as of 11 Dhu al-Hijjah takes place. Hajj_sentence_130

Pilgrims may leave Mina for Mecca before sunset on the 12th Hajj_sentence_131

Last day at Mina: 13th Dhu al-Hijjah Hajj_section_19

If unable to leave on the 12th before sunset or opt to stay longer, they must perform the stoning ritual again on the 13th before returning to Mecca. Hajj_sentence_132

Tawaf al-Wadaa Hajj_section_20

Finally, before leaving Mecca, pilgrims perform a farewell tawaf called the Tawaf al-Wadaa. Hajj_sentence_133

'Wadaa' means 'to bid farewell'. Hajj_sentence_134

The pilgrims circle the Kaaba seven times counter-clockwise, and if they can, attempt to touch or kiss the Kaaba. Hajj_sentence_135

Journey to Medina Hajj_section_21

An optional part of Hajj where pilgrims may choose to travel to the city of Medina (approximately 450 kilometres (280 mi) to the northeast) and the Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet), which contains Muhammad's tomb. Hajj_sentence_136

The Quba Mosque and Masjid al-Qiblatayn are also usually visited. Hajj_sentence_137

Significance Hajj_section_22

To the Muslims, Hajj is associated with religious as well as social significance. Hajj_sentence_138

The obligation for performing this pilgrimage is only fulfilled if it is done on the eighth to twelfth day of the last month of the Islamic calendar. Hajj_sentence_139

If in a given year, an adult Muslim is in good health and his life and wealth is safe, they must perform the Hajj in the same year. Hajj_sentence_140

Delaying it is considered sinful unless the delay is caused by reasons beyond their control. Hajj_sentence_141

Apart from being an obligatory religious duty, the Hajj is seen to have a spiritual merit that provides the Muslims with an opportunity of self-renewal. Hajj_sentence_142

Hajj serves as a reminder of the Day of Judgment when Muslims believe people will stand before God. Hajj_sentence_143

Hadith literature (sayings of Muhammad) articulates various merits a pilgrim achieves upon successful completion of their Hajj. Hajj_sentence_144

After successful pilgrimage, pilgrims can prefix their names with the title 'Al-Hajji', and are held with respect in Muslim society. Hajj_sentence_145

However, Islamic scholars suggest Hajj should signify a Muslim's religious commitment, and should not be a measurement of their social status. Hajj_sentence_146

Hajj brings together and unites the Muslims from different parts of the world irrespective of their race, colour, and culture, which acts as a symbol of equality. Hajj_sentence_147

A 2008 study on the impact of participating in the Islamic pilgrimage found that Muslim communities become more positive and tolerant after Hajj experience. Hajj_sentence_148

Titled Estimating the Impact of the Hajj: Religion and Tolerance in Islam's Global Gathering and conducted in conjunction with Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government, the study noted that the Hajj "increases belief in equality and harmony among ethnic groups and Islamic sects and leads to more favourable attitudes toward women, including greater acceptance of female education and employment" and that "Hajjis show increased belief in peace, equality and harmony among adherents of different religions." Hajj_sentence_149

Malcolm X, an American activist during the Civil Rights Movement, describes the sociological atmosphere he experienced at his Hajj in the 1960s as follows: Hajj_sentence_150

Differences between the Hajj and Umrah Hajj_section_23

Main article: Umrah Hajj_sentence_151


  • Both are Islamic pilgrimages, the main difference is their level of importance and the method of observance.Hajj_item_1_3
  • Hajj is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. It is obligatory for every Muslim once in their lifetime, provided they are physically fit and financially capable.Hajj_item_1_4
  • Hajj is performed over specific days during a designated Islamic month. However, Umrah can be performed at any time.Hajj_item_1_5
  • Although they share common rites, Umrah can be performed in less than a few hours while Hajj is more time-consuming, and involves more rituals.Hajj_item_1_6

Hajj Badal Hajj_section_24

Hajj is one of the most important acts of faith a Muslim can commit. Hajj_sentence_152

