Hamburg

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This article is about the German city. Hamburg_sentence_0

For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). Hamburg_sentence_1

Hamburg_table_infobox_0

Hamburg

Hamborg  (Low German)Hamburg_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryHamburg_header_cell_0_1_0 GermanyHamburg_cell_0_1_1
GovernmentHamburg_header_cell_0_2_0
BodyHamburg_header_cell_0_3_0 Bürgerschaft of HamburgHamburg_cell_0_3_1
First MayorHamburg_header_cell_0_4_0 Peter Tschentscher (SPD)Hamburg_cell_0_4_1
Governing partiesHamburg_header_cell_0_5_0 SPD / The GreensHamburg_cell_0_5_1
Bundesrat votesHamburg_header_cell_0_6_0 3 (of 69)Hamburg_cell_0_6_1
AreaHamburg_header_cell_0_7_0
CityHamburg_header_cell_0_8_0 755.22 km (291.59 sq mi)Hamburg_cell_0_8_1
Population (30 June 2020)Hamburg_header_cell_0_9_0
CityHamburg_header_cell_0_10_0 1,845,229Hamburg_cell_0_10_1
DensityHamburg_header_cell_0_11_0 2,400/km (6,300/sq mi)Hamburg_cell_0_11_1
MetroHamburg_header_cell_0_12_0 5,107,429Hamburg_cell_0_12_1
Demonym(s)Hamburg_header_cell_0_13_0 German: Hamburger (male), Hamburgerin (female)

English: Hamburgian(s)Hamburg_cell_0_13_1

Time zoneHamburg_header_cell_0_14_0 UTC+1 (CET)Hamburg_cell_0_14_1
Summer (DST)Hamburg_header_cell_0_15_0 UTC+2 (CEST)Hamburg_cell_0_15_1
Postal code(s)Hamburg_header_cell_0_16_0 20001–21149, 22001–22769Hamburg_cell_0_16_1
Area code(s)Hamburg_header_cell_0_17_0 040Hamburg_cell_0_17_1
ISO 3166 codeHamburg_header_cell_0_18_0 DE-HHHamburg_cell_0_18_1
Vehicle registrationHamburg_header_cell_0_19_0 Hamburg_cell_0_19_1
GRP (nominal)Hamburg_header_cell_0_20_0 €123 billion (2019)Hamburg_cell_0_20_1
GRP per capitaHamburg_header_cell_0_21_0 €67,000 (2019)Hamburg_cell_0_21_1
NUTS RegionHamburg_header_cell_0_22_0 DE6Hamburg_cell_0_22_1
HDI (2018)Hamburg_header_cell_0_23_0 0.975

very high · 1st of 16Hamburg_cell_0_23_1

WebsiteHamburg_header_cell_0_24_0 Q1055#P856Hamburg_cell_0_24_1

Hamburg (English: /ˈhæmbɜːrɡ/, German: [ˈhambʊʁk (listen), locally also [ˈhambʊɪ̯ç (listen); Low Saxon: Hamborg [ˈhambɔːç (listen)), officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (German: Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg; Low Saxon: Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg), is the second-largest city in Germany after Berlin and 7th largest city in the European Union with a population of over 1.84 million. Hamburg_sentence_2

One of Germany's 16 federal states, it is surrounded by Schleswig-Holstein to the north and Lower Saxony to the south. Hamburg_sentence_3

The city's metropolitan region is home to more than five million people. Hamburg_sentence_4

Hamburg lies on the River Elbe and two of its tributaries, the River Alster and the River Bille. Hamburg_sentence_5

The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League and a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire. Hamburg_sentence_6

Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign city state, and before 1919 formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. Hamburg_sentence_7

Beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, North Sea flood of 1962 and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids, the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Hamburg_sentence_8

Hamburg is Europe's third-largest port. Hamburg_sentence_9

Major regional broadcaster NDR, the printing and publishing firm Gruner + Jahr and the newspapers Der Spiegel and Die Zeit are based in the city. Hamburg_sentence_10

Hamburg is the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Hamburg_sentence_11

Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, Blohm + Voss, Aurubis, Beiersdorf, and Unilever. Hamburg_sentence_12

Hamburg is also a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Hamburg_sentence_13

The city enjoys a very high quality of living, being ranked 19th in the 2019 Mercer Quality of Living Survey. Hamburg_sentence_14

Hamburg hosts specialists in world economics and international law, including consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Hamburg_sentence_15

Both former German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, were born in Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_16

Hamburg is a major international and domestic tourist destination. Hamburg_sentence_17

The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg_sentence_18

Hamburg's rivers and canals are crossed by around 2,500 bridges, making it the city with the highest number of bridges in Europe. Hamburg_sentence_19

Aside from its rich architectural heritage, the city is also home to notable cultural venues such as the Elbphilharmonie and Laeiszhalle concert halls. Hamburg_sentence_20

It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg_sentence_21

Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. Hamburg_sentence_22

St. Hamburg_sentence_23 Pauli's Reeperbahn is among the best-known European entertainment districts. Hamburg_sentence_24

Geography Hamburg_section_0

Hamburg is at a sheltered natural harbour on the southern fanning-out of the Jutland Peninsula, between Continental Europe to the south and Scandinavia to the north, with the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the northeast. Hamburg_sentence_25

It is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Alster and Bille. Hamburg_sentence_26

The city centre is around the Binnenalster ("Inner Alster") and Außenalster ("Outer Alster"), both formed by damming the River Alster to create lakes. Hamburg_sentence_27

The islands of Neuwerk, Scharhörn, and Nigehörn, 100 kilometres (60 mi) away in the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park, are also part of the city of Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_28

The neighborhoods of Neuenfelde, Cranz, Francop and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land (old land) region, the largest contiguous fruit-producing region in Central Europe. Hamburg_sentence_29

Neugraben-Fischbek has Hamburg's highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at 116.2 metres (381 ft) AMSL. Hamburg_sentence_30

Hamburg borders the states of Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony. Hamburg_sentence_31

Climate Hamburg_section_1

Hamburg has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb), influenced by its proximity to the coast and maritime influences that originate over the Atlantic Ocean. Hamburg_sentence_32

The location in the north of Germany provides extremes greater than typical marine climates, but definitely in the category due to the prevailing westerlies. Hamburg_sentence_33

Nearby wetlands enjoy a maritime temperate climate. Hamburg_sentence_34

The amount of snowfall has varied greatly in recent decades. Hamburg_sentence_35

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, heavy snowfall sometimes occurred, the winters of recent years have been less cold, with snowfall just a few days per year. Hamburg_sentence_36

The warmest months are June, July, and August, with high temperatures of 20.1 to 22.5 °C (68.2 to 72.5 °F). Hamburg_sentence_37

The coldest are December, January, and February, with low temperatures of −0.3 to 1.0 °C (31.5 to 33.8 °F). Hamburg_sentence_38

History Hamburg_section_2

Main articles: History of Hamburg and Timeline of Hamburg Hamburg_sentence_39

Origins Hamburg_section_3

Claudius Ptolemy (2nd century AD) reported the first name for the vicinity as Treva. Hamburg_sentence_40

The name Hamburg comes from the first permanent building on the site, a castle which the Emperor Charlemagne ordered constructed in AD 808. Hamburg_sentence_41

It rose on rocky terrain in a marsh between the River Alster and the River Elbe as a defence against Slavic incursion, and acquired the name Hammaburg, burg meaning castle or fort. Hamburg_sentence_42

The origin of the Hamma term remains uncertain, as does the exact location of the castle. Hamburg_sentence_43

Medieval Hamburg Hamburg_section_4

In 834, Hamburg was designated as the seat of a bishopric. Hamburg_sentence_44

The first bishop, Ansgar, became known as the Apostle of the North. Hamburg_sentence_45

Two years later, Hamburg was united with Bremen as the Bishopric of Hamburg-Bremen. Hamburg_sentence_46

Hamburg was destroyed and occupied several times. Hamburg_sentence_47

In 845, 600 Viking ships sailed up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a town of around 500 inhabitants. Hamburg_sentence_48

In 1030, King Mieszko II Lambert of Poland burned down the city. Hamburg_sentence_49

Valdemar II of Denmark raided and occupied Hamburg in 1201 and in 1214. Hamburg_sentence_50

The Black Death killed at least 60% of the population in 1350. Hamburg_sentence_51

Hamburg experienced several great fires in the medieval period. Hamburg_sentence_52

In 1189, by imperial charter, Frederick I "Barbarossa" granted Hamburg the status of a Free Imperial City and tax-free access (or free-trade zone) up the Lower Elbe into the North Sea. Hamburg_sentence_53

