Haram

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For the Arabic term for "sanctuary", see Haram (site). Haram_sentence_0

For other uses, see Haram (disambiguation). Haram_sentence_1

Not to be confused with Harem (disambiguation) or Herem. Haram_sentence_2

Haram (/həˈrɑːm, hæˈrɑːm, hɑːˈrɑːm, -ˈræm/; Arabic: حَرَام‎, ḥarām, [ħaˈraːm) is an Arabic term meaning forbidden. Haram_sentence_3

This may refer to: either something sacred to which access is forbidden to the people who are not in a state of purity or who are not initiated into the sacred knowledge, or, in direct contrast, to an evil and thus "sinful action that is forbidden to be done". Haram_sentence_4

The term also denotes something "set aside", thus being the Arabic equivalent of the Hebrew concept , qadoš and the concept of sacer (cf. Haram_sentence_5

sacred) in Roman law and religion. Haram_sentence_6

In Islamic jurisprudence, haram is used to refer to any act that is forbidden by Allah and is one of five Islamic commandments (الأحكام الخمسة‎, al-ʾAḥkām al-Ḵamsa) that define the morality of human action. Haram_sentence_7

Acts that are haram are typically prohibited in the religious texts of the Quran, and the Sunnah category of haram is the highest status of prohibition. Haram_sentence_8

If something is considered haram, it remains prohibited no matter how good the intention is or how honourable the purpose is. Haram_sentence_9

A haram is converted into a gravitational force on the day of judgment and placed on mizan (weighing scales). Haram_sentence_10

Views of different madhabs can vary significantly regarding what is or is not haram. Haram_sentence_11

Overview Haram_section_0

Actions that are haram result in harm one way or another and are therefore considered a sin if carried out by a Muslim. Haram_sentence_12

By bringing up the word "benefit" as an opposite to "sin" verse 2:219 of the Quran clarifies that haram is that which is harmful. Haram_sentence_13

In fact, everything becomes meaningful with their opposite; e.g. if there is no cold we never understand what heat is. Haram_sentence_14

So sin is that which hurts us. Haram_sentence_15

When God says "Do not", he means "do not hurt yourself". Haram_sentence_16

An Islamic principle related to haram is that if something is prohibited or forbidden, then anything that leads to it is also considered a haram act. Haram_sentence_17

A similar principle is that the sin of haram is not limited to the person who engages in the prohibited activity, but the sin also extends to others who support the person in the activity, whether it be material or moral support. Haram_sentence_18

The five categories of الأحكام الخمسة, al-ʾAḥkām al-Ḵamsa or the hierarchy of acts from permitted to non-permitted are: Haram_sentence_19

Haram_ordered_list_0

  1. واجب / فرض (farḍ/wājib) – "Compulsory"/"duty"Haram_item_0_0
  2. مستحب (mustaḥabb) – Recommended, "desirable"Haram_item_0_1
  3. مباح (mubāḥ) – Neutral, "permissible"Haram_item_0_2
  4. مكروه (makrūh) – Disliked, "discouraged"Haram_item_0_3
  5. حرام (ḥarām) – Sinful, "prohibited"Haram_item_0_4

The two types of haram are: Haram_sentence_20

Haram_ordered_list_1

  1. الحرام لذاته (al-ḥarām li-ḏātihi) – Prohibited because of its essence and harm it causes to an individualHaram_item_1_5
  2. الحرام لغيره (al-ḥarām li-ġayrihi) – Prohibited because of external reasons that are not fundamentally harmful but are associated to something that is prohibitedHaram_item_1_7
    • Ill-gotten wealth obtained through sin. Examples include money earned through cheating, stealing, corruption, murder, and Interest or any means that involve harm to another human being. Also, a deal or sale during Friday's prayers salat al-jumu'ah. It is prohibited in Islam for a Muslim to profit from such haram actions. Any believer who benefits from or lives off wealth obtained through haram is a sinner.Haram_item_1_8
    • Prayer in a house taken illegally.Haram_item_1_9

The religious term haram, based on the Quran, is applied to: Haram_sentence_21

Haram_unordered_list_2

  • Actions, such as cursing, fornication, murder, and disrespecting your parents.Haram_item_2_10
  • Policies, such as riba (usury, interest).Haram_item_2_11
  • Certain food and drink, such as pork and alcohol.Haram_item_2_12
  • Some ḥalāl objects, foods or actions that are normally halal but under some conditions become haram. For example, halal food and drinks at noon-time during Ramadan or a cow or another halal animal that is not slaughtered in the Islamic way and in the name of Allah (God).Haram_item_2_13
  • Certain inaction, such as abandoning the salah.Haram_item_2_14

Culture Haram_section_1

Linguistically, the root of the term haram [compare Ancient Hebrew herem, meaning 'devoted to God', 'forbidden for profane use'] is used to form a wide range of other terms that have legal implications, such as hariim (a harem) and ihraam (a state of purity). Haram_sentence_22