The act is one of the Five Pillars of Islam and is considered mandatory for those who practice Islam. Hajj_sentence_153

As presented above, the pilgrimage is entrenched in traditions and codified by a multitude of holy texts. Hajj_sentence_154

Muslims are bound in a contract with God and Hajj is one of the payments which God requires of his followers. Hajj_sentence_155

For this reason, those who are unable to undertake Hajj themselves, are permitted to send another in their place under specific circumstances. Hajj_sentence_156

First, the person who sends someone in their place must be unable to undertake Hajj themselves because of an incurable sickness or old age. Hajj_sentence_157

If the sickness may be cured, the follower of God must go when they are able. Hajj_sentence_158

Also, Hajj Badal may be performed on a person's behalf if they are already deceased. Hajj_sentence_159

This act is considered a form of vicarious atonement. Hajj_sentence_160

In this case, one of the Five Pillars of Islam can be completed for a Muslim who was not able to fulfill their duties while living. Hajj_sentence_161

As the requirements for the person who is having Hajj being completed on their behalf, there are also requirements for those who are carrying out the act. Hajj_sentence_162

When the person committing the act enters the Ihram—the holy garb worn during Hajj—they must acknowledge the person who they are representing. Hajj_sentence_163

Also, when the Ihram is donned, the Hajj can only be for the single person who they represent and not for themselves. Hajj_sentence_164

Another qualification is that the present person must be Muslim and in good standing with the Islamic community. Hajj_sentence_165

Because there are multiple distinct types of Hajj, the person performing the ceremony in another's place must attend the type which is desired by the unable. Hajj_sentence_166

Lastly, if the person is still alive, then the performer of the Hajj Badal must ask for the permission of the person they hope to represent. Hajj_sentence_167

The basis of Hajj Badal can be found in the writings of Abd Allah ibn Abbas who recorded Muhammad's words. Hajj_sentence_168

When approached by a woman from Juhayan, this exchange occurred between the two: "My mother vowed to go for Hajj, but she died before she did so. Hajj_sentence_169

Can I perform Hajj on her behalf?" Hajj_sentence_170

The Prophet replied: "Yas, perform Hajj on her behalf. Hajj_sentence_171

Do you not think if your mother owed a debt that you would pay it off for her? Hajj_sentence_172

Fulfil her debt to God; for God is more deserving than what is owed to him should be paid." Hajj_sentence_173

(Hadith No.77, narrated by Ibn Abbas) Other instances of recorded conversation which solidified the act were recorded by other Islamic scholars such as Abdullah bin Az-Zubair and Al-Fadl ibn 'Abbas. Hajj_sentence_174

However, the validity of Hajj Badal has been questioned by other Islamic scholars. Hajj_sentence_175

The Ulama, a large body of Islamic scholars, oppose Hajj Badal because of its imitation of Christian beliefs. Hajj_sentence_176

Also, the Qur’an contains phrases which state that no man can truly bear the responsibility of others. Hajj_sentence_177

Hajj Badal is an act which shifts the Islamic duty of a person to another which contradicts the teaching of the Qur’an. Hajj_sentence_178

Hadiths, which are supposed sayings of Muhammed, cannot contradict the Qur’an according to Usool-e-Fiqh—the guiding Jurisprudence principles of Islam. Hajj_sentence_179

Another reason why Hajj Badal is criticized stems from lack of consistency. Hajj_sentence_180

Out of the Five Pillars of Islam, none are subject to vicarious atonement. Hajj_sentence_181

If prayer, Kalima, fasting, or Zakat are not able to be atoned for vicariously, then why can Hajj. Hajj_sentence_182

Permitting vicarious atonement harms the strictness of performing Islamic traditions on the living and could harm the religion as a whole. Hajj_sentence_183

Lastly, passages in the Qur’an—specifically 22:28—stress the importance of witnessing the traditions of Hajj with one's own eyes. Hajj_sentence_184

Hajj Badal effectively prevents a follower of Islam from partaking in the ceremonies. Hajj_sentence_185

This contradiction with the word of the Qur’an is another reason why Islamic scholars disapprove of the practice. Hajj_sentence_186