In 1265, an allegedly forged letter was presented to or by the Rath of Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_54

This charter, along with Hamburg's proximity to the main trade routes of the North Sea and Baltic Sea, quickly made it a major port in Northern Europe. Hamburg_sentence_55

Its trade alliance with Lübeck in 1241 marks the origin and core of the powerful Hanseatic League of trading cities. Hamburg_sentence_56

On 8 November 1266, a contract between Henry III and Hamburg's traders allowed them to establish a hanse in London. Hamburg_sentence_57

This was the first time in history that the word hanse was used for the trading guild of the Hanseatic League. Hamburg_sentence_58

In 1270, the solicitor of the senate of Hamburg, Jordan von Boitzenburg, wrote the first description of civil, criminal and procedural law for a city in Germany in the German language, the Ordeelbook (Ordeel: sentence). Hamburg_sentence_59

On 10 August 1410, civil unrest forced a compromise (German: Rezeß, literally meaning: withdrawal). Hamburg_sentence_60

This is considered the first constitution of Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_61

Modern times Hamburg_section_5

In 1529, the city embraced Lutheranism, and it received Reformed refugees from the Netherlands and France. Hamburg_sentence_62

When Jan van Valckenborgh introduced a second layer to the fortifications to protect against the Thirty Years War in the seventeenth century, he extended Hamburg and created a "New Town" (Neustadt) whose street names still date from the grid system of roads he introduced. Hamburg_sentence_63

Upon the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Free Imperial City of Hamburg was not incorporated into a larger administrative area while retaining special privileges (mediatised), but became a sovereign state with the official title of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_64

Hamburg was briefly annexed by Napoleon I to the First French Empire (1804–1814/1815). Hamburg_sentence_65

Russian forces under General Bennigsen finally freed the city in 1814. Hamburg_sentence_66

Hamburg re-assumed its pre-1811 status as a city-state in 1814. Hamburg_sentence_67

The Vienna Congress of 1815 confirmed Hamburg's independence and it became one of 39 sovereign states of the German Confederation (1815–1866). Hamburg_sentence_68

In 1842, about a quarter of the inner city was destroyed in the "Great Fire". Hamburg_sentence_69

The fire started on the night of 4 May and was not extinguished until 8 May. Hamburg_sentence_70

It destroyed three churches, the town hall, and many other buildings, killing 51 people and leaving an estimated 20,000 homeless. Hamburg_sentence_71

Reconstruction took more than 40 years. Hamburg_sentence_72

After periodic political unrest, particularly in 1848, Hamburg adopted in 1860 a semidemocratic constitution that provided for the election of the Senate, the governing body of the city-state, by adult taxpaying males. Hamburg_sentence_73

Other innovations included the separation of powers, the separation of Church and State, freedom of the press, of assembly and association. Hamburg_sentence_74

Hamburg became a member of the North German Confederation (1866–1871) and of the German Empire (1871–1918), and maintained its self-ruling status during the Weimar Republic (1919–1933). Hamburg_sentence_75

Hamburg acceded to the German Customs Union or Zollverein in 1888, the last (along with Bremen) of the German states to join. Hamburg_sentence_76

The city experienced its fastest growth during the second half of the 19th century when its population more than quadrupled to 800,000 as the growth of the city's Atlantic trade helped make it Europe's second-largest port. Hamburg_sentence_77

The Hamburg-America Line, with Albert Ballin as its director, became the world's largest transatlantic shipping company around the start of the 20th century. Hamburg_sentence_78

Shipping companies sailing to South America, Africa, India and East Asia were based in the city. Hamburg_sentence_79

Hamburg was the departure port for many Germans and Eastern Europeans to emigrate to the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Hamburg_sentence_80

Trading communities from all over the world established themselves there. Hamburg_sentence_81

A major outbreak of cholera in 1892 was badly handled by the city government, which retained an unusual degree of independence for a German city. Hamburg_sentence_82

About 8,600 died in the largest German epidemic of the late 19th century, and the last major cholera epidemic in a major city of the Western world. Hamburg_sentence_83

Second World War Hamburg_section_6

In Nazi Germany (1933–1945), Hamburg was a Gau from 1934 until 1945. Hamburg_sentence_84

During the Second World War, Hamburg suffered a series of Allied air raids which devastated much of the city and the harbour. Hamburg_sentence_85

On 23 July 1943, Royal Air Force (RAF) and United States Army Air Force (USAAF) firebombing created a firestorm which spread from the Hauptbahnhof (main railway station) and quickly moved south-east, completely destroying entire boroughs such as Hammerbrook, Billbrook and Hamm South. Hamburg_sentence_86

Thousands of people perished in these densely populated working class boroughs. Hamburg_sentence_87

The raids, codenamed Operation Gomorrah by the RAF, killed at least 42,600 civilians; the precise number is not known. Hamburg_sentence_88

About one million civilians were evacuated in the aftermath of the raids. Hamburg_sentence_89

While some of the boroughs destroyed were rebuilt as residential districts after the war, others such as Hammerbrook were entirely developed into office, retail and limited residential or industrial districts. Hamburg_sentence_90

The Hamburg Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery is in the greater Ohlsdorf Cemetery in the north of Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_91

At least 42,900 people are thought to have perished in the Neuengamme concentration camp (about 25 km (16 mi) outside the city in the marshlands), mostly from epidemics and in the bombing of Kriegsmarine evacuation vessels by the RAF at the end of the war. Hamburg_sentence_92

Systematic deportations of Jewish Germans and Gentile Germans of Jewish descent started on 18 October 1941. Hamburg_sentence_93

These were all directed to Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe or to concentration camps. Hamburg_sentence_94

Most deported persons perished in the Holocaust. Hamburg_sentence_95

By the end of 1942 the Jüdischer Religionsverband in Hamburg was dissolved as an independent legal entity and its remaining assets and staff were assumed by the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (District Northwest). Hamburg_sentence_96

On 10 June 1943 the Reichssicherheitshauptamt dissolved the Reichsvereinigung by a decree. Hamburg_sentence_97

The few remaining employees not somewhat protected by a mixed marriage were deported from Hamburg on 23 June to Theresienstadt, where most of them perished. Hamburg_sentence_98

Post-war history Hamburg_section_7

Hamburg surrendered to British Forces on 3 May 1945, three days after Adolf Hitler's death. Hamburg_sentence_99

After the Second World War, Hamburg formed part of the British Zone of Occupation; it became a state of the then Federal Republic of Germany in 1949. Hamburg_sentence_100

From 1960 to 1962, the Beatles launched their career by playing in various music clubs like the Star Club in the city. Hamburg_sentence_101

On 16 February 1962, a North Sea flood caused the Elbe to rise to an all-time high, inundating one-fifth of Hamburg and killing more than 300 people. Hamburg_sentence_102

The Inner German border – only 50 kilometres (30 mi) east of Hamburg – separated the city from most of its hinterland and reduced Hamburg's global trade. Hamburg_sentence_103

Since German reunification in 1990, and the accession of several Central European and Baltic states into the European Union in 2004, the Port of Hamburg has restarted ambitions for regaining its position as the region's largest deep-sea port for container shipping and its major commercial and trading centre. Hamburg_sentence_104

Demographics Hamburg_section_8

Main article: Demographics of Hamburg Hamburg_sentence_105

Hamburg_table_infobox_1

NationalityHamburg_header_cell_1_0_0 Population (31.12.2018)Hamburg_header_cell_1_0_1
TurkeyHamburg_cell_1_1_0 44,239Hamburg_cell_1_1_1
PolandHamburg_cell_1_2_0 29,058Hamburg_cell_1_2_1
AfghanistanHamburg_cell_1_3_0 19,831Hamburg_cell_1_3_1
SyriaHamburg_cell_1_4_0 15,763Hamburg_cell_1_4_1
RomaniaHamburg_cell_1_5_0 11,925Hamburg_cell_1_5_1
BulgariaHamburg_cell_1_6_0 10,547Hamburg_cell_1_6_1
PortugalHamburg_cell_1_7_0 10,541Hamburg_cell_1_7_1
RussiaHamburg_cell_1_8_0 9,335Hamburg_cell_1_8_1
ItalyHamburg_cell_1_9_0 8,806Hamburg_cell_1_9_1
IranHamburg_cell_1_10_0 8,282Hamburg_cell_1_10_1
SpainHamburg_cell_1_11_0 7,197Hamburg_cell_1_11_1
CroatiaHamburg_cell_1_12_0 7,095Hamburg_cell_1_12_1
GreeceHamburg_cell_1_13_0 7,085Hamburg_cell_1_13_1
SerbiaHamburg_cell_1_14_0 7,057Hamburg_cell_1_14_1
North MacedoniaHamburg_cell_1_15_0 6,883Hamburg_cell_1_15_1
GhanaHamburg_cell_1_16_0 6,194Hamburg_cell_1_16_1
PhilippinesHamburg_cell_1_17_0 5,847Hamburg_cell_1_17_1
FranceHamburg_cell_1_18_0 5,439Hamburg_cell_1_18_1
ChinaHamburg_cell_1_19_0 5,369Hamburg_cell_1_19_1
IraqHamburg_cell_1_20_0 5,031Hamburg_cell_1_20_1
AustriaHamburg_cell_1_21_0 4,583Hamburg_cell_1_21_1
IndiaHamburg_cell_1_22_0 4,411Hamburg_cell_1_22_1

