For the Arabic term for "sanctuary", see Haram (site).
For other uses, see Haram (disambiguation).
This may refer to: either something sacred to which access is forbidden to the people who are not in a state of purity or who are not initiated into the sacred knowledge, or, in direct contrast, to an evil and thus "sinful action that is forbidden to be done".
The term also denotes something "set aside", thus being the Arabic equivalent of the Hebrew concept , qadoš and the concept of sacer (cf.
In Islamic jurisprudence, haram is used to refer to any act that is forbidden by Allah and is one of five Islamic commandments (الأحكام الخمسة, al-ʾAḥkām al-Ḵamsa) that define the morality of human action.
If something is considered haram, it remains prohibited no matter how good the intention is or how honourable the purpose is.
A haram is converted into a gravitational force on the day of judgment and placed on mizan (weighing scales).
Views of different madhabs can vary significantly regarding what is or is not haram.
By bringing up the word "benefit" as an opposite to "sin" verse 2:219 of the Quran clarifies that haram is that which is harmful.
In fact, everything becomes meaningful with their opposite; e.g. if there is no cold we never understand what heat is.
So sin is that which hurts us.
When God says "Do not", he means "do not hurt yourself".
An Islamic principle related to haram is that if something is prohibited or forbidden, then anything that leads to it is also considered a haram act.
A similar principle is that the sin of haram is not limited to the person who engages in the prohibited activity, but the sin also extends to others who support the person in the activity, whether it be material or moral support.
The five categories of الأحكام الخمسة, al-ʾAḥkām al-Ḵamsa or the hierarchy of acts from permitted to non-permitted are:
- واجب / فرض (farḍ/wājib) – "Compulsory"/"duty"
- مستحب (mustaḥabb) – Recommended, "desirable"
- مباح (mubāḥ) – Neutral, "permissible"
- مكروه (makrūh) – Disliked, "discouraged"
- حرام (ḥarām) – Sinful, "prohibited"
The two types of haram are:
- الحرام لذاته (al-ḥarām li-ḏātihi) – Prohibited because of its essence and harm it causes to an individual
- Adultery, murder, theft
- Ill-gotten wealth obtained through sin. Examples include money earned through cheating, stealing, corruption, murder, and Interest or any means that involve harm to another human being. Also, a deal or sale during Friday's prayers salat al-jumu'ah. It is prohibited in Islam for a Muslim to profit from such haram actions. Any believer who benefits from or lives off wealth obtained through haram is a sinner.
- Prayer in a house taken illegally.
The religious term haram, based on the Quran, is applied to:
- Actions, such as cursing, fornication, murder, and disrespecting your parents.
- Policies, such as riba (usury, interest).
- Certain food and drink, such as pork and alcohol.
- Some ḥalāl objects, foods or actions that are normally halal but under some conditions become haram. For example, halal food and drinks at noon-time during Ramadan or a cow or another halal animal that is not slaughtered in the Islamic way and in the name of Allah (God).
- Certain inaction, such as abandoning the salah.
Linguistically, the root of the term haram [compare Ancient Hebrew herem, meaning 'devoted to God', 'forbidden for profane use'] is used to form a wide range of other terms that have legal implications, such as hariim (a harem) and ihraam (a state of purity).
In addition, the same word (haram) is used in the Quran to denote the sacred nature of the Ka'ba and the areas of Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem.
This category of sacred, holy, and inviolable also includes spouses and university campuses.
As such, the legal use of the root ح-ر-م is based on an idea of boundaries between the profane and the sacred, as opposed to prohibitions, as is normally assumed.
Colloquially, the word haram takes on different meanings and operates more closely as a dichotomy with halal, which denotes the permissible.
The term can be used formally as a method for chastising strangers who behave inappropriately, or between friends as a form of teasing.
The word is also used to instruct children in how to behave by telling them that harming other children or animals is haram, among other things.
The binary concepts of halal and haram are used in a number of cultural phrases, most notably ibn (boy) al-halal and bint (girl) al-halal.
These phrases are often used to refer to appropriate spouses in marriage, and stand in contrast to ibn al-haram or bint al-haram, which are used as insults.
In this case, the term haram is used to mean ill-mannered or indecent, instead of strictly meaning 'unlawful'.
Halal and haram are also used in regards to money (mal).
Mal al-haram means ill-gotten money, and brings destruction on those who make their living through such means.
These cultural interpretations of what is haram influence and are influenced by the legal definitions used at the local level.
This means that popular conceptions of haram are partly based on formal Islamic Jurisprudence and partly on regional culture, and the popular conceptions in turn change how the legal system defines and punishes haram actions.
Forbidden categories of action
Food and intoxicants
In Islam, prohibitions on illegal acts or objects are observed by Muslims in accordance to their obedience to the Quranic commands.
In Islamic law, dietary prohibitions are said to help with the understanding of divine will.
Regarding haram meat, Muslims are prohibited from consuming flowing blood.
Meats that are considered haram, such as pork, dog, cat, monkey, or any other haram animals, can only be considered lawful in emergencies when a person is facing starvation and his life has to be saved through the consumption of this meat.
However, necessity does not exist if the society possesses excess food.
Haram foods do not become permissible when a person is in a society with excess food because the Islamic community is like a single body supporting its members, and should offer halal foods to the fellow Muslim.
Certain meats are deemed haram if the animal is not properly slaughtered.