Arrangement and facilities Hajj_section_25

Most of the Hajj related issues are handled by Ministry of Hajj and Umrah. Hajj_sentence_187

Making necessary arrangements each year for the growing number of pilgrims poses a logistic challenge for the government of Saudi Arabia, which has, since the 1950s, spent more than $100 billion to increase pilgrimage facilities. Hajj_sentence_188

Major issues like housing, transportation, sanitation, and health care have been addressed and improved greatly by the government by introducing various development programs, with the result that pilgrims now enjoy modern facilities and perform various rites at ease. Hajj_sentence_189

The Saudi government often sets quotas for various countries to keep the pilgrims' number at a manageable level, and arranges huge security forces and CCTV cameras to maintain overall safety during Hajj. Hajj_sentence_190

Various institutions and government programs, such as the Haj subsidy offered in Pakistan or the Tabung Haji based in Malaysia assist pilgrims in covering the costs of the journey. Hajj_sentence_191

For the 2014 Hajj, special Hajj information desks were set up at Pakistani airports to assist the pilgrims. Hajj_sentence_192

Technology solutions Hajj_section_26

The Saudi government employs technology to protect the safety, and enhance the experience, of the pilgrim's journey. Hajj_sentence_193

Recently, the Ministry of Hajj and Umrah has introduced the Hajj pilgrims' e-bracelet program that stores pilgrims essential data which helps to provide them with the necessary support. Hajj_sentence_194

In 2018, SAFCSP organized the Hajj Hackathon event in Jeddah, west of Saudi Arabia, with 2,950 participants from over 100 countries. Hajj_sentence_195

The event aims at exploring the use of technology to provide solutions for Hajj pilgrims. Hajj_sentence_196

In 2019, the "Fatwa Robot" service was launched to provide pilgrims with fatwas and other religious advice. Hajj_sentence_197

Two interactive apps were launched by Hajj authorities to provide pilgrims with a range of services through their smartphones. Hajj_sentence_198

The services, which are available in nine languages, help pilgrims in finding emergency service centres, holy sites, currency exchanges, restaurants, and accommodation. Hajj_sentence_199

Visa requirements Hajj_section_27

To enter Saudi Arabia to participate in the Hajj as a Muslim, visa requirements have to be satisfied. Hajj_sentence_200

Saudi Arabia's Ministry of Hajj and Umrah is planning to ease visas issuance by enabling Hajj and Umrah pilgrims to obtain e-visa within minutes through campaigns and companies. Hajj_sentence_201

For the upcoming Umrah season, Umra visas can be electronically issued within 24 hours via a special platform established by the Ministry of Haj and Umrah. Hajj_sentence_202

For passengers traveling from the United States, they must purchase a package from a licensed Hajj agency. Hajj_sentence_203

People from other Arab Gulf (Gulf Cooperation Council) countries do not need a visa to enter Saudi Arabia and vice versa. Hajj_sentence_204

People with Saudi visas are not allowed to enter the Hajj unless they are a Muslim. Hajj_sentence_205

Makkah Route Initiative Hajj_section_28

Makkah Route Initiative is an initiative made by the Saudi government to facilitate the pilgrims entries to Saudi Arabia by completing it in the airports of their countries. Hajj_sentence_206

The initiative has been implemented since 2018 by The Saudi Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Hajj_sentence_207

In 2019, the initiative is planned to provide service to around 225,000 pilgrims from airports in Malaysia, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Tunisia. Hajj_sentence_208

The provided services include: Hajj_sentence_209


  1. Issuance of visas.Hajj_item_2_7
  2. Making sure that the pilgrims' health conditions comply with the requirements and to make certain that the potential pilgrims have taken preventive measures related to the epidemiological situation in the world.Hajj_item_2_8
  3. Codifying and sorting luggage at the pilgrims' airports and delivering them to the pilgrims' hotels directly upon arrival.Hajj_item_2_9

Green Hajj Camp Hajj_section_29

In 2019, Saudi Arabia launched an environment-friendly hajj initiative. Hajj_sentence_210