On 31 December 2016, there were 1,860,759 people registered as living in Hamburg in an area of 755.3 km (291.6 sq mi). Hamburg_sentence_106

The population density was 2,464/km (6,380/sq mi). Hamburg_sentence_107

The metropolitan area of the Hamburg region (Hamburg Metropolitan Region) is home to 5,107,429 living on 196/km (510/sq mi). Hamburg_sentence_108

There were 915,319 women and 945,440 men in Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_109

For every 1,000 females, there were 1,033 males. Hamburg_sentence_110

In 2015, there were 19,768 births in Hamburg (of which 38.3% were to unmarried women); 6422 marriages and 3190 divorces, and 17,565 deaths. Hamburg_sentence_111

In the city, the population was spread out, with 16.1% under the age of 18, and 18.3% were 65 years of age or older. Hamburg_sentence_112

356 people in Hamburg were over the age of 100. Hamburg_sentence_113

According to the Statistical Office for Hamburg and Schleswig Holstein, the number of people with a migrant background is at 34% (631,246). Hamburg_sentence_114

Immigrants come from 200 different countries. Hamburg_sentence_115

5,891 people have acquired German cititzenship in 2016. Hamburg_sentence_116

In 2016, there were 1,021,666 households, of which 17.8% had children under the age of 18; 54.4% of all households were made up of singles. Hamburg_sentence_117

25.6% of all households were single parent households. Hamburg_sentence_118

The average household size was 1.8. Hamburg_sentence_119

Foreign citizens in Hamburg Hamburg_section_9

Hamburg residents with a foreign citizenship as of 31 December 2016 is as follows Hamburg_sentence_120

Hamburg_table_general_2

CitizenshipHamburg_header_cell_2_0_0 NumberHamburg_header_cell_2_0_1 %Hamburg_header_cell_2_0_2
TotalHamburg_cell_2_1_0 288,338Hamburg_cell_2_1_1 100%Hamburg_cell_2_1_2
EuropeHamburg_cell_2_2_0 193,812Hamburg_cell_2_2_1 67.2%Hamburg_cell_2_2_2
European UnionHamburg_cell_2_3_0 109,496Hamburg_cell_2_3_1 38%Hamburg_cell_2_3_2
AsianHamburg_cell_2_4_0 59,292Hamburg_cell_2_4_1 20.6%Hamburg_cell_2_4_2
AfricanHamburg_cell_2_5_0 18,996Hamburg_cell_2_5_1 6.6%Hamburg_cell_2_5_2
AmericanHamburg_cell_2_6_0 11,315Hamburg_cell_2_6_1 3.9%Hamburg_cell_2_6_2
Australian and OceanianHamburg_cell_2_7_0 1,234Hamburg_cell_2_7_1 0.4%Hamburg_cell_2_7_2

Language Hamburg_section_10

See also: Hamburgisch dialect Hamburg_sentence_121

Like elsewhere in Germany, Standard German is spoken in Hamburg, but as typical for northern Germany, the original language of Hamburg is Low German, usually referred to as Hamborger Platt (German Hamburger Platt) or Hamborgsch. Hamburg_sentence_122

Since large-scale standardization of the German language beginning in earnest in the 18th century, various Low German-colored dialects have developed (contact-varieties of German on Low Saxon substrates). Hamburg_sentence_123

Originally, there was a range of such Missingsch varieties, the best-known being the low-prestige ones of the working classes and the somewhat more bourgeois Hanseatendeutsch (Hanseatic German), although the term is used in appreciation. Hamburg_sentence_124

All of these are now moribund due to the influences of Standard German used by education and media. Hamburg_sentence_125

However, the former importance of Low German is indicated by several songs, such as the famous sea shanty Hamborger Veermaster, written in the 19th century when Low German was used more frequently. Hamburg_sentence_126

Many toponyms and street names reflect Low Saxon vocabulary, partially even in Low Saxon spelling, which is not standardised, and to some part in forms adapted to Standard German. Hamburg_sentence_127

Religion Hamburg_section_11

Less than half of the residents of Hamburg are members of an organized religious group. Hamburg_sentence_128

In 2018, 24.9% of the population belonged to the North Elbian Evangelical Lutheran Church, the largest religious body, and 9.9% to the Roman Catholic Church. Hamburg_sentence_129

65.2% of the population is not religious or adherent other religions. Hamburg_sentence_130

According to the publication "Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland" (Muslim life in Germany) estimated 141,900 Muslim migrants (counting in nearly 50 countries of origin) lived in Hamburg in 2008. Hamburg_sentence_131

About three years later (May 2011) calculations based on census data for 21 countries of origin resulted in the number of about 143,200 Muslim migrants in Hamburg, making up 8.4% percent of the population. Hamburg_sentence_132

Hamburg is seat of one of the three bishops of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany and seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_133

There are several mosques, including the Ahmadiyya run Fazle Omar Mosque, which is the oldest in the city, the Islamic Centre Hamburg, and a Jewish community. Hamburg_sentence_134

Government Hamburg_section_12

Further information: Government of Hamburg and List of mayors of Hamburg Hamburg_sentence_135

The city of Hamburg is one of 16 German states, therefore the Mayor of Hamburg's office corresponds more to the role of a minister-president than to the one of a city mayor. Hamburg_sentence_136

As a German state government, it is responsible for public education, correctional institutions and public safety; as a municipality, it is additionally responsible for libraries, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply and welfare services. Hamburg_sentence_137

Since 1897, the seat of the government has been the Hamburg Rathaus (Hamburg City Hall), with the office of the mayor, the meeting room for the Senate and the floor for the Hamburg Parliament. Hamburg_sentence_138

From 2001 until 2010, the mayor of Hamburg was Ole von Beust, who governed in Germany's first statewide "black-green" coalition, consisting of the conservative CDU and the alternative GAL, which are Hamburg's regional wing of the Alliance 90/The Greens party. Hamburg_sentence_139

Von Beust was briefly succeeded by Christoph Ahlhaus in 2010, but the coalition broke apart on November, 28. Hamburg_sentence_140

2010. Hamburg_sentence_141

On 7 March 2011 Olaf Scholz (SPD) became mayor. Hamburg_sentence_142

After the 2015 election the SPD and the Alliance 90/The Greens formed a coalition. Hamburg_sentence_143

Boroughs Hamburg_section_13

Main article: Boroughs and quarters of Hamburg Hamburg_sentence_144

Hamburg is made up of seven boroughs (German: Bezirke) and subdivided into 104 quarters (German: Stadtteile). Hamburg_sentence_145

There are 181 localities (German: Ortsteile). Hamburg_sentence_146

The urban organization is regulated by the Constitution of Hamburg and several laws. Hamburg_sentence_147

Most of the quarters were former independent cities, towns or villages annexed into Hamburg proper. Hamburg_sentence_148

The last large annexation was done through the Greater Hamburg Act of 1937, when the cities Altona, Harburg and Wandsbek were merged into the state of Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_149

The Act of the Constitution and Administration of Hanseatic city of Hamburg established Hamburg as a state and a municipality. Hamburg_sentence_150

Some of the boroughs and quarters have been rearranged several times. Hamburg_sentence_151

Each borough is governed by a Borough Council (German: Bezirksversammlung) and administered by a Municipal Administrator (German: Bezirksamtsleiter). Hamburg_sentence_152

The boroughs are not independent municipalities: their power is limited and subordinate to the Senate of Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_153

The borough administrator is elected by the Borough Council and thereafter requires confirmation and appointment by Hamburg's Senate. Hamburg_sentence_154

The quarters have no governing bodies of their own. Hamburg_sentence_155

In 2008, the boroughs were Hamburg-Mitte, Altona, Eimsbüttel, Hamburg-Nord, Wandsbek, Bergedorf and Harburg. Hamburg_sentence_156