In addition, the same word (haram) is used in the Quran to denote the sacred nature of the Ka'ba and the areas of Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem. Haram_sentence_23

This category of sacred, holy, and inviolable also includes spouses and university campuses. Haram_sentence_24

As such, the legal use of the root ح-ر-م is based on an idea of boundaries between the profane and the sacred, as opposed to prohibitions, as is normally assumed. Haram_sentence_25

Colloquially, the word haram takes on different meanings and operates more closely as a dichotomy with halal, which denotes the permissible. Haram_sentence_26

In Arabic-speaking countries, saying "haram" can mean 'what a shame' or 'what a pity' (this meaning has been adopted by Modern Hebrew slang as well, and is alike to the Italian use of peccato). Haram_sentence_27

The term can be used formally as a method for chastising strangers who behave inappropriately, or between friends as a form of teasing. Haram_sentence_28

The word is also used to instruct children in how to behave by telling them that harming other children or animals is haram, among other things. Haram_sentence_29

The binary concepts of halal and haram are used in a number of cultural phrases, most notably ibn (boy) al-halal and bint (girl) al-halal. Haram_sentence_30

These phrases are often used to refer to appropriate spouses in marriage, and stand in contrast to ibn al-haram or bint al-haram, which are used as insults. Haram_sentence_31

In this case, the term haram is used to mean ill-mannered or indecent, instead of strictly meaning 'unlawful'. Haram_sentence_32

Halal and haram are also used in regards to money (mal). Haram_sentence_33

Mal al-haram means ill-gotten money, and brings destruction on those who make their living through such means. Haram_sentence_34

These cultural interpretations of what is haram influence and are influenced by the legal definitions used at the local level. Haram_sentence_35

This means that popular conceptions of haram are partly based on formal Islamic Jurisprudence and partly on regional culture, and the popular conceptions in turn change how the legal system defines and punishes haram actions. Haram_sentence_36

Forbidden categories of action Haram_section_2

Food and intoxicants Haram_section_3

In Islam, prohibitions on illegal acts or objects are observed by Muslims in accordance to their obedience to the Quranic commands. Haram_sentence_37

In Islamic law, dietary prohibitions are said to help with the understanding of divine will. Haram_sentence_38

Regarding haram meat, Muslims are prohibited from consuming flowing blood. Haram_sentence_39

Meats that are considered haram, such as pork, dog, cat, monkey, or any other haram animals, can only be considered lawful in emergencies when a person is facing starvation and his life has to be saved through the consumption of this meat. Haram_sentence_40

However, necessity does not exist if the society possesses excess food. Haram_sentence_41

Haram foods do not become permissible when a person is in a society with excess food because the Islamic community is like a single body supporting its members, and should offer halal foods to the fellow Muslim. Haram_sentence_42

Certain meats are deemed haram if the animal is not properly slaughtered. Haram_sentence_43

A halal slaughter involves a sharp knife that the animal does not see before it is slaughtered; the animal must be well rested and fed before the slaughtering, and the slaughtering may not take place in front of other animals. Haram_sentence_44

This preparation is done in order to serve the Muslim population. Haram_sentence_45

The proper slaughtering process involves a single cut across the throat, quick and as painless for the animal as possible. Haram_sentence_46

During the slaughtering process, Allah's name should be recited, by saying "Bismillah" in order to take the animal's life to meet the lawful need of food. Haram_sentence_47

Animals that are slaughtered in a name other than Allah are prohibited because this goes against Tawhid. Haram_sentence_48

There are a number of Quranic verses regarding the prohibition of meat in Islam: Haram_sentence_49

Alcoholic intoxicants are prohibited in Islam. Haram_sentence_50

Khamr is the Arabic word for alcoholic drinks that cause intoxication. Haram_sentence_51

According to Salafi theologians and their puritanical interpretations, the Prophet declared that the prohibition was not only placed on wine, but also on beer and other alcoholic beverages that intoxicate a person. Haram_sentence_52

The Prophet also forbade the trading of these intoxicants, even with non-Muslims. Haram_sentence_53

It is not permissible for a Muslim to import or export alcoholic beverages, or to work in or own a place that sells these intoxicants. Haram_sentence_54

Giving intoxicants as a gift is also considered haram. Haram_sentence_55

Other intoxicants, such as tobacco, paan, dokha, and khat have been deemed forbidden by some scholars. Haram_sentence_56

Vanilla extract, gelatin, and some types of soy sauce are also forbidden either due to being an intoxicant themselves, containing alcohol or other forbidden ingredients such as pig parts. Haram_sentence_57

There are also a number of hadith regarding the prohibition of meat and intoxicants in Islam: Haram_sentence_58

In an incident narrated by Rafi ibn Khadij, Muhammad told Muslims who wanted to slaughter some animals using reeds, Haram_sentence_59