The project is implemented in 30 camps in Mina where pilgrims are encouraged to sort out their wastes. Hajj_sentence_211

Moreover, the proceeds are used for charitable purposes. Hajj_sentence_212

The project has a number of objectives as follows: Hajj_sentence_213


  1. Decreasing environmental harms.Hajj_item_3_10
  2. Improving the management system of solid waste.Hajj_item_3_11
  3. Preserving pilgrims and camps safety.Hajj_item_3_12

Transportation Hajj_section_30

Traditionally, the pilgrimage to Mecca was mainly an overland journey using camels as a means of transport. Hajj_sentence_214

During the second half of the nineteenth century (after the 1850s), steamships began to be used in the pilgrimage journey to Mecca, and the number of pilgrims traveling on sea routes increased. Hajj_sentence_215

This continued for some time, until air travel came to predominate; Egypt introduced the first airline service for Hajj pilgrims in 1937. Hajj_sentence_216

Today, many airlines and travel agents offer Hajj packages, and arrange for transportation and accommodation for the pilgrims. Hajj_sentence_217

King Abdulaziz International Airport in Jeddah and Prince Mohammad Bin Abdulaziz Airport in Medina have dedicated pilgrim terminals to assist with the large numbers of pilgrims. Hajj_sentence_218

Other international airports around the world, such as Indira Gandhi Airport in New Delhi, Rajiv Gandhi International Airport in Hyderabad, Jinnah in Karachi and Soekarno-Hatta in Jakarta also have dedicated terminals or temporary facilities to service pilgrims as they depart for the Hajj and return home. Hajj_sentence_219

During Hajj, many airlines run extra flights to accommodate the large number of pilgrims. Hajj_sentence_220

During official Hajj days, pilgrims travel between the different locations by metro, bus or on foot. Hajj_sentence_221

The Saudi government strictly controls vehicles access into these heavily congested areas. Hajj_sentence_222

However, the journey can take many hours due to heavy vehicular and pedestrian traffic. Hajj_sentence_223

In 2010, the Saudi government started operating the Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah Metro line as an exclusive shuttle train for pilgrims between Arafat, Muzdalifa and Mina. Hajj_sentence_224

The service, which operates only during the days of Hajj, shortens the travel time during the critical "Nafrah" from Arafat to Muzdalifah to minutes. Hajj_sentence_225

Due to its limited capacity, the use of the metro is not open to all pilgrims. Hajj_sentence_226

Modern crowd-control problems Hajj_section_31

Main article: Incidents during the Hajj Hajj_sentence_227

Pilgrim numbers have greatly increased in recent years, which has led to numerous accidents and deaths due to overcrowding. Hajj_sentence_228

The first major accident during Hajj in modern times occurred in 1990, when a tunnel stampede led to the death of 1,462 people. Hajj_sentence_229

Afterwards, various crowd-control techniques were adopted to improve safety. Hajj_sentence_230

Because of large crowds, some of the rituals have become more symbolic. Hajj_sentence_231

For example, it is no longer necessary to kiss the Black Stone. Hajj_sentence_232

Instead, pilgrims simply point at it on each circuit around the Kaaba. Hajj_sentence_233

Also, the large pillars used for pebble throwing were changed into long walls in 2004 with basins below to catch the stones. Hajj_sentence_234

Another example is that animal sacrifice is now done at slaughterhouses appointed by the Saudi authorities, without the pilgrims being present there. Hajj_sentence_235

In the 70s and 80s, a number of deaths occurred, this was because of a stampede or a siege. Hajj_sentence_236

For the Hajj in 2016, Saudi authorities will also be giving pilgrims GPS-tracked electronic bracelets. Hajj_sentence_237

Despite safety measures, incidents may happen during the Hajj as pilgrims are trampled or ramps collapse under the weight of the many visitors. Hajj_sentence_238

During 2015 Hajj, a stampede resulted in 769 deaths and injuries to 934 others, according to the Saudi authorities. Hajj_sentence_239