Hamburg-Mitte ("Hamburg Centre") covers mostly the urban centre of the city and consists of the quarters Billbrook, Billstedt, Borgfelde, Finkenwerder, HafenCity, Hamm, Hammerbrook, Horn, Kleiner Grasbrook, Neuwerk, Rothenburgsort, St. Hamburg_sentence_157 Georg, St. Hamburg_sentence_158 Pauli, Steinwerder, Veddel, Waltershof and Wilhelmsburg. Hamburg_sentence_159

The quarters Hamburg-Altstadt ("old town") and Neustadt ("new town") are the historical origin of Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_160

Altona is the westernmost urban borough, on the right bank of the Elbe river. Hamburg_sentence_161

From 1640 to 1864, Altona was under the administration of the Danish monarchy. Hamburg_sentence_162

Altona was an independent city until 1937. Hamburg_sentence_163

Politically, the following quarters are part of Altona: Altona-Altstadt, Altona-Nord, Bahrenfeld, Ottensen, Othmarschen, Groß Flottbek, Osdorf, Lurup, Nienstedten, Blankenese, Iserbrook, Sülldorf, Rissen, Sternschanze. Hamburg_sentence_164

Bergedorf consists of the quarters Allermöhe, Altengamme, Bergedorf—the centre of the former independent town, Billwerder, Curslack, Kirchwerder, Lohbrügge, Moorfleet, Neuengamme, Neuallermöhe, Ochsenwerder, Reitbrook, Spadenland and Tatenberg. Hamburg_sentence_165

Eimsbüttel is split into nine-quarters: Eidelstedt, Eimsbüttel, Harvestehude, Hoheluft-West, Lokstedt, Niendorf, Rotherbaum, Schnelsen and Stellingen. Hamburg_sentence_166

Located within this borough is former Jewish neighbourhood Grindel. Hamburg_sentence_167

Hamburg-Nord contains the quarters Alsterdorf, Barmbek-Nord, Barmbek-Süd, Dulsberg, Eppendorf, Fuhlsbüttel, Groß Borstel, Hoheluft-Ost, Hohenfelde, Langenhorn, Ohlsdorf with Ohlsdorf cemetery, Uhlenhorst and Winterhude. Hamburg_sentence_168

Harburg lies on the southern shores of the river Elbe and covers parts of the port of Hamburg, residential and rural areas, and some research institutes. Hamburg_sentence_169

The quarters are Altenwerder, Cranz, Eißendorf, Francop, Gut Moor, Harburg, Hausbruch, Heimfeld, Langenbek, Marmstorf, Moorburg, Neuenfelde, Neugraben-Fischbek, Neuland, Rönneburg, Sinstorf and Wilstorf. Hamburg_sentence_170

Wandsbek is divided into the quarters Bergstedt, Bramfeld, Duvenstedt, Eilbek, Farmsen-Berne, Hummelsbüttel, Jenfeld, Lemsahl-Mellingstedt, Marienthal, Poppenbüttel, Rahlstedt, Sasel, Steilshoop, Tonndorf, Volksdorf, Wandsbek, Wellingsbüttel and Wohldorf-Ohlstedt. Hamburg_sentence_171

Cityscape Hamburg_section_14

Architecture Hamburg_section_15

Hamburg has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles and no skyscrapers (see List of tallest buildings in Hamburg). Hamburg_sentence_172

Churches are important landmarks, such as St Nicholas', which for a short time in the 19th century was the world's tallest building. Hamburg_sentence_173

The skyline features the tall spires of the most important churches (Hauptkirchen) St Michael's (nicknamed "Michel"), St Peter's, St James's (St. Jacobi) and St. Hamburg_sentence_174 Catherine's covered with copper plates, and the Heinrich-Hertz-Turm, the radio and television tower (no longer publicly accessible). Hamburg_sentence_175

The many streams, rivers and canals are crossed by some 2,500 bridges, more than London, Amsterdam and Venice put together. Hamburg_sentence_176

Hamburg has more bridges inside its city limits than any other city in the world. Hamburg_sentence_177

The Köhlbrandbrücke, Freihafen Elbbrücken, and Lombardsbrücke and Kennedybrücke dividing Binnenalster from Aussenalster are important roadways. Hamburg_sentence_178

The town hall is a richly decorated Neo-Renaissance building finished in 1897. Hamburg_sentence_179

The tower is 112 metres (367 ft) high. Hamburg_sentence_180

Its façade, 111 m (364 ft) long, depicts the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, since Hamburg was, as a Free Imperial City, only under the sovereignty of the emperor. Hamburg_sentence_181

The Chilehaus, a brick expressionist office building built in 1922 and designed by architect Fritz Höger, is shaped like an ocean liner. Hamburg_sentence_182

Europe's largest urban development since 2008, the HafenCity, will house about 10,000 inhabitants and 15,000 workers. Hamburg_sentence_183

The plan includes designs by Rem Koolhaas and Renzo Piano. Hamburg_sentence_184

The Elbphilharmonie (Elbe Philharmonic Hall), opened in January 2017, houses concerts in a sail-shaped building on top of an old warehouse, designed by architects Herzog & de Meuron. Hamburg_sentence_185

The many parks are distributed over the whole city, which makes Hamburg a very verdant city. Hamburg_sentence_186

The biggest parks are the Stadtpark, the Ohlsdorf Cemetery and Planten un Blomen. Hamburg_sentence_187

The Stadtpark, Hamburg's "Central Park", has a great lawn and a huge water tower, which houses one of Europe's biggest planetaria. Hamburg_sentence_188

The park and its buildings were designed by Fritz Schumacher in the 1910s. Hamburg_sentence_189

Parks and gardens Hamburg_section_16

See also: List of parks and gardens in Hamburg Hamburg_sentence_190

The lavish and spacious Planten un Blomen park (Low German dialect for "plants and flowers") located in the centre of Hamburg is the green heart of the city. Hamburg_sentence_191

Within the park are various thematic gardens, the biggest Japanese garden in Germany, and the Alter Botanischer Garten Hamburg, which is a historic botanical garden that now consists primarily of greenhouses. Hamburg_sentence_192

The Botanischer Garten Hamburg is a modern botanical garden maintained by the University of Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_193

Besides these, there are many more parks of various sizes. Hamburg_sentence_194

In 2014 Hamburg celebrated a birthday of park culture, where many parks were reconstructed and cleaned up. Hamburg_sentence_195

Moreover, every year there are the famous water-light-concerts in the Planten un Blomen park from May to early October. Hamburg_sentence_196

Culture and contemporary life Hamburg_section_17

Hamburg has more than 40 theatres, 60 museums and 100 music venues and clubs. Hamburg_sentence_197

In 2005, more than 18 million people visited concerts, exhibitions, theatres, cinemas, museums, and cultural events. Hamburg_sentence_198

More than 8,552 taxable companies (average size 3.16 employees) were engaged in the culture sector, which includes music, performing arts and literature. Hamburg_sentence_199

There are five companies in the creative sector per thousand residents (as compared to three in Berlin and 37 in London). Hamburg_sentence_200

Hamburg has entered the European Green Capital Award scheme, and was awarded the title of European Green Capital for 2011. Hamburg_sentence_201

Theatres Hamburg_section_18

See also: List of theatres in Hamburg Hamburg_sentence_202

The state-owned Deutsches Schauspielhaus, the Thalia Theatre, Ohnsorg Theatre, "Schmidts Tivoli" and the Kampnagel are well-known theatres. Hamburg_sentence_203

The English Theatre of Hamburg near U3 Mundsburg station was established in 1976 and is the oldest professional English-speaking theatre in Germany, and has exclusively English native-speaking actors in its company. Hamburg_sentence_204

Museums Hamburg_section_19

See also: List of museums in Hamburg Hamburg_sentence_205

Hamburg has several large museums and galleries showing classical and contemporary art, for example the Kunsthalle Hamburg with its contemporary art gallery (Galerie der Gegenwart), the Museum for Art and Industry (Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe) and the Deichtorhallen/House of Photography. Hamburg_sentence_206

The Internationales Maritimes Museum Hamburg opened in the HafenCity quarter in 2008. Hamburg_sentence_207

There are various specialised museums in Hamburg, such as the Archaeological Museum Hamburg (Archäologisches Museum Hamburg) in Hamburg-Harburg, the Hamburg Museum of Work (Museum der Arbeit), and several museums of local history, for example the Kiekeberg Open Air Museum (Freilichtmuseum am Kiekeberg). Hamburg_sentence_208

Two museum ships near Landungsbrücken bear witness to the freight ship (Cap San Diego) and cargo sailing ship era (Rickmer Rickmers). Hamburg_sentence_209