A halal slaughter involves a sharp knife that the animal does not see before it is slaughtered; the animal must be well rested and fed before the slaughtering, and the slaughtering may not take place in front of other animals.
This preparation is done in order to serve the Muslim population.
The proper slaughtering process involves a single cut across the throat, quick and as painless for the animal as possible.
During the slaughtering process, Allah's name should be recited, by saying "Bismillah" in order to take the animal's life to meet the lawful need of food.
Animals that are slaughtered in a name other than Allah are prohibited because this goes against Tawhid.
There are a number of Quranic verses regarding the prohibition of meat in Islam:
Alcoholic intoxicants are prohibited in Islam.
Khamr is the Arabic word for alcoholic drinks that cause intoxication.
According to Salafi theologians and their puritanical interpretations, the Prophet declared that the prohibition was not only placed on wine, but also on beer and other alcoholic beverages that intoxicate a person.
The Prophet also forbade the trading of these intoxicants, even with non-Muslims.
It is not permissible for a Muslim to import or export alcoholic beverages, or to work in or own a place that sells these intoxicants.
Giving intoxicants as a gift is also considered haram.
There are also a number of hadith regarding the prohibition of meat and intoxicants in Islam:
In an incident narrated by Rafi ibn Khadij, Muhammad told Muslims who wanted to slaughter some animals using reeds,
Marriage and family life
Islam is very strict in prohibiting zina, whether it be adultery or sexual intercourse between two unmarried individuals.
Zina is considered to lead to confusion of lineage, leniency in morals, disconnection among families, and unstable relationships.
It is also considered haram to look at members of the opposite sex with desire.
There are Quranic verses on the prohibition of fornication:
In terms of marriage proposals, it is considered haram for a Muslim man to propose to a divorced or widowed woman during her Iddah (the waiting period during which she is not allowed to marry again).
The man is able to express his desire for marriage, but cannot execute an actual proposal.
It is also forbidden for a Muslim man to propose to a woman who is engaged to another man.
It is considered haram for a Muslim woman to marry a non-Muslim man.
This is due to the idea that the man is the head of the household, the one who supports the family, and the man is considered responsible for his wife.
Muslims do not believe in giving women to the hands of those who do not practice Islam and having them responsible over Muslim women because they are not concerned with protecting the rites of the religion.
According to Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, implementing a divorce during a woman's menstrual period is prohibited because during such a period, sexual relations are considered haram, so it is possible that the idea of divorce came to a man's mind due to sexual frustration or nervous tension.
It is also not considered permissible for a Muslim to take an oath of divorce, which involves stating that if a particular event does not occur, then there will be a divorce.
This also includes threatening a spouse if they do not do something, then they will be divorced.
According to the shariah, the most suitable time for a divorce is when the woman is clean following her menstrual period.
Riba, any excessive addition over and above the principal, such as usury and interest, is prohibited in Islam in all forms.
Riba is prohibited because it keeps wealth in the hands of the wealthy and keeps it away from the poor.
It is also believed that riba makes a man selfish and greedy.
All business and trade practices that do not result in free and fair exchange of goods and services are considered haram, such as bribery, stealing, and gambling.
Therefore, all forms of deceit and dishonesty in business are prohibited in Islam.
There are a number of Quranic verses that relate to the prohibition of unethical business practices:
Many Islamic jurists and religious bodies including Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta of Saudi Arabia have considered MLM trade to be prohibited or haram, the reasons behind which are as follows: In this process, followings are related – exchange without labor and labor without exchange, contract on another contract or condition on another condition, similarity with Riba (interest), similarity with gambling, widespread uncertainty of profits and losses, not everyone benefiting equally, financial fraud and torture, lying and exaggeration, etc.
It is considered haram for a father to deprive his children of an inheritance.
It is also haram for a father to deprive the females or the children of a wife who is not favourable to him an inheritance.
Additionally, it is haram for one relative to deprive another relative of his inheritance through tricks.
Clothing and adornment
In Islam, both gold adornments and silk cloths are prohibited for men to wear, but are permissible for women as long as they are not used to sexually attract men (other than their husbands).
The prohibition of these adornments is part of a broader Islamic principle of avoiding luxurious lifestyles.
It is considered haram for both men and women to wear clothing that fails to cover the body properly (which stated in clothing guidance, the term "aurat/awrah") and clothes that are transparent.
Additionally, Islam prohibits excess beautifying that involves the altering of one's physical appearance.
Physical alterations that are considered haram such as tattoos, shortening of teeth, cosmetic surgery etc.
Islam also prohibits the use of gold and silver utensils and pure silk spreads in the household in order to avoid luxurious lifestyles in the home.
Statues are also prohibited in homes, and Muslims are prohibited from participating in making statues because it negates Tawhid.
Main article: Shirk (Islam)
It is considered a sin for a Muslim to worship anyone other than God, which is known as shirk.
The following is a Quranic verse on shirk:
The following is a Hadith relating to the practice of shirk:
- Outline of Islam
- Glossary of Islam
- Index of Islam-related articles
- Al-Jamia, Shiʻah text which contains all the details of haram things.
- Christian dietary laws
- Ḥ-R-M (triconsonantal root of these words in Arabic)
- Haram (site) (linguistically related Arabic word for "protected place")
- Kashrut, Jewish dietary rules
- Mitzvah in Judaism incorporates similar notions
- Treif, the Yiddish word for non-kosher
- Word of Wisdom, the LDS dietary rules
- Ja'fari jurisprudence
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haram.