A report from Associated Press totalled at least 1470 fatalities from official reports from other countries, making it the most deadly such episode to date. Hajj_sentence_240

Concerns were raised in 2013 and 2014 about the spread of MERS because of mass gatherings during the Hajj. Hajj_sentence_241

Saudi Health Minister Abdullah Al-Rabia said authorities have detected no cases of MERS among the pilgrims so far. Hajj_sentence_242

He also said that, despite few cases of MERS, Saudi Arabia was ready for the 2014 pilgrimage. Hajj_sentence_243

In November 2017, Saudi authorities banned selfies at the two holy sites. Hajj_sentence_244

In February 2020, Saudi Arabia temporarily banned foreign pilgrims from entering Mecca and Medina to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in the Kingdom. Hajj_sentence_245

It later temporarily suspended the pilgrimage of Umrah. Hajj_sentence_246

In June, the Saudi government announced that only "very limited numbers" of pilgrims already resident in Saudi Arabia would be permitted to participate in the Hajj. Hajj_sentence_247

Hajj and the Saudi economy Hajj_section_32

In 2014, Saudi Arabia was expected to have earned up to $8.5 billion from Hajj. Hajj_sentence_248

Saudi Arabia's highest source of revenue after oil and gas is Hajj and the country is expected to depend more on Hajj as the amounts of available oil and gas for sale decline. Hajj_sentence_249

Furthermore, the increase of religious tourism from about 12 million Muslims annually to almost 17 million by 2025 has given rise to increasing luxury hotel businesses in the area to accommodate pilgrims. Hajj_sentence_250

The Abraj al-Bait firm intends to build hotels, shopping malls and apartments which is claimed to be an estimated value of three billion dollars. Hajj_sentence_251

According to The Embassy of Saudi Arabia, the Saudi government are working towards establishing programs which promote sanitation, housing, transportation, and welfare as the amount of visiting pilgrims increases. Hajj_sentence_252

Most pilgrims, from countries such as the United States, Australia and the United Kingdom decide to purchase Hajj Packages from licensed hajj agencies in their countries. Hajj_sentence_253

This helps direct the flow of traffic into the Kingdom and allows for pilgrims to work directly with a business responsible for their services instead of dealing directly with Saudi Arabia's government. Hajj_sentence_254

In July 2020, the WSJ reported that following the coronavirus pandemic, the Saudi authorities have curtailed the five-day event in Mecca to fewer than 10,000 people, already residing in the country. Hajj_sentence_255

It also said that the hospitality and housing industries who rely entirely on Hajj revenue, will face severe loss of revenue. Hajj_sentence_256

Number of pilgrims per year Hajj_section_33

There has been a substantial increase in the number of pilgrims during the last 92 years, and the number of foreign pilgrims has increased by approximately 2,824 percent, from 58,584 in 1920 to 1,712,962 in 2012. Hajj_sentence_257

Because of development and expansion work at Masjid al-Haram, the authority restricted the number of pilgrims in 2013. Hajj_sentence_258

Between 1940 and 1945, foreign pilgrims were restricted from arriving in Saudi Arabia as a result of World War II; all pilgrimages from 2020 onwards will be severely restricted as the country deals with the coronavirus pandemic. Hajj_sentence_259

The following number of pilgrims arrived in Saudi Arabia each year to perform Hajj: Hajj_sentence_260