The world's largest model railway museum Miniatur Wunderland with 15.4 km (9.57 mi) total railway length is also situated near Landungsbrücken in a former warehouse. Hamburg_sentence_210

BallinStadt (Emigration City) is dedicated to the millions of Europeans who emigrated to North and South America between 1850 and 1939. Hamburg_sentence_211

Visitors descending from those overseas emigrants may search for their ancestors at computer terminals. Hamburg_sentence_212

Music Hamburg_section_20

Hamburg State Opera is a leading opera company. Hamburg_sentence_213

Its orchestra is the Philharmoniker Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_214

The city's other well-known orchestra is the NDR Elbphilharmonie Orchestra. Hamburg_sentence_215

The main concert venue is the new concert hall Elbphilharmonie. Hamburg_sentence_216

Before it was the Laeiszhalle, Musikhalle Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_217

The Laeiszhalle also houses a third orchestra, the Hamburger Symphoniker. Hamburg_sentence_218

György Ligeti and Alfred Schnittke taught at the Hochschule für Musik und Theater Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_219

Hamburg is the birthplace of Johannes Brahms, who spent his formative early years in the city, and the birthplace and home of the famous waltz composer Oscar Fetrás, who wrote the well-known "Mondnacht auf der Alster" waltz. Hamburg_sentence_220

Since the German premiere of Cats in 1986, there have always been musicals running, including The Phantom of the Opera, The Lion King, Dirty Dancing and Dance of the Vampires (musical). Hamburg_sentence_221

This density, the highest in Germany, is partly due to the major musical production company Stage Entertainment being based in the city. Hamburg_sentence_222

The city was a major centre for rock music in the early 1960s. Hamburg_sentence_223

The Beatles lived and played in Hamburg during a period from August 1960 to December 1962. Hamburg_sentence_224

They proved popular and gained local acclaim. Hamburg_sentence_225

Prior to the group's initial recording and widespread fame, Hamburg provided residency and performing venues for the Beatles from 1960 to 1962. Hamburg_sentence_226

Hamburg has nurtured a number of other pop musicians. Hamburg_sentence_227

Identical twins Bill Kaulitz and Tom Kaulitz from the rock band Tokio Hotel live and maintain a recording studio in Hamburg, where they recorded their second and third albums, Zimmer 483 and Humanoid. Hamburg_sentence_228

Singer Nena also lives in Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_229

There are German hip hop acts, such as Fünf Sterne deluxe, Samy Deluxe, Beginner and Fettes Brot. Hamburg_sentence_230

There is a substantial alternative and punk scene, which gathers around the Rote Flora, a squatted former theatre located in the Sternschanze. Hamburg_sentence_231

Hamburg is famous for an original kind of German alternative music called Hamburger Schule ("Hamburg School"), a term used for bands like Tocotronic, Blumfeld, Tomte or Kante. Hamburg_sentence_232

The city was a major centre for heavy metal music in the 1980s. Hamburg_sentence_233

Helloween, Gamma Ray, Running Wild and Grave Digger started in Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_234

The industrial rock band KMFDM was also formed in Hamburg, initially as a performance art project. Hamburg_sentence_235

The influences of these and other bands from the area helped establish the subgenre of power metal. Hamburg_sentence_236

Hamburg has a vibrant psychedelic trance community, with record labels such as Spirit Zone. Hamburg_sentence_237

Festivals and regular events Hamburg_section_21

Hamburg is noted for several festivals and regular events. Hamburg_sentence_238

Some of them are street festivals, such as the gay pride Hamburg Pride festival or the Alster fair (German: Alstervergnügen), held at the Binnenalster. Hamburg_sentence_239

The Hamburger DOM is northern Germany's biggest funfair, held three times a year. Hamburg_sentence_240

Hafengeburtstag is a funfair to honour the birthday of the port of Hamburg with a party and a ship parade. Hamburg_sentence_241

The annual biker's service in Saint Michael's Church attracts tens of thousands of bikers. Hamburg_sentence_242

Christmas markets in December are held at the Hamburg Rathaus square, among other places. Hamburg_sentence_243

The long night of museums (German: Lange Nacht der Museen) offers one entrance fee for about 40 museums until midnight. Hamburg_sentence_244

The sixth Festival of Cultures was held in September 2008, celebrating multi-cultural life. Hamburg_sentence_245

The Filmfest Hamburg — a film festival originating from the 1950s Film Days (German: Film Tage) — presents a wide range of films. Hamburg_sentence_246

The Hamburg Messe and Congress offers a venue for trade shows, such hanseboot, an international boat show, or Du und deine Welt, a large consumer products show. Hamburg_sentence_247

Regular sports events—some open to pro and amateur participants—are the cycling competition EuroEyes Cyclassics, the Hamburg Marathon, the biggest marathon in Germany after Berlin, the tennis tournament Hamburg Masters and equestrian events like the Deutsches Derby. Hamburg_sentence_248

Since 2007, Hamburg has the Dockville music and art festival. Hamburg_sentence_249

It takes place every year in summer in Wilhelmsburg. Hamburg_sentence_250

Cuisine Hamburg_section_22

Main article: Cuisine of Hamburg Hamburg_sentence_251

Original Hamburg dishes are Birnen, Bohnen und Speck (green beans cooked with pears and bacon), Aalsuppe (Hamburgisch Oolsupp) is often mistaken to be German for "eel soup" (Aal/Ool translated 'eel'), but the name probably comes from the Low Saxon allns [aˑlns], meaning "all", "everything and the kitchen sink", not necessarily eel. Hamburg_sentence_252

Today eel is often included to meet the expectations of unsuspecting diners. Hamburg_sentence_253

There is Bratkartoffeln (pan-fried potato slices), Finkenwerder Scholle (Low Saxon Finkwarder Scholl, pan-fried plaice), Pannfisch (pan-fried fish with mustard sauce), Rote Grütze (Low Saxon Rode Grütt, related to Danish rødgrød, a type of summer pudding made mostly from berries and usually served with cream, like Danish rødgrød med fløde) and Labskaus (a mixture of corned beef, mashed potatoes and beetroot, a cousin of the Norwegian lapskaus and Liverpool's lobscouse, all offshoots off an old-time one-pot meal that used to be the main component of the common sailor's humdrum diet on the high seas). Hamburg_sentence_254

Alsterwasser (in reference to the city's river, the Alster) is the local name for a type of shandy, a concoction of equal parts of beer and carbonated lemonade (Zitronenlimonade), the lemonade being added to the beer. Hamburg_sentence_255

There is the curious regional dessert pastry called Franzbrötchen. Hamburg_sentence_256

Looking rather like a flattened croissant, it is similar in preparation but includes a cinnamon and sugar filling, often with raisins or brown sugar streusel. Hamburg_sentence_257

The name may also reflect to the roll's croissant-like appearance – franz appears to be a shortening of französisch, meaning "French", which would make a Franzbrötchen a "French roll". Hamburg_sentence_258

Ordinary bread rolls tend to be oval-shaped and of the French bread variety. Hamburg_sentence_259

The local name is Schrippe (scored lengthways) for the oval kind and, for the round kind, Rundstück ("round piece" rather than mainstream German Brötchen, diminutive form of Brot "bread"), a relative of Denmark's rundstykke. Hamburg_sentence_260

In fact, while by no means identical, the cuisines of Hamburg and Denmark, especially of Copenhagen, have a lot in common. Hamburg_sentence_261

This also includes a predilection for open-faced sandwiches of all sorts, especially topped with cold-smoked or pickled fish. Hamburg_sentence_262

The American hamburger may have developed from Hamburg's Frikadeller: a pan-fried patty (usually larger and thicker than its American counterpart) made from a mixture of ground beef, soaked stale bread, egg, chopped onion, salt and pepper, usually served with potatoes and vegetables like any other piece of meat, not usually on a bun. Hamburg_sentence_263

The Oxford Dictionary defined a Hamburger steak in 1802: a sometimes-smoked and -salted piece of meat, that, according to some sources, came from Hamburg to America. Hamburg_sentence_264

The name and food, "hamburger", has entered all English-speaking countries, and derivative words in non-English speaking countries. Hamburg_sentence_265

There are restaurants which offer most of these dishes, especially in the HafenCity. Hamburg_sentence_266

Main sights Hamburg_section_23

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Alternative culture Hamburg_section_24

Hamburg has long been a centre of alternative music and counter-culture movements. Hamburg_sentence_267

The boroughs of St. Hamburg_sentence_268 Pauli, Sternschanze and Altona are known for being home to many radical left-wing and anarchist groups, culminating every year during the traditional May Day demonstrations. Hamburg_sentence_269