Marriage and family life Haram_section_4

Islam is very strict in prohibiting zina, whether it be adultery or sexual intercourse between two unmarried individuals. Haram_sentence_60

Zina is considered to lead to confusion of lineage, leniency in morals, disconnection among families, and unstable relationships. Haram_sentence_61

It is also considered haram to look at members of the opposite sex with desire. Haram_sentence_62

There are Quranic verses on the prohibition of fornication: Haram_sentence_63

In terms of marriage proposals, it is considered haram for a Muslim man to propose to a divorced or widowed woman during her Iddah (the waiting period during which she is not allowed to marry again). Haram_sentence_64

The man is able to express his desire for marriage, but cannot execute an actual proposal. Haram_sentence_65

It is also forbidden for a Muslim man to propose to a woman who is engaged to another man. Haram_sentence_66

It is considered haram for a Muslim woman to marry a non-Muslim man. Haram_sentence_67

This is due to the idea that the man is the head of the household, the one who supports the family, and the man is considered responsible for his wife. Haram_sentence_68

Muslims do not believe in giving women to the hands of those who do not practice Islam and having them responsible over Muslim women because they are not concerned with protecting the rites of the religion. Haram_sentence_69

Divorce Haram_section_5

According to Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, implementing a divorce during a woman's menstrual period is prohibited because during such a period, sexual relations are considered haram, so it is possible that the idea of divorce came to a man's mind due to sexual frustration or nervous tension. Haram_sentence_70

It is also not considered permissible for a Muslim to take an oath of divorce, which involves stating that if a particular event does not occur, then there will be a divorce. Haram_sentence_71

This also includes threatening a spouse if they do not do something, then they will be divorced. Haram_sentence_72

According to the shariah, the most suitable time for a divorce is when the woman is clean following her menstrual period. Haram_sentence_73

Business ethics Haram_section_6

Riba, any excessive addition over and above the principal, such as usury and interest, is prohibited in Islam in all forms. Haram_sentence_74

Interest goes against the Islamic pillar of Zakat which allows wealth to flow from the rich to the poor. Haram_sentence_75

Riba is prohibited because it keeps wealth in the hands of the wealthy and keeps it away from the poor. Haram_sentence_76

It is also believed that riba makes a man selfish and greedy. Haram_sentence_77

All business and trade practices that do not result in free and fair exchange of goods and services are considered haram, such as bribery, stealing, and gambling. Haram_sentence_78

Therefore, all forms of deceit and dishonesty in business are prohibited in Islam. Haram_sentence_79

There are a number of Quranic verses that relate to the prohibition of unethical business practices: Haram_sentence_80

Many Islamic jurists and religious bodies including Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta of Saudi Arabia have considered MLM trade to be prohibited or haram, the reasons behind which are as follows: In this process, followings are related – exchange without labor and labor without exchange, contract on another contract or condition on another condition, similarity with Riba (interest), similarity with gambling, widespread uncertainty of profits and losses, not everyone benefiting equally, financial fraud and torture, lying and exaggeration, etc. Haram_sentence_81

Inheritance Haram_section_7

It is considered haram for a father to deprive his children of an inheritance. Haram_sentence_82

It is also haram for a father to deprive the females or the children of a wife who is not favourable to him an inheritance. Haram_sentence_83

Additionally, it is haram for one relative to deprive another relative of his inheritance through tricks. Haram_sentence_84

Clothing and adornment Haram_section_8

In Islam, both gold adornments and silk cloths are prohibited for men to wear, but are permissible for women as long as they are not used to sexually attract men (other than their husbands). Haram_sentence_85

The prohibition of these adornments is part of a broader Islamic principle of avoiding luxurious lifestyles. Haram_sentence_86

It is considered haram for both men and women to wear clothing that fails to cover the body properly (which stated in clothing guidance, the term "aurat/awrah") and clothes that are transparent. Haram_sentence_87

Additionally, Islam prohibits excess beautifying that involves the altering of one's physical appearance. Haram_sentence_88

Physical alterations that are considered haram such as tattoos, shortening of teeth, cosmetic surgery etc. Haram_sentence_89

Islam also prohibits the use of gold and silver utensils and pure silk spreads in the household in order to avoid luxurious lifestyles in the home. Haram_sentence_90

Statues are also prohibited in homes, and Muslims are prohibited from participating in making statues because it negates Tawhid. Haram_sentence_91

Shirk Haram_section_9

Main article: Shirk (Islam) Haram_sentence_92

It is considered a sin for a Muslim to worship anyone other than God, which is known as shirk. Haram_sentence_93

The following is a Quranic verse on shirk: Haram_sentence_94

The following is a Hadith relating to the practice of shirk: Haram_sentence_95

See also Haram_section_10

Haram_unordered_list_3


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haram.