Gregorian yearHajj_header_cell_2_0_0 Hijri yearHajj_header_cell_2_0_1 Local pilgrimsHajj_header_cell_2_0_2 Foreign pilgrimsHajj_header_cell_2_0_3 TotalHajj_header_cell_2_0_4
1920Hajj_cell_2_1_0 1338Hajj_cell_2_1_1 Hajj_cell_2_1_2 58,584Hajj_cell_2_1_3 Hajj_cell_2_1_4
1921Hajj_cell_2_2_0 1339Hajj_cell_2_2_1 Hajj_cell_2_2_2 57,255Hajj_cell_2_2_3 Hajj_cell_2_2_4
1922Hajj_cell_2_3_0 1340Hajj_cell_2_3_1 Hajj_cell_2_3_2 56,319Hajj_cell_2_3_3 Hajj_cell_2_3_4
1950Hajj_cell_2_4_0 1369Hajj_cell_2_4_1 Hajj_cell_2_4_2 100,000 (approx.)Hajj_cell_2_4_3 Hajj_cell_2_4_4
1950sHajj_cell_2_5_0 Hajj_cell_2_5_1 Hajj_cell_2_5_2 150,000 (approx.)Hajj_cell_2_5_3 Hajj_cell_2_5_4
1960sHajj_cell_2_6_0 Hajj_cell_2_6_1 Hajj_cell_2_6_2 300,000 (approx.)Hajj_cell_2_6_3 Hajj_cell_2_6_4
1970sHajj_cell_2_7_0 Hajj_cell_2_7_1 Hajj_cell_2_7_2 700,000 (approx.)Hajj_cell_2_7_3 Hajj_cell_2_7_4
1980sHajj_cell_2_8_0 Hajj_cell_2_8_1 Hajj_cell_2_8_2 900,000 (approx.)Hajj_cell_2_8_3 Hajj_cell_2_8_4
1989Hajj_cell_2_9_0 1409Hajj_cell_2_9_1 Hajj_cell_2_9_2 774,600Hajj_cell_2_9_3 Hajj_cell_2_9_4
1990Hajj_cell_2_10_0 1410Hajj_cell_2_10_1 Hajj_cell_2_10_2 827,200Hajj_cell_2_10_3 Hajj_cell_2_10_4
1991Hajj_cell_2_11_0 1411Hajj_cell_2_11_1 Hajj_cell_2_11_2 720,100Hajj_cell_2_11_3 Hajj_cell_2_11_4
1992Hajj_cell_2_12_0 1412Hajj_cell_2_12_1 Hajj_cell_2_12_2 1,015,700Hajj_cell_2_12_3 Hajj_cell_2_12_4
1993Hajj_cell_2_13_0 1413Hajj_cell_2_13_1 Hajj_cell_2_13_2 992,800Hajj_cell_2_13_3 Hajj_cell_2_13_4
1994Hajj_cell_2_14_0 1414Hajj_cell_2_14_1 Hajj_cell_2_14_2 997,400Hajj_cell_2_14_3 Hajj_cell_2_14_4
1995Hajj_cell_2_15_0 1415Hajj_cell_2_15_1 Hajj_cell_2_15_2 1,046,307Hajj_cell_2_15_3 Hajj_cell_2_15_4
1996Hajj_cell_2_16_0 1416Hajj_cell_2_16_1 784,769Hajj_cell_2_16_2 1,080,465Hajj_cell_2_16_3 1,865,234Hajj_cell_2_16_4
1997Hajj_cell_2_17_0 1417Hajj_cell_2_17_1 774,260Hajj_cell_2_17_2 1,168,591Hajj_cell_2_17_3 1,942,851Hajj_cell_2_17_4
1998Hajj_cell_2_18_0 1418Hajj_cell_2_18_1 699,770Hajj_cell_2_18_2 1,132,344Hajj_cell_2_18_3 1,832,114Hajj_cell_2_18_4
1999Hajj_cell_2_19_0 1419Hajj_cell_2_19_1 775,268Hajj_cell_2_19_2 1,056,730Hajj_cell_2_19_3 1,831,998Hajj_cell_2_19_4
2000Hajj_cell_2_20_0 1420Hajj_cell_2_20_1 466,430Hajj_cell_2_20_2 1,267,355Hajj_cell_2_20_3 1,733,785Hajj_cell_2_20_4
2001Hajj_cell_2_21_0 1421Hajj_cell_2_21_1 440,808Hajj_cell_2_21_2 1,363,992Hajj_cell_2_21_3 1,804,800Hajj_cell_2_21_4