During the 2017 G20 summit, which took place in Hamburg from 7–8 July that year, protestors clashed violently with the police in the Sternschanze area and particularly around the Rote Flora. Hamburg_sentence_270

On 7 July, several cars were set on fire and street barricades were erected to prevent the police from entering the area. Hamburg_sentence_271

In response to that, the police made heavy use of water cannons and tear gas in order to scatter the protestors. Hamburg_sentence_272

However, this was met with strong resistance by protestors, resulting in a total of 160 injured police and 75 arrested participants in the protests. Hamburg_sentence_273

After the summit, however, the Rote Flora issued a statement, in which it condemns the arbitrary acts of violence that were committed by some of the protestors whilst generally defending the right to use violence as a means of self-defence against police oppression. Hamburg_sentence_274

In particular, the spokesperson of the Rote Flora said that the autonomous cultural centre had a traditionally good relationship with its neighbours and local residents, since they were united in their fight against gentrification in that neighbourhood. Hamburg_sentence_275

British culture Hamburg_section_25

There are several English-speaking communities, such as the Caledonian Society of Hamburg, The British Club Hamburg, British and Commonwealth Luncheon Club, Anglo-German Club e.V. Hamburg_sentence_276 , Professional Women's Forum, The British Decorative and Fine Arts Society, The English Speaking Union of the Commonwealth, The Scottish Country Dancers of Hamburg, The Hamburg Players e.V. English Language Theatre Group, The Hamburg Exiles Rugby Club, several cricket clubs, and The Morris Minor Register of Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_277

Furthermore, the Anglo-Hanseatic Lodge No. Hamburg_sentence_278

850 within the Grand Lodge of British Freemasons of Germany under the United Grand Lodges of Germany works in Hamburg, and has a diverse expat membership. Hamburg_sentence_279

There is also a 400-year-old Anglican church community worshipping at . Hamburg_sentence_280

American and international English-speaking organisations include The American Club of Hamburg e.V. Hamburg_sentence_281 , the American Women's Club of Hamburg, the English Speaking Union, the German-American Women's Club, and The International Women's Club of Hamburg e.V. Hamburg_sentence_282

The American Chamber of Commerce handles matters related to business affairs. Hamburg_sentence_283

The International School of Hamburg serves school children. Hamburg_sentence_284

William Wordsworth, Dorothy Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge spent the last two weeks of September 1798 at Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_285

Dorothy wrote a detailed journal of their stay, labelled "The Hamburg Journal (1798) by noted Wordsworth scholar Edward de Selincourt. Hamburg_sentence_286

A Hamburg saying, referring to its anglophile nature, is: "Wenn es in London anfängt zu regnen, spannen die Hamburger den Schirm auf." Hamburg_sentence_287

... "When it starts raining in London, people in Hamburg open their umbrellas." Hamburg_sentence_288

Memorials Hamburg_section_26

A memorial for successful English engineer William Lindley, who reorganized, beginning in 1842, the drinking water and sewage system and thus helped to fight against cholera, is near Baumwall train station in Vorsetzen street. Hamburg_sentence_289

In 2009, more than 2,500 "stumbling blocks" (Stolpersteine) were laid, engraved with the names of deported and murdered citizens. Hamburg_sentence_290

Inserted into the pavement in front of their former houses, the blocks draw attention to the victims of Nazi persecution. Hamburg_sentence_291

Economy Hamburg_section_27

The Gross domestic product (GDP) of Hamburg was 119.0 billion € in 2018, accounting for 3.6% of German economic output. Hamburg_sentence_292

GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 59,600 € or 197% of the EU27 average in the same year. Hamburg_sentence_293

The GDP per employee was 132% of the EU average. Hamburg_sentence_294

The city has a relatively high employment rate, at 88 percent of the working-age population, employed in over 160,000 businesses. Hamburg_sentence_295

The average income in 2016 of employees was €49,332. Hamburg_sentence_296

The unemployment rate stood at 6.1% in October 2018 and was higher than the German average. Hamburg_sentence_297

Hamburg_table_general_3

YearHamburg_header_cell_3_0_0 2000Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_1 2001Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_2 2002Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_3 2003Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_4 2004Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_5 2005Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_6 2006Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_7 2007Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_8 2008Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_9 2009Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_10 2010Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_11 2011Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_12 2012Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_13 2013Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_14 2014Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_15 2015Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_16 2016Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_17 2017Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_18 2018Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_19 2019Hamburg_header_cell_3_0_20
Unemployment rate in %Hamburg_cell_3_1_0 8.9Hamburg_cell_3_1_1 8.3Hamburg_cell_3_1_2 9.0Hamburg_cell_3_1_3 9.9Hamburg_cell_3_1_4 9.7Hamburg_cell_3_1_5 11.3Hamburg_cell_3_1_6 11.0Hamburg_cell_3_1_7 9.1Hamburg_cell_3_1_8 8.1Hamburg_cell_3_1_9 8.6Hamburg_cell_3_1_10 8.2Hamburg_cell_3_1_11 7.8Hamburg_cell_3_1_12 7.5Hamburg_cell_3_1_13 7.4Hamburg_cell_3_1_14 7.6Hamburg_cell_3_1_15 7.4Hamburg_cell_3_1_16 7.1Hamburg_cell_3_1_17 6.8Hamburg_cell_3_1_18 6.3Hamburg_cell_3_1_19 6.1Hamburg_cell_3_1_20

Banking Hamburg_section_28

Hamburg has for centuries been a commercial centre of Northern Europe, and is the most important banking city of Northern Germany. Hamburg_sentence_298

The city is the seat of Germany's oldest bank, the Berenberg Bank, M.M.Warburg & CO and HSH Nordbank. Hamburg_sentence_299

The Hamburg Stock Exchange is the oldest of its kind in Germany. Hamburg_sentence_300

Port Hamburg_section_29

Main article: Port of Hamburg Hamburg_sentence_301

The most significant economic unit is the Port of Hamburg, which ranks third to Rotterdam and Antwerpen in Europe and 17th-largest worldwide with transshipments of 8.9 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) of cargo and 138.2 million tons of goods in 2016. International trade is also the reason for the large number of consulates in the city. Hamburg_sentence_302

Although situated 110 kilometres (70 mi) up the Elbe, it is considered a sea port due to its ability to handle large ocean-going vessels. Hamburg_sentence_303

Industrial production Hamburg_section_30

Heavy industry of Hamburg includes the making of steel, aluminium, copper and various large shipyards such as Blohm + Voss. Hamburg_sentence_304

Hamburg, along with Seattle and Toulouse, is an important location of the civil aerospace industry. Hamburg_sentence_305

Airbus, which has an assembly plant in Finkenwerder, employs over 13,000 people. Hamburg_sentence_306

HafenCity Hamburg_section_31

The HafenCity is Europe's largest urban development project and is located in the Hamburg-Mitte district. Hamburg_sentence_307

It consists of the area of the Great Grasbrook, the northern part of the former Elbe island Grasbrook, and the warehouse district on the former Elbe island Kehrwieder and Wandrahm. Hamburg_sentence_308

It is bordered to the north, separated by the customs channel to Hamburg's city center, west and south by the Elbe and to the east, bounded by the upper harbor, Rothenburgsort. Hamburg_sentence_309

The district is full of rivers and streams and is surrounded by channels, and has a total area of about 2.2 square-kilometers. Hamburg_sentence_310

HafenCity has 155 hectares in the area formerly belonging to the free port north of the Great Grasbrook. Hamburg_sentence_311

Residential units for up to 12,000 people are planned to be built on the site by around the mid-2020s, and jobs for up to 40,000 people, mainly in the office sector, should be created. Hamburg_sentence_312

It is the largest ongoing urban development project in Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_313

Construction work started in 2003, and in 2009 the first part of the urban development project was finished with the completion of the Dalmannkai / Sandtorkai neighborhood – which is the first stage of the HafenCity project. Hamburg_sentence_314

According to the person responsible for the development and commercialization of HafenCity, HafenCity Hamburg GmbH, half of the master plan underlying structural construction is already completed, whereas the other half is either under construction or is in the construction preparation stages. Hamburg_sentence_315

Many companies operating in E-Commerce have moved into HafenCity or started there. Hamburg_sentence_316

In addition to cruise agents, many start-up companies that have no direct connection to the port or ships can be found in HafenCity. Hamburg_sentence_317

Tourism Hamburg_section_32

In 2017, more than 6,783,000 visitors with 13,822,000 overnight stays visited the city. Hamburg_sentence_318

The tourism sector employs more than 175,000 people full-time and brings in revenue of almost €9 billion, making the tourism industry a major economic force in the Hamburg Metropolitan Region. Hamburg_sentence_319

Hamburg has one of the fastest-growing tourism industries in Germany. Hamburg_sentence_320

From 2001 to 2007, the overnight stays in the city increased by 55.2% (Berlin +52.7%, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern +33%). Hamburg_sentence_321

A typical Hamburg visit includes a tour of the city hall and the grand church St. Hamburg_sentence_322 Michaelis (called the Michel), and visiting the old warehouse district (Speicherstadt) and the harbour promenade (Landungsbrücken). Hamburg_sentence_323

Sightseeing buses connect these points of interest. Hamburg_sentence_324

As Hamburg is one of the world's largest harbours many visitors take one of the harbour and/or canal boat tours (Große Hafenrundfahrt, Fleetfahrt) which start from the Landungsbrücken. Hamburg_sentence_325

Major destinations also include museums. Hamburg_sentence_326

The area of Reeperbahn in the quarter St. Hamburg_sentence_327 Pauli is Europe's largest red light district and home of strip clubs, brothels, bars and nightclubs. Hamburg_sentence_328

The singer and actor Hans Albers is strongly associated with St. Pauli, and wrote the neighbourhood's unofficial anthem, "Auf der Reeperbahn Nachts um Halb Eins" ("On the Reeperbahn at Half Past Midnight") in the 1940s. Hamburg_sentence_329

The Beatles had stints on the Reeperbahn early in their careers. Hamburg_sentence_330

Others prefer the laid-back neighbourhood Schanze with its street cafés, or a barbecue on one of the beaches along the river Elbe. Hamburg_sentence_331

Hamburg's famous zoo, the Tierpark Hagenbeck, was founded in 1907 by Carl Hagenbeck as the first zoo with moated, barless enclosures. Hamburg_sentence_332

In 2016, the average visitor spent two nights in Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_333

The majority of visitors come from Germany. Hamburg_sentence_334

Most foreigners are European, especially from Denmark (395,681 overnight stays), the United Kingdom (301,000 overnight stays), Switzerland (340,156 overnight stays), Austria (about 252,397 overnight stays) and the Netherlands (about 182,610 overnight stays). Hamburg_sentence_335

The largest group from outside Europe comes from the United States (206,614 overnight stays). Hamburg_sentence_336

The Queen Mary 2 has docked regularly since 2004, and there were six departures planned from 2010 onwards. Hamburg_sentence_337

Media Hamburg_section_33

Media businesses employ over 70,000 people. Hamburg_sentence_338

The Norddeutscher Rundfunk which includes the television station NDR Fernsehen is based in Hamburg, including the very popular news program Tagesschau, as are the commercial television station Hamburg 1, the Christian television station Bibel TV and the civil media outlet Tide TV. Hamburg_sentence_339

There are regional radio stations such as Radio Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_340

Some of Germany's largest publishing companies, Axel Springer AG, Gruner + Jahr, Bauer Media Group are located in the city. Hamburg_sentence_341

Many national newspapers and magazines such as Der Spiegel and Die Zeit are produced in Hamburg, as well as some special-interest newspapers such as Financial Times Deutschland. Hamburg_sentence_342

Hamburger Abendblatt and Hamburger Morgenpost are daily regional newspapers with a large circulation. Hamburg_sentence_343

There are music publishers, such as Warner Bros. Records Germany, and ICT firms such as Adobe Systems and Google Germany. Hamburg_sentence_344

Hamburg was one of the locations for the James Bond series film Tomorrow Never Dies. Hamburg_sentence_345

The Reeperbahn has been the location for many scenes, including the 1994 Beatles film Backbeat. Hamburg_sentence_346

The film A Most Wanted Man was set in and filmed in Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_347

Hamburg was also shown in An American Tail where Fievel Mousekewitz and his family immigrate to America in the hopes to escape cats. Hamburg_sentence_348

Infrastructure Hamburg_section_34

Health systems Hamburg_section_35

Hamburg has 54 hospitals. Hamburg_sentence_349

The University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, with about 1,736 beds, houses a large medical school. Hamburg_sentence_350

There are also smaller private hospitals. Hamburg_sentence_351

On 1 January 2011 there were about 12,507 hospital beds. Hamburg_sentence_352

The city had 5,663 physicians in private practice and 456 pharmacies in 2010. Hamburg_sentence_353

Transport Hamburg_section_36

Main article: Transport in Hamburg Hamburg_sentence_354

Hamburg is a major transportation hub, connected to four Autobahnen (motorways) and the most important railway junction on the route to Scandinavia. Hamburg_sentence_355

Bridges and tunnels connect the northern and southern parts of the city, such as the old Elbe Tunnel (Alter Elbtunnel) or St. Pauli Elbtunnel (official name) which opened in 1911, now is major tourist sight, and the Elbe Tunnel (Elbtunnel) the crossing of a motorway. Hamburg_sentence_356

Hamburg Airport is the oldest airport in Germany still in operation. Hamburg_sentence_357

There is also the smaller Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport, used only as a company airport for Airbus. Hamburg_sentence_358

Some airlines market Lübeck Airport in Lübeck as serving Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_359

Hamburg's licence plate prefix was "HH" (Hansestadt Hamburg; English: Hanseatic City of Hamburg) between 1906 and 1945 and from 1956 onwards, rather than the single letter normally used for large cities since the federal registration reform in 1956, such as B for Berlin or M for Munich. Hamburg_sentence_360

"H" was Hamburg's prefix in the years between 1945 and 1947 (used by Hanover since 1956); Hamburg_sentence_361

Public transport Hamburg_section_37

Public transport by rail, bus and ship is organised by the Hamburger Verkehrsverbund ("Hamburg transit authority") (HVV). Hamburg_sentence_362

Tickets sold by one company are valid on all other HVV companies' services. Hamburg_sentence_363

The HVV was the first organisation of this kind worldwide. Hamburg_sentence_364

33 mass transit rail lines across the city are the backbone of public transport. Hamburg_sentence_365

The S-Bahn (commuter train system) comprises six lines and the U-Bahn four lines – U-Bahn is short for Untergrundbahn (underground railway). Hamburg_sentence_366

Approximately 41 km (25 mi) of 101 km (63 mi) of the U-Bahn is underground; most is on embankments or viaduct or at ground level. Hamburg_sentence_367

Older residents still speak of the system as Hochbahn (elevated railway), also because the operating company of the subway is the Hamburger Hochbahn. Hamburg_sentence_368

The AKN railway connects satellite towns in Schleswig-Holstein to the city. Hamburg_sentence_369

On some routes regional trains of Germany's major railway company Deutsche Bahn AG and the regional metronom trains may be used with an HVV ticket. Hamburg_sentence_370

Except at the four bigger stations of the city, Hauptbahnhof, Dammtor, Altona and Harburg regional trains do not stop inside the city. Hamburg_sentence_371

The tram system was opened in 1866 and shut down in 1978. Hamburg_sentence_372

Gaps in the rail network are filled by more than 669 bus routes, operated by single-deck two-, three- and four-axle diesel buses. Hamburg_sentence_373

Hamburg has no trams or trolleybuses, but has hydrogen-fueled buses. Hamburg_sentence_374

The buses run frequently during working hours, with buses on some so-called MetroBus routes as often as every 2 minutes. Hamburg_sentence_375

On special weekday night lines the intervals can be 30 minutes or longer, on normal days (Monday-Friday) the normal buses stop running at night. Hamburg_sentence_376

(MetroBuses run all around the clock, every day at the year at least every half-hour.) Hamburg_sentence_377

There are eight ferry lines along the River Elbe, operated by HADAG, that fall under the aegis of the HVV. Hamburg_sentence_378

While mainly used by citizens and dock workers, they can also be used for sightseeing tours. Hamburg_sentence_379

The international airport serving Hamburg, Hamburg Airport Helmut Schmidt (IATA: HAM, ICAO: EDDH) is the fifth biggest and oldest airport in Germany, having been established in 1912 and located about 5 miles (8 kilometres) from the city centre. Hamburg_sentence_380

About 60 airlines provide service to 125 destination airports, including some long-distance destinations like Newark, New Jersey on United Airlines, Dubai on Emirates, and Tehran on Iran Air. Hamburg_sentence_381

Hamburg is a secondary hub for Lufthansa, which is the largest carrier at the airport, and the airline also operates one of its biggest Lufthansa Technik maintenance facilities there. Hamburg_sentence_382

The second airport is located in Hamburg-Finkenwerder, officially named Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport (IATA: XFW, ICAO: EDHI). Hamburg_sentence_383

It is about 10 km (6 mi) from the city centre and is a nonpublic airport for the Airbus plant. Hamburg_sentence_384