2002Hajj_cell_2_22_0 1422Hajj_cell_2_22_1 590,576Hajj_cell_2_22_2 1,354,184Hajj_cell_2_22_3 1,944,760Hajj_cell_2_22_4
2003Hajj_cell_2_23_0 1423Hajj_cell_2_23_1 493,230Hajj_cell_2_23_2 1,431,012Hajj_cell_2_23_3 1,924,242Hajj_cell_2_23_4
2004Hajj_cell_2_24_0 1424Hajj_cell_2_24_1 473,004Hajj_cell_2_24_2 1,419,706Hajj_cell_2_24_3 1,892,710Hajj_cell_2_24_4
2005Hajj_cell_2_25_0 1425Hajj_cell_2_25_1 1,030,000 (approx.)Hajj_cell_2_25_2 1,534,769Hajj_cell_2_25_3 2,560,000 (approx.)Hajj_cell_2_25_4
2006Hajj_cell_2_26_0 1426Hajj_cell_2_26_1 573,147Hajj_cell_2_26_2 1,557,447Hajj_cell_2_26_3 2,130,594Hajj_cell_2_26_4
2006Hajj_cell_2_27_0 1427Hajj_cell_2_27_1 724,229Hajj_cell_2_27_2 1,654,407Hajj_cell_2_27_3 2,378,636Hajj_cell_2_27_4
2007Hajj_cell_2_28_0 1428Hajj_cell_2_28_1 746,511Hajj_cell_2_28_2 1,707,814Hajj_cell_2_28_3 2,454,325Hajj_cell_2_28_4
2008Hajj_cell_2_29_0 1429Hajj_cell_2_29_1 Hajj_cell_2_29_2 1,729,841Hajj_cell_2_29_3 Hajj_cell_2_29_4
2009Hajj_cell_2_30_0 1430Hajj_cell_2_30_1 154,000Hajj_cell_2_30_2 1,613,000Hajj_cell_2_30_3 2,521,000Hajj_cell_2_30_4
2010Hajj_cell_2_31_0 1431Hajj_cell_2_31_1 989,798Hajj_cell_2_31_2 1,799,601Hajj_cell_2_31_3 2,854,345Hajj_cell_2_31_4
2011Hajj_cell_2_32_0 1432Hajj_cell_2_32_1 1,099,522Hajj_cell_2_32_2 1,828,195Hajj_cell_2_32_3 2,927,717Hajj_cell_2_32_4
2012Hajj_cell_2_33_0 1433Hajj_cell_2_33_1 1,408,641Hajj_cell_2_33_2 1,752,932Hajj_cell_2_33_3 3,161,573Hajj_cell_2_33_4
2013Hajj_cell_2_34_0 1434Hajj_cell_2_34_1 600,718Hajj_cell_2_34_2 1,379,531Hajj_cell_2_34_3 1,980,249Hajj_cell_2_34_4
2014Hajj_cell_2_35_0 1435Hajj_cell_2_35_1 696,185Hajj_cell_2_35_2 1,389,053Hajj_cell_2_35_3 2,085,238Hajj_cell_2_35_4
2015Hajj_cell_2_36_0 1436Hajj_cell_2_36_1 567,876Hajj_cell_2_36_2 1,384,941Hajj_cell_2_36_3 1,952,817Hajj_cell_2_36_4
2016Hajj_cell_2_37_0 1437Hajj_cell_2_37_1 537,537Hajj_cell_2_37_2 1,325,372Hajj_cell_2_37_3 1,862,909Hajj_cell_2_37_4
2017Hajj_cell_2_38_0 1438Hajj_cell_2_38_1 600,108Hajj_cell_2_38_2 1,752,014Hajj_cell_2_38_3 2,352,122Hajj_cell_2_38_4
2018Hajj_cell_2_39_0 1439Hajj_cell_2_39_1 612,953Hajj_cell_2_39_2 1,758,722Hajj_cell_2_39_3 2,371,675Hajj_cell_2_39_4
2019Hajj_cell_2_40_0 1440Hajj_cell_2_40_1 634,379Hajj_cell_2_40_2 1,855,027Hajj_cell_2_40_3 2,489,406Hajj_cell_2_40_4

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hajj.