It is the second biggest Airbus plant, after Toulouse, and the third biggest aviation manufacturing plant after Seattle and Toulouse; the plant houses the final assembly lines for A318, A319, A320, A321 and A380 aircraft. Hamburg_sentence_385

Public transportation statistics Hamburg_section_38

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Hamburg, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 58 min. Hamburg_sentence_386

16% of public transit riders, ride for more than two hours every day. Hamburg_sentence_387

The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 11 min, while 11% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. Hamburg_sentence_388

The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 8.9 km, while 21% travel for over 12 km in a single direction. Hamburg_sentence_389

Utilities Hamburg_section_39

Electricity for Hamburg and Northern Germany is largely provided by Vattenfall Europe, formerly the state-owned Hamburgische Electricitäts-Werke. Hamburg_sentence_390

Vattenfall Europe used to operate the Brunsbüttel Nuclear Power Plant and Krümmel Nuclear Power Plant, both taken out of service as part of the nuclear power phase-out. Hamburg_sentence_391

In addition, E.ON operates the Brokdorf Nuclear Power Plant near Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_392

There are also the coal-fired Wedel, Tiefstack and Moorburg CHP Plant, and the fuel-cell power plant in the HafenCity quarter. Hamburg_sentence_393

VERA Klärschlammverbrennung uses the biosolids of the Hamburg wastewater treatment plant; the Pumpspeicherwerk Geesthacht is a pump storage power plant and a solid waste combustion power station is Müllverwertung Borsigstraße. Hamburg_sentence_394

In June 2019 City of Hamburg introduced a law governing the phasing out of coal based thermal and electric energy production ("Kohleausstiegsgesetz"). Hamburg_sentence_395

This move was the result of negotiations between parliamentary parties and representatives of the popular petition ("Goodbye Coal"). Hamburg_sentence_396

Hamburg Ministry for Environment and Energy in 2020 announced a partnership with Namibia, which is a potential supplier of woody biomass from encroacher bush as replacement of coal. Hamburg_sentence_397

Sports Hamburg_section_40

Main article: Sport in Hamburg Hamburg_sentence_398

Hamburger SV is a football team playing in the 2. Hamburg_sentence_399 Bundesliga (as of 2018). Hamburg_sentence_400

The HSV was the oldest team of the Bundesliga, playing in the league since its beginning in 1963 until a change of results saw them relegated from the Bundesliga in 2018. Hamburg_sentence_401

HSV is a six-time German champion, a three-time German cup winner and triumphed in the European Cup in 1983, and has played in the group stages of the Champions League twice: in 2000–01 and in 2006–07. Hamburg_sentence_402

They play at the Volksparkstadion (average attendance in the 12–13 season was 52,916). Hamburg_sentence_403

In addition, FC St. Pauli was a second division football club that came in second place in the 2009–10 season and qualified to play alongside Hamburger SV in the first division for the first time since the 2001–02 season. Hamburg_sentence_404

St. Pauli's home games take place at the Millerntor-Stadion. Hamburg_sentence_405

The Hamburg Freezers represented Hamburg until 2016 in the DEL, the premier ice hockey league in Germany. Hamburg_sentence_406

HSV Handball represented Hamburg until 2016 in the German handball league. Hamburg_sentence_407

In 2007, HSV Handball won the European Cupwinners Cup. Hamburg_sentence_408

The Club won the league in the 2010–11 season and had an average attendance of 10.690 in the O2 World Hamburg the same year. Hamburg_sentence_409

The most recent success for the team was the EHF Champions League win in 2013. Hamburg_sentence_410

Since 2014, the club has suffered from economic problems and was almost not allowed the playing licence for the 2014–15 season. Hamburg_sentence_411

But due to economic support from the former club president/sponsor Andreas Rudolf the club was allowed the licence in the last minute. Hamburg_sentence_412

On 20 January 2016 however, their licence was removed due to violations following the continued economic struggles. Hamburg_sentence_413

In 2016–17, they were not allowed to play in the first or second league. Hamburg_sentence_414

The team lives on through their former second team (now their main team) in the third division (2016-2018) and in second division (since 2018). Hamburg_sentence_415

The BCJ Hamburg played in the Basketball Bundesliga from 1999 to 2001. Hamburg_sentence_416

Since then, teams from Hamburg have attempted to return to Germany's elite league. Hamburg_sentence_417

The recently founded Hamburg Towers have already established themselves as one of the main teams in Germany's second division ProA and aim to take on the heritage of the BCJ Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_418

The Towers play their home games at the Inselparkhalle in Wilhelmsburg. Hamburg_sentence_419

Hamburg is the nation's field hockey capital and dominates the men's as well as the women's Bundesliga. Hamburg_sentence_420

Hamburg hosts many top teams such as Uhlenhorster Hockey Club, Harvesterhuder Hockey Club and Club An Der Alster. Hamburg_sentence_421

The Hamburg Warriors are one of Germany's top lacrosse clubs. Hamburg_sentence_422

The club has grown immensely in the last several years and includes at least one youth team, three men's, and two women's teams. Hamburg_sentence_423

The team participates in the Deutsch Lacrosse Verein. Hamburg_sentence_424

The Hamburg Warriors are part of the Harvestehuder Tennis- und Hockey-Club e.V (HTHC). Hamburg_sentence_425

There are also the Hamburg Dockers, an Australian rules football club. Hamburg_sentence_426

The FC St. Pauli team dominates women's rugby in Germany. Hamburg_sentence_427

Other first-league teams include VT Aurubis Hamburg (Volleyball), Hamburger Polo Club, and Hamburg Blue Devils (American Football). Hamburg_sentence_428

There are also several minority sports clubs, including four cricket clubs. Hamburg_sentence_429

The Centre Court of the Tennis Am Rothenbaum venue, with a capacity of 13,200 people, is the largest in Germany. Hamburg_sentence_430

Hamburg also hosts equestrian events at Reitstadion Klein Flottbek (Deutsches Derby in jumping and dressage) and Horner Rennbahn (Deutsches Derby flat racing). Hamburg_sentence_431

Besides Hamburg owns the famous harness racing track "Trabrennbahn Bahrenfeld". Hamburg_sentence_432

The Hamburg Marathon is the biggest marathon in Germany after Berlin's. Hamburg_sentence_433

In 2008 23,230 participants were registered. Hamburg_sentence_434

World Cup events in cycling, the UCI ProTour competition EuroEyes Cyclassics, and the triathlon ITU World Cup event Hamburg City Man are also held in here. Hamburg_sentence_435

Volksparkstadion was used as a site for the 2006 World Cup. Hamburg_sentence_436

In 2010 UEFA held the final of the UEFA Europa League in the arena. Hamburg_sentence_437

Hamburg made a bid for the 2024 Olympic Games, but 51.7 percent of those city residents participating in a referendum in November 2015 voted against continuing Hamburg's bid to host the games. Hamburg_sentence_438

Meanwhile, Hamburg's partner city Kiel voted in favour of hosting the event, with almost 66 percent of all participants supporting the bid. Hamburg_sentence_439

Opponents of the bid had argued that hosting the 33rd Olympic Games would cost the city too much in public funds. Hamburg_sentence_440

Education Hamburg_section_41

See also: Education in Hamburg and Education in Germany Hamburg_sentence_441

The school system is managed by the Ministry of Schools and Vocational Training (Behörde für Schule und Berufsbildung). Hamburg_sentence_442

The system had approximately 191,148 students in 221 primary schools and 188 secondary schools in 2016. Hamburg_sentence_443

There are 32 public libraries in Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_444

Nineteen universities are located in Hamburg, with about 100,589 university students in total, including 9,000 resident students. Hamburg_sentence_445

Six universities are public, including the largest, the University of Hamburg (Universität Hamburg) with the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, the University of Music and Theatre, the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, the HafenCity University Hamburg and the Hamburg University of Technology. Hamburg_sentence_446

Seven universities are private, like the Bucerius Law School, the Kühne Logistics University and the HSBA Hamburg School of Business Administration. Hamburg_sentence_447

The city has also smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as the Helmut Schmidt University (formerly the University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg). Hamburg_sentence_448

Hamburg is home to one of the oldest international schools in Germany, the International School of Hamburg. Hamburg_sentence_449

Twin towns and sister cities Hamburg_section_42

Hamburg has nine twin towns and sister cities around the world. Hamburg_sentence_450

Dar es Salaam, Tanzania became its newest sister city in 2010. Hamburg_sentence_451

Hamburg_table_general_4

Hamburg_cell_4_0_0 Hamburg_cell_4_0_1

Notable people Hamburg_section_43

Further information: :Category:People from Hamburg Hamburg_sentence_452

See also Hamburg_section_44

Hamburg_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamburg.